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FIFTH EDITION

UPDATE
ACI, AA~ IBC 2009 Codes Version

~QIO A

a

= depth of equivalent rectangular stress block.

cp

= area enclosed by outside perimeter of con-

b,

the closed stirrups resisting torsion.

crete cross section.

o.:J L5

= width of that part of cross section containing

bv

= width of cross section at contact surface being
investigated for horizontal shear.

Ag = gross area of section, in. 2
Ah

ura! tension reinforcement, in.
Aj

bw

= area of shear reinforcement parallel to flex2

e

neutral axis, in.

in. in a plane parallel to plane of reinforcement generating shear in the joint. The joint
depth shall be the overall depth of the column.
Where a beam frames into a support of larger
width, the effective width of the joint shall not
exceed the smaller of:
(a) beam width plus the joint depth
(b) twice the smaller perpendicular distan ce
from the longitudinal axis of the beam to
the column side.
total area of longitudinal reinforcement to resist torsion, in. 2

A 0h

Nuc'

in.

2

= area enclosed by centerline of the outermost
= area of prestressed reinforcement in tension

= distance from extreme compression fiber to

column, capital, or bracket measured transverse to the direction of the span for which
moments are being determined, in.
centroid of tension reinforcement, in.

d'

= distance from extreme compression fiber to
centroid of compression reinforcement, in.

= nominal diameter of bar, wire, or prestressing

area of compression reinforcement, in.

treme tension fiber to center of bar or wire located closest thereto, in.
dP

= distance from extreme compression fiber to
centroid of prestressed reinforcement.

e

= eccentricity of load parallel to axis of member
measured from centroid of cross section.

Ec

= modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi.

Es

= modulus of elasticity of bar reinforcement, psi.
= modulus of elasticity of prestressing reinforce-

Eps

= area of one leg of a closed stirrup resisting torforcement (stirrup or tie) within a spacing s
and perpendicular to plane of bars being
spliced or developed, in. 2

= area of shear reinforcement within a distance
s, or area of shear reinforcement perpendicular to flexura! tension reinforcement within a
distance s for deep flexura! members, in. 2

Av¡

= area of shear-friction reinforcement, in. 2

Avh

= area of shear reinforcement parallel to flexura! tension reinforcement within a distance
2
Sz, in.

= width of compression face of member, in.

= perimeter of critica! section for slabs and footings, in.

= thickness of concrete cover measured from ex-

2

A,, = total cross-sectional area of transverse rein-

b0

d

de

sion within a distance s, in. 2

b

= size of rectangular or equivalent rectangular

2

total cross-sectional area of transverse reinforcement (including cross-ties) within spacing
s and perpendicular to dimension h 0 .

Av

c2

strand, in.

area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement,
in. 2

A,

column, capital, or bracket measured in the direction of the span for which moments are
being determined, in.

db

zone, in. 2

A's

= size of rectangular or equivalent rectangular

= gross area enclosed by shear flow path, in. 2
closed transverse torsional reinforcement, in.

Aps

c1

= area of reinforcement in bracket or corbel resisting tensile force

A0

= distance from extreme compression fiber to

= Effective cross-sectional area within a joint,
2

An

= web width, or diameter of circular section, in.

ment.

f; = specified 28-day compressive strength of concrete, psi.

fer

= average strength to be used as basis for selecting concrete proportions, psi.

f~, =

V f~

required average compressive strength of concrete used as the basis for selection of concrete proportions, psi.

= square root of specified compressive strength

of concrete, psi.
f~; =

V f~;

compressive strength of'cóncrete at time of
initial prestress, psi.

= square root of compressive strength of con-

crete at time of initial prestress, psi.

Íci = average splitting tensile strength of lightweight aggregate concrete, psi.
1

J;1 = stress due to unfactored dead load, at extreme
fpc

/¡,,

f,

¡;
fy

Íyt
h

I
lb
fer

le

Ig

k

Kb
Kc
Kec
Ks
K1
ldh

fiber of section where tensile stress is caused
by externally applied loads, psi.
= compressive stress in concrete due to effective
prestress forces only (after allowance for ali
prestress losses) at extreme fiber of section
where tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads, psi.
= stress in prestressed reinforcement at nominal
strength.
= specified tensile strength of prestressing tendons, psi.
= specified yield strength of prestressing tendons, psi.
= modulus of rupture of concrete, psi.
= tensile strength of concrete, psi.
= specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforcement, psi.
= specified yield strength of transverse, reinforcement, psi.
= overall thickness of member, in.
= moment of inertia of section resisting externally applied factored loads, in. 4
= moment of inertia about centroidal axis of
gross section of beam, in. 4
= moment of inertia of cracked section transformed to concrete, in. 4
= effective moment of inertia for computation
of deflection, in. 4
= moment of inertia of gross concrete section
about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement, in. 4
= effective length factor for compression members.
= flexura! stiffness of beam; moment per unit rotation.
= flexura! stiffness of column; moment per unit
rotation.
= flexura! stiffness of equivalent column; moment per unit rotation.
= flexura! stiffness of slab; moment per unit rotation.
= torsional stiffness of torsional member; moment per unit rotation.
= development length of standard hook in tension, measured from critica! section to outside
end of hook (straight embedment length between critica! section and start of hook [point
of tangency] plus radius of bend and one bar
diameter). in.
= lhb x applicable modification factors.
= maximum moment in member at stage deflection is computed.

Me

= factored moment to be used for design of
compression member.

= moment dueto dead load.
Mcr = cracking moment.
Mn = nominal moment strength.
Mm- = maximum factored moment at section dueto
Md

externally applied loads.
Mu

n

= factored moment at section.

= modular ratio of elasticity.
= E/ Ec or Ep/ Ec

Nu

= facto red axial load normal to cross section occurring simultaneously with Vu; to be taken as
positive for compression, negative for tension,
and to include effects of tension due to creep
and shrinkage.

Nuc

= factored tensile force applied at top of bracket
or corbel acting simultaneously with Vu, to be
taken as positive for tension.

Pb

= nominal axial load strength at balanced strain
conditions.

= critica! buckling load.
Pn = nominal axial load strength at given eccentricPe

ity.
Pcp

= outside perimeter of the concrete cross-section Acp; in.

Ph

= perimeter of centerline of outermost closed

r

= radius of gyration of cross section of a com-

transverse torsional reinforcement, in.
pression member.

s

= spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in
?irect parallel to longitudinal reinforcement,
m.

= thickness of a wall of a hollow section, in.
Tu = factored torsional moment at section.
Ve = nominal shear strength provided by concrete.
vci

= nominal shear strength provided by concrete
when diagonal cracking results from combined
shear and moment.

Vcw = nominal shear strength provided by concrete
when diagonal cracking results from excessive
principal tensile stress in web.
Vd

= shear force at section dueto unfactored dead
load.

VP = vertical component of effective prestress force
at section.

Vs

= nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement.

Vu

= factored shear force at section.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
A Fundamental Approach

Fifth Edition Update
ACI, AASHTO, IBC 2009 Codes Version

Edward G. Nawy
Distinguished Professor Emeritus
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Prentice Hall
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Abow rhe Cover: The new T-35W bridge, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Designed for the Minnesota Departmem of Transportation by FTGG, this new bridge incorpora tes aesthetics selccted by the communüy using a theme of "Arches-WaterReílection" to complement the sitc across tbe Mississipi Ri ver. Curved, 70' tall concrete piers meet thc swceping parabolic arch of the 504' precast, prcstresscd concre te main span ovcr thc river to create a modern bridge. Tbc new 10-lane
intcrstalc bridge was constructcd by Flatiron-Manson, N and opcned to traffic on September 18, 2008. The bridge was
dcsigned and buill in l l months. The bridge incorporales the first use of LED highway lighting, the fírst major use in the
Unitcd States of nanotechnology cernen! that cleans the air (gateway sculptures) and "smart bridge" technology with 323
sensors embedded lhroughout thc concrete to provide valuable data for the future. The photograph of the new I-35W
bridge is courtcsy of FlGG.
Copyright 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000, 1996, 1989 by Pearson Education, lnc., Upper Saddle River, New J ersey 07458. AlJ
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The au thor and publishcr of this book have used their best efforts in preparing this book. Thcsc cfforts include the
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Nawy, Edward G.
Prcstressed concrete: a fundamental app roach I Edward G. Nawy.- 5th ed.
p. cm.
ISBN 0-13-608150-9
1. Prestressed concrete. l. Title.

T A683.9.N39 2009
624. l '83412-dc22
2009024405

Prentice Hall
is an imprint of

----

l09 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

PEARSON
www.pearsonhlghered.com

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-608150-0
0-13-608150-9
ISBN-10:

To
Rachel E. Nawy
For her high-limit state of stress endurance over the years,
which made the writing of this book in its severa/ editions a reality.

CONTENTS

PREFACE

1

BASIC CONCEPTS
1.1

1.2
1.3

1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

2

xix
1

lntroduction 1
1.1.1 Comparison with Reinforced Concrete 2
1.1.2 Economics of Prestressed Concrete 4
Historical Development of Prestressing 5
Basic Concepts of Prestressing 7
1.3.1 lntroduction 7
1.3.2 Basic Concept Method 1O
1.3.3 C-Line Method 12
1.3.4 Load-Balancing Method 15
Computation of Fiber Stresses in a Prestressed Beam by the Basic Method
C-Line Computation of Fiber Stresses 21
Load-Balancing Computation of Fiber Stresses 22
SI Working Stress Concepts 23
Selected References 28
Problems 28

MATERIALS ANO SYSTEMS FOR PRESTRESSING
2.1

2.2
2.3

2.4

2.5
2.6
2.7

Concrete 31
2.1.1 lntroduction 31
2.1.2 Parameters Affecting the Quality of Concrete 31
2.1.3 Properties of Hardened Concrete 32
Stress-Strain Curve of Concrete 36
Modulus of Elasticity and Change in Compressive Strength with Time
2.3.1 High-Strength Concrete 38
2.3.2 lnitial Compressive Strength and Modulus 39
Creep 43
2.4.1 Effects of Creep 45
2.4.2 Rheologial Models 45
Shrinkage 48
Nonprestressing Reinforcement 50
Prestressing Reinforcement 53
2.7.1 Types of Reinforcement 53
2.7.2 Stress-Relieved and Low-Relaxation Wires and Strands 54
2.7.3 High-Tensile-Strength Prestressing Bars 55
2.7.4 Steel Relaxation 56
2.7.5 Corrosion and Deterioration of Strands 58

19

31

36

vii

Contents

viii

2.8

2.9

2.10

2.11
2.12

3

PARTIAL LOSS OF PRESTRESS
3.1
3.2

3.3

3.4
3.5
3.6

3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12

4

ACI Maximum Permissible Stresses in Concrete and Reinforcement 59
2.8.1 Concrete Stresses in Flexure 59
2.8.2 Prestressing Steel Stresses 59
AASHTO Maximum Permissible Stresses in Concrete and Reinforcement 60
2.9.1 Concrete Stresses before Creep and Shrinkage Losses 60
2.9.2 Concrete Stresses at Service Load after Losses 60
2.9.3 Prestressing Steel Stresses 60
2.9.4 Relative Humidity Values 60
Prestressing Systems and Anchorages 61
2.10.1 Pretensioning 61
2.10.2 Post-Tensioning 62
2.10.3 Jacking Systems 63
2.10.4 Grouting of Post-Tensioned Tendons 64
Circular Prestressing 70
Ten Principies 70
Selected References 70

73

lntroduction 73
Elastic Shortening of Concrete (ES) 75
3.2.1 Pretensioned Elements 75
3.2.2 Post-Tensioned Elements 78
Steel Stress Relaxation (R) 78
3.3.1 Relaxation Loss Computation 80
3.3.2 ACl-ASCE Method of Accounting for Relaxation Loss 80
Creep Loss (GR) 80
3.4.1 Computation of Creep Loss 82
Shrinkage Loss (SH) 83
3.5.1 Computation of Shrinkage Loss 84
Losses Dueto Friction (F) 85
3.6.1 Curvature Effect 85
3.6.2 Wobble Effect 86
3.6.3 Computation of Friction Loss 87
Anchorage-Seating Losses (A) 88
3.7.1 Computation of Anchorage-Seating Loss 89
Change of Prestress Due to Bending of a Member (Mp8 ) 90
Step-by-Step Computation of Ali Time-Dependent Losses in a Pretensioned Beam 90
Step-by-Step Computation of Ali Time-Dependent Losses in a Post-Tensioned Beam 96
Lump-Sum Computation of Time-Dependent Losses in Prestress 99
SI Prestress Loss Expressions 100
13.12.1 SI Prestress Loss Example 101
Selected References 104
Problems 105

FLEXURAL DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED
CONCRETEELEMENTS 106
4.1
4.2

lntroduction 106
Selection of Geometrical Properties of Section Components
4.2.1 General Guidelines 108
4.2.2 Minimum Section Modulus 108

108

Contents

ix
4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7
4.8
4.9

4.1 O
4.11

4.12

4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17

Service-Load Design Examples 115
4.3.1 Variable Tendon Eccentricity 115
4.3.2 Variable Tendon Eccentricity with No Height Limitation 122
4.3.3 Constant Tendon Eccentricity 126
Proper Selection of Beam Sections and Properties 128
4.4.1 General Guidelines 128
4.4.2 Gross Area, the Transformed Section, and the Presence of Ducts 130
4.4.3 Envelopes for Tendon Placement 130
4.4.4 Advantages of Curved or Harped Tendons 131
4.4.5 Limiting-Eccentricity Envelopes 132
4.4.6 Prestressing Tendon Envelopes 136
4.4. 7 Reduction of Prestress Force Near Supports 138
End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones 139
4.5.1 Stress Distribution 139
4.5.2 Development and Transfer Length in Pretensioned Members and Design of Their
Anchorage Reinforcement 141
4.5.3 Post-Tensioned Anchorage Zones: Linear Elastic and Strut-and-Tie
Theories 144
4.5.4 Design of End Anchorage Reinforcement for Post-Tensioned Beams 153
Flexura! Design of Composite Beams 158
4.6.1 Unshored Slab Case 159
4.6.2 Fully Shored Slab Case 161
4.6.3 Effective Flange Width 161
Summary of Step-by-Step Trial-and-Adjustment Procedure for the Service-Load Design
of Prestressed Members 162
Design of Composite Post-Tensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section 165
Ultimate-Strength Flexura! Design 178
4.9.1 Cracking-Load Moment 178
4.9.2 Partial Prestressing 179
4.9.3 Cracking Moment Evaluation 180
Load and Strength Factors 181
4.10.1 Reliability and Structural Safety of Concrete Components 181
ACI Load Factors and Safety Margins 184
4.11.1 General Principies 184
4.11.2 ACI Load Factors Equations 185
4.11.3 Design Strength vs. Nominal Strength: Strength-Reduction Factor<!> 187
Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression
to Ultimate Load 188
4.12.1 lntroduction 188
4.12.2 The Equivalent Rectangular Block and Nominal Moment Strength 189
4.12.3 Strain Limits Method for Analysis and Design 191
4.12.4 Negative Moment Redistribution in Continuous Beams 193
4.12.5 Nominal Moment Strength of Rectangular Sections 194
Preliminary Ultimate-Load Design 202
Summary Step-by-Step Procedure for Limit-State-at-Failure Design
of the Prestressed Members 204
Ultimate-Strength Design of Prestressed Simply Supported Beam
by Strain Compatibility 209
Strength Design of Bonded Prestressed Beam Using Approximate Procedures 212
SI Flexura! Design Expression 216
4.17.1 SI Flexura! Design of Prestressed Beams 218
Selected References 220
Problems 221

Contents

X

5

SHEAR ANO TORSIONAL STRENGTH DESIGN
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

5.8
5.9
5.1 O
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15

5.16

5.17

5.18
5.19

223

lntroduction 223
Behavior of Homogeneous Beams in Shear 224
Behavior of Concrete Beams as Nonhomogeneous Sections 227
Concrete Beams without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement 228
5.4.1 Modes of Failure of Beams without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement 229
5.4.2 Flexura! Failure [F] 229
5.4.3 Diagonal Tension Failure [Flexure Shear, FS] 229
5.4.4 Shear Compression Failure [Web Shear, WS] 231
Shear and Principal Stresses in Prestressed Beams 232
5.5.1 Flexure-Shear Strength [Ve¡] 233
5.5.2 Web-Shear Strength [ Vewl 236
5.5.3 Controlling Values of Vei and Vew for the Determination of Web Concrete
Strength Ve 237
Web-Shear Reinforcement 238
5.6.1 Web Steel Planar Truss Analogy 238
5.6.2 Web Steel Resistance 238
5.6.3 Limitation on Size and Spacing of Stirrups 241
Horizontal Shear Strength in Composite Construction 242
5.7.1 Service-Load Level 242
5.7.2 Ultimate-Load Level 243
5.7.3 Design of Composite-Action Dowel Reinforcement 245
Web Reinforcement Design Procedure for Shear 246
Principal Tensile Stresses in Flanged Sections and Design of Dowel-Action Vertical Steel
in Composite Sections 249
Dowel Steel Design for Composite Action 250
Dowel Reinforcement Design for Composite Action in an lnverted T-Beam 251
Shear Strength and Web-Shear Steel Design in a Prestressed Beam 253
Web-Shear Steel Design by Detailed Procedures 256
Design of Web Reinforcement for a PCI Double T-Beam 259
Brackets and Corbels 263
5.15.1 Shear Friction Hypothesis for Shear Transfer in Corbels 264
5.15.2 Horizontal Externa! Force Effect 266
5.15.3 Sequence of Corbel Design Steps 269
5.15.4 Design of a Bracket or Corbel 270
5.15.5 SI Expressions for Shear in Prestressed Concrete Beams 272
5.15.6 SI Shear Design of Prestressed Beams 27 4
Torsional Behavior and Strength 278
5.16.1 lntroduction 278
5.16.2 Pure Torsion in Plain Concrete Elements 279
Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements 284
5.17 .1 Skew-Bending Theory 285
5.17 .2 Space Truss Analogy Theory 287
5.17 .3 Compression Field Theory 289
5.17.4 Plasticity Equilibrium Truss Theory 293
5.17.5 Design of Prestressed Concrete Beams Subjected to Combined Torsion, Shear,
and Bending in Accordance with the ACI 318-08 Code 298
5.17.6 Sl-Metric Expressions for Torsion Equations 303
Design Procedure for Combined Torsion and Shear 304
Design of Web Reinforcement for Combined Torsion and Shear
in Prestressed Beams 308

Contents

xi
5.20

5.21

6

INDETERMINATE PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE STRUCTURES 340
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

6.5

6.6

6.7

6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12

6.13

7

Strut-and-Tie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements 317
5.20.1 lntroduction 317
5.20.2 Strut-and-Tie Mechanism 318
5.20.3 ACI Design Requirements 321
5.20.4 Example 5.10: Design of Deep Beam by Strut-and-Tie Method 324
5.20.5 Example 5.11: Design of Corbel by the Strut-and-Tie Method 328
SI Combined Torsion and Shear Design of Prestressed Beam 332
Selected References 335
Problems 337

lntroduction 340
Disadvantages of Continuity in Prestressing 341
Tendon Layout for Continuous Beams 341
Elastic Analysis for Prestress Continuity 344
6.4.1 lntroduction 344
6.4.2 Support Displacement Method 344
6.4.3 Equivalent Load Method 347
Examples lnvolving Continuity 347
6.5.1 Effect of Continuity on Transformation of C-Line for Draped Tendons 347
6.5.2 Effect of Continuity on Transformation of C-Line for Harped Tendons 352
Linear Transformation and Concordance of Tendons 354
6.6.1 Verification of Tendon Linear Transformation Theorem 355
6.6.2 Concordance Hypotheses 358
Ultimate Strength and Limit State at Failure of Continuous Beams 358
6. 7 .1 General Considerations 358
6.7.2 Moment Redistribution 361
Tendon Profile Envelope and Modifications 362
Tendon and C-Line Location in Continuous Beams 362
Tendon Transformation to Utilize Advantages of Continuity 373
Design for Continuity Using Nonprestressed Steel at Support 378
lndeterminate Frames and Portals 379
6.12.1 General Properties 379
6.12.2 Forces and Moments in Portal Frames 382
6.12.3 Application to Prestressed Concrete Frames 386
6.12.4 Design of Prestressed Concrete Bonded Frame 389
Limit Design (Analysis) of lndeterminate Beams and Frames 401
6.13.1 Method of lmposed Rotations 402
6.13.2 Determination of Plastic Hinge Rotations in Continuous Beams 405
6.13.3 Rotational Capacity of Plastic Hinges 408
6.13.4 Calculation of Available Rotational Capacity 411
6.13.5 Check for Plastic Rotation Serviceability 412
6.13.6 Transverse Confining Reinforcement for Seismic Design 413
6.13.7 Selection of Confining Reinforcement 414
Selected References 415
Problems 417

CAMBER, DEFLECTION, ANO CRACK CONTROL
7 .1
7 .2

1ntroduction

418
Basic Assumptions in Deflection Calculations

419

418

Contents

xii

7.3

7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7

7.8
7.9
7.1 O
7.11
7.12
7 .13

7.14
7 .15
7.16
7.17
7.18
7.19
7.20
7.21

8

Short-Term (lnstantaneous) Deflection of Uncracked and Cracked Members 420
7.3.1 Load-Deflection Relationship 420
7.3.2 Uncracked Sections 423
7.3.3 Cracked Sections 427
Short-Term Deflection at Service Load 433
7.4.1 Example 7.3 Non-Composite Uncracked Double T-Beam Deflection 433
Short-Term Deflection of Cracked Prestressed Beams 439
7.5.1 Short-Term Deflection of the Beam in Example 7.3 if Cracked 439
Construction of Moment-Curvature Diagram 440
Long-Term Effects on Deflection and Camber 446
7.7.1 PCI Multipliers Method 446
7.7.2 Incremental Time-Steps Method 448
7.7.3 Approximate Time-Steps Method 450
7.7.4 Computer Methods for Deflection Evaluation 452
7.7.5 Deflection of Composite Beams 452
Permissible Limits of Calculated Deflection 453
Long-Term Camber and Deflection Calculation by the PCI Multipliers Method 454
Long-Term Camber and Deflection Calculation by the Incremental
Time-Steps Method 458
Long-Term Camber and Deflection Calculation by the Approximate
Time-Steps Method 469
Long-Term Deflection of Composite Double-T Cracked Beam 472
Cracking Behavior and Crack Control in Prestressed Beams 4 79
7.13.1 lntroduction 479
7.13.2 Mathematical Model Formulation for Serviceability Evaluation 479
7 .13.3 Expressions for Pretensioned Beams 480
7.13.4 Expressions for Post-Tensioned Beams 481
7.13.5 ACI New Code Provisions 483
7.13.6 Long-Term Effects on Crack-Width Development 484
7.13.7 Tolerable Crack Widths 485
Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation in Pretensioned T-Beam Without Mild Steel 485
Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation in Pretensioned T-Beam Containing
Nonprestressed Steel 486
Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation in Pretensioned 1-Beam Containing
Nonprestressed Mild Steel 487
Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation for Post-Tensioned T-Beam Containing
Nonprestressed Steel 488
Crack Control by ACI Code Provisions 490
SI Deflection and Cracking Expressions 490
SI Deflection Control 491
SI Crack Control 496
Selected References 496
Problems 497

PRESTRESSED COMPRESSION ANO TENSION MEMBERS
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4

lntroduction 500
Prestressed Compression Members: Load-Moment lnteraction in Columns
and Piles 501
Strength Reduction Factor cf> 507
Operational Procedure for the Design of Nonslender Prestressed
Compression Members 508

500

xiii

Contents
8.5
8.6
8.7

8.8
8.9
8.1 O
8.11

8.12

8.13
8.14

8.15

8.16
8.17

9

Construction of Nominal Load-Moment (Pn-Mn) and Design (Pu-Mu)
lnteraction Diagrams 509
Limit State at Buckling Failure of Slender (Long) Prestressed Columns 515
8.6.1 Buckling Considerations 519
Moment Magnification Method: First-Order Analysis 520
8.7.1 Moment Magnification in Non-Sway Frames 521
8.7.2 Moment Magnification in Sway Frames 522
Second-Order Frames Analysis and the P - ~ Effects 523
Operational Procedure and Flowchart for the Design of Slender Columns 525
Design of Slender (Long) Prestressed Column 525
Compression Members in Biaxial Bending 531
8.11.1 Exact Method of Analysis 531
8.11.2 Load Contour Method of Analysis 532
8.11.3 Step-by-Step Operational Procedure for the Design of Biaxially Loaded Columns
Practica! Design Considerations 537
8.12.1 Longitudinal or Main Reinforcement 537
8.12.2 Lateral Reinforcement for Columns 537
Reciproca! Load Method for Biaxial Bending 540
Modified Load Contour Method for Biaxial Bending 542
8.14.1 Design of Biaxially Loaded Prestressed Concrete Column by the Modified Load
Contour Method 542
Prestressed Tension Members 544
8.15.1 Service-Load Stresses 544
8.15.2 Deformation Behavior 546
8.15.3 Decompression and Cracking 547
8.15.4 Limit State at Failure and Safety Factors 547
Suggested Step-by-Step Procedure for the Design of Tension Members 548
Design of Linear Tension Members 548
Selected References 551
Problems 552

TWO-WAY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEMS
9.1

9.2

9.3

9.4
9.5

lntroduction: Review of Methods 554
9.1.1 The Semielastic ACI Code Approach 557
9.1.2 The Yield-Line Theory 557
9.1.3 The Limit Theory of Plates 557
9.14 The Strip Method 557
9.1.5 Summary 558
Flexura! Behavior of Two-Way Slabs and Plates 558
9.2.1 Two-Way Action 558
9.2.2 Relative Stiffness Effects 558
The Equivalent Frame Method 559
9.3.1 lntroduction 559
9.3.2 Limitations of the Direct Design Method 560
9.3.3 Determination of the Statical Moment M0 561
9.3.4 Equivalent Frame Analysis 563
9.3.5 Pattern Loading of Spans 566
Two-Directional Load Balancing 567
Flexura! Strength of Prestressed Plates 569
9.5.1 Design Moments Mu 569

554

535

xiv

Contents
9.6

9.7
9.8
9.9

9.1 O
9.11
9.12

9.13
9.14

9.15

10

CONNECTIONS FOR PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE ELEMENTS 632
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5

10.6
10.7
10.8

11

Banding of Prestressing Tendons and Limiting Concrete Stresses 572
9.6.1 Distribution of Prestressing Tendons 572
9.6.2 Limiting Concrete Tensile Stresses at Service Load 573
Load-Balancing Design of a Single-Panel Two-Way Floor Slab 577
One-Way Slab Systems 582
Shear-Moment Transfer to Columns Supporting Flat Plates 583
9.9.1 Shear Strength 583
9.9.2 Shear-Moment Transfer 583
9.9.3 Deflection Requirements for Minimum Thickness: An lndirect Approach 586
Step-by-Step Trial-and-Adjustment Procedure for the Design of a Two-Way Prestressed Slab
and Plate System 587
Design of Prestressed Post-Tensioned Flat-Plate Floor System 592
Direct Method of Deflection Evaluation 61 O
9.12.1 The Equivalent Frame Approach 610
9.12.2 Column and Middle Strip Deflections 611
Deflection Evaluation of Two-Way Prestressed Concrete Floor Slabs 613
Yield-Line Theory for Two-Way-Action Plates 616
9.14.1 Fundamental Concepts of Hinge-Field Failure Mechanisms in Flexure 617
9.14.2 Failure Mechanisms and Moment Capacities of Slabs of Various Shapes Subjected
to Distributed or Concentrated Loads 622
Yield-Line Moment Strength of a Two-Way Prestressed Concrete Plate 628
Selected References 629
Problems 630

lntroduction 632
Tolerances 633
Composite Members 633
Reinforced Concrete Bearing in Composite Members 634
10.4.1 Reinforced Bearing Design 638
Dapped-End Beam Connections 640
10.5.1 Determination of Reinforcement to Resist Failure 641
10.5.2 Dapped-End Beam Connection Design 644
Reinforced Concrete Brackets and Corbels 647
Concrete Beam Ledges 647
10.7.1 Design of Ledge Beam Connection 649
Selected Connection Details 651
Selected References 659
Problems 659

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE CIRCULAR STORAGE TANKS
ANO STEEL ROOFS 660
11.1
11.2

lntroduction 660
Design Principies and Procedures 661
11.2.1 Interna! Loads 661
11.2.2 Restraining Moment M0 and Radial Shear Force Q0 at Freely Sliding Wall Base Due
to Liquid Pressure 664
11.2.3 General Equations of Forces and Displacements 669
11.2.4 Ring Shear Q0 and Moment M0 Gas Containment 673

Contents

xv
Moment M0 and Ring Force 0 0 in Liquid Retaining Tank 67 4
Ring Force Oy at lntermediate Heights of Wall 676
Cylindrical Shell Membrane Coefficients 677
Prestressing Effects on Wall Stresses for Fully Hinged, Partially Sliding and Hinged,
Fully Fixed, and Partially Fixed Bases 679
11.6.1 Freely Sliding Wall Base 694
11.6.2 Hinged Wall Base 694
11.6.3 Partially Sliding and Hinged Wall Base 695
11.6.4 Fully Fixed Wall Base 695
11.6.5 Partially Fixed Wall Base 699
11.7
Recommended Practice for Situ-Cast and Precast Prestressed Concrete Circular
Storage Tanks 704
11.7.1 Stresses 704
11.7.2 Required Strength Load Factors 705
11.7.3 Minimum Wall-Design Requirements 706
11.8
Crack Control in Walls of Circular Prestressed Concrete Tanks 708
11.9
Tank Roof Design 708
11.9.1 Membrane Theory of Spherical Domes 709
11.1 O Prestressed Concrete Tanks with Circumferential Tendons 715
11.11 Seismic Design of Liquid Containment Tank Structures 715
11.12 Step-by-Step Procedure for the Design of Circular Prestressed Concrete Tanks
and Dome Roofs 720
11.13 Design of Circular Prestressed Concrete Water-Retaining Tank
and lts Domed Roof 727
Selected References 7 40
Problems 7 41

11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6

12

LRFD ANO STANDARD AASHTO DESIGN
OF CONCRETE BRIDGES 742
12.1
12.2

12.3

12.4

12.5
12.6

lntroduction: Safety and Reliability 7 42
AASHTO Standard (LFD) and LRFD Truck Load Specifications 744
12.2.1 Loads 745
12.2.2 Wheel Load Distribution on Bridge Decks: Standard AASHTO
Specifications (LFD) 748
12.2.3 Bending Moments in Bridge Deck Slabs: Standard AASHTO Specifications (LFD)
12.2.4 Wind Loads 751
12.2.5 Seismic Forces 751
12.2.6 AASHTO LFD Load Combinations 751
12.2.7 LRFD Load Combinations 753
Flexura! Design Considerations 758
12.3.1 Strain E and Factor<!> Variations: The Strain Limits Approach 758
12.3.2 Factored Flexura! Resistance 760
12.3.3 Flexura! Design Parameters 760
12.3.4 Reinforcement Limits 761
Shear Design Considerations 762
12.4.1 The Modified Compression Field Theory 762
12.4.2 Design Expressions 763
Horizontal Interface Shear 768
12.5.1 Maximum Spacing of Dowel Reinforcement 770
Combined Shear and Torsion 770

750

xvi

Contents
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.1 O
12.11
12.12
12.13
12.14

13

AASHTO-LRFD Flexural-Strength Design Specifications vs. ACI Code Provisions 773
Step-by-Step Design Procedure (LRFD) 775
LRFD Design of Bulb-Tee Bridge Deck 780
LRFD Shear and Deflection Design 793
Standard AASHTO Flexura! Design of Prestressed Bridge Deck Beams (LFD) 801
Standard AASHTO Shear-Reinforcement Design of Bridge Deck Beams 809
Shear and Torsion Reinforcement Design of a Box-Girder Bridge 813
LRFD Major Design Expressions in SI Format 819
Selected References 820
Problems for Solution 821

SEISMIC DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE STRUCTURES 824
13.1

13.2

13.3

13.4

13.5

13.6

13. 7

lntroduction: Mechanism of Earthquakes 824
13.1 .1 Earthquake Ground Motion Characteristics 826
13.1 .2 Fundamental Period of Vibration 827
13.1.3 Design Philosophy 828
Spectral Response Method 829
13.2.1 Spectral Response Acceleration Maps 829
13.2.2 Seismic Design Parameters 829
13.2.3 Earthquake Design Load Classifications and Seismic Categories 833
13.2.4 Redundancy 835
13.2.5 General Procedure Response Spectrum 835
Equivalent Lateral Force Method 837
13.3.1 Horizontal Base Shear 837
13.3.2 Vertical Distribution of Forces 840
13.3.3 Horizontal Distribution of Story Shear Vx 841
13.3.4 Rigid and Flexible Diaphragms 841
13.3.5 Torsion 841
13.3.6 Story Drift and the P-Delta Effect 841
13.3.7 Overturning 843
13.3.8 Simplified Analysis Procedure for Seismic Design of Buildings 843
13.3.9 Other Aspects in Seismic Design 844
Seismic Shear Forces in Beams and Columns of a Frame:
Strong Column-Weak Beam Concept 845
13.4.1 Probable Shears and Moments 845
13.4.2 Strong Column Weak Beam Concept 847
ACI Confining Reinforcements for Structural Concrete Members 849
13.5.1 Longitudinal Reinforcement in Compression Members 849
13.5.2 Transverse Confining Reinforcement 851
13.5.3 Horizontal Shear at the Joint of Beam-Column Connections 852
13.5.4 Development of Reinforcement 854
13.5.5 Allowable Shear Stresses in Structural Walls, Diaphragms, and Coupling Beams
Seismic Design Concepts in High-Rise Buildings and Other Structures 858
13.6.1 General Concepts 858
13.6.2 Ductility of Elements and Plastic Hinging 858
13.6.3 Ductility Demand Due to Drift Effect 859
Structural Systems in Seismic Zones 860
13.7.1 Structural Ductile Frames 860
13.7.2 Dywidag Ductile Beam-Column Connection: DDC Assembly 864

854

ANO AASHTO BRIDGE SECTIONS 929 INDEX 943 .8 13.13 13. PROPERTIES OF REINFORCEMENT 905 APPENDIX B SELECTED TYPICAL STANDARD PRECAST DOUBLE TEES.7.11 13. DESIGN INFORMATION.12 13.3 Structural Walls in High-Seismicity Zones (Shear Walls} 867 13. INVERTED TEES.Contents xvii 13.15 13.9 13.14 13.7.3 Structural Precast Wall Base Connection Design 888 Design of Precast Prestressed Ductile Frame Connection in a High-Rise Building in High-Seismicity Zone Using Dywidag Ductile Connection Assembly (DDC) 890 Design of Precast Prestressed Ductile Frame Connection in a High-Rise Building in High-Seismicity Zone Using a Hybrid Connector System 895 Selected References 900 Problems for Solution 902 APPENDIX A UNIT CONVERSIONS.1 O 13.4 Unbonded Precast Post-Tensioned Walls 869 Dual Systems 872 Design Procedure for Earthquake-Resistant Structures 872 SI Seismic Design Expressions 876 Seismic Base Shear and Lateral Forces and Moments by the IBC Approach 879 Seismic Shear Wall Design and Detailing 882 Example 13. HOLLOW CORE SECTIONS.

.

This completely updated fifth edition of the book revises the previous text so as to conform to the new ACI 318-08 Code and the International Building Code. Hence.PREFACE Prestressed concrete is a widely used material in construction. sometimes termed as the "unified method" in the code. the properties of constituent materials. give the student and the engineer a basic understanding of both the service load and the limit state of load at failure. a concept to which every engineering student should be exposed today. through proper design. stressing the strain limits approach. Hence. as well as the design engineer. and the consulting engineering and forensic work that the author has been engaged in over the years. level. They should also aid in developing fundamental knowledge regarding the reliability of performance of prestressed structures. to develop with minimum effort a profound understanding of fundamentals of prestressed concrete structural behavior and performance. flexure. prestress loss. shear.D. The material is presented in such a manner that the student can become familiarized with the properties of plain concrete. The book is uniquely different from other textbooks on the subject in that the majar tapies of material behavior. segmenta! bridges. prestressing becomes essential in many applications in arder to fully utilize that compressive strength and. design of the members of a total structure is achieved only by trial and adjustment: assuming a section and then analyzing it. The high technology advancements in the science of materials have made it possible to construct and assemble large-span systems such as cable-stayed bridges. graduates of every civil engineering program must have. a basic understanding of the fundamentals of linear and circular prestressed concrete. using the new xix . as a minimum requirement. with the step-by-step logic of trial and adjustment as well as the flowcharts shown. Additionally. while its compressive strength is extensive. the historical development of prestressed concrete. design and analysis are combined in this work in arder to make it simpler for the student first introduced to the subject of prestressed concrete design. to eliminate or control cracking and deflection. for seismic design. and its components prior to embarking on the study of structural behavior. The concise discussion presented in Chapters 1 through 3 on basic principles. Chapters 4 and 5 on flexure. IBC 2006-2009. and torsion are selfcontained and can be covered in one semester at the senior level and the graduate level. and torsion. the long-term basic behavior of such materials. shear. Consequently. The text is the outgrowth of the author's lecture notes developed in teaching the subject at Rutgers University over the past 45 years and the experience accumulated over the years in teaching and research in the areas of reinforced and prestressed concrete inclusive of the Ph. both normal and high strength. The in-depth discussions of these tapies permit the advanced undergraduate and graduate student. and the evaluation of prestress losses should give an adequate introduction to the subject of prestressed concrete. and offshore oil drilling platforms-work impossible to undertake in the past. Reinforced concrete's tensile strength is limited. nuclear reactor vessels.

(PI) system or the international (SI) system. Chapter 8 covers the proportioning of prestressed compression and tension members. using wrapped wires as well as tendons. as well as the incorporation of vertical prestressing. Chapter 6 on indeterminate prestressed concrete structures covers in detail continuous prestressed beams as well as portal frames. consistent with the increased use of continuous members in bridge structures. Furthermore. and bearing. the student as well as the practicing engineer can avail themselves with the tools for using either the lb-in. Severa! design examples are included in the discussion. ledge beams. and the approximate time steps method. A state-of-the-art discussion is presented. the provisions on torsion combined with shear and bending. semi-fixed. and crack control. hinged. in addition to the design of the beams and corbels presented in Chapter 5 on shear and torsion. inclusion in this edition of design examples in SI Units anda listing of the relevant equations in SI format extends the scope of the text to cover wider applications by the profession. A detailed discussion is presented on the shear-moment transfer at column support section in two-way action prestressed concrete plates. the C-line method. considering both short. including the design expressions for these various conditions. It is revised to accommodate the new load and strength reduction factors required in the ACI 318-08 Code. This book is also unique in that Chapter 11 gives a detailed account of the analysis and design of prestressed concrete tanks and their shell roofs. the equivalent frame method of flexura! design (analysis) and deflection evaluation. Chapter 11 also discusses the theory of axisymmetrical shells and domes that are used in the design of domed roofs for circular tanks. the detailed incremental time steps method. An extensive Chapter 5 presents. deflection. of the evaluation and control of flexura} cracking in partially prestressed beams. with design examples. Additionally. A totally new section is added on the strut-and-tie modeling of forces in deep beams and corbels. with detailed design examples as required by the latest ACI Code provisions. including the buckling behavior and design of prestressed columns and piles and the P-Li effect in the design of slender columns. SI Units examples are included in the text in addition to having equivalent SI conversions for the major steps of examples throughout the book.and long-term effects using three different approaches: the PCI multipliers method. and the balancing method presented in Chapter l. and on deflection of two-way plates. Chapter 10 on connections for prestressed concrete elements covers the design of connections for dapped-end beams. Chapter 7 discusses in detail the design for camber. The service load behavior utilizes. Chapter 9 presents a thorough analysis of the service load behavior and yield-line behavior of two-way action prestressed slabs and plates. In this manner. based on the author's work. Extensive coverage is presented of the yield-line failure mechanisms of all the usual combinations of loads on floor slabs and boundary conditions. . thereby producing a good feel for the reserve strength and safety factors inherent in the design expressions. with extensive examples. the various approaches to the torsional problem and the plastic concepts of the shear equilibrium and torsional equilibrium theories and their interaction. which include a unified approach to the topic of torsion in reinforced and prestressed concrete members. a detailed theoretical discussion is presented on the mechanisms of shear and torsion. and sliding wall bases. Presented are the basics of the membrane and bending theories of cylindrical shells for use in the design of prestressed concrete tanks for the various wall boundary conditions of fixed. Numerous detailed examples illustrate the use of the basic concepts method.XX Preface ACI 318-08 Code requirements for ultimate load design. Chapter 4 in this edition contains the latest design procedure with numerical examples for the design of end anchorages of post-tensioned members as required by the latest ACI and AASHTO codes.

on seismic design of reinfarced and prestressed concrete structures. photographs of sorne majar prestressed concrete landmark structures are included throughout the book to illustrate the versatility of design in pretensioned and post-tensioned prestressed concrete. torsion. The majar portions of the text can be used without difficulty and equally in an advanced senior level and at the graduate level far any student who has had a prior course in reinfarced concrete. box girder and AASHTO standard sections far bridge decks. who inspired him with the affection that he has developed far systems constructed of reinfarced and prestressed concrete. including the design of anchorage blocks. the late Professor A. IBC 2009. Chapter 13. Conversion to SI metric units is included in the examples throughout most chapters of the book. Baker of London University's Imperial College of Science. the tapies of this updated fifth edition of the book have been presented in as concise a manner as possible without sacrificing the need far instructional details. and serviceability. Thanks are also due to the many professors who have been continuously . PCI/AASHTO bulb-tees. L. added to the previous edition. who have had much to do with generating the writing of this book and to the many who assisted in his research activities over the past 50 years. as well as representative tables far selecting sections such as PCI double-tees.Preface xxi The extensive Chapter 12. The contents should also serve as a valuable guideline far the practicing engineer who has to keep abreast of the state-of-the-art in prestressed concrete and the latest provisions of the ACI 318-08 Building Code and PCI Standards. with monograms and tables on standard properties. has been updated based on the new ACI 318-08 and the significantly modified International Building Code. Technology and Medicine. Additionally. They are taken from research work conducted and published by the author with many of his MS and PhD students at Rutgers University over the past faur decades. sections and charts of flexural and shear evaluation of sections. Grateful acknowledgment is also made to the author's many students. A unique approach far the design of such ductile connections in precast beam-column joints in high-rise building structures was extended and updated to confarm to the new load and strength reduction factors. Selected photographs involving various areas of the structural behavior of concrete elements at failure are included in all the chapters. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Grateful acknowledgment is due to the American Concrete Institute. L. as well as the designer who seeks a concise treatment of the fundamentals of linear and circular prestressing. It contains several design examples and a detailed discussion of ductile moment-resistant connections in high-rise buildings and parking garages in high seismicity zones. In summary. Several extensive examples are given using bulb-tees and box girder sections. AASHTO 2009 Standards. It also contains examples of the design of shear walls and hybrid connections-all based on the state of the art in this field. It also includes the AASHTO requirements far truck and lane loadings and load combinations as stipulated both by the LRFD and the Standard specifications. dealing with the seismic design of prestressed precast structures in high seismicity zones. Special mention has to be made of the author's original mentor. both undergraduate and graduate. has been updated to accommodate the latest LRFD and Standard AASHTO 2009 specifications far the design of prestressed bridge deck girders far flexure. shear. Appendices have also been included. and the International Building Code (IBC 2009). the Prestressed Concrete Institute and the Post-Tensioning Institute far their gracious support in permitting generous quotations from the ACI 318 and other relevant Codes and Reports and the numerous illustrations and tables from so many PCI and PTI publications.

Director of Team-Based Project Management. Thomas T. Bruce Kenselaar. who both have given me continuous encouragement and support over the years. Englekirk. Thanks are also due to Robert M. for her cooperation in processing this updated version. Grateful acknowledgment is also made to the Prentice Hall officers and staff: Marcia Horton. Senior Project Coordinator. Mr. and to the engineers worldwide who have adopted this book as a standard reference on the up-to-date analysis and design of prestressed concrete structures. MS Rutgers 1999. Senior Managing Editor. and Patty Donovan. Rutgers. Jane Bonnell. NAWY Rutgers University The State University of New Jersey Piscataway. and Vincent O'Brien. Englekirk Consulting Engineers. both of the Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute. the author is grateful to Mayrai Gindy. and James Giancastro. FIGG Bridge Engineers. Research Director. Vice President and Editorial Director. Freyrmuth. of the Prentice Hall Art Department. and to Joseph Davis. formerly of the PTI. Laserwords Maine. for his cooperation and advice. for his extensive input. for his continuous guidance in the successful and prompt production of the book. Jenny. Daniel P. Rutgers. and to Engineer Gregg Romano. C. for commendable efforts over the years in bringing to fruition the several editions of this book. Professor Alex Aswad of Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg for his valuable input on precast shear walls in seismic regions. New Jersey . and San Diego. for their support. Robert E. for their assistance in the fifth edition.Preface xxii using this textbook since 1988 in major universities in the United States and their valuable comments. Los Angeles. for his admirable artwork on the book cover for this and prior editions of the textbook. for her coordinating efforts. Rutgers Engineering class of 1983. and Visiting Professor at the Universities of California. particular thanks are dueto Professor Thomas Hsu for again reviewing the revised portions on torsional theory and examples and the shear LRFD section. Khalid Shawwaf. George Nasser. EDWARD G. Dywidag Systems International. for her input into this and previous editions of this book. Thanks also go to Ms. for his contribution to the last edition's Chapter 12 on LRFD design of bridge decks. Production Liaison. MBA. Senior Engineering Editor. and Paul Johal. BS. Vice President-Engineering. formerly Editor-in-Chief. Ekberg of Iowa State University. President and CEO. Holly Stark. Acknowledgment is also made to the many experts who reviewed the manuscript of the first edition including Professors Carl E. PhD. formerly of the PCI. who assisted in the work on the first edition. Nakin Suksawang. For the third edition of this book. Hsu of the University of Houston. Nawy. President. discussions and advice on the subject of ductile moment-resisting frame connections in high sesimicity zones. Linda Figg. Scott Disanno. BA. for his past help and diligent computational and processing work in the new sections of this edition. all PhD. and Clifford L. and Dr. Last but not least.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE .

.

) 1 . Such an imposed longitudinal force is called a prestressing force. In order to reduce or prevent such cracks from devcloping.e. sbear. Tbe sections are then a ble lo behave elastically.BASIC CONCEPTS 1. a conccnlric or eccentric force is imposed in lhc longitudinal direction of the structural ciernen t. and torsional capacities of thc sectioos. a compressive force that prestresses the sections along the span of the structural element prior to the application of the Lransverse gravily dead and live loads or transienl horizontal live loads. are determined mainly on the basis of the type of system to be constructed and the span length and slenderncss dcsired. Virginia. Thc lype of prestressing force involved. This force prevents the cracks from dcvcloping by climinating or considerably reducing thc tensile stresses at the critica! midspan and support scctions at service load. i.1 INTRODUCTION Concrete is strong in compression. Richmond. Prestressed Concrete Tnslitutc. Since the prestressing force is applied longitudinally along or parallel to The Diamond Baseball Stadium. (Courresy. tlexural cracks develop at early slages of loading. and almosl lhc full capacity of lhe concrete in comprcssion can be efficiently utilized across lhe entire dcpth of the concrete sections whcn ali loads act on the structure. but weak in tension: its tensilc strenglh varies from 8 to 14 perccnt of ils compressive strength. Situ cast and precast post-tensioned prestressed structure. Due to such a low tcnsile capacity.. together with its magnilude. thcreby raising lhe bending.

1 Comparison with Reinforced Concrete From the preceding discussion. in a basic fashion. With reinforced concrete.. the prestressing principie involved is commonly known as linear prestressing.. Although it might appear that the blocks will slip and vertically simulate shear slip failure. or "hugging" stress on the cylindrical or spherical structure..__ =:==¡j~ ... used in liquid containment tanks. (d) Circular hoop prestress on one wooden stave. the prestressing action in both types of structural systems and the resulting stress response.1 Prestressing principie in linear and circular prestressing. But again. (b) Compressive stress on midspan section C and end section A or B.. essentially follows the same basic principies as <loes linear prestressing. the individual concrete blocks act together as a beam due to the large compressive prestressing force P. the axis of the member. it is plain that permanent stresses in the prestressed structural member are created befare the full dead and live loads are applied. to be balanced by circular hoop prestress. In (a). Circular prestressing.__.p \ = =' -. A. (a) Linear prestressing of a series of blocks to form a beam. the wooden staves in (c) might appear to be capable of separating as a result of the high interna! radial pressure exerted on them..1.I __.L_=r- A Chapter 1 Basic Concepts 1 fe Longitudina1 prestressing force fe Sec. B (b) (a) staves pressure Metal bands F F A wooden barre! (e) (d) (e) Figure 1.l--__. C Elevation Sec..2 ~ ¡ : Individual ~ blocks : -o:c='~~~! L=-LI_.. in order to eliminate or considerably reduce the net tensile stresses caused by these loads. Figure 1. 1. they will remain in place. The circumferential hoop. Similarly.1 illustrates. (c) Circular prestressing of a wooden barrel by tensioning the metal bands. and pressure reactor vessels. (e) Tensile force Fon half of metal band dueto interna! pressure.. neutralizes the tensile stresses at the outer fibers of the curvilinear surface caused by the interna! contained pressure.. because of the compressive prestress imposed by the metal bands as a form of circular prestressing. pipes. it is assumed that the tensile strength of the concrete is negligible . in fact they will not because of the longitudinal force P._____=J=:====:==.

This is because the tensile forces resulting from tbe bending moments are resisted by the bond created in the reinforcement process.1 lntroduction Photo 1. permitting a relatively high controUed recovcry of cracking and deflection. Bay Area Rapid Transit Districl. Guideways consist of prestressed precast simplc-span box girders 70 ft long and 11 ft wide.) and disregarded. San Francisco and Oakland.1 Bay Area Rapid Transit (BA RT). Once the ílex- Photo 1. Cracking and deílcction are therefore essentially irrecoverable in reinforced concrete once thc mcmber has reached its limit state at service load. Oakland. Ammann & Whitney.3 1. California. The longesl precast prcstrcsscd concrete cable-stayed box girder bridge in South America. (Courtesy.) . T he reinforcement in the reínforced concrete member does not excrl any force of its own on the member. (Courtesy.2 Chaco-Corrientes Bridge. contrary to tbe action of prestressing steel. Argentina. California. Thc steel required to produce the prestressing force in the prestressed mcmber actively preloads thc member.

a longer working life is possible dueto . prestressing operations themselves result in an added cost: Formwork is more complex. Oklahoma. this saving in material weight is balanced by the higher cost of tbe higber quaJity materiaJs needed in prestressing. (Cou. sucb as machine foundations. Hence.rtesy. Prestressed Concrete lnsti- tute. By controlling tbe amount of prestress. In spite of these additional costs. Structures designed to withstand beavy vibrations. Unfortunately. and about 20 to 35 percent of the amount of reinforcement. the prestressed member requires less concrete. tbe difference between at least the initial costs of prestressed and reinforced concrete systems is usually not very large.2 Economics of Prestressed Concrete Prestressed members are shaUower in deplh than their reinforced concrete counterparts for the same span and loading conditions. Also. Tulsa. such a flexibility in behavior is considerably more difficuJt to achieve if considerations of economy are to be observed in the design. And the indirect long-term savings are quite substantial.1. since Lbe geometry of prestressed sections is usuaUy composed of flanged sections with thin webs. regardless of the system used. In general. caneasily be made rigid through the contribution of the prestressing force to the reduction of their otherwise flexible deformation behavior. the prestressed member starts to act like a reinforced concrete eJement. tbe depth o( a prestressed concrete member is usuaJJy about 65 to 80 percent of Lhe depth of tbe equivaJent rein:forced concrete member. 1. beca use less maintenance is needed.4 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts Photo L3 Park Towers. a structural system can be made eitber flexible or rigid witbout inOuencing its strength. In reinforced concrete.) ural tensile strength of the concrete is exceeded. Flexible structures such as fender piles in wbarves have to be highly energy absorbent. if a large enougb number of precasl units are manufactured. and prestressed concrete can provide the required resiliency.

Jackson. R. Dill of Alexandria. He hoop-stressed horizontal reinforce ment arouncl walls of concrete tanks through the use of turnbuckles to prcvcnl cracking due lo interna! liquid pres- Photo 1. Very large spans such as segmcotal bridges or cable-stayed bridges can 011/y be constructcd through the use of prcstressing. Once the beam span of reinforced concrete cxcecds 70 to 90 fect. Tbus. H. when P.1. consequently. patented a prestressing system that used a tie rod Lo construct beams or arches from individual blocks. 1. E.2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRESTRESSING Prestressed concrete is noL a new concept. W. an engineer (rom California. Steiner of thc United States tricd early in thc twentietb century to solve this problem. for largcr spans. prestressed concrete becomes mandatory since arches are expensive to construct and do not perform as wcll c. R. C. but to no avail. recognized the effect of the shrinkage and creep (transverse material ílow) of concrete on the loss of prestress.2 Historical Development of Prestressing 5 better quality control of lhe concrete. Ln thc carly l 920s. Hewetl of Minneapolis developed thc principies of circular prcstressing. Posl-Tensioning lnstitutc. But thcse early attempts al prestrcssing were not really succcssful bccause of the loss of thc prcstress with time. Maine. greater the of long-term dcflcction and crackjng. Nebraska. Ooehring of Germany obtained a patent for prestressing slabs with me tal wires.) . J. resulting in hcavicr members and. dating back to 1872.l(a). thc dcad weight beam becomes excessive. (Co11r1esy.lue to the severe long-tcrm shrinkage and creep they undcrgo.] In 1888. and lightcr foundations are achievcd due to the smaller cumulative weight of the superstructurc. 1 r. After a long lapse of tjme during which littlc progress was madc because of the unavailability of high-strength steel to overcomc prcstress losses. He subseq uently developed the idea that successive post-tensioning of 1111bonded rods would compensate for lhe time-depcndcnl loss of stress in the rods due to the decrease in the lcngth of the mernber beca use of creep and shrinkage. Lund of Norway and G. W. [Sec Figure 1.4 Wiscasscl Bridge.

Guyon of Paris cxtensively developed and used the concept of prestressing for the design and construction of numerous bridgcs in western and central Europe. The Magnel system also uscd wedges to anchor thc prestressing wires. be introduced the now well-known and well-accepted Freyssinet system comprising tbe conical wedge anchor for 12-wire tendons. W. Mikhailov of Russia. . Post-Tensioning lnsti- sure. Thereafter. (Courtesy. During World War ll and thereaftcr. Linear prestressing continued lo develop in Europe and in France. particularly in continuous structures. it became necessary to reconstruct in a prompt manner many of the main bridgcs that were destroyed by war activities. thereby achieving watertighteness. and gas storage buill and mucb mileage of prestressed pressurc pipe laid in the two to three decades that followed.6 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts Photo 1. and Y. They differed from the original Freyssinet wedges in that tbey wcre ílat in shape. Honolulu. Y. Magnel of Ghent. in particuJar through the ingenuity of E ugene Freyssinet. prestressing of tanks and pipes developed al an accelerated pace in the United States. A beles of England intToduced and developed the conccpl of partial prestressing between the l930s and 1960s. with Lhousands of tanks of water. liquid. who proposed in 1926 through 1928 methods to overcome prestress losses through thc use of high-strength and high-ductility steels. F.5 tute. G. Leon hardt of Germany. and in the Unitcd States in particular. ln 1940. Lin of the United States also contributcd a great <leal to the arl and scicnce of the design of prestrcssed concrete. and T. V. Thesc twenlieth-century developments have led to the extcnsive use of prestressing thro ughout the world. as it considerably simplified thc design process. Lin's load-balancing metbod descrvcs particular mention in this regard. P. Bclgiurn. accommodating the prestressing of two wires ata time. l lawaii.) Exccutive Center.

3 BASIC CONCEPTS OF PRESTRESSING 1. the late Ben C.6 SLraúord "B'. Sometimes simplification is necessary. prestressed concrete is used in buildings. power stations. and the accumulated knowledge in estimating the short. Norway.1 lntroduction The prestressing force P tbat satisfies the particular conditions of geometry and loading of a given element (see Figure 1. a simply supported rectangular beam subjectcd to a concentric prestrcssing force P as shown io Figure l. nuclear reactor vessels. Gerwick.and long-tenn losses in the prcstressing forces.) Today. Note the variety of prestressed structures in the photos throughout the book: they demonstrate the versatility of the prestressing concept and its all-encompassing applications.3. Condeep offshore oíl drilling platform. underground structurcs. Tbe compressive stress on the beam cross section is uniform and has an inteosity . particularly prestressing slecl. 1.1. theo. and numerous types of bridge systems including segmenta! and cable-stayed bridges. The success in the development and construction of ali these landmark structures has been due in no small measure to Lhe advances in the technology of materia Is.3 Basic Concepts of Prestressíng 7 Photo 1.2(a). TV towers. (Courtesy.2) is determined from the principies of mechanics aod of stress-strain relatiooships. as when a prestressed beam is assumed to be homogeneous and elastic. íloating storage and offshore structures. Consider.

7 Sunshine Skyway Bridge. Also. A minus sigo is used for compression and a plus sign for tension throughout the text.PIA is reducing tbe tensile flexura[ stress Mdf to tbe extent inlended in tbe design. now FJGG Engineers) p f =-- Ac (1. lnc. the bridge has a 1.. If externa! transverse loads are applied to tbe beam.200-ft cable-stayed main span with a single pylon.. 175-ft vertical clearance. Jnc. lt has twin 40-ft roadways and has 135-ft spans in precast segmental sections and high approaches to elevation + 130 ft. the resulting stress becomes (l. Florida.878 ft.2a) and (1. Figg aod Muller Engineers. either elimi- . and total length of 21 .8 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts Photo 1.2b) wbere f' =stress at the lop fibers Íb =stress at tbe bottom fibers e = !h for the rectangular seclion 18 = gross moment of inertia of the section (bh3/l 2 in this case) Equation l. Designcd by Figg and Muller Engineers.2b indicates that lhe presence of prestressing-compressive stress . bending moments are drawn on tbe tensile side of the member. causing a maximum moment M at midspan. Tampa Bay.1) wbere Ac =bh is the cross-sectional area of a beam section of width b and lota! depth h. (Courtesy.

9 1. to induce tensile stresses at the top fibers due to prestressing. Hence. The section is then considered uncracked and behaves elastically: the concrete's inability to withstand tensile stresses is effectively compensated for by the compressive force of the prestressing tendon. self-weight added. (d) Eccentric tendon. prestress only.] If the tendon is placed at eccentricity e from the center of gravity of the concrete. and the ensuing stresses at midspan become . or permitting a level of tensile stress within allowable code limits.2 Concrete fiber stress distribution in a rectangular beam with straight tendon.Me!!. The compressive stresses in Equation l. (b) Concentric tendon. prestress only. (d). nating tension totally (even inducing compression). termed the cgc fine. the compressive stress capacity of the beam to take a substantial externa! load is reduced by the concentric prestressing force. as seen in Figure l. [See Figure 1. In order to avoid this limitation. self-weight added.2a at the top fibers of the beam due to prestressing are compounded by the application of the loading stress .2(b ).3 Basic Concepts of Prestressing (d) A I I Figure 1.2( c). the prestressing tendon is placed eccentrically below the neutral axis at midspan. it creates a moment Pe. (c) Eccentric tendon. (a) Concentric tendon.

openfog on Scplember 18. prestressed concrete span over the Mississippi Rivcr.214' bridges.3.+ - (1. Minneapolís. the concrete fiber slrcsses are directly computed from thc externa! forces applied to the concrete by longitudinal prcstressing and the externa! transverse load. This new interstate bridge was designed and built in 11 months. Substituting? for l/Ac in Equations 1..8 The new l-3SW bridge. wbere r is the radius of gyration of thc gross section. each 45' widc. 1. 2008. Minnesota. then p~ 'Y = - (1.4a) .\ r2 (l. The span's 120 precast concrete segmenls. (Courtesy of FIGO. thc eccentricity of che prestressing tendon profile. or else a negative eccentricity above the cgc lioe is used..3a) (l. is the initial prestressing force before stress losses. The bridge has 50. the egs fine. high tensile fiber strcsscs at the top fibers are caused by the eccentric prestressing force. Thesc segments for Lhe main span were assembled in one directional cantilever from the main piers in just 47 days.3b) Since thc support section of a simply supported beam carries no momenl from the externa! transverse load. the bridge designer) f' = _!_ + Pee _ Me Ar 18 18 P Pee Me A c- 111 TK Jb = .3a and b can be modified and simplified for use in calculating stresses al tbe initial prestressing stage and at service load levels.3c) P.000 cubic yards of concrete and nearly 3 mi Ilion pounds of post-Lensioning steel that runs the length of lhe lwin 1. is made less at thc support section than at the midspan scction. and P~ is the effective prestressing force after losses.) A..( 1 _ ec.2 Basic Concept Method In the basic concept method of designing prestressed concrete elcments. Designcd by FIGG. lf P.3.10 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts Photo 1. with 75' vertical clearance. the exprcssions for stress can be rewritten as follows: (a) Prestressing Force Only !' = _ P. thc 10-lane interstate bridge has a 504' prccast. up lo 25' deep and weighing 200 lons. achieved an average concrete strength of 7600 psi. To limit such stresses. or eliminated altogether. can be defined as the residual prestress factor. Equations l.

_ P1 ( f --f\ e i - ec. Tianjin. with a total lenglh of 1. (b) Prestressi11g Plus Self-weight U the beam sclf-weight causes a momcnt M 0 at the section undcr consideration.Sa) and (1. respectively.) ec1. Chief Bridge Engineer.4b) where e.2 - (1.) Ms 0 . China. Engineer for projcc1 dcsign and coostruction control guidancc: Tianjin Municipal Enginccring Survey and Design lnstilulc. Bang-yan Yu.) .3 Basic Concepts of Prestressing Photo 1.A c 1 + -. was completed in 1988. Jih =. the largest span bridge in Asia.11 1. and cb are the distances from the center of gravity of che section (the cgc Line) to the extreme top and bollom fibers. (Credit~ Owner: Tianjin Municipal Engineering Burcau. 2 ~ ( 1. respectivety. General contractor: Major Bridge Enginccring Bu rea u of Ministry of Railways of China.9 Tianjin Yong-Hc cable-stayed prestressed concrete bridge.673 ft and a suspended lenglh of l.535 ft. Equations 1. become .4a and b.5b) .

The tensile stress in the concrete in part (c) permitted at the extreme fibers of the section cannot exceed the maximum permissible in the code. respectively.5 then become (1. including impact and seismic loads if any Equations 1. If the total moment due to gravity loads is MT. or gradually in a parabolic form. (b) Draped tendon. The change in eccentricity from the midspan to the support section is obtained by raising the prestressing tendon either abruptly from the midspan to the support.7a) Íb MT = -Pe . e.6) MD = moment dueto self-weight MsD = moment dueto superimposed dead load. a process called harping. then MT where = MD + MSD + ML (1.7b) Sorne typical elastic concrete stress distributions at the critica! section of a prestressed flanged section are shown in Figure 1. where S 1 and Sb are the moduli of the sections far the top and bottom fibers._ _ _ _tec---=--=-f-=--~~-+--' (a) --¡-itd (b) Figure 1.. Hence. a process called draping. the beam is analyzed as if it were a plain concrete elastic beam using the basic principles of statics.3(b) shows a draped tendon usually used in post-tensioning. Figure 1. bonded nonprestressed reinforcement proportioned to resist the total tensile force has to be provided to control cracking at service loads. causing a superimposed moment M 8 • The full intensity of such loads normally occurs after the building is completed and sorne time-dependent losses in prestress have already taken place.3 C-Line Method In this line-of-pressure or thrust concept. the prestressing force used in the stress equations would have to be the effective prestressing force Pe. Subsequent to erection and installation of the floor or deck. live loads act on the structure.3 Prestressing tendon profile. Figure 1. ft = at midspan in the ACI code.12 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts ~i L cg_c_ _--r_ /cgs ± Twk-.3.( 1 + -ecb) 2 + Ac r Sb (1. If it is exceeded. (a) Harped tendon. The prestressing force is considered an ex- . 6W 1.3(a) shows a harped profile usually used far pretensioned beams and far concentrated transverse loads.g.4. such as flooring M L = moment due to live load.

Taking a free-body diagram of a segment of a beam as in Figure 1. Ac ( 1_ ec. ternal compressive force. sb Ac +- ec .5 shows the relative line of action of the compressive force C and the tensile force T in a reinforced concrete beam as compared to that in a prestressed concrete beam.4 Elastic fiber stresses due to the various loads in a prestressed beam.) _ M 0 r2 -¡-\¡ P. It is plain that in a reinforced concrete beam.. Equilibrium equations 'i.) _ Mr S. ec.. T can have a finite value only when transverse and other external loads act. The moment arm a remains basically constant throughout the elastic loading history of the reinforced concrete beam while it changes from a value a =O at prestressing to a maximum at full superimposed load.3 Basic Concepts of Prestressing P. Ac ( 1_ ec. Ac ecb) (1+r2 • Mso S.13 1. Mo +- sb + ML _ P. or center-of-pressure line.. 1-- Ac r2 (a) -¡-P. Figure 1. The moment is given by . is at a varying distance a from the T-line.6. (e) Service load at effective prestress. In this manner. r2 -r + + Mso + ML sb P.M =O are applied to maintain equilibrium in the section. (a) lnitial prestress before losses. with a constant tensile force Tin the tendon throughout the span.H =O and 'i. Ac ecb) (1+r2 Mr +- sb (e) Figure 1. Ac ecb) (1+r2 ' Mo P. it is evident that the C-line. (b) Addition of self-weight. • (1 + r:) Mo +Ss (b) _ P. s.)· (. the effects of externa! gravity loads are disregarded.

beam with no load.------. w=w = <t. -------112----~ (a) (b) <t.. (c) R.e (l.9b) Since C = T. (d) P..C.C.9a) e'= M . beam with load w 1. (e) (f) Figure 1. a = M/T..C.5 Comparative free-body diagrams of a reinforced concrete (R.____I 1 - --·-·-·-__.) beam. w= O 1 ___________ __.6. (f) P.C. ~ (e) ª1 = e (d) <t. beam with typical load w.C. beam with no load. beam with load w 1• (e) R._ ---- ·--· ----+---- e 1-------------" T = P C= P a=O Y. w= w1 1 tL_i_~~--l-tr 1 C=P .-=-~-. so that in Figure 1.8) and the eccentricity e is known or predetermin ed...C. giving T From the figure.lüb) ..-i T = T2 Y. M =Ca= Ta (1. w=w 1 1 ------------i----I k-----...C..C. (a) R. e' =a .14 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts <t.--•--• ----.) beam and a prestressed concrete (P. w= w1 <t.-----<--.e (1... (l. beam with typical load w. (b) P.lüa) (l. w= O <t.

/" = -. Photo 1.12a and b and Equations l.12b) 2 Equations 1. Arvid Grant and Associates.12a) e'ch) Pe ( Íb =-A.- (l.15 1.4 Load-Balanclng Method A third useful approach in lhe design (analysis) of conlinuous prestressed beams is tbe load-balancing method dcvcloped by Lin and mentioned earlier.+ .- P~: so fb=. This technique is based on utilizing the vertical force of the draped or harped prestressing tendon to couoteract or balance the imposed gravity loading to which a beam is subjected. Bul in tbe tendon lhe force T equals tbe prestressing force f 1 Pe P~e'c. Hence. A segmentally assembled precast prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge spanning 200-900-608 ft. 1.. lnc.10 East Huntington Bridge over Ohio River.) . 1 -7 (l. Equalions Llla and b can be rcwritten as r=--APe" ( i +e'c.3 Basic Concepts of Prestressing Figure 1. (Courtesy.3.lla) (l.11 b) Siocelc=A?. it is applicable to oonstraight prcslressing tendons.7a and b should yield ideotical values for lhe fiber stresses.) r (l. Ac /" Pe Pee'cb A.6 Free-body diagram for the C-llne (center of pressure).

(b) Draped tendon. The horizontal component of P.13 and substituting into Equation 1. the load intensity is a2y q= T - (1.1 Load-Balancing Distributed Loads and Parabolic Tendon Profile.13) represent the tendon drape._ 1.15a) . the force T denotes the pull to which the tendon is subjected.3.7 (b) Load-balancing forces. as an approximation in longspan beams.. we have y=O C=O dy -=O dx B=O and for x = l/2.14 yields q = T4a X 2 ¡2 = 8Ta ¡2 y ttttttt T----. Let the parabolic function Ax2 + Bx + C = y Con(1. Figure 1.. 1. (a) Harped tendon. 4a A=¡2 y=a But from calculus.8.4.7 demonstrates the balancing forces for both harped.8 Sketched tendon subjected to transverse load intensity q. Figure 1. sider a parabolic tendon as shown in Figure 1. the actual horizontal component of Pis used.and draped-tendon prestressed beams. Then for x = O..16 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts lmposed load W 1mposed load W tttttttttttt p~ttllll\~p (a) Figure 1..14) ax2 Finding 2Py!CJx2 in Equation 1. The load balancing reaction R is equal to the vertical component of the prestressing force P. is taken to be equal to the full force P in computing the concrete fiber stresses at midspan of the simply supported beam. (l. At other sections.

=-~ (1. and Chas to cancel T to satisfy the equilibrium requirement that 'LH = O.17) This stress. since it is always the case that T = C. which is constant. if the tendon has a parabolic profile in the prestressed beam and the prestressing force is denoted by P. the beam remains straight. or camber. at the top face.19a) Ac P----k::-- ---1i-.17 1. the two sets of equal and opposite transverse loads wb cancel each other.9 gives a free-body diagram of the forces acting on a prestressed beam with a parabolic tendon profile.10 shows the superposition of stresses to yield the net stress. The corresponding fiber stresses at midspan become Mubc P' t fb=--::¡::-Ac (1.3 Basic Concepts of Prestressing or ql2 T=- (1.15c) 8a Hence. As there is no bending. Note that the prestressing force in the loadbalancing method has to act at the center of gravity (cgc) of the support section in simply supported beams and at the cgc of the free end in the case of a cantilever beam..16) wb=y Figure 1.18) fe Equation 1. This is reasonable to expect in the load-balancing method. P' C A A = . is 8Pa (1.9 Load-balancing force on free-body diagram. is due to the force P' = P cos 8. a moment Muh = wub/2/8 results at midspan. P . When the imposed load exceeds the balancing load wb such that an additional unbalanced load wub is applied. Clearly. Figure 1.. from Equation l. and no bending stress is produced. The concrete fiber stress across the depth of the section at midspan becomes f/.---c = a --------112------- Figure 1. without having a convex shape. the balanced-load intensity. This condition is necessary in arder to prevent any eccentric unbalanced moments.15a.15b) ql2 Ta=8 (1.18 can be rewritten as the two equations f = _ P' _ Mub 51 (l..

7 and 1. (a) Prestress stresses. + ~ A'< (a) + ~ +1 (b) ~ 1 (e) ~ A' (d) Figure 1. e== o.e..11 Walt Disney World Monorail. (Courtesy. i. Keep in mind tbat P' is taken to be equal lo P at tbe midspan section because thc prestressing force is horizontal al this section.10 Load-balancing stresses. (d) Net stress. . Florida.. (e) Balanced-load stresses. Tacoma. A series of hollow precast prestressed concrete 100-foot box girders individually post-tensioned to provide six-span conlinuous structure.11 ' Ac (l.18 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts Photo 1.19 will yield the samc values of fiber stresses as Equations 1. Equations 1. Walt Disney World Corporation. = _ P' + M. Designed by ABAM Enginccrs.12.19b) S¡.) and f. (b) lmposed-load stresses. Orlando. Wasl1ington.

Allowable stress data are as follows: f~ = 6.51 m) 10'-0" 2" 53/4" j_ t topping ·1 2" ti 24" j 5'-0" Figure 1.880 psi (19.9 MPa) = maximum allowable stress in concrete at initial prestress fe= 0..1 A pretensioned simply supported 10LDT24 double T-beam without topping has a span of 64 ft (19. 2 + WL =420 plf (6. 0. = 12 ~ = 930 psi (6.800 psi (33. lightweight (41.11.000 psi (1.45 f ~ = maximum allowable compressive stress in concrete at service Assume that tenhn.11 Example 1.915 cm 2) le = 22.347 cm4 ) r2 W50 = Ij Ac = 50.517 MPa) = specified yield strength of the tendons fpe = 150.19 1.04 in.000 psi. = 4. stress relieved (1.51 m) and the geometry shown in Figure 1.303 MPa).-------------=¡ 64'-0" (19.4 MPa) = maximum allowable tensile stress in concrete f~.4 MPa) fpu = 270.000 psi (1. Ac = 449 in. = 2.1 MPa) =concrete compressive strength at time of initial prestress fe.70 fpu = 189.000 psi (1.034 MPa) ¡. It is subjected to a uniform superimposed gravity dead-load intensity WsD and live-load intensity WL summing to 420 plf (6. 4 (935.4 Computation of Fiber Stresses in a Prestressed Beam by the Basic Method 1.862 MPa) = specified tensile strength of the tendons fpy = 220. The initial prestress before losses is fp.7-mm-dia strand) tendons with a 108-Dl strand pattern are used to prestress the beam.000 psi (1. Seven-wire-strand (ten 12.13 kN/m) t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t r---·----~_.4 COMPUTATION OF FIBER STRESSES IN A PRESTRESSED BEAM BY THE BASIC METHOD Example 1. Compute the extreme fiber stresses at the midspan due to = (a) the initial full prestress and no externa! gravity load (b) the final service load conditions when prestress losses have taken place. and the effective prestress after losses is fpe = 150.1 .-dia.= 0.000 psi.034 MPa).6 f~. 2 (2.469 in.13 kN/m).

Gerwick. (452 mm) e.264 in.205.2 P.696 in. ri = _ 289. r __ 289.170 lb ( 1. (375 mm) e.2. (249 kN-m) 8 From Equatio11s 1.53 X 150.611.3 .04 + 2.= 6.7l4 cm3) S' = 3.607 + 540.000 = 289.264 .A. ( 1+2 + A. = 7.45 kN/ m) Solution: (i) I nitial Co11dltio11s at Prestressi11g A p.607 in. (158 mm) ec = 14.5 ~ .ec.153 = 1.53 X 189.-lb..77 X 6.500 lb (l. f . 1( 1 .020 kN) The midpan self-weight dcad-load momcnt is w/ 2 359 (64) 2 Mo = 8 = X 12 = 2.696 50.5 and 1. 3 (59.205. = AµJ1. (J 97 mm) sh = 1. = 1.170 ( 449 = l M" - S' _ 14.P.000 = 229. Global Marine DevelopmenL (Counesy.23 in. 170 ( 449 l Sh + 14.77 in.= J.77) 50.1 (20.108 cm3) w" = 359 plf (4.= 17. = 10 X 0.287 kN) P.53 in.20 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts Photo L12 Prcstrcssed lightwcight concrete mid-body for Arctic offshore drilling platform.) P = .23).04 3.77 X 17.696 1.) e¡.205.77 in. the late Ben C.77 in.70 psi ( C) ecb) M" fb=.7.

480 = f t =_Pe Ac = _ 4.786.5 C-LINE COMPUTATION OF FIBER STRESSES Example 1.176 in.607 50.-lb MT =--¡.77) + 4. (541 kN-m) (l _ (l _ ec1 ) .-lb Total Moment MT = 2.022. 4.4. O.176 3.K.85 m.500 ( 1 _ 6. O.2 Solve example 1.1 for the final service-load condition by the line-of-thrust. 1. O.500 lb MT = 4.1.08 in.45 X 6.500 = 20..898 psi ( C) 50. psi ( T) 50.e = 20.786.K.14.23) = _ .77 X 17.08 449 = _ 229.786.08 X 17.500 ( 1 + 6.580.786 = +594 psi (T) (5. C-line method.700 psi.04 = -3.21 1.000 = 2.85 .745.327 = -898 psi (C) (7 MPa) <fe = 0.1 + 1.04 449 Notice how the C-line method is shorter than the basic method used in Example 1.786.2 si 14.K.MT . Solution: Pe = 229. = a .23). r P = ---"- Ac (i e'c) t +_ .264 50. (ii) Final Condition at Service Load Midspan moment due to superimposed dead and live load is Msv + ML = 420 (64) 2 8 . e' = a .= -2. Íb Pe ( 1 +ecb) - =-- r2 Ac = _ 229.500 449 = +429 .2 . X 6.77 X 6.12.192 + 3.04 = _ 229.176 229.580.500 (l 449 +MT Sb + 14. .880 psi allowed. From Equations 1.77 = 6.176 1.04 229.S fe.2 MPa) <Ji= 12~ = 930 psi.5 C-Line Computation of Fiber Stresses = -4.77) = + 594 .205. X 12 = 2.-lb.176 in.786.0 = -2.480 m.1.696 + 2.277 psi (C) :'.

(Courtesy.688 3.394.500 X 1. PoslTensioning lnstitute.-lb From Equations 1.=-A.552 = 227 plf Unbalanced momenl Muh = wuh(/) 2 8 227(64) 2 = - .500 f . Mobile County.-Mu.6 LOAD-BALANCING COMPUTATION OF FIBER STRESSES Example 1.) 1. 229. a = e.394.X 12 8 = 1. S' 449 - 1. This is be· cause lhe gravily load is balanced by the lendon al thc midpan. = -P'. = 359 + 420 = 779 plf Unbalanced load W uh = 779 . Total load to which the beam is subjcctcd = W D + Wso + W 1.13 Dauphin lsland Bridge. H cncc. only thc axial load P' /A would act if the beam had a parabolically draped tendon with no ccccntricily al thc supports.3 Salve Example 1. we have W = g Pa = 8 X f2 b 229.22 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts Photo 1.688 in.19.231 (64)2 = 552 plf (8. if the total gravity Load would have bcen 552 plf.1 for lhe final service load condition aftcr losscs using the load-balancing method.. = 14.77" ft Far the balancing load. Solution: P' = P.231 Al midspan.607 . Alabama.. = 229. . 1 kN/ m) Thus..500 lb at midspan = 1.

lt mcasurcs 110 m on each side.500 + 1. = 1..394.23 1.1 using SI units Given Stress Data J:"" 41. 1. Texas.688 449 + l ..K.) Photo 1.. 1. 229.h _ S. CONOCO !ne. = _ P' + M.. Morrison.. C..860 MPa 11 - fp1 = 0..4 Solve Examplc 1. has four slip-form constructcd hulls and module-support 50-rt.70 X J.7 SI WORKING LOAD STRESS CONCEPTS Example 1. E.9 million Kg.104 a 594 psi (T) = 930 psi allowcd.520 MPa 1860 = 1300 MPa 1264 .4MPa f. Houston. O. span beams (Courtesy.14 =-5ll -387==-898psi(C) [.7 SI Working Load Stress Concepts 1lcidrun Offshore Oil Drilling Platíorm in the North Sea weighing 2. Ac = -511 ~ f.70fpu = 0.

4 MPa. = 0.K.) Í. = 18. 70 MPa strength concrete and 8.1 MPa fri = 0.034 MPa Yfr is dellcction check O. = 323 cm2 . = 19. = 6.346 cm 2 r2 = l. Grand Ban ks.6 MPa AP.24 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts Photo L15 Hibemfa Platform. Newfoundland.6/..w = 1. 165.9 MPa f.000 tons of prcstressíng tcndons.000 m3. use J. fírst platform desígned for iceberg impacts (Courtesy. = 2897 cm 2 fe = 935..8 f~ = 33. Dr.45 J. = 10 tendons 17. Mobíle Research and Dcvelopment Corp. 1997: 80 m water de pth./A. 31 0. = ¡ . = ~Yfr if no check madc on dellection J. Gcorge C Hoff.7 mm díametcr = 10 X 99mm2 = 990 mm 2 Section Geometry Try 108-DJ Strand Pattern A .

lnilial conditions at prestressing Aps = 990 mm 2 = 990 X 1.51)2 8 = 249 kN-m . Federal Way. = 19. P.108 cm 3 sb = 20.713 cm3 W 0 = 5. Seattle Washington: a 1200-fl-long by 40-ft wide picr consisting of 20-fl-long prestressed concrete deck panel supported by situ-cast concrete pile caps and prestressed concrete piles (Designed by BERGER/ABAM Engineers. Washington.13 kN/ m / = 19.5 cm e.7 SI Working Load Stress Concepts 25 Pboto L16 Picr 37 Rebuild. courtesy Robert Mast.24 kN/m WSD + Wl = 6. = 15.303 = 1.1 cm e.JP• = 900 X 1034 = 1.51 m Solution: l.24 (19.1.290 kN = AP.8 cm ec = 37. Midspan self-weight dead-load moment M0 w/ 2 = -8 = 5.024 1cN P 1 = Ap/p. Chairman) cb = 45.74 cm S' = 59.

.37 - 0.17 Pararnount Apartmeots.7l3102 cmkN-cm X X 2 Photo 1.in tension <Id· O.AP.K. Md (l _ec')S' r 1290 (i _37.. (Courtcsy Charles Pankow Lid. CA: the first hybrid precast prestresscd concrete moment-resistant 39 íloor high-rise frame building in high seismicity zone.1 + . = _ 1290 2897 (i + 37..249 102 kN-cm 59. Executivc Architect: Kwan Hcnmi.. Oesign Architects: Elkus/Manfredi.la. =_ 2 X X 2 323 2897 = +0.108 cm ! .Chapter 1 Basic Concepts 26 From Equalion l. San Francisco.5 MPa (C) </.1) + 24920.lb.S32345.5 15.2 + Sb r A. Structural Engineers: Robcrt Englekirk Jnc. ecb) Mo P. lnc.8) . Oesign/Build contractors. Owner: The Related Companics) . 2002. ( fb = ..42 kN/ cm 2 = -0.5 x 1<>6 N/ m2 = 0.. =. From Equation l.

0 . = -2. Courtesy of the designer.1 MPa (T) < allow. Ac (1 . Florida.18 Rendering of the New Maumce River Bridge. and a main span of 612 feet in both directions.5 x l5. From Eq.9 MPa.m. 1024 ( 2897 = --.0 x 106 N/ m2 allowablc/d = 19.713 cm = +4. 2. 13(19. = 6.541 x 1ü2 kN-cm 323 59. O. From Equation l. = Vi.11.0 MPa (C) =.51)2 = 292 kN-m 8 Total Moment Mr= 343 + 292 = 635 kN . ( ecb) Mr lb=-1 +-2 + - A.0.7b. .K. single plane of stays.3 MPa (C) < Lü6 N/ m2 allow /.20 + 2.7 SI Working Load Stress Concepts 27 Photo 1.108 cm3 2897 = +0.1 S1. I r= - P. l.7a.5 = (-2. 0.16) X 45.3 X = -6.4 MPa. Thc design includes a uniquc single pylon ciad with glass cmilling LED arrays al night.13 kN/ m M so+L = 6.1 X Iü6 N/ m2 = 4. Final condition al service load Wso+i = 6. r + 37... f.l) 323 X 107 541 X lü2 kN-cm +.1.-3 - N/ m2 20.92 kN/cm2 = -6. Toledo.K.33 + 1.29 . FIGG Engineers ofTallahassee.6 MPa.ec')r S' (i _ Mr 1 = _ 1024 37.K.8) . = 18. P.23 kN/ cm 2 = < Ll.

Wiley-Interscience. 6th ed.45J~ 6. Cement and Concrete Association. New York. McGraw Hill.4 MPa) 1'-0" ~ 6" 3" 3'-0" 6" 1'-3" 6" 6" I• 1'-6" Figure P1. 3d ed.4 cm) deep. H. (91. E.2 Guyon. 713-724. G.. N. 2nd ed. "Patents and Code Relating to Prestressed Concrete.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts 28 SELECTED REFERENCES 1. CRC Press. C..-dia stress-relieved seven-wire strands to resist the applied gravity load and the self-weight of the beam. 1. G. FL. 591 p. (333 mm). 1954.. 1982. Prestressed Concrete. Concrete Construction Engineering Handbook. 1. Halsted-Wiley. E. 1.. Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design. 1.600 plf (52. The Birth of Prestressing.13 Nawy. B." Journal of the Institution of Structural Engineers. Prestressed Concrete Designer's Handbook. 165-168. Limit State Design of Prestressed Concrete.9 lnstitution of Structural Engineers.7 Naaman. New York.10 Magnel. K.4 Lin. 1972. 460. John Wiley & Sons. 936 p. Its cross section is shown in Figure Pl. A. Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures. C.12 Nawy. W. 1981. B. assuming that the tendon eccentricity at midspan is ec = 13.8 Dill. Viewpoint Publications. London: Cement and Concrete Association. G.1 An AASHTO prestressed simply supported 1-beam has a span of 34 ft (10. Y. "Sorne Experience with Prestressed Steel in Small Concrete Units. P.11 Abeles..5 Nawy." Journal of the American Concrete Institute 38." Journal of the American Concrete Institute 46. 1. and Burns. E. Upper Saddle River. September 1951. 1. 1. E.. New York. editor-in-chief.000 psi (41.. Prentice-Hall. = Íc = 0.3 Gerwick. Determine the required!-in. E. E. 2001. pp. 1981. 1950. Y.1 •I .4 m) and is 36 in. 1. 2nd ed. 1. Fundamentals of High Performance Concrete. 1. R. T. 3d ed. Boca Raton. 1560 p. London. New York. vol. 1. London: Public Translation.6 kN/m). "First Report on Prestressed Concrete. Jr. Maximum permissible stresses are as follows: ¡.l. NJ: 2009. John Wiley & Sons. 1948.6 Dobell. l. 2008. and Bardhan-Roy. 1. G. New York.12 in.1 Freyssinet. It is subjected to a live-load intensity WL = 3. PROBLEMS 1. 1993. 1942. Construction of Prestressed Concrete Structures. Reinforced Concrete-A Fundamental Approach.

1.7 m) span and a superimposed live load WL = 2.000 psi (1.3 m) and the geometrical dimensions shown in Figure Pl. 2 4274 in.45 in. are: Ac = 369 in2 lg = 50.220 in3 S' = 2. 3 13. sb = 3._ _ _ _ _ 2I. 3 1234 plf 82 psf 2. The section properties are: Section Properties Ac 1185 in.2 Solve problem 1.000 MPa) The section properties. Assume that all permissible stresses and materials used are the same as in example 1.000 psi (1.3 .Problems 29 = 2.35 in. and verify whether they are within the permissible limits. 8.2 kN/m).7 MPa) = 12'\/J.862 MPa) fp. = 189. = 930 psi (6. 4 109. 1.3. lg cb e.--ill!I2 1 { 1 UJ ' ' _Ul --'-----'-~~~~~ 1 Figure P1.4 MPa) Ít fpu = 270.83 in.303 MPa) fpe = 145.700 psi (19. Compute the concrete extreme fiber stresses in this beam at transfer and at service load.600 plf Solve the problem by each of the following methods: (a) Basic concept (b) C-line (e) Load balancing 1. (494 mm)..000 plf (29.1 for a 45 ft (13.3 A simply supported pretensioned pretopped double T-beam for a floor has a span of 70 ft (21. 25.~·~:~'_ 14 4' F3'-B718'-+¡...f 1.979 in4 r2 = le/ Ac = 138 in2 cb = 15. VIS (-------.621 in.----~illl:i-----.527 in3 WD = 384 plf WL = 3.¡ 4 i ll-----3'-8718"~ .128 in.96 in.65 in. and the prestressing tendon has an eccentricity at midspan of ec = 19..000 psi (1. It is subjected to a gravity live-load intensity WL = 480 plf (7 kN/m).

-dia (twelve 12.5 kN/).6 in.6 in.5 Solve problem 1. 2 cb = 12.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts 30 Design the prestressing steel needed using !-in.-dia stress-relieved seven-wire strands.7-mm-dia) seven-wire stress-relieved strands.4 if fe= 7. 1. Use the three methods of analysis discussed in this chapter in your solution. 3 S' = 2.000 psi (34.-dia. seven-wire stress-relieved strands 1'-0" r----=-1 ~ + ---==~-----'ll l----2'-o"--1 S" 24LT30 30" Figure P1.000 psi (1.109 in. (244 mm).103 MPa).000 psi (48.9 MPa) = 165.3 MPa) andfpe = 160. Compute the concrete fiber stresses at service load by each of the following methods: (a) Basic concept (b) C-line (e) Load balancing Assume that the tendon eccentricity at midspan is ec = 9.43 in.4 A T-shaped simply supported beam has the cross section shown in Figure Pl.500 plf (36. and is prestressed with twelve !-in. sb = 2.5 in.4 1. Then given that f~ Ít fpe = 5. It has aspan of 36 ft (11 m). . twelve ~-in.138 MPa) the section properties are as follows: Ac = 504 in 2 le = 37.5 MPa) = 12~ = 849 psi (5.4.981 in. 3 WD = 525 plf ec = Aps = 9. 4 r2 = le/Ac = 73. is loaded with a gravity live-load unit intensity WL = 2.059 in.000 psi (1.

1 lntroduction Concrete.) 31 . Long-term detrimental effects can rapidly reduce the prestressing forces and could result in unexpected failu re. The following discussion is in tended to highlight the topics direclly related to concrete in prestressed elements and systems. Arvid Grant and Associates. it is assumed tbat the reader is already familiar with the fundam entals of concrete and reinforced concrete.MATERIALS ANO SYSTEMS FOR PRESTRESSING 2. lnc. 2. measures bave to be taken to ensure strict quality control and quality assurance at the various stages of production Pasco-Kcnnewick Intercity Bridge.1 CONCRETE 2. Hence. Hence. (Courtesy. particularly high-strength concrete.1. its strengtb and long-term endurance have to be acbieved through proper quaJity control and quality assurance al the production stage. quality control. is a major constilueot of aU prestressed concrete e lements. and code requirements. spans 407-981-407 ft.1. SegmentaUy assembled prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge. Numerous lexts are available oo concrete production.2 Parameters Affecting the Quality of Concrete Strenglh and endurance are two major qualities that are particularly important in prestressed concrete structures.

grading and vibration Low air content Large max imu m aggregate size Efficient grading Minimum slump Minimum cement content Optimal automated plant operation Admixtures and entrained air Ouality assurance and control Figure 2. Figure 2. The following subsections present sorne details on these properties.000 psi or more.1 shows the various factors that result in good-quality concrete. and the time and quality of the curing.1 Compressive Strength.Chapter 2 32 Materials and Systems for Prestressing Appropriate cement type: low C3 A. homogeneous concrete High strength Wear-resisting aggregate Good surface texture Strength Economy Good quality of paste Low w/c ratio Optimal cement content Sound aggregate. Depending on the type of mix. 2.3. and shear. tension. The short-term properties are strength in compression. low Na 2 0. and construction as well as maintenance. M90. as measured by the modulus of elasticity.1. free lime. and stiffness. The long-term properties can be classified in terms of creep and shrinkage. 2. and long-term properties. the properties of aggregate. Commercial production of concrete with ordinary ag- .1 Principal properties of good concrete. and K2 0 Resistance to weathering and chemicals Resistance to wear deterioration Appropriate cement type Low w/c ratio Proper curing Alkal i-resistant aggregate Suitable admixture Use of superplasticizers or polymers as admixtures Air entrainment Low w/c ratio Proper curing Dense.1. compressive strengths of concrete can be obtained up to 20.3 Properties of Hardened Concrete The mechanical properties of hardened concrete can be classified into two categories: short-term or instantaneous properties.

lhe ACI code specifies using thc average of two cylinders from the samc sample tested at the same age. For a strength test.20/~. with thc most common concrete strengths being in the 6. having a . The compressive strength /~ is based on standard 6 in. The tensile strength of concrete is re latively low. The modulus of rupture is measured by testing to failure plain concrete beams 6 in.) gregate is usually in tbe range 4.000 to 12. but ratber the mínimum conceivable cylinder strengtb. 2.< 0. As for the frequency of testing.10/~ <fe. Specimen A. the most commonly used metbod being the cylinder splitting.000 psi level. (Tests by Nawy. test. square in cross section. and (2) no individual strength test (average of two cylinders) falls below the required /~ by more tban 500 psi. A good approximation for tbe tensile strength fe1is0.2.3.1 Concrete 33 Photo 2. The average concrete strength for wbich a concrete mixture must be designecl sbouJd exceed f ~ by an amount thal depends on lhe uniformity of plant production.1. A number of methods are available for tension testing. and Sauer.000 psi. or Brazilian. rather than the tensile splitting strength f. which is usually 28 days. Note that the design f ~ should not be the average cylindcr strcngth. the code specifies that the strength of an individual class of concrete can be considercd satisfaclory if (1) the average of all sets of three consccutive strenglh tests equals or excceds the required /~. For members subjected to bending. The strengtb of concrete in the actual structure may not be the same as that of the cylinder because of the difference in compaction and curing conditions. by 12 in. hjgb-epoxy-cemen1 content. the value of the modulus of rupture f. cylinders cured under standard laboratory conditions and tested at a specified rate of loading al 28 days of age. specimen B. low-epoxycement content. lt is more difficult to measure tensile strengtb than compressive strength because of thc gripping problems with testing machines.1 Concrete cylinders tested to failurc in compression. The standard specifications used in the United States are usually taken from ASTM C-39. is used in design.2 Tensile Strength. Sun.

(Tests by Nawy et al.34 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing Photo 2. The foUowing are the code slipulations for lightweigbt concrete: Vf:: . lightweigbt concrete has a lower tensile strength than does normalweight concrete.} span of 18 in.. The ACl spccifics a value of 7.2 Electron microscope photographs of concrete írom specimcns A and B in the preceding photograph.5 the modulus of rupture of normal-weight concrete. In most cases. The modulus of rupture has for a higher value than the tensile splitting strength. and loaded at their third points (ASTM C-78).

Linear interpolaLion may be used for mixtures of natural sand and lightweight fine aggregate. bence more bond failures lhan specimcn CVT. is specified.75 for all-lightweight concrete and 0. Control of a structural design by shear strength is significant only in rare cases.3.1) 2. varying from 20 percenl of thc compressive strength in normal loading to a considerably hjgher percentage of up to 85 percenl of the compressive strength in cases wherc direct shear exists in combination with compression.sVfc (2. use a factor of 0. = 1. since shear stresses must ordinarily be limited to continually lower values in order to protect the concrete from failure in diagonal tension.3 Shear Strength. Shear strength is more difficult to determine experimcntally than the tests discussed previously because of the difficully in isolating shear from other stresses.09 f~.1 Concrete 35 Photo 2. :S 1. is not specified.3 Fracture surfaces in tensile spütting tests of concretes wilh djfferent w/c contents.1 . Specimens CT and CIV bave higher wlc con ten t.85 for sand-lightweight concrete. .2.) l . (Tests by Nawy et al. 2. f. ff the splítting lensile strength fe. lf fc. This is one of the reasons Cor the largc variation in shear-slrength valucs reported in the literature.

Figure 2. thereby increasing the curvilinearity of the diagram.02 kg/m ) and f ~ is the compressive cylinder strength in psi. and it is also possible to construct a tangent modulus at any point of the curve. can essentially be considered linear for all practica! purposes. For normal-weight concrete.3 shows the stress-strain curves of concrete of various strengths reported by the Portland Cement Association. and (3) there is an apparent reduction in ductility with increased strength.2 Typical stress-strain curve of concrete. Figure 2.Chapter 2 36 Materials and Systems for Prestressing Strain. and most concrete cylinders (except those with very low strengths) suddenly fail shortly thereafter.2 shows a typical stress-strain curve obtained from tests using cylindrical concrete specimens loaded in uniaxial compression over several minutes.4 f ~)determines the secant modulus of elasticity of concrete. e Figure 2. The ACI building code gives the following expressions for calculating the secant modulus of elasticity of concrete. and that any subsequent strain dueto the load is regarded as creep. The initial slope of the tangent to the curve is defined as the initial tangent modulus. At ultimate load.4 is curvilinear at a very early stage of its loading history. The slope of the straight line that connects the origin to a given stress (about 0. the material loses a large portion of its stiffness. the higher the failure strain. termed in design calculation the modulus of elasticity.2 STRESS-STRAIN CURVE OF CONCRETE Knowledge of the stress-strain relationship of concrete is essential for developing all the analysis and design terms and procedures in concrete structures. Young's modulus of elasticity can be applied only to the tangent of the curve at the origin.5~ for 90 < Wc < 155 lb/ft3 (2. (2) the length of the initial relatively linear portion increases with the increase in the compressive strength of concrete. The first portion of the curve. cracks parallel to the direction of loading become distinctly visible. After approximately 70 percent of the failure stress. 2. to about 40 percent of the ultima te strength f ~. Ec Ec = 33w~. satisfies the practica! assumption that strains occurring during loading can be considered basically elastic (completely recoverable on unloading). 2.3 MODULUS OF ELASTICITV ANO CHANGE IN COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH WITH TIME Since the stress-strain curve shown in Figure 2. It can be observed that (1) the lower the strength of concrete.2a) 3 3 where wc is the density of concrete in pounds per cubic foot (1lb/ft =16. . This value.

../in..l Stress-strain cuNes for various concrete strengths. 0.. . compressive strength (psi) 12.004 ..&Ll...450 10... 0.·fj/. ~ 4000 ·.000 6000 f~ = 11.) 8000 0..3 .-•¡•-·-·-·-·---·-·~..000 5000 ·.001 4000 60 O e Analytical 2000 f~.003 Strain ( in. .. compressive strength (psi) = 930 0.. ~ !l! cií ~ cií 6000 3000 f' 2000 1000 .. c...o<>• Experimental f~.004 0...003 Strain (in.1 Figure 2.. './in..Analytical 7000 •...002 0.n~oül = 1900 / ~~ f'e (.002 0.l.. --~-} E....001 0.

895] ( w .b) 2.043wl. = 57.5 (2.Chapter 2 38 Materials and Systems far Prestressing Strain. 2. e Figure 2. Steel cylinder molds size 4 in. 5 ~ MPa (2. 2.3. the expressions for the modulus of concrete (Refs.000 to 12. concrete strength up to 20.{. Such strengths can be obtained in the field under strict quality control and quality assurance conditions. mixture design has to be made by several field trial batches (five or more).3a) where f ~ =psi and we =lb/ft3 or Ec (MPa) = [3.000 psi (41. other constituents such as steel or carbon fibers have to be added to the mixture.5 mm) and pozzolamic cementitious partial replacements for the cement such as silica fume. In all these cases.11. 2. applying the appropriate dimensional correction. (9.000 psi (138 MPa) is easily achieved using a maximum stone aggregate size of i in.4 Ec Tangent and secant moduli of concrete.32v'.000 (138-206 MPa).5 (2. length have to be used.700~ MPa) or Ec = 0. 23 0 )1.1 High-Strength Concrete High-strength concrete is termed as such by the ACI 318 Code when the cylinder compressive strength exceeds 6. + 6.000 psi (42-84 MPa).000 to 30.35.000~ psi (4.000~ + 106 ] ( w ~ 14 )1. modifying the mixture components for the workability needed in concrete placement.3b) where f ~ = MPa and wc = Kg/m 3• Today.4 MPa). It is also necessary to .38) Ec (psi) = [40. For strengths in the range of 20. For concrete having compressive strengths 6. (diameter) x 8 in.2.

5.2. The mixture was designed for a seven-day compressive strength of 12.1.8 x 106 psi (53. The prestressing strands were stress-relieved 270K (1900 MPa) 7 wire !in. and testing of the concrete at early ages. it is important to determine the concrete compressive strength f ~. with the design mixture values in parentheses. Corrective measures should be taken immediately. Recent work at Rutgers (Refs.1 2. Mock-up placement of the high-strength concrete is advisable in arder to evaluate the construction procedures and performance of the concrete in field conditions and to identify potential problems with batching.11.6 shows the cross section of the composite beams. A good example of the use of high-strength concrete in the range 20. Grace Dartard Mighty 40 150 (oz/100 lb cement) 2.1 (6.37) on high-strength composite construction has resulted in considerable enhancement of the ductility of high-strength reinforced concrete beams. Actual typical mixture obtained is listed in Table 2. 2. 2.8 x 103 MPa) is the Two Union Square Building.4 MPa).2. Prestressed concrete prisms of high-strength concrete were used in lieu of the normal mild steel bar reinforcement. .4 (Up to 24) ªWeight of solid silica fume only.4a) + ¡3t J e > 18. 2. The mixture proportions in lb/yd 3 were as shown in Table 2. Concrete achieved in sorne of the mixtures a 7 day strength of 13. A slump of 8 in.1 Mixture Proportions for f~ a t f'I (2.2 lnitial Compressive Strength and Modulus Since prestressing is performed in most cases prior to concrete's achieving its 28 days' strength.38). with w/c = 0. then cap them with high strength capping compound for load testing. The ratio of the cementations/fine/coarse aggregate was 1:1. 2. Water contained as part of the emulsion must be subtracted from the total water allowed. Seattle. age plot for the indicated mixture based on 4 in. 2. 2. x 8 in.3 Modulus of Elasticity and Change in compressive Strength With Time 39 grind the cylinder ends. R.36. placement. at the prestressing stage as well as the concrete modulus Ec at the various stages in the loading history of the element. Figure 2.000 psi (138 MPa) at 56 days anda concrete modulus Ec = 7.06 and the slump varied between 4 to 6 in.22) 13 13 (70 lb)ª W. Preparation of the cylinders should resemble as closely as possible the field conditions of concrete placement.000 psi (84 MPa).5 mm) diameter strands. The general expression for the compressive strength as a function of time (Ref.22 resulted from the mix proportions indicated. or to apply the load directly to the ground ends of the cylinder or through a removable steel cap with a hard neoprene pad bearing directly on the ground specimen ends.0) 9.3. Washington (Ref. A typical compressive vs.) (lb) Fine aggregate (paving sand) (lb) Cement (lb) Water (lb) Silica fume (gal) 1872 1894 (1805) 1165 1165 (1100) 957 956 (950) 217 217 (w/c = 0. cylinder tests is shown in Figure 2. (9.250 psi (91. (100-150 mm). The tested specimens were instrumented with a fiber-optic system developed by the author using Bragg Grating sensors both internally and externally.8 16.000 PSI Superplasticizer Coarse aggregate (iin.22:2.18) is f" J ci - Table 2.

95.000 PSI Water Powder silica fume force10.70 for steam-cured type-111 cement 13 = factor depending on the same parameters for a giving corresponding values of 0.4b) 1 lb/yd3 = 0. 0.92. Table 2.98.00 + 0. for a typical moist-cured type-I cement concrete.5 where Compressive strength versus age of high-strength concrete. 18 17 ..:.00 for steam-cured type-1 cement and 0.) 12 11 Age at test (days) Figure 2.2 = J:' t 4. Fine aggregate (natural sand) Portland cement type 111 (1) (2) 1851 1100 Coarse aggregate (2.85. f~ = 28 days' compressive strength t =time in days a= factor depending on type of cement and curing conditions = 4. respectively Hence. E o u ~ 15 14 -e e . and 0.85t e Mixture Proportions in lb/yd3 For Composite Beams f~ > 13.. e °' 16 ~ "'> ·~ "'5.59 Kg/m3 . 13 (...00 for moist-cured type-1 cement and 2. c.000 Liquid super plasticizer (Grace) (3) (4) (5) (6) 720 288 180 54 3• 0m.Chapter 2 40 Materials and Systems for Prestressing 21 20 19 o o X ·¡¡.30 for moist-cured type-111 cement = 1. f~. 0.

.37). 2... C-2..o• ·14:1 ( 2 ' 3 2•x2•prism ) r 2 .o· 1os.o· :iJ.so· 60# 48. 48" p p B 4 #3@4• p B 6. b Ñ ~ A-A(C-1) A-A(C-2) A-A (C-3.ow 1os. ...~- 1:·14 3 #5 I 2 rxrprism I 1 #5 6. C-4) ~ . ~ B-B (C-1.. C-3) Figure 2.6 (Ref. ""' B-~ (C-4) High-strength flanged sections reinforced with prestressed concrete prisms instrumented with fiber-optic sensors .

4 Scanning electron microscope photograph of concrete fracture surface. lt has to be pointed out tbat tbese expressions are val id only in general terms.5) and the uJtimate effective modulus is given by E. the modulus of e lasticity needs to be determined from test results.H) = 1. . Therefore.) The effective modulus of concrete. E' = '" E~ is stress elastic strain + creep strain (2. the water/cement ratio. Ec.Chapter 2 42 Materials and Systems for Prestressing Photo 2. sioce the value of the modulus of elasticity is affected by factors othcr than loads. = 1 + "11 (2.25 ( 10065- (2. (Tests by Nawy. Sun.75 + 0.6c} where H is the mean humidity in percent. for speciaJ structures such as arches.6b} (2..75 ( 10050.6a) where 'Yi is the creep ratio defined as 'Yt = ultimate crcep strain elastic strain The creep ratio y.75 + 2. and temperature. the age of thc concrete. and Sauer. tunnels. has upper and lower limits as follows for prcstressed quality concrete: Upper: "11 Lower: 'Yt H) = 0. and tanks. sucb as moisture in the concrete specimen.

Although shrinkage and creep are not independent phenomena.6 in.5 of the ulti- . t Figure 2. e' ~ E.7 illustrates the increase in creep strain with time. 500 X 10. stress. This practica! assumption is quite acceptable. eE (elastic strain) Time.43 2./in. valid to assume within those limitations that the value of the modulus in tension is equal to that in compression. is the increase in strain with time dueto a sustained load. however. the three types of strain discussed that result from sustained compressive stress and shrinkage.4 Creep Limited work exists on the determination of the modulus of elasticity in tension because the low-tensile strength of concrete is normally disregarded in calculations. Total strain (E1) = elastic strain (Ee) + creep (Ec) + shrinkage (Esh) An example of the relative numerical values of strain due to the foregoing three factors for a normal concrete specimen subjected to 900 psi in compression is as follows: Immediate elastic strain. . since the initial recorded deformation includes few time-dependent effects./in. Since creep is time dependent. or lateral material flow. Figure 2. and as in the case of shrinkage. Figure 2. while the additional strain due to the same sustained load is the creep strain.2 and 0. Ec = E1 = = = 250 X 10. 2.8 qualitatively shows.7 Strain-time curve.4 CREEP Creep.. but can vary between 0. in a three-dimensional model. Creep cannot be observed directly and can be determined only by deducting elastic strain and shrinkage strain from the total deformation. Numerous tests have indicated that creep deformation is proportional to applied stress.6 in.6 in. Ee Shrinkage strain after 1 year.500 X 10 6 in. Esh Creep strain after 1 year. 1. hence./in. it can be assumed that superposition of strains is valid. this model has to be such that its orthogonal axes are deformation. The upper limit of the relationship cannot be determined accurately. It is. 750 X 10. The initial deformation due to load is the elastic strain. it can be seen that creep rate decreases with time. These relative values illustrate that stress-strain relationships for short-term loading lose their significance and long-term loadings become dominant in their effect on the behavior of a structure. but the proportionality is valid only for low-stress levels./in. and time.

8 parallel to the plane containing the stress and deformation axes at time t 1...-- (a) 1 (b) Figure 2. In a similar manner.9 (a) Section parallel to the stress-deformation plane. creep is not completely reversible. it shows the familiar relationships of creep with time and shrinkage with time. an immediate elastic recovery is obtained which is less than the strain precipitated on loading. The extent of the recovery Total deformation under a stress f 1 at a time t 1 e: o ·~ E ~ o Static strain -----~--t----"'"""'"--~~~+-~~~1---+~~~~~~~~~ Stress Time 1 1 Shrinkage Shrinkage f-------<. As in the case of shrinkage. Figure 2. called creep recovery.Chapter 2 44 Materials and Systems for Prestressing Three-dimensional model of time-dependent structural behavior. . (b) Section parallel to the deformation-time plane. Figure 2. The instantaneous recovery is followed by a gradual decrease in strain.9b illustrates a section parallel to the plane containing the time and strain axes at a stress f 1. hence. Figure 2.8 mate strength f ~· This range in the limit of the proportionality is due to the large extent of microcracks at about 40 percent of the ultimate load. If a specimen is unloaded after a period under a sustained load. It indicates that both elastic and creep strains are linearly proportional to the applied stress.9a shows a section of the three-dimensional model in Figure 2.

as both phenomena are related to the hydrated cement paste. Once the steel yields. 1 = immediate elastic deformation ~_. A model is basically composed of elastic springs and ideal dashpots denoting stress. a concrete that resists shrinkage also presents a low creep tendency. and aggregate and cement contents. The composition of a concrete specimen can be essentially defined by the water/cement ratio and water/cementitious ratio when admixtures are used. In addition. 2.4.. a. and the size of the specimen. irrecoverable strain.. the environmental conditions...2.- e.2 = immediate recovery Creep recovery Residual strain Time. Therefore. elastic strain. an increase in the water/cement ratio and in the cement content increases creep. and as a general rule. Creep is closely related to shrinkage. delayed elastic strain.. and time. 2... Hence. Consequently. with older concretes presenting higher creep recoveries.10).4.11 is shown since it can approximately simulate the stressstrain-time behavior of concrete at the limit of proportionality with sorne limitations. like shrinkage. t Figure 2. The Burgers model in Figure 2.2 Rheological Models Rheological models are mechanical devices that portray the general deformation behavior and flow of materials under stress. as in shrinkage. resulting in overstress in the concrete. the initial eccentricity of a reinforced concrete column increases with time due to creep. while residual strains or deformations become frozen in the structural element (see Figure 2. resulting in the transfer of the compressive load from the concrete to the steel in the section. A spring and a dashpot in parallel form a Kelvin unit.~.10 Creep recovery versus time. Two rheological models will be discussed: the Burgers model and the Ross model. the delayed recoverable . the resisting capacity of the column is reduced and the curvature of the column increases further. creep is influenced by the composition of the concrete.1 Effects of Creep As in shrinkage.. and the dashpots represent the proportionality of stress to the rate of strain.. but principally creep depends on loading as a function of time. depends on the age of the concrete when loaded. This model simulates the instantaneous recoverable strain. aggregate and cement types. additional load has to be carried by the concrete.. the aggregate induces a restraining effect such that an increase in aggregate content reduces creep. leading to failure. Also. The springs represent the proportionality between stress and strain. creep increases the deflection of beams and slabs and causes loss of prestress. and in series they form a Maxwell unit.4 Creep 45 Specimen under a constant load Unloading e.

.7. the others remain unstressed.19) has simplified creep evaluation.--. generally called specific creep Íci = stress intensity in the structural member corresponding to unit strain Eci The ultimate creep coefficient.8) where Pu= unit creep coefficient. D is the dashpot. Work by Branson (Refs. is given by (2.12 Ross model. A in this model represents the Hookian direct proportionality of stress-to-strain element. As the load continues to increase. it overcomes the spring resistance of unit B. d Maxwell unit Kelvin unit Figure 2. e P(t) D Figure 2. e and d. One convenient expression due to Ross defines the creep C under load after a time interval t as C=-ta + bt (2. symbolizing the irrecoverable deformation in concrete. as shown in Figure 2.Chapter 2 46 Materials and Systems for Prestressing b P(t)-. The weakness in the model is that it continues to deform at a uniform rate as long as the load is sustained by the Maxwell dashpot-a behavior not similar to concrete. and the irricoverable time-dependent strains in the dashpots. Cu.. The additional strain Ecu due to creep can be defined as (2.12 can eliminate this deficiency. only those coils whose resistance equals the applied load P(t) are displaced. Mathematical expressions for such predictions can be very rigorous. where creep reaches a limiting value with time.7) where a and b are constants determinable from tests. have been used to assist in predicting the creep strains.. such as Roll's.11 Burgers model. and B and C are the elastic springs that can transmit the applied load P(t) to the enclosing cylinder walls by direct friction..18 and 2.9) Cu= PuEc or average Cu = 2.35. 2. . More rigorous models. pulling out the spring from the dashpot and signifying failure in a concrete element. b. elastic strain in the spring. A modification in the form of the Ross rheological model in Figure 2. Since each coil has a defined frictional resistance.

Louisiana.25t 0. Post-Tensioning (2.6 c. creep corrcction factors have to be applied to Eq uations 2.6 where t is the time in days and p. o.0.27 .o. = 1.2. ka = l.6 e.) Energy Center.o. is the time multiplier.12) (b) For steam-cured concrete loaded atan age of 1 to 3 days or more..14) . verified by extensive tests.4 Creep 47 Branson's model. Whc n conditions are not standard.13) For greater tban 40 percent relative humidity. = 10 + . (2. (10 cm) or less and a rclative humidity of 40 percent.l 3t .5 lnstitute. p. ka = 1. retales the creep coeUicient C.0. = 10 (2.10) or.095 (2. (Courcesy. at any lime to the ultimate creep coefficient (for standard conditions) as .11) + .1Oor2. allernatively.11 as follows: (a) For moist-cured concrete loaded atan age of 7 days or more. Standard conditions as defined by Branson pertain to concretes of sJump 4 in. New Orleans.0067 H Photo 2.118 (2. a further multiplier correction factor of kc.

Shrinkage is not a completely reversible process. Exposed surfaces such as floor slabs are more easily affected by exposure to dry air because of their large contact surface. on the other hand. the higher the shrinkage effects.13 relates the increase in shrinkage strain Esh with time.14 is a typical plot relating aggregate content to water/cement ratio. . Plastic shrinkage occurs during the first few hours after placing fresh concrete in the forms. Both the rate and the total magnitude of shrinkage decrease with an increase in the volume of the concrete element. The rate decreases with time since older concretes are more resistant to stress and consequently undergo less shrinkage. moisture evaporates faster from the concrete surface than it is replaced by the bleed water from the lower layers of the concrete elements. In such cases. where H = relative humidity value in percent.13. it will not expand to its original volume.Chapter 2 48 Materials and Systems for Prestressing has to be applied in addition to those of Equations 2. t Figure 2. that is. Size of the concrete element.5 SHRINKAGE Basically. Drying shrinkage. Figure 2. Several factors affect the magnitude of drying shrinkage: 1. 3. In other words. volume increase through water absorption. Drying shrinkage is the decrease in the volume of a concrete element when it loses moisture by evaporation. is termed swelling. Water/cement ratio. the degree of restraint of a given concrete is determined by the properties of aggregates: Those with a high modulus of elasticity or with rough surfaces are more resistant to the shrinkage process. 2. 2. Figure 2. such that the shrinkage strain becomes almost asymptotic with time. hence.13 Shrinkage-time curve. lt is possible that 1 year may be needed for the drying Time. occurs after the concrete has already attained its final set and a good portian of the chemical hydration process in the cement gel has been accomplished. there are two types of shrinkage: plastic shrinkage and drying shrinkage. The opposite phenomenon. The higher the water/cement ratio.12 and 2. In addition. Aggregate. the duration of shrinkage is longer for larger members since more time is needed for drying to reach the internal regions. shrinkage and swelling represent water movement out of or into the gel structure of a concrete specimen due to the difference in humidity or saturation levels between the specimen and the surroundings irrespective of the external load. If a concrete unit is saturated with water after having fully shrunk. The aggregate acts to restrain the shrinkage of the cement paste. However. concretes with high aggregate content are less vulnerable to shrinkage.

however. 1200 e '.~ /~-80 o .3 0. An accelerator such as calcium chloride.15) .49 2. 0.. Amount of reinforcement.u ) 3 = 800 x 10-6 in.fin. Carbonation shrinkage is caused by the reaction between the carbon dioxide (C0 2) present in the atmosphere and that present in the cement paste. while shrinkage-compensating cement minimizes or eliminates shrinkage cracking if used with restraining reinforcement..5 0. from the exposed surface._______. 2. in that shrinkage becomes stabilized at low temperatures. Rapid-hardening cement shrinks somewhat more than other types. Medium ambient conditions. 6. w!c ratio and aggregate content effect on shrinkage.. If both phenomena take place simultaneously. The amount of the combined shrinkage varies according to the sequence of occurrence of carbonation and drying processes..8 Water/cement ratio Figure 2. E where EsH.. below the externa! surface. (2. the relative difference is a function of the reinforcement percentage. Admixtures. increases the shrinkage. used to accelerate the hardening and setting of the concrete.6 0. Reinforced concrete shrinks less than plain concrete. if local data are not available. 5. 7.4 0. process to begin at a depth of 10 in.7 0. the rate of shrinkage is lower at high states of relative humidity. Pozzolans can also increase the drying shrinkage..____.5 Shrinkage Aggregate content by volume percent . Carbonation.._____. The process of carbonation. The relative humidity of the medium greatly affects the magnitude of shrinkage. whereas air-entraining agents have little effect. The environment temperature is another factor. less shrinkage develops.14 4..18) recommends the following relationships for the shrinkage strain as a function of time for standard conditions of humidity (H =40 percent): (a) For moist-cured concrete any time t after 7 days. is dramatically reduced at relative humidities below 50 percent.______. and 10 years to begin at 24 in. 8. This effect varies depending on the type of admixture..t - t -5-+(teSH.u - SH. Branson (Ref. Type of cement._______.

2.r - --E 55 + t S/-1. Es Yield strength.40 - O. = 1.15 and 2. Except for wire used in spiral reinforcement in colurnns. 5.16 as follows: (a) For 40 < H $ 80 percent. 3. projections called deformations are rolled onto tbe bar surface as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. and welded wire fabric.OlOH (2. 4. ( E - SN.17b) ks1-1 (b) For80<H$100percent. The most important properties of reinforcing steel are: l. 2.l7a) ksu = 3. The deforrnations shown rnust satisfy ASTM Specification A616-76 for the bars to be accepted as deformed.f. .11 (2. aU of which are manufactured in accordance witb ASTM standards. only deformed bars. wires. fy Ultimate strength. Steel grade designation Size or diameter of tbe bar or wire To increase tbe bond between concrete and steel. D eformed wire has indentations pressed in to lhe wire or bar to serve as deformations.16) For otber than standard bumidity.6 NONPRESTRESSING REINFORCEMENT Steel reinforcement for concrete consists of bars. a correction factor has to be appLied to Equations 2.15 Various forms of ASTM-approved deformed bars.50 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing (b) For steam-cured concrete after tbe age of 1 to 3 days. deforrned wires.030H (2. in accordance witb ASTM specifications.0.00 . Young's modulus.. or wire fabric made from smooth or deformed wire may be used in reinforced concrete under approved practice.15.

60. The ultimate tensile strengths corresponding to the 40. and 0. and manufacturing source.6 Nonprestressing Reinforcement 140 120 800 100 600 ·¡.000 90.000. fy (psi) Ultimate strength. 90. The percent elongation at fracture.000 60. The fabric reinforcement is made of smooth or deformed wires which run in perpendicular directions Table 2.16 Typical stress-strain diagrams for various nonprestressing steels.3 Reinforcement Grades and Strengths 1982 Standard type Billet steel (A615) Grade 40 Grade 60 Axle steel (A617) Grade 40 Grade 60 Low-alloy steel (A706): Grade 60 Deformed wire Reinforced Fabric Smooth wire Reinforced Fabric Minimum yield point or yield strength. These have corresponding yield strengths of 40.000 70. (203. which varies with the grade.01 0. and 690 N/mm 2).000 60.000 psi (483.2-mm) gage length. 56.5 to 12 percent over an 8-in. ranges from 4. 70.000 40.000.000 80..000 70. and 75 steels.000 .000 65. and the better bond. and 80 grade steels are 70.000 psi (276.000 60. : 80 ~ 60 en 400 40 200 20 o 0.000.51 2. For steels that lack a well-defined yield point.000 85. Welded wire fabric is increasingly used for slabs because of the ease of placing the fabric sheets.000 75.000 75.000 80.000 80. the control over reinforcement spacing. 621.005 for grades 40 and 60 steels. Figure 2. and 517 N/mm 2.16 shows typical stress-strain curves for grades 40. 345.000. 60.000. respectively) and generally have well-defined yield points.0035 for grade 80 steel. fu (psi) 40. and 100.015 Strain [in/in or mm/mm] Figure 2. respectively.000 70. bar diameter. and 75.000 90.000 70. 60.3. the yield-strength value is taken as the strength corresponding to a unit strain of 0.000. and sorne steel types are given in Table 2.

105 0.51 0.048 0.10 0.34 0.098 0.255 0.451 0.160 0.087 0.055 0.5 W8 W7.36 0.48 0.93 0.24 0.356 0.045 0.037 0.5 W2 Wl.05 0.114 0.60 0.S.24 1.200 0.056 0.085 0.42 0.075 0.264 0.96 0.529 0.252 0.19 0.16 0.374 0.054 0.52 0.5 W5 W4.096 0.120 0.142 0.544 1.095 0.240 0.30 0.42 0.020 1.40 0.240 0.078 0.09 0.288 0.300 0.372 0.390 0.36 0.44 0.08 0.32 0.16 0.112 0.63 0. 2 ) Nominal weight {lb/ft) 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 0.105 0.09 0.60 0.36 0.310 0.) 0.27 0.159 0.680 0. customary W&Dsize Smooth Deformed W31 W30 W28 D31 D30 D28 W26 W24 W22 D26 D24 D22 W20 W18 W16 D20 D18 D16 D14 W14 W12 D12 Wll Dll Wl0.285 0.26 0.618 0.157 0.068 0.18 0.153 0.20 0.049 Center-to-center spacing (in.5 W9 W8.054 1.90 0.102 0.45 0.097 0.045 0.628 0.095 0.216 0.54 0.289 0.06 0.78 0.072 0. 2/ft of width for various spacings) U.66 0.84 0.22 0.014 .465 0.26 0.085 0.478 0.24 0.30 0.100 0.288 0.12 0.09 0.090 0.597 0.816 0.272 0.126 0.24 0.028 0.336 0.36 0.422 0.22 0.165 0.017 0.050 0.56 1.348 0.553 0.06 0.366 0.Table 2.075 0.11 0.504 0.10 0.48 0.065 0.168 0.54 0.055 0.5 W6 W5.02 0.306 0.64 0.070 0.102 0.110 0.187 0.68 1.476 0.192 0.06 0.16 0.42 0.14 0.07 0.374 0.9 W2.20 0.96 0.72 0.20 0.060 0.192 0.276 0.66 0.27 0.135 0.035 O.72 0.220 0.135 0.195 0.024 0.72 0.28 0.357 0.24 0.08 0.082 0.058 0.264 0.067 0.066 0.319 0.30 0.20 1.40 0.10 0.5 W3 W2.32 9.33 0.88 0.136 0.408 0.025 0.21 0.020 0.21 0.15 0.06 0.14 0.042 0.298 0.22 0.127 0.07 0.17 0.56 0.20 1.105 0.329 0.33 0.035 0.952 0.312 0.39 0.5 W4 W3.21 0.180 0.575 0.080 0.56 0.238 0.14 0.24 0.084 0.09 0.108 0.12 0.036 0.ü30 0.140 0.035 0.24 0.052 0.11 0.934 0.84 0.12 0.12 0.60 0.366 0.4 DlO D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 Nominal diameter (in.221 0.28 0.06 0.27 0.178 0.043 0.045 0.80 0.042 0.340 0.03 0.17 0.05 0.170 0.165 0.075 0.80 0.32 0.12 0.28 0.116 0.085 0.38 0.748 1.) Nominal a rea (in.48 0.30 0.021 0.144 0.5 W7 W6.029 0.075 0.025 0.03 0.24 0.12 1.48 0.09 0.119 0.15 0.42 0.225 0.065 0.132 0.39 0.5 WlO W9.280 1.04 0.105 0.57 0.08 0.36 0.323 0.15 0.18 0.014 0.135 0.44 0.029 0.18 0.12 0.211 0.30 0.33 0.084 0.195 0.612 0.31 1.04 0.4 Standard Wire Reinforcement en 1\) Area (in.255 0.12 0.18 0.62 0.040 0.21 0.338 0.13 0.309 0.18 0.15 0.204 0.260 0.225 0.45 0.08 0.03 0.04 0.18 0.44 1.86 1.315 0.

27 1.270 (32) 1.25 4.32 7. For most mild steels.09 and are welded Logether at intersections.375 (10) 0.963 2.3 prcsents the reinforcement-grade strengths.693 (43) 2.7 PRESTRESSING REINFORCEMENT 2. Table 2.53 2.1 Types of Reinforcement Becausc of the high creep and shrinkage losses in concrete. Tacoma.178 1.502 2.7 Prestressing Reinforcement Table 2.60 0.000 (25) 1.2 ) Perimeter (in. Lhen towcd to Alaska by deploymenl. Designed by ABAM Engincers.313 7.44 0. and Table 2. (mm)) Cross-sectional area.65 13.) 0. and Perimeter of Individual Bars Bar deslgnation number 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ll 14 18 Weight per foot (lb) 0. 2.376 0.00 1. Table 2.7.043 l.) .625 (16) 0.749 3.862 MPa or higher).56 2.750 (19) 0.668 1. Area.11 0.430 5. built in two pieces in Tacoma.5 presents geometrical properties of thc various sizes of bars.00 1. effcctive prestressing can be achieved by using very high-streugth steels in the range of 270.57 l 1.257 (57) 0.20 0.400 4303 5.142 3.31 0.128 (29) l.544 3.000 psi or more (1.670 3.356 2. tbe bebavior is assumed to be elastoplastic and Young's modulus is caken as 29 x 106 psi (200 x 106 MPa). db [in.6 Prestressed concrete Valdez aoating dock.044 2.990 4.60 Standard nominal dlmenslons Diameter. Washington.4 presenLs gcometrical properties for sorne standard wire reinforcement.875 (22) 1. ABAM Engineers. Such bigh-stressed steels are able Lo countcrbalance these losses in the Photo 2. A b (ln. Washington.79 1.5 Weight.500 (l3) 0. (Co11rtesy.410 (36) 1.

From the aforementioned magnitude of prestress losses.) Type BA TypeWA Type BA 0.241 to 1.500 204. The strands are made from seven wires by twisting six of them on a pitch of 12.2 Stress-Relieved and Low-Relaxation Wires and Strands Stress-relieved wires are cold-drawn single wires conforming to ASTM standard A421. this is opposed to the standard 7 wire strand in Figure 2. straight control wire. Wires or strands that are not stress-relieved.500 204.18(a) shows a typical stress-strain diagram for wire and strand prestressing steels.000 to 60. • Uncoated stress-relieved strands and low-relaxation strands. the standard wire can be drawn through a die to form a compacted strand as shown in Figure 2.000 psi (241to414 MPa). stress-relieved strands conform to ASTM standard A 416. Table 2. respectively. strands composed of severa} wires twisted to form a single element. on the arder of 180. obviating the need for using very high-strength steels for prestressing concrete members.000 204.to 16-wire diameter around a slightly larger. The geometrical properties of the wires and strands as required by ASTM are given in Tables 2.196 240. stress at 1% extension (psi) Nominal diameter (in.000 0. Figure 2.7. while Figure 2.276 235. and high-strength bars. it can be inferred that normal steels with yield strengths fy = 60.000 to 220. The initial prestress would thus have to be very high. exhibit higher relaxation losses than stressrelieved wires or strands.750 212. Three types commonly used in the United States are: • Uncoated stress-relieved or low-relaxation wires.000 240.000 Source: Post-Tensioning Institute TypeWA 212.000 199. Consequently.000 235.6 and 2.54 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing surrounding concrete and have adequate leftover stress levels to sustain the required prestressing force.000 psi (1.517 MPa).250 240.192 0.000 psi (414 MPa) would have little prestressing stress left after losses.6 Wire for Prestressed Concrete Min.000 250.17(b ).7.750 . Prestressing reinforcement can be in the form of single wires.000 0. ASTM standard A 779 requires the minimum strengths and geometrical properties given in Table 2. The magnitude of normal prestress losses can be expected to be in the range of 35. • Uncoated high-strength steel bars.000 199.8. 2.000 250. To maximize the steel area of the 7-wire strand for any nominal diameter.17(a). tensile strength (psi) Min.18(b) shows values relative to those of mild steel. such as the straightened wires or oiltempered wires often used in other countries. Stress-relieving is done after the wires are woven into the strand. it is important to account for the appropriate magnitude of losses once a determination is made on the type of prestressing steel required.

and are available in nominal diameters from i in.000 54. generally below 500ºC. Cold drawn in order to raise their yield strength.800 GRADE250 t(0.216 GRADE270 i(0.500 20.036 0. .000 30. (19 mm) to Hin. the tensile strength of prestressing bars has to be a minimum of 150.448 Newton Source: Post-Tensioning Institute 2.600) 9.153 0.650 12.217 *100.375) -k{0.000 41.) Nominal steel area of strand (sq in. these bars are stress relieved as well to increase their ductility.000 36.300 58. 1 in.034 MPa).080 0.600 0.49 to obtain weight in kg per 1.000 psi (1.000 31.500) Ho.313) i(0. (b) Compacted strand section.1 in.250) -&(0.600) 23.55 2.000 0. (a) (b) Figure 2.115 0.900 290 390 520 740 19.= 2. They must conform to ASTM standard A 722. Stress relieving is achieved by heating the bar to an appropriate temperature. lb) Nominal weight of strands {lb per 1000 ft)* Minimum load at 1% extension {lb) 122 197 272 367 490 737 7.600 45.5 MPa 0.000 27.350 35.) Breaking strength of strand (min.085 0. Though essentially the same stress-relieving process is employed for bars as for strands. (a) Standard strand section. with a minimum yield strength of 85 percent of the ultimate strength for smooth bars and 80 percent for deformed bars.3 High-Tensile-Strength Prestressing Bars High-tensile-strength alloy steel bars for prestressing are either smooth or deformed.375) -k(0.100 49.7 Prestressing Reinforcement Table 2.17 Standard and compacted 7-wire prestressing strands.108 0.000 23.058 0.7 Seven-Wire Standard Strand for Prestressed Concrete Nominal diameter of strand (in.000 14. (35 mm).500) H0.300 17.7.000 psi= 689.438) !(0.54 mm.550 26.144 0. 2 = 645 mm2 weight: mult.000 m. by 1.438 !(0. 1.000 lb= 4.

06 0.2 X 103 MPa) 50 1% Elongation o 0.05 0. strength (1.03 0.430 0.346 600 873 1176 0. 2.02 0. lb)* Nominal steel area (in.000 67.6 0.440 85.1 Sa Stress-strain diagram for prestressing steel.18 shows a typical stress-strain diagram for such bars.= 25. in/in .5 X 106 psi Wire EP• = 29.fpu = 270.7 *1000 lb= 4. It is identical to creep in concrete.01 0. except that creep is a change in strain whereas steel relaxation is a loss in steel stress.56 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing Seven-Wire Compacted Strand for Prestressed Concrete [ASTM A779] Table 2.04 0.862 MPa) 1 in.0 X 106 psi Bar EP• = 27.8 Nominal diameter (in.) Nominal Breaking strength of strand (min. Where t = time. 1 in.9 lists the geometrical properties of the prestressing bas as required by ASTM standard A 722.7. 2 = 645 mm 2 Table 2. 2 ) Nominal weight of strand (per 1.000 ft-lb) 47.07 Strain Figure 2.192 in.448 Newton Grade 270.4 mm. and Figure 2.174 0.000 psi ult.0 X 106 psi (186.256 0. Grade 270 strand 270 250 0.4 Steel Relaxation Stress relaxation in prestressing steel is the loss of prestress when the wires or strands are subjected to essentially constant strain. día wire 200 X -~ 150 ~ Grade 160 alloy bar ~ cií 100 Strand EP• = 27.

.fpu = 145.... in hours..601 0...250 1.280 0.. 140 1 en en 120 Cñ. .994 1.02 0. 2 = 645 mm 2 .4 mm.785 0..000 MPa) Grade 160:.227 1.....103 MPa) 1 in.fin.Q.. the loss of stress dueto relaxation in stress-relieved wires and strands can be evaluated from the expression flfR Table 2..) Strain Figure 2... fs .875 1.06 0.7 Prestressing Reinforcement 1 1 '1Es-: 240 1 1 1 200 160 "'o X 'Cii c..485 0..125 1.000 psi (1.57 2. fy - 40 0. 2 ) 0..000 1.04 0.295 *Grade l45.55 (2..250 0.. 100 ~ .750 0.Ü.000 1.f..u = 160..852 1.08 (in.9 log t (Ípi ) fpi W fpy ..18) Steel Bars for Prestressed Concrete Bar type* Smooth Alloy Steel Grade 145or160 (ASTMA722) Deformed Bars = Nominal diameter (in..375 0.442 0.625 1. 1 in..18(b) Stress-Strain Diagram for Prestressing Steel Strands in Comparison with Mild Steel Bar Reinforcement..000 psi (1.) Nominal steel area (in. after prestressing..= 25.

Also.70 fpu for post-tensioned. which can lead to premature failure of the structural system... fp..::. The prestressing steel thus produced is termed low-relaxation steel and has a relaxation stress loss that is 25 percent of that of normal stress-relieved steel. Another form of wire or strand deterioration is stress corrosion. The expression far stress relaxation in low-relaxation prestressing steels is flfR = fp....70 fpuIt is possible to decrease stress relaxation loss by subjecting strands that are initially stressed to 70 percent of their ultimate strength fpu to temperatures of 20ºC to lOOºC far an extended time in order to produce a permanent elongation-a process called stabilization.19 Relaxation loss vs. concrete.000 10.19 shows the relative relaxation loss far stress-relieved and lowrelaxation steels far 7-wire strands held at constant length at 29. Post-Tensioning lnstitute. --- ___. which is characterized by the formation of microscopic cracks in the steel which lead to brittleness and fail- .85 fpu for stress-relieved strands and 0. In general..5ºC..__ Low-relaxation ------ -------~~- 10 100 1.000 Time (hours) Figure 2.... 2.. ( Courtesy.. protection can be obtained by full grouting of the ducts after prestressing is completed or by greasing.. and 0.58 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing . 0.. provided that adequate concrete cover is available. protection against corrosion is provided by the concrete surrounding the tendon.19) Figure 2.) = provided that fp/fpy ~ 0..55 and fpy 0.. Reduction of the prestressing steel area due to corrosion can drastically reduce the nominal moment strength of the prestressed section.. =0.55 ) (2.000 100.000 1... In pretensioned members.90 far lowrelaxation strands. log t ([P. 7 .74 fpu for pretensioned. Such precaution is necessary since the strength of the prestressed concrete element is a function of the prestressing force...5 Corros ion and Deterioration of Strands Protection against corrosion of prestressing steel is more critica! than in the case of nonprestressed steel. - 0. fp. = 0.. 45 v---.000. time for stress-relieved low-relaxation prestressing steels at 70 percent of the ultimate. In post-tensioned members.82 fpy immediately after transfer but fp. which in turn is a function of the prestressing tendon area.

.. . . . . (b) Immediately after prestress transfer.... . . ... .. in psi fy = specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforcement... but not greater than the lesser of 0... . in psi fpu = specified tensile strength of prestressing tendons.. . . .. . ... .... . . .. . .. . ....... .94 fpy 0. ..8.. . in psi f ~ = specified compressive strength of concrete...... . . (d) Extreme fiber stress in tension in precompressed tensile zone of members (except two-way slab systems). 0. . . . .82 fpy O..... .. . . 2. ..... .... .. bonded auxiliary reinforcement (nonprestressed or prestressed) shall be provided in the tensile zone to resist the total tensile force in concrete computed under the assumption of an uncracked section...80 fpu and the maximum value recommended by the manufacturer of prestressing tendons or anchorages... .... . ... . ... .... .. . is difficult to prevent. . . ..... . . . ... .. at anchorages and couplers... ... (b) Extreme fiber stress in compression dueto prestress plus total load..... . . ... . though infrequent.. .. . ... 70 fpu .60 f~¡ (b) Extreme fiber stress in tension exceptas permitted in (c) . . .. ... ... . . where sustained dead load and live load are a large part of the total service load .... . . . . . immediately after tendon anchorage . . Where computed tensile stresses exceed these values..... 6\ii:... . if the live load is transient .. (e) Extreme fiber stress in tension at ends of simply supported members .. . .. . .... . . .. .. This type of reduction in strength can occur only under very high stress and...1 Concrete Stresses in Flexure Stresses in concrete immediately after prestress transfer (befare time-dependent prestress losses) shall not exceed the following: (a) Extreme fiber stress in compression .. . . .. .. .60f~ 6v7: 12v11. .... . .. Stresses in concrete at service loads ( after allowance for all prestress losses) shall not exceed the following: (a) Extreme fiber stress in compression due to prestress plus sustained load.. .. ... ... . . ..8 Aci Maximum Permissible Stresses in Concrete and Reinforcement ure.. . = compressive strength of concrete at time of initial prestress 2. .. . .. ..59 2.45 f~ 0.... where analysis based on transformed cracked sections and on bilinear moment-deflection relationships shows that immediate and long-time deflections comply with the ACI definition requirements and mínimum concrete cover requirements .. . .. 0... ..8 ACI MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN CONCRETE ANO REINFORCEMENT Following are definitions of sorne important mathematical terms used in this section: fpy = specified yield strength of prestressing tendons. . ... .....2 Prestressing Steel Stresses Tensile stress in prestressing tendons shall not exceed the following: (a) Dueto tendon jacking force . 3\ii:..8... . 2. ....... 0. but not greater than 0. . . . . ... . (e) Extreme fiber stress in tension in precompressed tensile zone .. . .. . in psi f ~. .....74 fw (e) Post-tensioning tendons. . .

.. . . For severe corrosive exposure conditions.... .. .. . . Tension in the precompressed tensile zone (a) For members with bonded reinforcement .. . . at transfer = 0.. ..... . ..9. .2.... . .... .9 AASHTO MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN CONCRETE ANO REINFORCEMENT 2.. . .. .. . .. .9 f ~. .... . .. ...1 Cracking Stresses. . fpy"" 0.... such as coastal areas . . ... . .. 0...... .9.5~ 2...... ......94 fpy::.. . . ..... . . . . ......82 fpy::.. ...60 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing 2.... .. ..2 Concrete Stresses at Service Load after Losses Compression . ...70 fpu Hence for 270 K tendons used in the book. . . ...... 0. .9... No temporary allowable stresses are specified. . .. .. .......... ... ... .5~ 6.. . . . (b) For members without bonded reinforcement ..... . . .2. .1 Concrete Stresses before Creep and Shrinkage Losses Compression Pretensioned members . ........ 0. .. ...... . .... .. 0.. . . ..74 Ípu (b) Immediately after prestress transfer .... ... ...... ... . .. .. .. .2 Anchorage-Bearing Stresses Post-tensioned anchorage at service load. .5~ 2.. immediately after tendon anchorage . . . .. .60[~..... .. ...40 f ~ 6Vf.. .70 x 270. . . ..000 psi (1300 MPa) is applied for uniformity.. .... .. ..... ........ . ..) 2. . .... .. . . .3 Prestressing Steel Stresses (a) Dueto tendon jacking for .... . . .. The maximum tensile stress shall not exceed .. . . ... . . 7....fPY = 0. . ..... 200 psi or 3 ~ Where the calculated tensile stress exceeds this value.... . .. . .... .... ...... .9. . 2... . ... bonded reinforcement shall be provided to resist the total tension force in the concrete computed on the assumption of an uncracked section... . ..90 fpu) 0.. . ... 2..55 f~. . .. For all other lightweight concrete. Other Areas In tension areas with no bonded reinforcement . fp... . .. (e) Post-tensioning tendons at anchorage. .... 0. ....... . ....8. .. .......... . .. ... .. . .... ..1. ... . For normal-weight concrete. ....... .. .. .. .... 7...000 = 189.9. . . ... ...3~ 5.. . .. .... For sand-lightweight concrete .. . . .. .20 gives the mean annual relative humidity values for all regions in the United States in percent.4 Relative Humidity Values Figure 2. Modulus of rupture from tests or if not available. .. Post-tensioned members . . .... .. to be used for evaluating shrinkage losses in concrete.. ... . .. . ....... ... . . 0... ..80 Ípu 0.... .. . .85 fpu (for low-relaxation. . ... .... .. . . ........000 psi (but not to exceed 0. Tension Precompressed tensile zone ... ... 3~ o Tension in other areas is limited by the allowable temporary stresses specified in Section 2. . . . .. .. 3...... .9...... ....

) 2. Prestressed Concrete lnstitute. For harped tendon profiles. Pretensioning .1 O PRESTRESSING SYSTEMS ANO ANCHORAGES 2. which are designed to resist the large eccentric prestressing forces. Prestressing can be accomplished by prestressing individual strands. where a precasting stressing bed of a long reinforced concrete slab is cast on the ground with vertical anchor bulkheads or walls at its ends. Pretensioning is normally performed at precasting plants. (Courtesy. or ali the strands at one jacking operation. a pretensioned beam is a prestressed beam in which the prestressing tendon is tensioned prior to casting the section.2. not the beam it serves. and the exposed prestressing strands between them can be cut after the concrete hardens.20 61 Mean annual relative humidity. Such anchorages are supported by large and stable bulkheads to support the exceedingly high concentrated forces applied to the individual tendons. Consequently. the prestressing bed is provided with hold-down devices as shown in Figure 2.21.10. while a post-tensioned beam is one in which the prestressing tendon is tensioned after the beam has been cast and has achieved the major portion of its concrete strength. Since the bed can be several hundred feet long. several precast prestressed elements can be produced in one operation. The term "pretensioning" means pretensioning of the prestressing steel.1 O Prestressing Systems and Anchorages Figure 2.1 Pretensioning Prestressing steel is pretensioned against independent anchorages prior to the placement of concrete around it. The steel strands are stretched and anchored to the vertical walls.

2 Post-Tensioning In post-tensioning.23.24(c). or bars are tensioned after hardening of the concrete. ( Courtesy. One of these. (e). while harping of tendons in a prestressing bed system is shown in Figure 2. is used for anchoring tendons in post-tensioning.) severa! elements in a prestressing bed is represented schematically in Figure 2.25 and 2. Supreme Products anchorage chucks have been used together with the Freyssinet jack. wires.~" q. A prestressing bed for moderately sized pretensioned beams up to 24 ft (7. Post-Tensioning lnstitute. 2. and (f).27 shows the dimensional details of the system. The gripping mechanism of this system is illustrated in Figure 2. The strands are placed in the longitudinal ducts within the precast concrete ele- .S t r a n d chuck Center hale hydraulic jack ~Strandchuck anchors Harped strand group Figure 2. Figures 2. strand [ h . strands and single wires are anchored by several patented systems. 2..26 give details of the prestressing bed system also used for post-tensioning developed by Nawy and Potyondy at Rutgers University. where applicable.32 m) long was developed and used by the author in Ref.24(d). while Figure 2. a chuck system by Supreme Products. the strands.31 for his continuing work on the behavior of pretensioned and post-tensioned structural systems.22.21 Hold-down anchor for harping pretensioning tendons.10. Other anchorage systems and ductile connections are shown in Figure 2.62 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing l--. In pretensioning.

.2. .24.23 Harping of tendons in a prestressing bed system. depeoding on wbetber pretensioning or post-tensioning is used and whether individual tendons are being prestrcssed or ali the tendons are being stressed simultaneously. i. In the latter case. ment. (762 mm).3 Jacking Systems One of the fundamental components of a prestressing operation is the jacking system applied. Figure 2. 2. the manner in whicb tbe prestressing force is transfcrred to the steel tendons. The tendons of strands should not be bonded or grouted prior to fu ll prestressing. Of course.28 shows a 500-ton multistrand jack for simultaneous jacking through a center hole.10.e. Such a force is applied tbrougb the use of hydraulic jacks of capacity 10 to 20 tons and a stroke from 6 to 48 in.. with a stroke of at least 30 in.1 o Prestressing Systems and Anchorages 63 Vertical bulkhead Harping hold·up point Prestressing bed slab Figure 2.22 Harping hold-down point Precast concrete element Schematic of pretensioning bed. Figure 2. Thc prestressing force is transferred through end anchorages such as the Supreme Products chucks shown in Figure 2. tbe cost will be higher than sequential tensioning. large-capacity jacks are necded.

Type I. (b) Monostrand anchor.1 Grouting materiaIs l.1 0. (Courtesy. the prestressing ducts have to be filled under pressure with the appropriate cement grout in an injection process. (a) Strand anchor.) . Ponland Cemeot. (b) Monostrand anchor. Post-Tensioning lnstitute.4. II. or Ill.4 Grouting of Post-Tensioned Tendons In order to provide permaneot protection for the post-tensioned steel aod to develop a bond between che prestressing steel and the surrounding concrete. (c) Suprema Products anchorage chuck.24 (a) Stress Strand Anchor. Portland cement should conform to one of the following specifications: ASTM C150.64 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing 2. 2.10. Cap (c) Figure 2.

(e) Coupler.24 (continued) Multiple anchorages.10. (f) Dywidag ductile connectors (DDC) for ductlle precast beam-column connections in seismic zones.9and 13. See also details in Figures 13.2.1O Prestressing Systems and Anchorages 65 (d) (e) (f) Figure 2. . couplers and ductile connectors (Courtesy Dywidag Sysems lnternational): (d) Multiple anchorage.

26 lntermediate connections between trames of the prestressing system for continuous beams (Nawy et al. Forming. Water. and free of injurious quantities of substances known to be harmful to portland cement or prestressing steel. if used. or nitrales should nol be used. fl uorides." 2.38). assuming l lb of admixture per sack of cement). clean. or any other approved gas-evolving material whicb is well dispersed through the other admixture. 3. should impart the properties of low water content. good flow. 2.). and expansion if desired. Cement used for grouting should be fresh and should not contain any Jumps or other indications of hydration or " pack set.11. They should transfer bond Figure 2. Admixtures. 2. may be used to obtain 5 to 10 percent unrestrained expansion of the grout (see Refs. Admixtures containing chlorides (as Cl in excess of 0.2 Ducts l. T he water used in the grout should be potable.5 percent by weighL of admixture. sulphites.). Admixtures. . Ducts formed by sheath left in place should be of a type that does not permit the entrance of cement paste. 2.10.66 Chapter 2 Figure 2. mínimum bleed. (a) Formed Ducts.4. Their formulation should contain no chemicals in quantities that may have a harmful effect on tbe prestressiog steel or cement. AJuminum powder o( the proper fineness and quantity.25 Materials and Systems for Prestressing Prestress tensioning arrangement (Nawy et al.

stresses as required and should retain their shape under the weight of the concrete. Cored ducts should be formed with no constrictions which would tend to block the passage of grout. (b) Cored Ducts.1 o Prestressing Systems and Anchorages 67 3" día.2. extra strong pipe LA 1" -j lt 2" X 16" X 32" 1" 2"1" lt 1" X 16" X32" 1" 2" 1" 1" ~1'-o"--to•-HI+>--+++l . . .)..-E---j----t- (b) A-A Figure 2.~1t>-<tt-t-1+-•-1'-o"--J r- (a) k---------24'-2"---------+'~ 1 ~___. _ • . Metallic sheaths should be of a ferrous metal.. and they may be galvanized...o " ...27 Dimensioning details of the pretensioning or post-tensioning laboratory system used for research at Rutgers (Nawy et al.-. All coring material should be removed. ..1 2 ' .

Grout Openings or Vents. Ali ducts should have grout openings at botb ends. Ducts should be securely fastened at close enough intervals to avoid displacement during concreting.) 2. Ali boles or openings in tbe duct must be repaired prior lo placement of concrete. an inspection should be made to locate possible duct damage. For draped cables. Grout openings and vents must be securely anchored to the duct and to Photo 2. tbe duct area should be at least twke the nel area of the prestressing steel. (Courtesy. all high points should ha ve a grout vent except where the cable curvature is small. bars. larger than the nominal diameter of the wire. . For tendons made up of a single wire. For tendons made up of a plurality of wires. Grout vents or drain boles should be provided at low poiots if the tendon is to be placed. such as in continuous slabs. stressed. All grout openings or vents shouJd include provisions for preventing grout leakage. bar.7 Prestress conduit for a bridge deck. Duct Size. After the placement of ducts.28 Stresstek Multistrand 500-ton jack. or strand. aod grouted in a freezing climate. or strands. bar. 3. Post-Tensioning lnstitute. or strand. and forming are complete. Placement of Ducts.68 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing Figure 2. the duct diameter should be al leasttin. reinforcement. 4.

lnc. the outlet and/or inlet should be closed.10. 6. Grout should not be above 90ºF during mixing or pumping. Figure 2.29. Legates. The pumping pressure at the tendon inlet should not exceed 250 psig. at which time the vent should be capped or otherwise closed. 2.4. Grout shouJd be allowed to flow from the first vent after the inlet pipe until any residual flushing water or entrapped air has been removed. cubes of grout reach a mioimum compressivc streogth of 800 psi. ducts should be kept free of water to avoid damage dueto freezing. To ensure that the tendon remains filled with groul. Additional details and specifications on grouting are given by the Post-Tensioning lnstitute in Ref.29 Prestressing of preload circular tank. Plugs. or valves thus required should not be removed or opencd until the grout has sel. Ducts with concrete walls (cored ducts) should be flushed to ensurc that Lhc con2. The temperature of the concrete should be 35º F or higher from the time of grouting until job-cured 2-in. 3. Grout should be pumped through the duct and conlinuously wasted at the outlet pipe until no visible slugs of water or airare ejccted. 2.) . the mixing water should be cooled. Remaining vcnts should be closed in sequence in the same manner.3 Grouting Process l. the grout should be immediately ílushed out of lhe duct witb water.. If necessary. New York. Ali grout and high-point vent openings should be open when grouting starts. to prevent displacement during concreteplacing operations. 5. N. When one-way flow of grout cannot be maintained. crete is thoroughly wetted. caps.1 O Prestressing Systems and Anchorages 69 either lhe forms or the reinforcing steel. Preload Technology. The efflux time of the ejected grout should nol be less than the injected groul.2. In temperatures below 32ºF.A. 7. (Courtesy. 4.

) 8. including prestressed water tanks and pipes. (The latter may lead to theoretical calculations which are not always correct in practice. The important question is how good." Journal of the American Concrete Institute. 4. 2. but beware of oversimplification. or to a failure to cover all conditions. Simplicity is always an advantage. (Each solution has advantages and disadvantages that have to be tallied and traded off against each other. Such tension results in uniform radial compression that prestresses the concrete cylinder ar core and prevents tensile stresses from developing in the concrete wall section under internal fluid pressure.) 10. (A cheap price given by an inexperienced contractor usually results in bad work. S.) 7. or to adjust ar even change principles previously employed in the light of increased knowledge and experience ). "Selection and Use of Aggregate for Concrete. 1979.) 3. overconservatism can never lead to an understanding of novel structures. Concrete-Making Materials. You cannot have something far nothing. 2. but rather qualify the specific circumstances. (It is always possible to increase one's knowledge and experience. There is no progress without considered risk.g. (This is in direct connection with the previous principle indicating the necessity of tests. notwithstanding a solution's being optimal far the problem.) 2. MI.29 shows a preload circular tank being prestressed by the wire-wrapping process along its height. 1994. (While it is important to ensure sufficient safety.) 6. Do not generalize. (One has to pay in one way ar another far something which is offered as a "free gift" into the bargain.2 Popovices. It is usually accomplished by a wire-wound technique. but only by step-by-step development.) 5. The proof of the pudding is in the eating.. There is nothing completely new. 2. Farmington Hills. to strengthen a structure befare it collapses. Philadelphia: ASTM. We live and learn.12 TEN PRINCIPLES The fallowing ten principles are taken from Abeles (Ref. unproved appliances may have to be replaced. 1992. (Serious misunderstandings may be caused by unreserved generalizations.3 ACI Committee 221. not how cheap an item is. . Annual book of ASTM Standards: Part 14. It is never too late (e.) 9. 2. New York: McGraw-Hill.11 CIRCULAR PRESTRESSING Circular prestressing involves the development of hoop ar hugging compressive stresses on circular ar cylindrical containment vessels. (Nothing is achieved instantaneously. 1997.) SELECTED REFERENCES 2.32) and applicable not only to prestressing concrete but to any endeavor that the engineer is called upan to undertake: l. similarly. Concrete and Mineral Aggregates.70 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing 2. to alter a design. cheap.1 American Society for Testing and Materials. Figure 2. in which the concrete pipe ar tank is wrapped with continuous high-tensile wire tensioned to prescribed design levels. You cannot have everything.

"Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (318 R-08) American Concrete Institute.13 American Society for Testing and Materials. 2. "Standard Specification for Rail-Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. American Concrete Institute.24 American Society for Testing and Materials. Concrete International 5 (1983): 61-76." Chapter 5 in Handbook of Structural Concrete. Kumar.11 Nawy. 1994. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. "Standard Specification for Cold-Drawn Steel Wire for Concrete Reinforcement.. 4th ed. Farmington Hills. P. Creep and Shrinkage of Concrete. 1958.4 American Concrete lnstitute.. E. 2. NJ. Prentice-Hall. E. J. M. 2. 1978. Ukadike. 314-326. A616-79. 1983. ACI 212. December 1977. ACI Manual of Concrete Practice." ASTM. August 1971. "Standard Specification for Axle Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. No. Inc.. Washington. New York. and Young." Journal of the Structural Division.15 Neville. D. MI. American Concrete Institute.3R-83). "Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal. lnc. 1977. 2. 1993. Standard Specifications far Highway Bridges. 6th ed. ACI. D.10 ACI Committee 211. 2. 17th ed. 5th ed. ASCE. F. A. "High Strength Field Modified Concretes. P. E. 600-605. American Concrete Institute. MI.26 American Society for Testing and Materials.. 607-611. "Guide Specifications for Post-Tensioning Materials. Farmington Hills. 2008." ASTM.27 American Society for Testing and Materials. 1980.C. PCA.1-92.1 R-81. Philadelphia.5 Portland Cement Association. MI. Reinforced Concrete-A Fundamental Approach. Pitman Books. 2. A6 l 7-79. Ariz.. D. "Creep Concrete Data. 2009. 2. Prentice Hall. 755-760. London. 936 p. Ill. 2009. 2. 5-1to5-33. Upper Saddle River. AS 2-79. 555-559. 54. 588-599. 1111-1142. 2.. pp. 2. N. E. Phoenix. Proc. 442. Super-plasticizers in Concrete.. "Recommendation for Concrete Members Prestressed with Unbonded Tendons" (ACI 423. Institution of Structural Engineers. June 1958. Post-Tensioning Institute. London.28 ACI-ASCE Committee 423. MI.References 71 2.20 Mindess.29 Post-Tensioning Institute.6 ACI Committee 212. 2nd ed. N. 2. 2. 2.25 American Society for Testing and Materials. 1979. Skokie. Concrete." ACI 211. S.23 American Society for Testing and Materials. 2. 2. 2002.9 ACI Committee 211.22 Mehta. Prentice-Hall. 1980.7 Nawy. A. 2. . 1980. D. 1992. Properties.. 2005. Farmington Hills. Farmington Hills. 1980. Philadelphia. New York. "Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Structural Lightweight Concrete.. G. Philadelphia. Philadelphia.21 Nawy. 154-157. A706-79. Farmington Hills. 2. 2.17 Ross. M. ST12. 13th ed. F. 2. MI." ASTM. McGraw-Hill. 2." Journal of the American Concrete Institute. 2. "High Strength Concrete." ASTM. Heavyweight. 1981. and Balaguru. and Roll." ACI 211. A. "The Elasticity. N. MI. Special Technical Publication 169B. Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures. "Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. Deformation of Concrete Structures. D.. 103. ACI Special Publication SP-62. 68. Philadelphia. 2. London.. A. G. J.1-92. 2307-2322. M. Farmington Hills. Significance of Tests and Properties of Concrete and Concrete Making Materials. MI. Upper Saddle River.. Concrete-Structure.8 American Concrete Institute. 1980. 1996..30 AASHTO. G. "Compression Steel Effects on Long Term Deflections.18 Branson." Proceedings. Proc. 2." ASTM. "Admixtures for Concrete.J. pp. E. and Mass Concrete. M. ACI. A. ASTM. 2000.19 Branson." Journal of the American Concrete Institute. Philadelphia. 2. Upper Saddle River.14 Ross.J. MI. Farmington Hills.. A6 15-79. Materials. 2. 1937." In Post-Tensioning Manual. 1995." in Proceedings of the Conference on Non-metallic Brittle Materials. Farmington Hills. "Creep and Creep Recovery of Concrete under High Compressive Stress. and Sauer. 2. Interscience Publishers. "Standard Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. London: Pitman Books.16 Freudenthal. Properties of Concrete." in ACI Manual of Concrete Practice 1983.12 ACI Committee 318. and Materials. McGraw-Hill.

Fundamentals of High Performance Concrete. ··control of Dcílection in Concrete Structures. Concrete Constrttction Engineering Ha11dbook. "StrucluraJ Behavior Evaluation of High Strength Concrete Reinforced with Prcstressed Prisms Using Fiber Optic Sensors. B. 2. connecting Perth Amboy and Sayerville. B. 3d ed. ASCE Joumal of the Stmctural Division.39 Nawy. 2. W. the bridge designcr) . MI. ACI Stmct11ral Joumal. pp.34 Nawy. and Nawy. 51. E. E. and Potyondy.37 Chen. New York. J.72 Chapter 2 Materials and Systems for Prestressing 2.. 2.J. Park Ridge. 1986. P. the main 440 ft. 2nd cd. Simplified Reinforced Concrete. Boca Raton. G. Fan:nington Hills. Photo 2. 77 p. 1970. B. G. (Courtcsy of FIGG." Proceedings. Editor-in-Chief. and Nawy. G. G. 708-718. E. Presiressed Concrete Designers 1-Jandbook. UpperSaddle Rivcr. Nawy. pp.33 Nawy. 2. 2. M." ACI Committee Report. H . K. G. Farmington Hills.. MI . 1998.38 Nawy.J. 2. Dec. John Wiley & Sons. 3456-3470. and Bardhan·Roy. American Concrete lnstitute. "Concrete. Chairman." ln Corrosion a/lf/ Chemical Resista/l/ Masonry Mnteria/s lla11dbook. E." E11gi11eeri11g Researc/1 8111/etin No. A beles. Yiclory Bridge over the Rarilan Rivcr.31 Nawy." Proceedings. Mahcr.: Bureau of Engineering Rcscarch. 1981.. and Deílection of Spirally Bound Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Beams. 1986. 57-73. Rutgers University. E. Ameri- can Socicty of Civil Engineers. 1995. New Jersey. New York.. N. A variable depth precasl segmenta( concrete bridge with spans of 330'-440'-330' built in balanccd cantilever. FL: CRC Press. Dec. "Momenl Rotation.8 Route 35. N.J. 2.97. pp. Prcn tice Hall.35 ACI Committee 435. N. American Concrete lnstitute. E. E. 1994. span being the longest precast cantilever segmenta( conslruction in the Uaited States.36 Cheo. G .. G. 1250 p. pp. 460.. Cracking. 1. New Brunswick.: Noycs.. London: Viewpoint Publications. G. pp. "Fiber Optic Bragg Grating Sensor for Non-Destructive Evaluation of Compositc Beams. 2.. 2001.32. G . E. J994.

An exact determination of the magnitude of these losses-particularly tbe timedependent ones-is not feasible. Post-Tensioning lnstitute. to the various stages of prestressing available at service load. Hawaii.) 73 . and those due to temperature effects and steel relaxation. from the stage of transfer of the prestressing force to the concrete. the reduction in the prestressing force can be grouped in to two categories: • Immediate elastic loss during the fabrication or construction process. Consequently. Honolulu. Empirical methods of estimating losses differ with the different codes of practice or Executive Center. anchorage losses. EssentiaUy. up to the ultimate. shrinkage. (Courtesy. • Time-dependent losses such as creep. it is important to determine the level of the prestressing force at each loading stage. aU of whicb are determinable at the service-load limit state of stress in the prestressed concrete element.PARTIAL LOSS OF PRESTRESS 3. iocluding elastic shortcniog of tbe concrete. aod frictional losses. since they depend on a multiplicity of interrelated factors.1 INTRODUCTION It is a well-established fact that tbe initial prestressing force applied to lhe concrete ele- mcnt undergoes a progressive process of reduction over a period of approximately five years.

the Comité Eurointernationale du Béton (CEB). prestress leve].000 (138 N/mm2 ) Note: This table of approximate prestress losses was developed to provide a common post-tensioning industry basis for determining tendon requirements on projects in which the magnitude of prestress losses is not specified by the designer.5 N/mm2) f~ = 4. Such losses should be computed according to Section 6.2 of PTI. lumpsum estimates of losses are more realistic. relaxation in the prestressing steel.000 (138 N/mm2) 25.3.6 N/mm2 ) Type of prestressing steel Pretensioning strand Post-tensioningª wire or strand Bars 2 32. The degree of rigor of these methods depends on the approach chosen and the accepted practice of record. because of the multiplicity of factors affecting the estimate. construction procedures. and the FIP (Federation Internationale de la Précontrainte).5 of the AASHTO specifications. or in very dry or very wet exposure conditions. . the AASHTO lump-sum approach.la) + ílfpR + ílfpcR + ílfpsH Approximate Prestress Loss Values for Post-Tensioning Prestress loss.000 psi (310 N/mm2) 33.000 psi (152 N/mm2) 45. particularly in routine designs and under average conditions. These loss values are based on use of normal-weight concrete and on average values of concrete strength.000 psi (159 N/mm2 ) ªLosses due to friction are excluded.2 = ílfpES (3. The table values do not include losses due to friction.000 (172 N/mm2 ) Low-relaxation 270-K strand 15. and shrinkage.000 psi (221 N/mm ) 22.000 psi (34. creep. the ACI-ASCE joint committee approach. and exposure conditions. the total loss in prestress can be calculated for pretensioned and post-tensioned members as follows: (i) Pretensioned Members ílfpT Table 3. Detailed analysis has to be performed if these standard conditions are not fulfilled. Source: Post-Tensioning Institute. From this table. and they are applicable only to routine. standard conditions of loading. Such lump-sum losses can be summarized in Table 3. where the concrete is highly prestressed. They include elastic shortening. recommendations. normal concrete.1 of AASHTO and Table 3. and the importance and magnitude of the system. A summary of the sources of the separate prestressing losses and the stages of their occurrence is given in Table 3.1 AASHTO Lump-Sum Losses Total loss f~ = 5.000 (241 N/mm2) Bar 20.Partial Loss of Prestress Chapter 3 74 Table 3. Actual values of losses may vary significantly above or below the table values where the concrete is stressed at low strengths.000 (103 N/mm2 ) 20.000 (207 N/mm2) 35.000 psi (228 N/mm2) 23. Consequently. such as those of the Prestressed Concrete Institute.000 psi (27. and environmental conditions. quality control. A very high degree of refinement of loss estimation is neither desirable nor warranted. in which the subscript i denotes "initial" and the subscript j denotes the loading stage after jacking. psi Post-tensioning tendon material Slabs Beams and joists Stress-relieved 270-K strand and stressrelieved 240-K wire 30.

As an example. If the next loading stage is between transfer and 5 years (17..lb) (ii) Post-tensioned Members AfpT = AfpA + AfpF + AfpES + AfpR + AfpcR + AfpsH (3.fps(t..2.t1. if fp.2 ELASTIC SHORTENING OF CONCRETE (ES) Concrete shortens when a prestressing force is applied.fpR(f¡.3 75 Types of Prestress Loss Stage of occurrence Type of prestress loss Elastic shortening of concrete (ES) Relaxation of tendons (R) Creep of concrete (CR) Shrinkage of concrete (SH) Friction (F) Anchorage seating loss (A) Total Pretensioned members Post-tensioned members At transfer At sequential jacking Before and after transfer After transfer After transfer Life where AfpR t0 t1. computation of relaxation loss starts between the transfer time t 1 = t1.520 h and t 1 = 18 h.. the transfer stage. as shown in Figure 3. In the post-tensioned case. = t2 = 18 h and t0 = t 1 =O. As the tendons that are bonded to the adjacent concrete simultaneously shorten. computations for steel relaxation loss have to be performed for the time interval t 1 through t2 of the respective loading stages. t¡) t:.fn(t.fpF t:. and not simultaneously..ld) 3.520 h). and the end of the time interval t2 under consideration. so . at 18 h would result in t1.fpA f:. 3. say...fpT = AfpR(to.2 Elastic Shortening of Concrete (ES) Table 3.fpES After transfer After transfer After transfer Atjacking At transfer f:. t¡) Life t:... is the initial prestressing stress that the concrete element is subjected to and fpJ is the jacking stress in the tendon. the compressive force imposed on the beam by the tendon results in the longitudinal shortening of the beam.fpcR f:.fpSH f:. Then. then (3.1 Pretensioned Elements Far pretensioned (precast) elements.fpc(t¡..3.lc) where AfpES is applicable only when tendons are jacked sequentially..) + AfpR(tm ts) =time at jacking =time at transfer =time at stabilized loss Hence.. t5 Tendon stress loss During time interval (t.. they lose part of the prestressing force that they carry. t¡) Total or during lite f:. Hence (3. t¡) f:.fpR f:.. The unit shortening in concrete is EEs = AEslL. then t2 = ts = 17 .1. when losses are considered stabilized. t¡) t:..

Ícs =-A (3. and since observations indicate that the reduction is only a few percentage points.. EsEEs =A E =A= nfcs = (3.4) where P. before transfer in Equations 3.4. or reduce it by about 10 percent for refinement if desired.2a) = -- Since the prestressing tendon suffers the same magnitude of shortening.2.3) e If the tendon in Figure 3.2 m).2 through 3.1 Elastic shortening.1 A pretensioned prestressed beam has aspan of 50 ft (15.1 has an eccentricity e at the beam midspan and the self-weight moment M D is taken in to account. f~ = fpu = 6. !ifpES nP. EsP. AcEc (3.862 MPa) = .862 MPa) f. = 4.500 psi (31 MPa) Aps = Eps 10 - ~-india. (b} Longitudinally shortened beam. 3.1 Elastic shortening loss in pretensioned beams Example 3. seven-wire-strand tendon = 1. as shown in Figure 3. However. it is possible to use the initial value of P.4 MPa) 270. 2 = 10 X 0.000 psi (1..153 27 X 106 psi (1. For this beam. The small reduction in the value of P1 to P. the stress the concrete undergoes at the midspan section at the level of the prestressing steel becomes Ícs P. (a) Unstressed beam. has a lower value after transfer of prestress.2. fe Ec EES = - P.1. occurs because the force in the prestressing steel immediately after transfer is less than the initial jacking prestress force P1 .53 in. since it is difficult to accurately determine the reduced value of P. ( = - e 2 ) Ac 1 + r2 + Mve T (3.Chapter 3 76 Partial Loss of Prestress Tendon Figure 3.2b) e e e The stress in the concrete at the centroid of the steel due to the initial prestressing is P.000 psi (41.

4 X 106 psi = 6.7 MPa) X 106 psi .75fpuAps = 0.799.415 27 X 106 X 4 15 106 = . 2 30 = 2 .= ECI 28 days' strength Ec 28 days' modular ratio n 27 X 106 = 7.757.00Q = 4. Calculate the concrete fiber stresses at transfer at the centroid of the tendon for the midspan section of the beam. 2 15(30)3 4 = -12. = 0.06 3.000 (50) X 1.757.226.4 = 11 in . assuming that P.+ 50'~ 1. is = P.50 MPa) We also have Initial Eci = 57.226.1 l 3. P1 .----~--:.4.659. the jacking force on the tendon was 75% Ípu· Solution: Ac I = 15 X 30 = 450 in.fpES = nfcs = 7. e ' r2 Aps ee .2 Elastic Shortening of Concrete (ES) 77 1 r +. Ac = 10 X 0.( 2 e MDe ) Ícs=-A:\l+r2 +---¡.000V4.000~ = 57.= _ 309. Assume that prior to transfer.153 = 1.824 Es Initial modular ratio n = . the concrete fiber stress at the steel centroid of the beam at the moment of transfer.06 X 1.825 l + 11 2 ) + 1. the loss of prestress due to elastic shortening is !::i.000V6.50o = 3.1 (15.2 Beam in Example 3.1.12 From Equation 3.= 33750in.53 = 309.-lb From Equation 3.2 psi (59.825 lb 2 15~ X 12 = 1.813 X 11 450 75 33. and the magnitude of loss in prestress due to the effect of elastic shortening of the concrete.4 psi (8.53 in.75 MD = wl S 2 = X 15 X 30 X 144 270.4 = 8..2b.813 in. P.9 = -1.3 + 572.824 X 106 = 57.750 = -1. 2 = -Je = 75m. D TH .2 m) T3o" _L _t62mm) 15" (381 mm) Section 1-1 Figure 3.

The magnitude of the decrease in the prestress depends not only on the duration of the sustained prestressing force.9 MPa) In both cases the loss in prestressing in the post-tensioned beam is half that of the pretensioned beam. From Equation 3.. the last tendon suffers no loss of pre- stress due to elastic shortening..659.2 psi..2. So only the first four pairs have losses. the loss dueto elastic shortening in the post-tensioned beam is /::.fpES = 0 3.659..659.2) 5 ~~ X (8. Note that the tendon that was tensioned last <loes not suffer any losses due to elastic shortening.659. If nis the number of tendons or pairs of tendons sequentially tensioned. with the first pair suffering the maximum loss of 8. but also on the ratio .2) = 4.659.2 psi.fpES = (b) = 45 90 X (8.1 Elastic shortening loss in post-tensioned beam Example 3. (b) One tendon is jacked ata time.330 psi (29.2.3 STEEL STRESS RELAXATION (R) Stress-relieved tendons suffer loss in the prestressing force due to constant elongation with time. then (3. the elastic shortening loss varies from zero if all tendons are jacked simultaneously to half the value calculated in the pretensioned case if several sequential jacking steps are used.Chapter 3 78 Partial Loss of Prestress 3. (e) Ali tendons are simultaneously tensioned. while the tendon that was tensioned first suffers the maximum amount of loss.2 Salve Example 3.fpES = = 4/4 + 3/4 + 2/4 + 1/4 (8. (8.5) where j denotes the number of jacking operations.330 psi (29.659. 3.2) = 4. (e) /::.2) . Clearly.. Solution: (a) From Example 3. 11fpE = 8.2.1. as discussed in Chapter 2. such as jacking two tendons ata time.2 Post-Tensioned Elements In post-tensioned beams.9 MPa) 9/9 + 8/9 + . + 1/9 lQ /::.5.1 if the beam is post-tensioned and the prestressing operation is such that (a) Two tendons are jacked at a time.

70 fw The range of values of fpy is given by the following: Prestressing bars: fpy = 0. 70 0. the following ex- pression defines fpR for stress relieved steel: fpR _ _(lag t2 .e: .000 100. the stress-relaxation loss becomes il_fpR = (f. In that case.80 fpu Stress-relieved tendons: fpy = 0.t1.Q. fp/fpy exceeds 0..3 Stress-relaxation relationship in stress-relieved strands.0.. at the anchorages and couplers immediately after force transfer = 0.1 10 f..__Q.000 Time. _ ) .) . 100 90 . fp. fp 1 = 0. Also. lag t in hours is to the base 10. A plot of Equation 3.lag t1) can be made in Equation 3.8 c..3.3 Steel Stress Relaxation (R) 79 fp/fpy of the initial prestress to the yield strength of the reinforcement.6 so that lag t = log(t2 . . = 0.~ f. ~ =0.6 80 fpy 0.55. the denominator of the lag term in the equation is divided by 45 instead of 10..3. The ACI 318-05 Code limits the tensile stress in the prestressing tendons to the following: (a) Far stresses due to the tendon jacking force. 0.74 fpu· (e) In post-tensioned tendons. hours Figure 3...6) In this expression.90 fpu If fpR is the remaining prestressing stress in the steel after relaxation..6 is given in Figure 3.. lag t f. Such a loss in stress is termed stress relaxation.80 fpu and the maximum value recommended by the manufacturer of the tendons and anchorages.p1 PY (3. (b) Immediately after prestress transfer.82 fPY' but not greater than 0.94 f PY' but not greater than the lesser of 0. Post-Tensioning lnstitute.lag t1 )(fp. and t = t2 .7) where f.t1) without significant loss in accuracy. ( Courtesy.7 0.85 fpu Low-relaxation tendons: fpy = 0..55 f.r-lQ fpy . An approximation of the term (lag t2 . is the initial stress in steel to which the concrete element is subjected.55 ) (3. far low-relaxation steel.9 . 60 50 10 100 1000 10..

3.396 MPa) The reduced stress for calculating relaxation loss is f~. from elastic shortening.19. and C are given in Tables 3. and shrinkage in the evaluation of the steel stress-relaxation loss by means of the equation LlfpR = [Kre .000 X 0. 3.000 0.000 psi (1.000 hours From Equation 3. = ÍpJ .3 Find the relaxation loss in prestress at the end of 5 years in Example 3. the loss increment at any particular stage can be defined as Llf.000 _ _ 230 .5. assuming that relaxation loss from jacking to transfer. f1r) = 0.606 psi (80. Solution: From Equation 3.o·55) (3.& J.500 = 162. It must be emphasized that creep stresses and stress losses result only from sustained loads during the loading history of the structural element.55 ) ) log 44. .0.55 10 . fifpR = f~{-lQ fpy .3. = (1 . .500 psi (1. (log t2 pi log - lQ t¡) (f~¡f.7.162.571 MPa).4 and 3.lb for this stage fp.75 X 270.:: 44.000 = 162. Assume also that the yield strengthfpy = 230. creep. and from long-term loss due to creep and shrinkage over this period is 20 percent of the initial prestress. 3.4 CREEP LOSS (CR) Experimental work over the past half century indicates that flow in materials occurs with time when load or stress exists.8. as shown in Equation 2. pR = f'. log t (f~. the divider is 45 instead of 10 in Equation 3.20) X 202.JLl(fpES + fpcR + fpsH)] XC The values of K.Chapter 3 80 Partial Loss of Prestress If a step-by-step loss analysis is necessary.2 ACl-ASCE Method of Accounting for Relaxation Loss The ACI-ASCE method uses the separate contributions of elastic shortening.1.1543 = 11.000 psi (1.8) py where t 1 is the time at the beginning of the interval and t2 is the time at the end of the interval from jacking to the time when the loss is being considered.000 (162.0 MPa) 3.4643 X 0.9.170 MPa) The duration of the stress-relaxation process is 5 X 365 X 24 . For low relaxation steel.000 = 202. 3.1 Relaxation Loss Computation Example 3.fifpR(to. A more detailed discussion is given in Ref. This lateral flow or deformation due to the longitudinal stress is termed creep.0.

53 0.68 0.45 1.69 0.11 1. the properties of the concrete including its mixture proportions.95 0.58 0.70 0. or ASTM A722-75.4 Values of C fp/fpu Stress-relieved strand or wire Stress-relieved bar or low-relaxation strand or wire 1.62 0.05 ªIn accordance with ASTM A416-74. it is feasible to relate the creep strain EcR to the elastic strain EEL such that a creep coefficient Cu can be defined as Table 3.36 1.64 0.83 0.000 4. the age of the element at first loading.22 1.60 Source: Post-Tensioning Institute.80 0. curing conditions.37 0.49 0.65 0.600 5.68 0.3.05 1.41 0.45 0.61 0.94 0. its duration.73 0.61 0.73 0.80 0.63 0.76 0.18 1.040 0.15 0.66 0.33 0.53 0. Since the stress-strain relationship due to creep is essentially linear.4 Creep Loss (GR) 81 Table 3.630 4.75 0.77 0.13 0.57 0.85 0.75 0.74 0.49 1.035 0. .71 0.000 0.09 1.28 1.16 1.78 0.78 0.5 Values of KRE and J Type of tendonª KRE J 270 Grade stress-relieved strand or wire 250 Grade stress-relieved strand or wire 240 or 235 Grade stress-relieved wire 270 Grade low-relaxation strand 250 Grade low-relaxation wire 240 or 235 Grade low-relaxation wire 145 or 160 Grade stress-relieved bar 20.90 0.000 18.66 0.400 6.037 0. ASTM A421-76.63 0.79 0.27 1.00 0.500 17. The deformation or strain resulting from this time-dependent behavior is a function of the magnitude of the applied load.67 0.70 0. and environmental conditions.14 0. Source: Prestressed Concrete Institute.89 0.00 0.72 0.

4. Solution: At full concrete strength.9a) u Then the creep coefficient at any time t in days can be defined as t0.-lb (158.00o = 4. excluding the beam's own weight after transfer.60 for post-tensioned members (both for normal concrete) fes= stress in concrete at level of steel cgs immediately after transfer Ícsd = stress in concrete at level of steel cgs due to all superimposed dead loads applied after prestressing is accomplished n = modular ratio Note that KcR should be reduced by 20 percent for lightweight concrete. Hence. (3.llb) where KCR = 2.4 Compute the loss in prestress due to creep in Example 3. The ACI-ASCE Committee expression for evaluating creep loss has essentially the same format as Equation 3.35 for ultimate creep. with an average of 2.10.9 kN-m) .1 given that the total superimposed load.60 e= 10 + t0.415 X 106 Ec MSD = 375(50)2 X 12 8 = 1.10) where fes is the stress in the concrete at the level of the centroid of the prestressing tendon.60 eu t (3. the loss can be considered essentially uniform along the whole span.5 kN/m).0 X 10 = 6_12 4.1 Computation of Creep Loss Example 3. In general.406.4 X 103 MPa) 6 n = Es = 27.415 X 106 psi (30.Chapter 3 82 Partial Loss of Prestress EcR e=EEL (3.9b) As discussed in Chapter 2. an average value of the concrete stress fes between the anchorage points can be used for calculating the creep in post-tensioned members. nonbonded members. viz.250 in.000 \/6.0 for pretensioned members = 1. this loss is a function of the stress in the concrete at the section being analyzed. The loss in prestressed members due to creep can be defined for bonded members as (3.. Ec = 57. In post-tensioned. the value of Cu ranges between 2 and 4.lla) or (3. is 375 plf (5. 3.

45 Source: Prestressed Concrete Institute.85 0. the average value of shrinkage strain should be multiplied by a correction factor 'YsH as follows EsH = 780 X 10. the loss in prestressing due to shrinkage is somewhat less since sorne shrinkage has already taken place befare post-tensioning.4 psi (8. and concrete composition. The Prestressed Concrete Institute stipulates for standard conditions an average value for nominal ultimate shrinkage strain (EsH)u = 820 x 10-6 in. Size and shape of the member also affect shrinkage.= l.226. . /1fpcR = nKcR lfcs .fcsd) = 6.12 X 2. temperature.6 'YsH (3. so from Equation 3.64 0. 458.5 psi (64.3 psi (3.fin.77 0.4 . 2. 3. type of aggregate. This average value is affected by the length of initial moist curing.13) For post-tensioned members.fpsH = 8.12.73 0.3. If the relative humidity is taken as a percent value and the VIS ratio effect is considered. and the environmental conditions. fes = 1.5 SHRINKAGE LOSS (SH) As with concrete creep.12) Components of 'YsH are factors for various environmental conditions and tabulated in Ref. type of cement. ambient relative humidity. the magnitude of the shrinkage of concrete is affected by several factors.4).250 X 11 .1. size of the member. curing time.6 Values of KsH for Post-Tensioned Members Time from end of moist curing to application of prestress.458.92 0.14) where RH = relative humidity Table 3.2 X 10 -6 KsH Eps ( 1 . 3.8 MPa) 3.3) = 9.0 (pretensioned beam). (mm/mm). the PCI general expression for loss in prestressing due to shrinkage becomes V) ó. in ACI 209 R-92 Report.0.fin. Sec. If EsH is the shrinkage strain after adjusting for relative humidity at volume-tosurface ratio VIS. The average value of ultimate shrinkage strain in both moist-cured and steam-cured concrete is given as 780 x 10-6 in.0(1.226. To take such effects into account. They include mixture proportions. the loss in prestressing in pretensioned member is (3.58 0. for normal concrete use. Approximately 80 percent of shrinkage takes place in the first year of life of the structure. days 1 3 5 7 10 20 30 60 0.2 MPa) From Example 3.401. 33 750 = .406. (Ref. volumesurface ratio. KCR = 2.5 MPa) Also.lla. time between the end of externa! curing and the application of prestressing.80 0.5 Shrinkage Loss (SH) 83 - Ícsd = Msne ---¡.06 S (100 .RH) (3.

2 at 7 days after moist curing using both the ultimate KS/I method of Equation 3. Also. Assume thal the rclative humidity RH is 70 percent and the volume-tosurface ratio is 2.1 and 3.15b) It should be noted that separating creep from shrinkage calculations as presented in this chapter is an accepted engineeri ng practice.5.15.1 Computation of Shrinkage Loss Example3. significant variations occur in thc creep and shrinkage vaJues due to variations in the properties of the constituent materials from the various sources.0. even if the products are plant-produced such as pretensioned beams. where Ks11 = 1. t =time in days after shrinkage is considered.. .1 101/280/680 interchange connectors. after 1 to 3 days { (Es11)1 = 55 + 1 (esu)u (3.S Compute the loss in prestress due to shrinkage in Examples 3.0 for pretensiooed members. Table 3. (b) Steam curing. Hence it is recommended that information from actual tests be obtained especially on manufactured products. South San Josc. large span-to-depth ratio cases and/or if loading is unusually heavy.14 and the time-dependen! method of Equation 3.6 gives the values of Ks11 for postteosioned members. California.15a) where (Es 11). after 7 days (3. Adjustment of shrinkage losses for standard conditions as a function of time t in days after 7 days for moist curing and 3 days for steam curing can be obtained frorn the following exprcssions (a) Moist curing. is the ultimate shrinkage strain.Chapter 3 84 Partial Loss of Prestress Photo 3. 3.

6. The values of the loss coefficients are often refined while preparations are made for shop drawings by varying the types of tendons and the duct alignment. Whereas the curvature effect is predetermined. KsH = 1.70) = 5.77 X 5. EsHt . called the wobble effect.4. and the local deviations in the alignment.0 X 27 X 106(1 .6 in/in = 3.845.7 psi (31. then. It should be noted that the maximum frictional stress loss would be at the far end of the beam if jacking is from one end.6.845 = 4.t Es = 130 X 780 X 10. since ducts or sheaths cannot be perfectly placed.3 MPa) (b) Post-tensioned beam.1 Curvature Effect As the tendon is pulled with a force F 1 at the jacking end.06 X 2.500. called the curvature effect.0)(100 . 11fpsH 7 = _ t _ EsH = .0: From Equation 3. assuming that µ denotes the coefficient of friction between the tendon and the duct due to the curvature effect. F 1 = -µ. KsH = 0. it will encounter friction with the surrounding ductor sheath such that the stress in the tendon will vary from the jacking plane to a distance L along the span as shown in Figure 3.6 LOSSES DUE TO FRICTION (F) Loss of prestressing occurs in post-tensioning members due to friction between the tendons and the surrounding concrete ducts.14.0 psi (40.0 MPa) 3.16a) Integrating both sides of this equation yields log. The magnitude of this loss is a function of the tendon form or alignment. /1fpsH = 8.77: 11fpsH = 0.5.510 psi (24. If an infinitesimal length of the tendon is isolated in a free-body diagram as shown in Figure 3.da F1 (3.6 X 1. we have or dF1 =-µ.2 X 10.16b) .6 X 27 X 106 = 130 X 10.3.6 X 10.a (3.0 MPa) Solution B Time-dependent method From Equation 3.3 5 35 + t u +7 = EsH.0. from Table 3.15a. 3. Hence frictional loss varies linearly along the beam span and can be interpolated for a particular location if such refinement in the computations is warranted. the wobble effect is the result of accidental or unavoidable misalignment.6 Losses Due to Friction (F) 85 Solution A K5nmethod (a) Pretensioned beam.

(a) Tendon alignment... then (3..6..!t e: .2 Wobble Effect Suppose that K is the coefficient of friction between the tendon and the surrounding concrete due to wobble effect or length effect.16..] F 1 da F. (b) Forces on infinitesimal length where F1 is at the jacking end.5 Curvature friction loss. = ~ Partial Loss of Prestress Befo re anchorage / .g e: ¡!!. Distance along tendon Figure 3. (c) Polygon of forces assuming F1 = F2 over the infinitesimal length in (b). = F 1 da F~--i------:»F .17) 3.18) -KL Tendon ld (a) P..~~. If a = LIR.. "'e: :i . da <!. .4 Frictional force stress distribution in tendon. (b) (e) Figure 3.Chapter 3 86 . Then by the same principles described in developing Equation 3. regardless of whether it has a straight or draped alignment. Friction loss is caused by imperfection in alignment along the length of the tendon. logeF1 = (3.

the central angle a along the curved segment in Figure 3.6 Approximate evaluation of the tendon's central angle.2 are as shown in Figure 3.!2 = f1(l - e-¡w-KL) (3. If the tendon is made of 7-wire uncoated strands in flexible metal sheathing.22) where L is in feet. Since the ratio of the depth of beam to its span is small. Hence.6.6 Assume that the alignment characteristics of the tendons in the post-tensioned beam of Example 3. Figure 3.l 87 3. a m 2m tan-=-=2 x/2 X If 1 y= -m 2 and a/2 = 4y/x then a = 8y/x radian (3.21.6 is twice the slope at either end of the segment..7. it is sufficiently accurate to use the projected length of the tendon for calculating a.23) Table 3.fpF = !1 . .20) - The frictional loss of stress 1:1fpF is then given by /:::.6 Losses Due to Friction (F) or F2 = (3.3 Computation of Friction Loss Example 3. 3. it is sufficiently accurate to use the initial tension for the entire curve in Equation 3.7 gives the design values of the curvature friction coefficient µ and the wobble or length friction coefficient K adopted from the ACI 318 Commentary. Assuming the curvature of the tendon to be based on that of a circular are. compute the frictional loss of stress in the prestressing wires due to the curvature and wobble effects. Equation 3. in terms of stresses. f2 _ ne ¡: -µa-KL (3.21) Assuming that the prestress force between the start of the curved portian and its end is small (=: 15 percent).19) F1e-KL Superimposing the wobble effect on the curvature effect gives F2 = F1e-µa-KL or.21 can thus be simplified to yield 1:1fpF = -fi(µa + KL) (3.

93 percent of the initial prestress. µ.0001-0.22.500 psi From Equation 3.25 0. (µ.0020 and µ = 0.500 X X 0.05-0.0005-0.191 psi (180.0002 0.15-0. Kperfoot Curvature coefficient.6 MPa) This loss due to friction is 12. 309.0003-0.0015 0.0006 0.15-0.7 Wobble and Curvature Friction Coefficients Type of tendon Wobble coefficient.30 Tendons in rigid metal duct 7-wire strand 0.500(0.0020 0.23. .0020 0.825 l.15-0.20. 202. the prestress loss dueto !l. 3.Partial Loss of Prestress Chapter 3 88 Table 3.15 Source: Prestressed Concrete Institute.1467 radian = 0.25 Mastic-coated tendons Wire tendons and 7-wire strand 0.0020 X 50) = 26. Tendons in flexible metal sheathing Wire tendons 7-wire strand High-strength bars 0. From Equation 3.825 lb fp.05-0.2 m)-----<•o-i Prestressing tendon alignment. 8y a. They can also occur in the prestressing casting beds of pretensioned members due to the adjustment R = 140' ~--25'-0"_______j ~-----50'-0" Figure 3.0010-0.-- = . 53 = .a+ KL) = 202. Solution: P.0020 0.7 ANCHORAGE-SEATING LOSSES (A) Anchorage-seating losses occur in post-tensioned members due to the seating of wedges in the anchors when the jacking force is transferred to the anchorage.7 1% (15. = ~ = From Table 3.15 Pregreased tendons Wire tendons and 7-wire strand 0.fpF = fp.08-0.1467 0.1293 + 0. 0. use K friction is 8 X 11 X 50 12 = .7.25 0.20 = 202. = 309.0010-0.

2 if the estjmated slip is t in.250 psi (77. Colorado.7. A remedy for this loss can be easily effected during the stressing operations by overstressing.) . and i in. (6. Post-Tensioning lnstitute. tben the prestress loss due to anchorage slip beco mes (3.7 Compute lhe anchorage-seating loss in the post-tensioned beam of Example 3. it becomes difficult to post-tension such beams with high accuracy. AfpA = "" X 27 X lv = X LAA Eps =SO0. Pholo 3.2 Terracentre. L is the tendon length.6 MPa) Note that the percentage of loss dueto anchorage slip becomes very high in short-beam elements and thus becomes of major significance in short-span beams. 11.1 Computation of Anchorage-Seating Loss Exomple3. (6. GeneraUy.35 mm and 9.35 m). In such cases.25 in.25 12 . Denver.7 Anchorage-Seating Losses (A) expected when the prestressing force is transferred to these beds. and Eps is the modulus of the prestressing wires. If aA is the magnjtude of the slip.89 3. Solulion: Eps = 27 X llf psi A11 = 0. the magnitude of anchorage-seating loss ranges between i in. (Courresy.53 mm) for the two-piece wedges. and the manufacturer is expected to supply the data on the slip expected due to anchorage adjustment.24) 3. The magnitude of the overstressing lhat is necessary depends on the anchorage system used since each system has its particular adjustment needs.

7 mm dia) 270-K grade stress-relieved strands.fpB = EcEps where Eps is the modulus of the steel. it becomes convex or concave depending on the nature of the load.5 cm) cb sb = 2. 3 (97.670 cm3 ) .40 L of the span considering that it can sometimes govern in cases of moving loads and also in continuous spans. (330 mm).9 presents a flowchart for step-by-step evaluation of time-dependent prestress losses without deflection. (a) Dueto prestressing. (55. (a) stage 1 at transfer (b) stage 11 after concrete topping is placed (e) two years after concrete topping is placed Suppose the topping is 2 in. 4 (2.Chapter 3 90 Partial Loss of Prestress p p (b) (a) Figure 3.8. as shown in Figure 3. Note that any loss due to bending need not be taken into consideration if the prestressing stress level is measured after the beam has already bent.500 psi (24. Figure 3. If the unit compressive strain in the concrete along the level of the tendon is E0 then the corresponding change in prestress in the steel is f). (b) Due to externa! load. Given f~ = 5. (476 mm) and at the end 12.5 MPa) f~. (51 mm) normal-weight concrete cast at 30 days. diameter (twelve 12. Assume the critica! section to be at 0. and the eccentricity at midspan is 18.73 in.8 Change in beam longitudinal shape.1 MPa) and the following noncomposite section properties. lightweight (34.3 (44.9 STEP-BY-STEP COMPUTATION OF ALL TIME-DEPENDENT LOSSES IN A PRETENSIONED BEAM Example3.02 in.49 X 106 cm4 ) = 21. Suppose also that prestress transfer occurred 18 h after tensioning the strands. 3. Ac = 615 in. (25.10 is prestressed by twelve Hn.8 CHANGE OF PRESTRESS DUE TO BENDING OF A MEMBER (Mps) As the beam bends due to prestress or external load. 3.8 cm) d = 10.968 cm2) le = 59.98 in.520 cm3) S' = 5.717 in. = 3.000 psi.98 in. The strands are harped.8 A simply supported pretensioned 70-ft-span lightweight steam-cured double T-beam as shown in Figure 3. as is usually the case. 2 (3.720 in.960 in. Compute the prestress loss at the critica! section in the beam due to dead load and superimposed dead load..

=fp¡ . sb. VIS.9 Step-by-Step Computation of Ali Time-Dependent Losses in a Pretensioned Beam START t. Post-tensioned Sequential jacking Af ES = P f . 'PU' fp. Input Ac. only if post-tensioned MpF = fp¡ {µex + KL) µ and kfrom Table 3.60 Alternat1ve _) 060 10_ +t.90P. ex= 8e/L or ex=!:..!_ .35 ( -t0. factor KcR = 2.6(X 0. 91 . = P¡ can be used for refinement since PJ at elastic shortening stage ="' 0. time t.90 P. Figure 3. R Anchorage-seating loss AfpA = LAA Eps Net fp.8 for lightweight concrete) ..8 for lightweight concrete) Post-tensioned KcR = 1. Pretensioned Eps AfpES = - fes Ee.7.3.AfpA Elastic-shortening loss _ f es P¡ =-Ae ( e2) 1+r2 e +M-Je0 - where 0.9 Flowchart for step-by-step evaluation of prestress losses.¡. le. pretensioned or post-tensioned stress-relieved or low-relaxation steel Friction loss.1 fPY' EPS' t. (AfpES)¡ Creep loss Pretensioned KcR = 2(X 0.. RH. AP•' W0 • Wso• WL• anchorage seating AAe. n . L. sr.

) => 0.llfpEs fpJ . Add a11 losses ll fpT (i) Pretensioned + flfpR + flfpCR + flfpSH flfpT = flfpES (ii) Post-tensioned flfpT = flfpA + flfpF + flfpES + flfpR + flfpCR + flfpSH where llfpES is applicable only when tendons are jacked sequentially and not simultaneously IJ. fpy - 0. log t 1) ( fp.fp¡ -. t + 35 IJ.(1 - 0. t.llfpES where fpES is for case of sequential jacking ll f pR = f ..RH) K 5H = 1 for pretensioned KsH from Table 3.fpSH = 730 x 10-s ( t +t 55 moist curing ) EP.flfpF .55) where log t = log (t2 .2 X 10-s K 5 HEp.. . t.Chapter 3 92 Partial Loss of Prestress Shrinkage loss llfpSH = 8. = fpJ ..) .t 1) (ii) Low-relaxation strands Replace the denominator ( 10) in the (log t 2 .9 Continued .fpE5 are subtracted from the total jacking stress fp¡ Cale u late % of each type of loss Add % of ali losses Figure 3..!lfpR (to.55 where t 2 and t 1 are in hours Post-tensioned fp.log t 1) term for pretensioned and the (log t) term for post-tensioned by a denominator value of 45. py 1 ) 0.90fpJ (log t 2 .6 for post-tensioned Alternatively IJ.fppand IJ.fpSH =800 x 10-s (-t-) EP. pi 109 t ( 10 fp.llfpR (t0 ..06V/S)(100 .steam curing Relaxation of steel loss (i) Stress-relieved strands Pretensioned fp. _ _ Q dfpR . = fpJ .

(a) Elevation. (b) Pretensioned Wv (no topping) = 491 plf (7.85fpu = 230.98) = 17. = = 0.. v.-. Dead-load moment M D at 0.000 psi (1. Double-T pretensioned beam.00o) = 2... .10 section.82 X 0..".3..1 0 ' .= ec 12rf= = 18..303 MPa) Eps = 28 X 106 psi (193..1 X 103 MPa) Assume that post-tensioning is applied in 18 hours after concrete curing.58 in.r -¡~¡ l-+-4: .. Given critica! section distance from support = 0. ·-·v · i .40 of the span is .ml 70'-0" (21.2 kN/m) Wsv(2-in..88 X 106 psi Eci Stage 1: Stress Transfer (a) Elastic shortening.8(18.500 psi = 1151.915 Pa)-Transient fpu = 270.. 1~~17!" ~1 l l·---5'-0"---- .70fpu 0.7}" (476 mm) #--~g_c--yL---3118..85fpu := 0. Solution: f.65 kN/m) WL = 40 psf (1..9 Step-by-Step Computation of All Time-Dependent Losses in a Pretensioned Beam 93 e..500) = 2.. (b) Figure 3.70fpu = 189. .40 x 70 = 28 ft. e at critica! section = 12.. = 3.0 " ..000 psi (1..5(33 V3.41 X 106 psi Ec = 115 15(33\/5.73 -12.589 MPa) fp.98 + 0.3 1 1 m) (a) r·· .82fpy = 0. topping) = 250 plf (3.862 MPa) fpy = 0.000 psi (1...

-lb (391 kN-m) fp.20 176.fpR .55 ) = 6.000 ( - log t1 ) (fp.405 = 18.720 + 1.000 psi fp.958 psi (85. = (b) Steel-Stress Relaxation.690 psi (94 MPa) vs.958 + 6.90 = -1178.9P1 would have been adequate. fpy = 230.55 py 1 log 18)(189.. = 171. in 2 2 .985 psi in the refined solution.042 psi.=P. and P. (e) Creep Loss /::.12.70 X 270.18.000 - = 6.7 MPa) = 28 X 1066 = 11. an assumption of 10-percent loss at the beginning in estimating P.62 X .41 X 10 11fpES = nfcs = 11. = Ap/p.000 = 313. = 189.62 2. assumed OK.000 psi could be used) t = 18 hours _ /::.135.3 = 13.9 = -1.958 + 6.000 = 189.( l+ e ) Mve t -+ cs r Ac le + (17.042 OOO 171 . = 189.2 Eps Ec.fp.000 psi. + 1.153 X 171.000 psi..11 X 17. a small difference of -6 percent. then the net fp.62 X 1. = 189. 0. 0.fpCR = 0 (d) Shrinkage Loss /::.496 ) 97. 2 + 3.4 MPa) If fp.956 l 615 = n= -2. 12.3 psi (7.115.464.000 .9 psi 0.019.3 = 12.000 -----w230.fpSH = 0 The stage-1 total losses are !1fpT = !1fpES + !1fpR + !1fpcR + !1fpsH = 12.405 psi (134 MPa) .. = 0.135. _ ) O Í.956 lb X 59 72 ' 615 =18.447 psi !1fpES + !1fpR = 12.000 psi is used. = 12 r = ~ = Ac 0. (log t2 = 189.000 .000 = 171.447 = 19.446.708 ft-lb = 3.464.447 + O + O = 19.000 psi. Thus. then net-steel º = 9711.58) = _ 313.70fpu = 0. X 11fpES = nfcs = 11.958 = 176.000 psi Assume elastic-shortening loss and steel-relaxation loss stress fp.115.28) = 288.000 psi (or net fp. = 189.. Calculate the steel relaxation at transfer.58 59.3 psi 1178.019.Chapter 3 94 Wv~(L - = Mv = 491 (2:}70 x) Partial Loss of Prestress . and we ha ve Ícs = -2.496 in.

Then. use KCR = 2.190 + 5.o. 10 230.19.11 to account for stage III as well (see stage-111 creep calculations).2 V X 10.091 psi (35.3 .595 ) .88 X 106 = 9. topping is Msv Ícsd = Wsv G) MSDe = .0.6 X 1.000 .3.190 psi (42. sufficient approximation can be justified in stage 11 using the creep factor KCR of Equation 3.7 MPa) (e) Steel Relaxation Loss at 30 Days t1 = 18 hours t2 fps = 30 days = 30 = X 24 = 720 hours 169.06 X 1.3 psi Although 30 days' duration is short for long-term effects.-lb (199 kN-m) .000 in.72 .0.70) 6. from Equation 3.log 18) (169.69 from geometry KsH = 1.x) 28 = 25o( 2 ) 1. /ifpsH = 8.595 psi from stage 1 !ifpR = 169.1 MPa) Stage-11 total loss is lifpT = lifpcR + !ifpsH + !ifpR = 9.lcsd) X 1.2 = X 10. = 519.595 psi (1.000 X 17.10.88 X 106 psi Eps = 28 X 106 psi Eps n =- Ec fes = = 28 X 106 2.= e (L . Stage II: Transfer to Placement of Topping a/ter 30 Days (a) Creep Loss Ec = 2.55 = 5.764.115.6KsHEp~ 1 .000 . Then.69)(100 .269 psi (63.o6f)(loo - RH) 615 S = 364 = 1.1.115.595 ( log 720 .58 59 ' 720 (70 .3) = 9. For lightweight concrete. hence.269 + 6.3 MPa) (b) Shrinkage Loss. Assume relative humidity RH = 70%.091 = 20. = 311.72 1. the prestress loss due to long-term shrinkage is !ifpSH = 8.0 X 28 X 106(1 .376 psi.169 MPa).0 for pretensioned members.519.28) X 12 = 1. giving P.764. normal-weight concrete topping: WSD = 2 X 10 X 150 = 250 plf 12 The moment due to the 2-in.0 x 80% = 1. from Equation 3.405 = 169.9 Step-by-Step Computation of All Time-Dependent Losses in a Pretensioned Beam 95 The strand stress fp.6.14. at the end of stage 1=189.550 psi (142 MPa) The increase in stress in the strands due to the addition of topping is .6(1.3 psi Intensity of 2-in. the prestress loss due to long-term creep is !ifpcR = nKCR(Jcs = 9.

0.000 -12.269 -6.520 hours The steel relaxation stress loss is dfpR = 154.048 = 154.093 0. Accordingly.Chapter 3 96 fsv = nfcsd = 9.20.091+2.9 Solve Example 3.093 .3 = 5.2.8 MPa) X Hence.log 720)(154. the strand stress at the end of stage 11 is fpe = fps .7 MPa) =154. 20% for this pretensioned beam.2 MPa) .000 .530 psi (1. and that ali strands are simultaneously tensioned in a flexible duct.ld in this case).000 psi (fpJ = fp.530 psi (1.093( ) log 17.190 -14.563 = 151.55 10 23 .1=19._A= 4 = L = 70 ft 0.9 -4. fpe = 154. = 189. psi Percent 189.9%. = 2.9 -3..101 5.dfpT + fsv = 169.7 80.520 .24.093 psi (1.550 + 5.093 psi (1.048 psi (34.8 assuming that the beam is post-tensioned. 3. Solution: (a) Anchorage seating loss l" ¡).0 -6.595 . say. 106 = 8333 psi (40. So the strand stress fpe at the end of stage III Summary of Stresses Steel stress.062 MPa) Stage IIL· At End ofTwo Years The values for long-term creep and long-term shrinkage evaluated for stage 11 are assumed not to have increased significantly.447 + 5.563) Increase due to topping Final net stress Ípe Percentages oftotal losses = 100.958 -9. the anchorage slip stress loss is dfpA = /).25" From Equation 3. Assume also that the anchorage seating loss is! in. since the long-term values of KcR for creep and KsH for shrinkage were used in stage-11 computations.3 -7.045 MPa) 100.048 151.72 Partial Loss of Prestress 519.1 Stress level at various stages After tensioning (0.70 fpJ Elastic shortening loss Creep loss Shrinkage loss Relaxation loss (6.563 psi (17.80.25 X 70 12 X 28 X . Also assume that the total jacking force prior to the friction and anchorage seating losses resulted in fp.033 MPa).A L Ep5 = 0.5 2. of Equation 3.10 STEP-BY-STEP COMPUTATION OF ALL TIME-DEPENDENT LOSSES IN A POST-TENSIONED BEAM Example 3.066 MPa) t1 = 30 days = 720 hours t2 = 2 years X 365 X 24 = 17 .

25 X 0. use K =0. Then.S =O.O .. Since aJI jacks are simultaneously post-tensioned.a + KL) = 189. Grandfather Mountain. no clastic shortening stress loss takes place in lhe tendons.98) 70 X 12 . Assume that the parabolic tendon approximates the shape of an are of a circle.73 .0548 radian From Table 3. = 0. from Equation 3.726 lb compared to P1 = 311.376 lb in the pretensioned case of Example 3.303 MPa) From Equation 3.7.25.333 . As a rcsull.15.136 MPa) Hence.819 == 164.153 = 296. from Example 3.001 and µ.8.848 X 12 X 0. fp. lnc. 8y a = ~ = 8(18. the net prestressing force is P1 == 164.3 Linn Cove Viaduct.819 psi (109 MPa) The stress remaining in the prestressing steel after all initial instantaneous losscs is fpr = 189.fpF = fp. the stress loss in prestress due to friction is ó. (Courtesy.001 X 70) = 15.000 psi {l.23. Hence.000 .fpE. Figg and Muller Engincers.848 psi (l. (e) Frictional loss. Then.12. Designed by Figg and Muller Engineers..(µ. =0. ó.8. now FIGG Engineers) . Florida. A 90º cantilever anda 10 percent superelevation in one direction to a full 10 percent in the opposite direction within 180 ft.000(0.8. lnc. = 189. North Carolina.97 3. Photo 3.0548 + 0. Tallahassee.22.10 Step-By-Step Computation of All Time-Dependent Losses in a Post-Tensloned Beam (b) Elastic shortening. the elastic shortening will precipitate during jacking.

the creep loss: For lightweight concrete.496 97.190 X 0.016.0 MPa) Stage JI: Total Losses t!.0.fpCR = 0 (d) Shrinkage Loss f:l.590 psi (24.6.933 + 3. = 161.333 psi Net stress = 164.3) =5.848 .log 18) ( 161..848 psi (b) Relaxation Loss ) log 18) (164.3.996.000 .fpcR + t!...fpR = 164.55 23 = 3.327 lb 2 _ P.450 = 161.464.58 = 3..153 = 296.2 .fpsH + t!. ( e ) MDe Ícs = .2 psi (6..848 f:l.98 Chapter 3 Partial Loss of Prestress Stage I: Stress at Transfer (a) Anchorage Seating Loss Loss = 8.848 ( lO 0. From Example 3.58) 2 ) + 3.0.398 ) 10 0.20 + 1.327 ( 615 1 + (17.28(996.8 MPa) Here.8 MPa) (e) Creep Loss f:l. Table 3.fpT = t!.Ac 1 + r2 + -----¡. at the end of stage 1 is 164.55 23 = 3.446 psi (93 MPa) .fpsH = 6. f!.58 at 30 days.398 ( log 720 .923 = 13.28.fpSH = 0 So the tendon stress fp.000 .fcsd) = 9.933 psi (41 MPa) (b) Shrinkage Loss.fpR = 5.fpCR = nKcRlfcs .398 X 12 X 0.590 + 3.450 psi (23.58 59. t!.94 MPa) Hence.80=1..8. for KsH = 0.113 MPa) Stage JI: Transfer to Placement of Topping a/ter 30 Days (a) Creep Loss P.923 psi (27.- = _ 296.72 X 1.020. hence = 1.fpR = 161.720 = -2.398 psi The relaxation loss in stress becomes f:l.519.398 psi (1.00 = . the assumption is made that the major shrinkage occurred in 30 days. KCR is reduced by 20%.11 X 17. (e) Steel Relaxation Loss at 30 Days fps = 161.6x0.

520 hours The steel relaxation stress loss is ) (log 17.933 -3.7 *Frictional and anchorage seating losses are included in this table since the total jacking stress is given as 189.4 -8.000 . the increase in stress in the strands due to the addition of topping.520 . So the net final strand stress by this method is fpe = 189.923 + 2.8 MPa).ÜÜÜ lQ /1fpR .1.819 -5. the total loss !1fpT= 45. 151 530 . Solutionfor Example 3.45.9 MPa) Using the same assumptions for stage 111 creep and shrinkage as in Example 3.2.7 = 20.000 = 5.0 o o.000 100.ÜÜÜ 23 == 2.79.11fpT + 11fsv = 161.144.000 _ _ Ü.000 = 144.000 psi (993 MPa) Step-by-step fpe value = 151.9 by the approximate lump-sum method. 189.398 .8 and 3. 3.333 -15.048 = 153.11 Lump-Sum Computation of Time-Dependent Losses in Prestress From Example 3.446 + 5.556 -4.038 MPa) Summary o/ Stresses Stress level at various stages Steel stress psi Percent After tensioning (0.444 psi (16.048 psi (34. the strand stress at the end of stage 11 is fpe = fps . and compare the results.13. From Table 3.4 -3.10 Solve Examples 3.444 = 150. otherwise the tendons would have to be jacked an additional stress of such a magnitude as to neutralize the frictional and anchorage seating losses.9 -5.1 -1.70/PJ Elastic shortening loss Anchorage loss * Frictional loss* Creep loss Shrinkage loss Relaxation loss (3.8.556 psi (1. hence.055 MPa) Stage III: At End o/2 Years fpe = 153.99 3. is fsv = 5.000 psi.11 LUMP-SUM COMPUTATION OF TIME-DEPENDENT LOSSES IN PRESTRESS Example 3.000 psi (228 MPa).3% beam.444) Increase due to topping Final net stress fpe Percentage of total losses = 100.o -8.530 .590 -9.048 150.000 psi (1.7 79.817 +5.000 psi t1 = 720 hours t2 = 17 .2 +2.0% .530 Percent difference = 151.450 + 3. the strand stress fpe at the end of stage 111 is approximately 153.8.log 720) (153.55 Ü.8.153.000 .

12 SI PRESTRESS LOSS EXPRESSIONS IÍ.232 . (3.fpR = fp.t = 730 x 10-6 mm/mm il.3 % In both cases. 3. meter.llb) where for normal concrete KCR = 2.35.15a. indicating that in normal.24) . 154 000 = 2.6 KsH KsH EPs( 1 - 0.t -.w + 3.15b. fpy .28KL) (3. standard cases both methods are equally reliable.2 X 10. So the net final strand stress by the lump-sum method is fpe = 189. the difference between the step-by-step "exact" method and the approximate lump-sum method is quite small.45 (60 days) Equation 3.fpsH = 8.149.14) = 1.000 psi (241 MPa). n = modular ratio Eps = E e il. The denominator 10 becomes 45 for lowrelaxation tendons.8) for stress-relieved tendons where t is in hours.062 MPa) Step-by-step fpe value = 150.22) where L.55 ) (3. pretensioned = range of 0.2. moist curing for 7 days E t ]E SH.[ t +55 SH. ( log t2 - lQ log t 1) (f~. From Table 3.9.0.000 .100 Chapter 3 Partial Loss of Prestress Solution for Example 3.000 psi (1.556 Percent difference = 154.06 ~)100 - RH) (3.0 for pretensioned = 1.6 for post-tensioned reduced by 20% for lightweight concrete. steam curing 1 to 3 days max E t ]E SH.u where EsH.000 .t -.u where EsH.92 (1 <lay) to 0.0.[ t +35 SH. the total loss ilpr= 35. (3.000 = 154.t = 800 x 10-6 mm/mm Equation 3.fpF = -f¡(¡.

64 cm .043 WJ~ = wl. X lOO 2 3 l = 21.0 MPa (b) Elastic Shortening Since ali jacks are simultaneously tensioned.64 cm RH V/S = 1.3 m X 193.82/py = (0. 12.85)/pu = 0. As a result.ifpA = .iA = Msv = 199 kN-m = 70% 0.3 m Aps 2 = twelve tendons.7-mm diameter (99 mm ) = 12 X 99 = 1.0 cm ec = fpu = 1. = 106 N/m2 = N/mm2 (psi) 0. no elastic shortening loss takes place in the tendons.000 = 58.580 MPa fp.520 cm3 r2 = lc/Ac = 626 cb = 55.593 = N/m (in.82 X 0.8 cm e'= 25. 5 = wi.85fpu = 1. = 24.9 using SI units for losses in prestress. 5 w (lightweight) = 1830 Kg/m 0. considering self-weight and superimposed dead load only. the elastic shortening will simultaneously precipitate during jacking.968 cm2 S' = 97.iA = 0.113 = N-m = 3.043 ~ MPa 3 .101 3.7fpu = 1.12.49 X 106 cm4 44.64 1. Data f~ = 34. = 0.860 MPa fpy = 0.006895 MPa = (lb/ft) 14.5 MPa f~.1 MPa Ac = 3.11 Solve Example 3.188 mm2 M 0 = 391 kN-m .670 cm3 sb = le = 2.1 SI Prestress Loss Example Example 3.69 Solution: (a) Anchorage seating loss .000 MPa Span l = 21..(Eps) 1 = 0.12 SI Prestress Loss Expressions Ec Eci 0. .iA .6 cm ee = 33.300 MPa Eps = 193.5 cm 47.-lb) 0.

108 x 1.188 = 1.24.log .8.001 X 3.(58 + O + 109) = 1.-A 1 + 2 + .300 .300 MPa From Equation 3.(µ.Aps = 1. = 1.800 Kg/m3 1 100 x- .133 MPa Hence.3 X 100 = 0. = fp.108 MPa Stage JI: Transfer to Placement of Topping A/ter 30 Days (a) Creep Loss P¡ = 1.32 X 106 N _ Ícs 2 P.6) 2 ] 1 + -3.133 . Then.055 radians From Table 3.001.188 = 1.4 = 1. from Equation 3.32 X 106 [ (44.91 X 107 N-cm X 44.0) 21.1e e r at tendons centroid e at 0.00 N/mm2 = 6.6 .102 Chapter 3 Partial Loss of Prestress Hence ~ÍpES = 0. fp.300(0.4 of span = 17.33.133 X 1.3) = 109MPa The stress remaining in the prestressing steel after all instantaneous stresses fp.7.90 MPa at cgs w (lightweight) = 1. Íz PY _ (log 18 .25 X 0. = 1.968 X 102 626 + 3.580 0.133 _ ) 1.a + 3.055 + 0. ~fpF = fp. (e) Frictional Loss Assume that the parabolic tendon approximates the shape of an are of a circle. ( e ) Mveb = . µ = 0.28 X 21.133 10 º) (1.6 N/mm2 2. _ ~fpR .fp.1. By a=~= 8(ec .4MPa (e) Creep Loss ~ÍcR =O (d) Shrinkage Loss ~ÍSH = O Tendon stress at the end of stage 1 fps = 1. (log t2 - O 1 _0.55) log t1) (f~.35 X 106 N Stage I: Stress at Transfer (a) Anchorage Seating Loss ~JA= 58 MPa (b) Relaxation Loss From Equation 3.23.49 X 106 = -13.55 = 24.25.7 cm ¡.= 44.90 + 7.22.ee) l 8(47. K = 0.58 in. the net prestressing force is P.28KL) = 1. Jcs - 1.

58 (Table 3.57) = 52. 9.12 SI Prestress Loss Expressions Ec (lightweight) = wl. 5 0.5 n X 0.76 Ícsd = stress in concrete at cgs due to ali superimposed dead loads after prestressing i~ accomplished.6 for post-tensioned beam From Equation 3.9(4.14.000(1 .6 1.8(2.1.6 MPa On the assumption that !:ifpcR and !:ifpsH were stable in this case.06 X 1.RH) KSH at 30 days = 0.log 720) ( 1.5 193.15.6) !:ifpsH = 8.7 2.2.06f) (100 .8 MPa = 1. the stress in the tendons at end of stage 111 can approximately be fps = 1.log 18) (1.2 X 10.7MPa (e) Relaxation Loss at 30 Days (720 Hrs) fps = 1.8 MPa Stage II: Total Losses !:ifpT = !:ifpcR + !:ifpsH + !:ifR = 52.043\/34.55 l.5 = 1.580 0.043\/34.108 .770 MPa 9.039 = 103.49 X 106 X _l_ N/mm2 100 3.5 = 1.8301.25)0.1. = MSDe = 1.69)(100 .0.llb.020 MPa. lQ 580 = 110.0.108 = 15.108 .57 !:ifsv = nfcsv fpe = fps .90 .520 hrs.3. !:ifpsH = 8.85 .244 .0 MPa X (b) Shrinkage Loss at 30 Days From Equation 3.039 _ _ 1.6 KsH EP.fcsd) = 9.039 MPa t1 = 720 hrs.103 3.151 = 26.5 + 34.55 10 !:ifpR .520 .108 MPa !:ifpR = 1.8 = 104 MPa Increase of tensile stress at bottom cgs fibers due to addition of topping is from befare.70) = 24.857)0.2 X 10.770 Eps Ec = --.108 ( ) log 720 .7 + 26.039 . = .!:ifpT + !:ifsv = = 34.57 MPa KCR = 1. ) (log 17. !:ifpcR = nKCR(jcs .039 MPa Stage III: At End of Two Years fpe = 1.6(6.( 1 = 0.76 X 3.= = - = 19. t2 = 17 .99 Je Jcsd f" = X 7 10 N-cm X 44.76 1.103.6 X 0.000 19.58 X 193.0 + 24.

Phoenix. Ghali. and Dilger. E. 1986. Ml. W. 3. Y. A variable deplb precast segmenta! concrete bridge with spans of 330'-440'-330' built in balanced cantilever. Washington.. pp.7 Tadros. 83.10 Cobn. . 3. D.2 ACl-ASCE Joint Committee 423. Reinforced Concrete-A Fundamenta/ Approach. November 1956. The speeding of consLruction was accomplished by erecting the approach spans \vilh span-to-span construction wbile simultaneously erecling the main 440 fl. Ncw York. 2008.6 Lin. 1975. "Tbe Deforrnation of Noncomposite and Composite Prestressed Concrete Members. 1975. H. span using balanced cantilever construction.. 446. Farrnington Hills. NJ: 2009. Uppcr Saddle River. 5th ed. 3." Journal of che Prestressed Concrete lnstitute 20. G. ASCE. At this time. American Concrete lnstitute. 1974. K. Nawy. the bridge designer) SELECTED REFERENCES 3. 77. 3. E.104 Chapter 3 Partial Loss of Prestress Photo 3. MI.2000. Dordrecht. vols 1 and 2. 3.9 Nawy. 3. Farmington HiJls." Jo11r11al ofthe American Concrete !nstitwe 54 (1957): 548-578. Farmington Hills. lnterim Specificatíons Bridges. E. pp. Lhis main span is lhe longesl precast cantilever segmenta! construction in the United States.8 Branson.4 Route 35. 6th ed. T. 86-98. Tbe photo shows Lhe span-byspan ereclion scheme of the approach spans. PCI Design Handbook. Post-Tensioning lnstitu1e. AZ. connecting Perlh Amboy and Sayerville. 936 pp.12 ACI Committee 435. pp. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 3 18-08) and Commentary (ACJ 318 R-08). Prentice·Hall. "Recommendations for Estimating Prestress Loss. 1995. New Jersey. pp. 3. M. 1107. (Courtesy of FIGG.3 AASHTO Subcornmittee on Bridges and Structures." Joumal of the Prestressed Concrete lnstitute 20 (1975): 43-75. American Association of State Highway aod Transportation Officials. G.4 Prestressed Concrete Inslitute. Chairman. 5th Ed. 3. Post-Tensioning Manual. Chicago: 1999." Joumal of Strucrura/ Division.. The first of lhe twin 3. American Concrete Tnstitute. PCI. in Cooperation with NATO Scientific Affairs Division. D.C. "Cable Frictioo in Post-Tensioning.970' bridges was completed in just 15 months.1 PCJ Committee on Prestress Loss. From Theory ro Praccice. Z. "Tentative Recommeodatioos for Prestressed Concrete. "Control of Deflection in Concrete Structures. A. The Netherlands: Marlinus Nijhoff. Portia/ Prestressing.'' ACT Commitlee Report R435-95. 3. M.5 Post-Tensioning Lnstitute. "Time Dependenl Loss and Deflection in Prestressed Concrete Members. 3.128." In Defiection of Structures. American Concrete Institute. Victory Bridge over Lhe Raritan River. NATO-ASI Applied Science Series.11 ACI Committee 318.1 to 1107-13. 3.

Use RH = 70% and VIS = 3.4 times the span from the face of the support. by the detailed step-by-step method. "Concrete-The Sustainable lnfrastructure Material for the 21 st.1 which has aspan of 64 ft (19. the total losses in prestress of the 10-ft (3.rr{~. The First International Conference on Recent Advances in Concrete Technology.5 in.000 psi.5 kN/m) in addition to its self-weight and is prestressed with 20 stress-relieved hn.2. pp. pp.9 m) _ _ _ _ __ . Assume also that ali strands are tensioned simultaneously and that the anchorage slip LlA = i in. the critica! section is determined to be at a distance 0.862 MPa) f~ Ípi = 0. Use ali the data of Problem 1.5 mm). (7.l. E.1 and which has a span of 34 ft (10..13 Nawy. No. Proceedings.3 Compute. PROBLEMS 3.2 Compute.5 kN/m) ++++++++++ ++i . Compute the total prestress losses by the step-by-step method. assume that the total jacking stress prior to the friction and anchorage seating losses is 189. National Research Council.4 MPa).70fpu Relaxation time t = 5 years ec = 19 in. Take the following values as given: = 6.C.1 in your solution.8. G... "Concrete-The Sustainable Infrastructure Material for the 21 st. Assume SD load= 30% LL.." Keynote Address Paper. Determine the steel relaxation losses at the end of the first year after erection and at the end of 4 years.-'!"__ ~:~-a ~ 75'-0" ~ >-+------(22. by the detailed step-by-step method. (483 mm) Re la tive humidity RH = 75 % V/S = 3. Century. (91.0 in.000 psi (41. D. normal-weight concrete f~. (a) 30" _I (76cm)1 + T + ''I 6" 50" Tr--3º"~ (b) Figure P3.. It is subjected to a uniform gravitational live-load intensity WL = 1.200 plf (17. 3. by the detailed step-by-step method. = 4. 1-23.5 m) for a steel relaxation period of 7 years.000 psi (1. 2007. E-C103. dia (12. Washington. E. and compare them with the values obtained by the lump-sum method. 1~ __l 1 WL = 1200 plf (17. (b) Section.. and solve for both pretensioned and post-tensioned prestressing conditions. Washington.62 cm) Assume SD load= 30% LL. September 19. and assume that the relative humidity RH = 70% and the volume-to-surface ratio VIS= 3. G. Crystal City.9 if it was post-tensioned using flexible ducts for the tendon.9 cm).7 mm dia) 7-wire strands." Keynote Address Paper. Transportation Research Board. the total prestress losses of the simply supported double T-beam of Example 3.14 Nawy. the total losses of prestress in the AASHTO 36-in.28-m)wide flange double T-beam in Example 1. 3.1 A simply supported pretensioned beam has a span of 75 ft (22.105 Problems 3. D. 3. (9. (8. 1-24. Ali the data are identical to those of Example 3. Assume that the tendon profile is essentially parabolic. In the post-tensioned case..9 m) and the cross section shown in Figure P3.C. 3.1 (a) Elevation.. Century.4 Compute.4 m) for both the pretensioned and the post-tensioned case.4 cm)-deep beam used in Problem 1. .500 psi (31 MPa) fpu = 270. September 2006.

and by triaJ and adjustment it converges to a final section with geometrical details of the concrete cross section and the sizes and alignments of the prestressing strands. As seen from the discussion in Cbapter 1. they control the selection of the geometrical dimensions of the prestressed concrete section regardless of whether it is pretensioned or post-tensioned. a good understanding of tbe fundamental principies of analysis and the altematives presented tbereby significantly simplifies the task of designing tbe section. One assumes tbe geometricaJ properties of tbe section to be prestressed and then proceeds to determine wbelher the section can safely carry tbe prestressing forces and tbe required externaJ loads.) 106 . and cracking are analyzed and satisfied. Heoce. The section satisfies the flexura! (bending) requiremeots of concrete stress and steel stress limitations. bending moments. deflection. The design process starts witb the choice of a preliminary geometry. Prestressed Concrete Institute. Tbereafter. every design is essentially an analysis. While the input data far the analysis of sectioos differ from tbe data needed far design. tbe basic mechanics of materials.FLEXURAL DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETEELEMENTS 4. Marylaod Coacert Center parking garage. or imposed.1 INTRODUCTION Flexura! stresses are tbe result of extemal. and elastic principies of superposition have to be adhered to in ali stages of loading. (Courtesy. other factors sucb as shear and torsion capacity. principies of equilibrium of interna] couples. Baltimore. In most cases.

taking into consideration the impact of the magnitude of prestress losses discussed in Chapter 3. All these checks are necessary to ensure that at service load cracking is negligible and the long-term effects on deflection or camber are well controlled. while a schematic plot of load versus defor(-) Compressive stress stress (a) (+) Tensile stress (b) Figure 4. at transfer. and bond are met. In the design of prestressed members. • Most short-term losses in the prestressing force occur. Unlike the case of reinforced concrete members.107 4. with long-term losses due to creep. . The principies and methods presented in Chapter 1 for service load computations are extended into step-bystep procedures for the design of prestressed concrete linear elements. this chapter covers the major aspects of both the serviceload flexural design and the ultimate-load flexural design check.2. and then the analysis of the available moment strength Mn of the section for the limit state at failure. (a) Negative bending moment. provided that the member is simply supported. i. (b) Positive bending moment. with the failure load indicating the reserve strength for overload conditions. A typical loading history and corresponding stress distribution across the depth of the critical section are shown in Figure 4. however. • The full self-weight WD acts on the member together with the initial prestressing force. then. is applied. leading to a reduced prestressing force Peo· • The member is subjected to the full service load. • The full superimposed dead load Wsv including topping for composite action. Note that a logical sequence in the design process entails first the service-load design of the section required in flexure.1. A convex or hogging shape indicates negative bending moment. a negative sign (-) is used to denote compressive stress and a positive sign (+) is used to denote tensile stress in the concrete section. Throughout the book.1 lntroduction It suffices in the flexural design of reinforced concrete members to apply only the limit states of stress at failure for the choice of the section. as shown in Figure 4. is applied to the member. shrinkage. In view of the preceding. there is no intermediate support. additional checks are needed at the load transfer and limit state at service load. • Overloading of the member occurs under certain conditions up to the limit state at failure..1 Sign convention for flexure stress and bending moment. a concave or sagging shape denotes positive bending moment. the external dead load and partial live load are applied to the prestressed concrete member at varying concrete strengths at various loading stages. shear capacity.e. These loading stages can be summarized as follows: • Initial prestress force P. provided that other requirements such as serviceability. as well as the limit state at failure. the force is transmitted from the prestressing strands to the concrete. and strand relaxation taking place and leading to a net prestressing force Pe.

it is necessary to transpose the three equations into geometrical equations so that the student and the designer can readily choose the concrete section. beam sections are considered uncracked. 4. As seen from Chapter 1. (f) Limit state of stress at ultimate load for underreinforced beam.2. mation (camber or deflection) is shown in Figure 4. a determination of the required minimum section modulus.2. the beam is assumed to be homogeneous and elastic.¡ 1• ~ ~ f- ~ Compression Compression could be zero (decompression) (el (d) (b) Tension (e) (f) Figure 4. (e) Full service load plus effective prestress. As compared to a rectangular salid section. has to be made first. sb and S1.2 SELECTION OF GEOMETRICAL PROPERTIES OF SECTION COMPONENTS 4. such as the midspan section in a simple beam and the support section in a continuous beam. For design. (a) Beam section.1. a nonsymmetrical flanged section has the advantage of efficiently using the concrete material and of concentrating the concrete in the compressive zone of the section where it is most needed. Equations 4. Since it is also assumed (because expected) that the prestress compressive force transmitted to the concrete doses the crack that might develop at the tensile fibers of the beam.108 Chapter 4 Compression Tension 1 Prestressing force (a) Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements -q- ~ 1 "compression• I . Stress analysis of prestressed beams under these conditions is no different from stress analysis of a steel beam.3 to be subsequently presented are stress equations that are convenient in the analysis of stresses in the section once the section is chosen.2 Minimum Section Modulus To design or choose the section. (b) lnitial prestressing stage. 4. a beam column. and 4. If . The axial force due to prestressing is always present regardless of whether bending moments do or do not exist dueto other external or self-loads. it is advantageous to have the alignment of the prestressing tendon eccentric at the critica! sections.2. more accurately.2 Flexura! stress distribution throughout loading history. or.3 far the various loading stages from the self-weight effect up to rupture. A logical transposition is to define the minimum section modulus that can withstand all the loads after losses. 4. (d) Full dead load plus effective prestress.1 General Guidelines Under service-load conditions. (e) Self-weight and effective prestress.

: -7.45 or 0. fe..: . Using the uncracked unsymmetrical section. = maximum allowable tensile stress in concrete immediately after transfer and prior to losses = 3~ (the value can be increased to 6~ at the supports for simply supported members) fe = maximum allowable compressive stress in concrete after losses at service-load level = 0..(°f: O) / / Deformation A (deflection or camber) AP.-i-- First cracking - -.= maximum allowable compressive stress in concrete immediately after transfer and prior to losses =0.6of:¡ Ít..e Overload ' l~ad Balanced W" Lf- .3 Load-deformation curve of typical prestressed beam.--=-!---- ~ m---..: ..: _:-_:----_-:_-:_.. = Figure 4.109 4..._ - Decompress1on - - -f Tn "'°l'(.la) .3 for the various loading stages is as follows.: .- Service load limit including tolerable overload _j_Se~!~~!oad h or h'1ger ~g-..::-~~ "'"~== ....60 when allowed by the code ft = maximum allowable tensile stress in concrete after losses at service load level (the value can be increased in one-way systems to 12\!Tc if long-term = deflection requirements are met) t: t: 6\!Tc then the actual extreme fiber stresses in the concrete cannot exceed the values listed.""" --L -/ i---// fer - - . Stress at Transfer (4. = lnitial prestress camber = Effective prestress camber A0 = Self-weight deflectlon A0 = Dead load deflection Live load deflection AL Ap.. a summary of the equations of stress from Section 1.2 Selection of Geometrical Properties of Section Components Load ..

Doris. (Courtesy. While a more accurate value Lo use would be the horizontal component of P. is the initial prestressing force.2a) (4. cgc f2 =square of radius of gyratioo S'!Sb = top/bottom section modul us vaJue of concrete section The decompression scage denotes the increase in steel stra in due to the increase in load from tbe stage when the effective prestress Pe acts alone to the stage when the addi- . Effective Stresses after Losses (4. and C.. Scotland.2b) Service-/oad Final Stresses (4. Gerwick.1 Ninian Central oil drilling platform. it is reasonable for all practica! purposes to disregard such refinement. Ben C.AP.3b) wbere M r=Mv+M50 +ML P..) Íb ecb) Mv = . England. Cheiron.110 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Photo 4.3a) (4. (4.: ~ Íc. and b denotes the bottom fibers e= eccentricity of tendons from the concrete section center of gravity.lb) where P. ( 1 + -¡::i + S. G. = initial prestress Pe= effective prestress after losses t denotes the top.

is given by Mv) 6.. as the superimposed dead-load moment Msv and live-load moment M L act on the beam. the loss of prestress is = (1 P.-y) sb (e) Ínt -_ 'YÍti - ( 1 .fb or Íbn = From Equations (d) and (e).fb = (1 .2 A: 1+ e2) p ( Íctecomp = (4.. the net stress at top fibers is t~=fr¡-~P-fc or Mv St Íc (d) Mv Ít .-y)P.f t = (1 .---------- (4.4a) and sb (1 ..-y)Mv + Msv + ML "2::. . from Equations 4.2.-y{-tci + (b) ~:) (c) From Figure 4. supported simply trolling section for the force is Pe= -yP. Beams are prestressed with eiis usually at the midspan coneccentricity maximum The tendons. . the change in this stress after losses. ther draped or harped the effective prestressing that Assuming case.6.'Y ) The net stress at the bottom fibers is Íbn = Ít - Íci .3c) This relationship is based on the assumption that the strain between the concrete and the prestressing steel bonded to the surrounding concrete is such that the gain in the steel stress is the same as the decrease in the concrete stress..3). where 'Y is the residual prestress ratio..Íc St"2::. If the actual concrete extreme fiber stress is equivalent to the maximum allowable stress.'YÍci .1 Beams With Variable Tendon Eccentricity.(1 .2 Selection of Geometrical Properties of Section Components tional load causes the compressive stress in the concrete at the cgs level to reduce to zero (see Figure 4.. the chosen section should ha ve section moduli values (1 . . the change in concrete stress dueto decompression is .2.Pe (a) .- fr ...4b) .4(a).-y) ( Íti + Si 6.111 4.la and b.-y)Mv + Msv + ML 'YÍt. 4. At this stage.'YÍci (4.

. CD @ @ @ P._. such as the midspan section._. The required eccentricity of the prestressing tendon at the critical section. (b) Support section of simply-supported beam (ee =O as tendon moves to cgc). ._sb_..4d) where tensile stress is tt> and comprehensive stress is e.4(a) Maximum fiber stresses in beams with draped or harped tendons. stresses P. stresses CD P.. sb f.. is (4. + M0 stresses @ P.112 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements t --~--¡~~l Mo M so + ML ___.. + M0 stresses P8 + M0 + M 50 + ML stresses (a) (b) Figure 4. (a) Critica! section such as midspan. stresses P..__~_._b_.4c) where Íci is the concrete stress at transfer at the level of the centroid cgc of the concrete section and Thus. (4.

Hence.4a).Íc or f~ = 'YÍti . as is normally the case in precast moderatespan simply supported beams.4(b ).2 Selection of Geometrical Properties of Section Components (D P. creating large tensile stresses at the top fibers without any reduction due to superimposed M D + M sv + M v in such beams smaller eccentricity of the tendon at midspan has to be used as compared to a similar beam with a draped tendon.113 4. 4.Ícs (c') where fes is the actual service-load stress in concrete. the controlling section is the support section.2 Beams with Constant Tendon Eccentricity.2.-y)(fr¡) ar= and (b') The net stress at the service-load condition after losses at the top fibers is f~ = Íti - ar . the chosen section should have section moduli values (d') . In other words. Beams with constant tendon eccentricity are beams with straight tendons.4(b) Maximum fiber stresses at support section of beams with straight tendons (stress distribution at midspan section similar to that of Figure 4. The net stress at service load after losses at the bottom fibers is or Íbn = Ít - 'YÍci From Equations (c) and (d).2. (a') (1 . for which the stress distribution at the support is shown in Figure 4. Because the tendon has a large eccentricity at the support. stresses 0 P0 stresses Figure 4.

16).30h '---v----' ~ h..16 ~ ~ -<:l . 4.5 h.02 1 1 0.04 1 1 1 1 ~-<:l~ 0.E•T.01 0. 1.2 0.20h 0.10.0517 0..14 2 Section moduli of flanged and boxed sections (adapted from Ref.10 0.._L~ T 0.10 0.12 0. =0.14 1 1 0... = 0.4 0.0 f--b--1 0.. o 0.04 0.6 0.06 S'!bh Figure 4.06 0. " //J///ll llllll -i 0.08 '--y--J h.2 y o o 0.02 0. = 0.08 1 ~b--11J--b--11J--b---l osr 2 h7 Sb/bh 2 interchange To obtain the values of h 1 and h 2 ~~/~ r 0.4 l 1 0.8 T h2 1-- 1 1 IB.16 1 1 1 - . = 0.12 1 0. """ S'!bh o 1.10h h.

4(b) gives girder properties of optimized sections used in different states. Properties of bulb sections are given in Appendix C.592 2.3 SERVICE-LOAD DESIGN EXAMPLES 4.4(a) gives dimensional details of the actual "as-built" geometry of the standard PCI and AASHTO sections.5 MPa) and that the concrete strength f ~.) 512 12 16 12RB24 12RB28 12RB32 12RB36 16RB32 16RB36 16RB40 800 1.456 4. Additional details are presented in Refs.5 kN/m). Tables 4. Table 4.'YÍci (4. and that Ípu = 270.267 12 12 12 12 12 16 16 16 24 28 32 36 32 36 40 12RB20 20 ..1 gives the section moduli of standard PCI rectangular sections.) Depth.5a) 'YÍt. .9 and 4.12. Assume the beam is made of normal-weight concrete with f~ = 5.5a and b.731 3.100 plf (16. and has no concrete topping. b (in.048 2.5. at transfer is 75 percent of the cylinder strength. 4. as well as the top-section moduli of those sections needed in the preliminary choice of the section in the service-load analysis.. Table 4.568 2.1 Designa simply supported pretensioned double-T-beam for a parking garage with harped tendon and with aspan of 60 ft (18.. is (4. Assume also that the timedependent losses of the initial prestress are 18 percent of the initial prestress.Íc and Mv + Msv + ML J.000 psi (1.. respectively..000 psi (34. such as the support for an ideal beam section having properties close to those required by Equations 4. 3) Width.3 Service-Load Design Examples Mv + Msv + ML s 2:------- sb 2: . The beam has to carry a superimposed sustained service live load of 1.- t (4.152 1.5c) A graphical representation of section moduli of nominal sections is shown in Figure 4. J. = 12vj.1 kN/m) and superimposed dead load of 100 plf (1.¡l 115 4.. 4. It may be used as a speedy tool for the choice of initial trial sections in the design process. (in.1 Section Properties and Moduli of Standard PCI Rectangular Sections Designation 12RB16 Section modulus S.2 and 4.1 Variable Tendon Eccentricity Example 4.3.862 MPa) for stress-relieved tendons. . Table 4.3 m) using the ACI 318 Building Code allowable stresses. h (in. and Table 4.5b) The required eccentricity value at the critica! section.3 give the geometrical outer dimensions of standard PCI T-sections and AASHTO 1-sections.

476 1.59 82 287 20.5 9.) Webwidth.544 20 521.27 24.3 Sections Geometrical Outer Dimensions and Section Moduli of Standard AASHTO Bridge AASHTO sections Designation 2 AreaAcin.38 676 1130 8 . t 2 (in.) Total depth. in.750 3.390 12.320 61. Top-/bottom-section modulus.5 12.085 22.) Bottom flange width. Moment of inertia.5 9.3 Top flange width.063/1. in.62 36.) Top flange average thickness.116 Chapter 4 Table 4. I .527 3.307 42 733.307/429 1.83 132 384 24.340 13. in.333 2. h (in.) Bottom flange average thickness.27 224 583 29. Total depth h.5 9.615 5.41 12. Flange depth t. t1 (in. 4 g(x-x) m.001/315 1.741 24.717 10.04 31.5 9.235 16.157 42 6 8 9 11 7 7 16 18 22 26 28 28 7 9 11 12 13 13 28 6 36 6 45 7 54 8 63 8 72 15..807 12 50.96 514 1055 35.17 15. in.224 5. b1 (in. I ..908 10.619 20.) ?.458/3.320 12 125.630/556 2.352 1.140/2. 3 Flange width b. 1.180 61. b 2 (in.73 330 822 31..979 5.186 16 260.960/2.347 8.320/860 3. 4 g(y-y)• m.) c/cb (in.013 1.. in.274 96 96 96 96 96 96 120 144 180 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 12 14 16 20 24 32 32 34 34 9. 2 Self-weight wv lb/ft Type 1 Type2 Type 3 Type4 Type5 Type6 276 369 560 789 1.5 9. Webwidth 2 b.73 20. bw (in.790 16.5 12.2 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Geometrical Outer Dimensions and Section Moduli of Standard PCI Double T-Sections Designation Top-/bottom-section modulus.070 6.587 20.128/4.5 8DT12 8DT14 8DT16 8DT20 8DT24 8DT32 10DT32 *12DT34 *15DT34 *Pretopped Table 4. in.217 5.5 12. in.

75 3.75 4.75 34 90 b.) h (in.000 plf (14. the critica! section can be at 0.4a and b. X 12 = 5. .000 m.6 kN/m).480.) (in.75 18 48 8DT20 96 2 5.40L is used to indicate that under moving load. = 6. the critica! section is close to the midspan.) 16 5 5 6 28 3 18 6 6 6 36 7 4.) (in.75 34 60 15DT34 180 4 7.4(a) Geornetrical Details of As-Built PCI and AASHTO Sections b.75 3. The value 0.750 psi (25..) (in.75 4. where L is the beam span.40L and not necessarily at midspan.75 3.75 32 48 10DT32 120 2 7.75 32 60 12DT34 144 4 7.117 4.75 20 48 8DT24 96 2 5.) AASHTOl 12 4 3 AASHT02 12 6 AASHT03 16 AASHT04 Designation Actual double-T sections X3 X4 bw (in. and assume a selfweight of approximately 1.9 MPa) as the maximum stress in tension.75 4. The critica! section is in many cases taken at 0.000 = -3.75 4.40 L from the support.75 14 48 8DT16 96 2 5.400.5 22 7. = 0.-lb (732 kN-m) Since the tendon is harped.) (in.9 MPa) Use ft = 12\/5.75 3.000(60)2 8 .75 12 48 8DT14 96 2 5.000 m. h.) Actual 1 sections Solution: "Y = 100 .-lb (610 kN-m) and the superimposed load moment is MsD + ML = (1.75 3.) (in.5 7 7 45 20 8 6 26 9 8 8 54 AASHT05 42 5 7 28 10 8 8 63 AASHT06 42 5 7 28 10 8 8 72 X2 b2 (in.) (in. From Equations 4. X1 Designation (in.3 Service-Load Design Exarnples Table 4.) (in.) 8DT12 96 2 5. bW1 bw2 h b (in.100 + 100) (60) 2 X 12 8 .18 = 82 % f.) (in.75 X 5.75 3. Then the self-weight moment is given by MD wl 2 =8 = 1.000 = 849 psi (5.75 24 48 8DT32 96 2 7.75 16 48 8DT18 96 2 5. where dead-load and superimposed dead-load moments reach their maximum.) (in.

4(b) Girder Properties of Optimized Sections Girder Type Depth (in.24 30. 2 ) s.588 0.924 0.521 638.64 24. TypeVI Washington WebWidth (in..560 475.546 0.53 29.095 12.572 1.417 0.64 36.01 37.11 32.575 27.36 7.516 0.038 494.854 27.122 6.925 0.999 0...275 13.587 18.157 18.66 15. 1 in.) a rea (in.554 0. 1 in.959 20.154 13.985 32.340 0.297 22.029 Agency AASHTO 1 in.931 0.893 0.877 12.4 mm.985 0.586 0.994 9.049 1.99 35.553 10.000 mm4 Yt Yb sb .64 25.48 12.548 0.60 10.722 484.5 73.166 12.) (in.= 25.9 852 898 944 1.166 13. 1 in.68 35.224 14.7 94.2 1.99 26.612 12.5 5.558 0. lnertia (in.534 0.390 mm3 .74 48.9 5.042 15. 4 ) (in.022 1.501 0.544 0.942 0.2 = 645 mm2 .991 Texas U54A U54B 54 54 10..619 15.5 6.5 785 843 901 311.89 30.67 34.672 28.44 20.191 256.3 = 16.943 0.606 7.82 35.085 941 733.9 5.40 27.871 20.84 30.20 5.421 9..023 Florida BT-54 BT-63 BT-72 54 63 72 6..966 0.983 0.12 31. 3 ) p a 557 629 701 177.37 30..968 12.62 35.38 36.223 18.526 0.18 37.505 849.) (in.943 0.088 35.41 36.63 32.993 23.702 12.549 0.106 16.118 379.264 10.736 308.857 403.941 80/6 100/6 120/6 14/6 50 58 73.5 6.517 0.545 0.915 0.12 36.996 1.380 28.550 0.945 16.72 40.908 0. co Table 4.807 15.638 545.159 17.30 22.) CTL BT-48 BT-60 BT-72 48 60 72 6 6 6 PCI BT-54 BT-63 BT-72 54 63 72 Type VI Mod.36 34.895 17.502 534. 4 = 416.091 13.914 6 6 6 659 713 767 268.54 23.33 33.320 671.432 13.592 426.548 9.527 0.538 0.76 27.037 27.911 Nebraska 1600 1800 2000 2400 63 70.556 0.051 1.01 8.512 0.9 5.59 35.042 1.36 11.765 458.47 30.077 392.88 37.829 659.549 0.565 1.992 0.9 78.2 10.522 0.844 8.300 19.509 0.585 0.90 22.12 34.82 38.549 12.715 15. 3 ) (in.940 0.323.878 30.894 Colorado G54/6 G68/6 54 68 6 6 631 701 242.56 36.96 45.5 6 6 6 6 513 591 688 736 159.582 0..894 26.934 72 72 8 6 1.

...4 }--24--.¡ t--~28----i F 5 2 72 6 9j 71 68 11. r-----48..91 73..•~ "···~~~ -·~~·-~---·~~~·-.. ....JJ2!i!t$f·fti%?'.91 \ 0...2----- .7 _J 1 54 1 25..~_.f }--26--+ }---..p..---....... ..$ .30 -----{ CTL BT-72 BT-72 FL BT-72 ilEc: ~ . ~.5_ _ _ (' 3_ 6 6 }--24--..2 3 6 .38.1'------48---.~:·- -._---42~---I "'if'~'---'i ' fhllt 15..\!%141b4·lff. ..'---+--~l'-------~55----_..-...f U54B .---~..25 R=8+ R = 7...9+ 1 10 4.~-¡. BT-54 Cross Sections of Optimized Bridge Girder Sections [See Table 4....-.....5 10 ~ 21. CD }--26--+ }--24--+ Type VI WA 14/6 Figure 4.75 16.6 +-----.r-.4(b}] -------+ NU 1800 CO G68/6 1------42---~ J----~40---~ 72 } .

= 5.860 cm ) (1 . 1.340 in.448 X 189.250 ) From the PCI design handbook.766 m.458 in.000 Pe = 2. The section properties of the concrete are as follows: Ac = 978 in. tendons.-lb 270.000 X . dia. Design of Strands and Check of Stresses.2 ..223 lb.448 in 2 (15.82 X 184 .400. 2 e. Ac S' = 10. f' = - P.153 = 2. From Equation 4.000 psi = 0.OOO = fp.82)5.82fp.980 psi (a) Analysis of Stresses at Transfer.la.688 kN) P.019 plf f = 2.. . 3 3 2.330 cm) 849 _ 0. 3 3 3.y)MD + MsD + ML YÍr.000 + 6. dia.502. 655.000 0. since it has the bottom-section modulus value Sb closest to the required value. ( Ac 1 - 7ec..000 = .) . f.82) 5.23) _ 5.3 WD = 1.. .. . 82 (. (45.82 X 189.77 in. ee = 12.072 in.= 8.39 in. -------¡.Íc 2::.980 = 379.019 l.16) = 655.(-2.391 lb (1.66 2-m.223 189. = 5. 2 ec = 22. le = 86..400. • = 22.000 X 0. = 184 psi Then 184 _ _ !l_ ( 1 _ - 978 22. Hence.600 88.0 in.70 fpe X 0.- > - (1 .0.120 Chapter 4 S' Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements (1 .SMD -5.06 Required number of tendons = Try sixteen ~in.600 m.0.1 53 1 . selecta noritopped normal weight concrete double-T 12 DT 34 168-Dl. The assumed self-weight is close to the actual self-weight ofFig.0 10.. = 0.480.000 = 154. 3.058 kN) .502.250) = . strands for the standard section: Aps = 16 X 0.104 m (50.YÍci > - (1 . = (184 + 526.23 in.77 in.458 978 P.02 X 8. = 462.3 sb = 25.400..4 r2 cb = = ~ = 88. use MD 1.672 lb (2.3 cm2) = 2.000 + 6. 4-7.02 in.448 X 154.y)MD + MsD + ML sb 2::.480.000 = 189.

000 m.354 kN-m) From Equation 4.0oü = 849 psi .1146 -735 psi< fe= -2.391 l _ 22.250 psi. = From Equation 4. f' = _ P.391 lb 100(60)212 .77 in.K.7 Double-T Section (12 DT34) (b) Analysis of Stresses at Service Load at Midspan P.340 = -2.3b.100(60) 212 8 5.391 978 (l Sb + 22.23)..K.982.982.Mr r2 S' :Ji:\ = _ = 379.458 +411 . (e) Analysis of Stresses at Support Section e.000 = 11.0 3.7sO =367 psi f. = 12.6'-0" ----i + ------~~: =-1 1 34" 3" Chamfer Figure 4.( 1 _ ec').02 X 8.-lb (1.-lb (788 kN-m) = Total moment Mr= MD + Msv + ML = 5.587 = +698 psi (T) < f.3a.121 4. (324 mm) f.-lb (61 kN-m) 8 Msv = ML = 1. = 6~ = 6 v3.02 X 25.600 88.11.77) + 11.502.000 in. = 540.480.+Mr r2 = _ 379. = +849 psi.0 10.889 + 3. = 379. Íb P.. = 12Wc = 12\/5.600 978 88.940. O.. ( 1 =-- Ac +ecb) .600 + 6. O..982..3 Service-Load Design Examples F 12'-0" 3'-0" .600 in.

2 Variable Tendon Eccentricity with No Height Limitation Example 4. (ü) Ar Service Load J = . (T) (i + 12.23)88 = _ 379.77) + O= _ 2'240 psi.O= 92 . Required S1 = 3.940 cm 3) Photo 4.7788. = .K. (1.0 + psi (l + 12.02 in. = 849 psi. 4.2 Crack development in prestressed T-beam (Nawy et al. O. (1) 88.23). O.K.391 978 o = + 75 psi.379. (C) psi -2.).7 mm) strands with midspa11 eccentricity e.3.77 X.1.0 X25.780 in3 (61. .2 D esign an 1-section for a bearn baving a 65-ft ( 19.672 Jib = 978 1 _ 12.= 12. (C) < Írl = -2.77) + O X < !c = <f.025.672 ( 978 _ 462.8 m) span to satisfy the following section modulus values: Use the same allowable stresses and superimposed loads as in Exarnple 4. (324 mm).l B40 ' .250 psi. (560 mm) and end ecceolricity e.77 X 8.Chapter 4 122 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements (i) Ar Transfer !1 = _ 462.:..K.= 22.08.250 psi.391 978 I F Jb (i - 12. the support eccentricity has to be changed. O.7788.77 in.570 in3 (58. Adopt the section for service-load conditions using sixteen Hn.535 cm 3) Required Sb = 3. lffb >f.

208 _ . AP = 1.5 in.84 in.2 Number of strands = _ = 14.-: .340 + 2.75 =15. a symmetrical section is adequate.2 m 2 (14. (381 mm). 416.0 in. and an actual P. analyze the section in Figure 4.208 = 10.34 + 5. sb = 3750 in. 3 cb = 18.673 kN).99 = 376. = 189. ( = - Ac l - ec.490. strands.84 .688 in. = Acfci = 377 X 1.208 416. 3 40" 6" Wo= 393 plf f--1s"--j Figure 4.98 = 16. = From Equation 4. 2 Ac= 377 in.32 in.208 lb (1. Solution Since the section moduli at the top and bottom fibers are almost equal.250 ) +184 .84 in.8 1-beam section in Example 4.St .75 in.2. 000 pl 2.104 = 416.16in. the eccentricity required at the section of maximum moment at midspan is = (184 + 1104) 3.99 in.638 .3 Service-Load Design Examples 123 le= 70.851 kN) MD = 393(65)2 X 8 12 = 2.4.la f' P. (415 mm) Since cb = 18.6 MPa) P.4d. Next.4c.110 lb (1. 2 (12. Analysis of Stresses at Transfer..8 chosen by tria! and adjustment. _ P.638 in. and check the concrete extreme fiber stresses.. 2 C1 =21.8 cm2).16 (+184 + 2.) MD 7 .2.104 psi. and assuming a cover of 3.¡. _ 416.000 x 1. Reqmred area of strands AP .4() =-1. (C) (7. From Equation 4. 21.2 cm 2) 189.490. try ec = 18.38 0 153 Try thirteen !-in.-lb (281 kN-m) From Equation 4. S 1 = 3340 in. . 4 r 2 = 187.3.

= 930 psi (a) At Transfer. = 0.110 (l + 15 X 18. Support section compressive fiber stress.153 Msv+ML= < fci = 2. ecb) + -MT = -308.16) _ 2. O. Check Support Section Stresses Allowable f.5 3.3a (l _ec.700 psi Ít.750 = .700 psi.3 + 664.050 + 2.2 X 0.638 in..255 ( 15.638 + 7.5 . = 3 \11:.750 = -2. X MT S' 154.340 = + 566.6 = -2.500 psi fe.000 = -2.000 = 10.5 3.250 psi.371 kN) (100 + 1100)(65)2 8 X 12= 7.255 lb (1.501.45 X 6. = 201 psi for midspan Ít. = 6\!Í[.1 + .-lb (1.490.638 377 187.225 ( _ 15.605.745. Using f ~ = 6.638 1 377 187.000 = 4.095.84) + 2. no tension at transfer.141 kN-m) 1 __ f - 308.5 3.5 3. fe = 0.2 Ac r Sb 377 X 18.1 + Pe ( fb = . = 0..K.490. From Equation 4.0 X 21. = 402 psi for support fe = 0.Chapter 4 124 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements = _ 376.022. = 465 psi fi2 = 12 vJ.605. O. f' =_Pe Ae Pe = 13 From Equation 4.638 + ---187. O.500 = 2. .638 1 377 187.692.2.0 --.250 psi Hence.095.K.2.000 psi.16) _ 10.60 X 4.3.2 = 642 psi (T).340 = +691.0 X 21.490.84) 10.K.45J: = 2. either enlarge the depth of the section or use higher strength concrete.K.700 psi Ít1 = 6 vJ.837 psi (C) Analysis of Stresses at Service Load.2 = -1.456 psi ( C) > fe = .095.).7 = -55 psi (C).000m-lb Total moment MT = Mv + Msv + ML = 2.lb = _ 376.75 X 6.2 .110 ( _ 15.980 = 308. O.

¡1+ _ + O= -1.98 in. To ensure a tcnsilc stress at the top fibers wilhin the allowablc limits. or reduce the ecccntricity.5 in.K. O < 930 psi.5 = 409 psi (T) > f.O= 335 psi. (318 m). adopt the 40-in. 308. . = 5.= 12. Note crusbing of concrete on top ribers (Nawy. 1J0 ( I _ 12. but change the Photo 4. tendons having midspan eccentricity er = l5.84) lb =----y¡.255 ( 377 L _ 12. equal to 6.16). (C) < -2. O.5 . 187 5 Hence. et al. (102-cm)-deep 1-section prcstresscd beam ot¡.49 X 21.700 psi.5 so Lhat e. (T) 187.000 psi (41.3 Prestresscd beam al failure.49 X 18.000 psi.2250 psi Thus.49 X 21.3 Service-Load Design Examples 125 P1 = 376.110 lb or _ 2 7OO = _ 376.4. = 16. An alternative to this solution is to continue using f~ number of strands aod eccentricities. (b) At Service Load I r=_ 308. try e.49 in.: f' = _ 376.84) • 377 l J87.4 MPa) normal-weigbt concrete with thirteen !-in. (381 mm) and cnd section eccentricity ec = 12.844 psi. .0 in.255 ( 12.K. = 402 psi 1 fh = .16) _ O 377 187.). Potyondy. or use a higher strength concrete for the section.110 ( +e X 18. use mild steel at the lop fibers at the support section to take ali tensile strcsscs in the concrete..

5a.250 psi (15.-lb (1.250 psi f~.000 in.164 kN-m). the total moment MT= 10. the support section controls the design. is Assume WD = 425 plf.298.605. 10.5 MPa) fr = +849 psi 'Y= 0.97 in sb = 4.2 assuming that the prestressing tendon has constant eccentricity. Since the required S' = 4.438 849 + 0.-lb (304 kN-m) 7. from Equation 4. for support section = 367 psi fe = -2. and we also have Allowable fci = . Reqmred Sb = 'YJct t 10.03 in. f~ Solution: Since the tendon has constant eccentricity.82 . which is greater than the available S' in Example 4.9.3 Constant Tendon Eccentricity Example4.289 in3 .298.and live-load moments at the support section of the simply supported beam are zero.2.5 MPa) normal-weight concrete.Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Chapter 4 126 4.693. Then MD = MSD + ML = 425 X (65) 2 X 8 12 = 2.210 cm3 ) X 184 + 2. = 849 psi. Hence. the dead-load and superimposed dead.82 X 2.000 psi Q4. choose the next larger 1-section with h = 44 in.2.823 in (62.438 in.030 in3 cb = 20.{'.750 psi fa = 6\!Íf. The required section modulus at the support. _ . Use = 5.438 = 4. as shown in Figure 4.3 Solve Example 4.3.438 in. permitting a maximum concrete tensile stress!.420 in3 WD = 422plf .82 Required S' = 0. = - 3. The section properties are: le = 92.289 m3 (72.700 in 4 r = 228.298.-lb (859 kN-m) Thus. f.250 = 3.250 MD + MSD + ML .713 cm3 ) 3 First Tria/.= 12Yf. S' = 4. = 23.9 in2 Ac = 405 in2 e.

__ P. strands tendon. = AcÍci = 405 X 1. From Equation 4. = 14 X 0. .J -(46cm) L_ ¡~ -¡ 6" 6" 44" (112 cm) L _ 18" __.3 Service-Load Design Examples 127 18" _.000 = 404.05.( = 367 .la. So we try Hn.4. P.810 lb (1.si ee = (f.002 psi 6. ( f - Ac l _ ec1) .810 .805 kN) Hence.153 = 14.838 lb (1. e = (367 + 1.60 in.250) = -1.838 ( _ 13. As a result. 405. the required eccentricity at the critical section at the support is .K.002) 4. use fourteen Hn.2 psi (T) = Ít.----. = 367. (346 mm) 405 810 The required prestressed steel area is AP P.03 ( .-: = 189 OOO = 2.¡¡--367 + 2. Accordingly.Mv __ 404.9 MPa) and P. (12.9 1-beam section in Example 4.4 cm)2 pl .7 mm) tendons.801 kN) (a) Analysis of Stresses at Transfer at End Section. .J ¡--(46cm) -¡ Figure 4.030 . .153 X 189. From Equation 4.3. = ¡.Íci) p l where 23.60 X 23.03)r2 S 405 l 228. O.002 = 405.9 O = + 368.15 m2 (14..5c.15/0. The required number of strands is 2. = 13.

980 = 331.477 kN) Total moment Mr = Mv + M 5v + ML =O From Equation 4. This is also applicable to midspan since eccentricity e is constant.2.97) + 228. prestressed sections are not yet fully standardized. From befare.838 Íb = -P¡ 228.97) + .42 0 Hence. the design engineer has to select the type of section to be used in the particular project.298. viz.298.9 405 = -1. Mr = 10. In the majority of simply supported beam designs. In most cases. So the extreme concrete fiber stress due to M r is f{ = Mr St = MT Í1b = - sb = 10.967 lb (1.153 X 154. Consequently.555 = . (T) -__ 331.2 MPa) o (C) <fe= -2.841 psi (12. O.030 .4.O -_ 302 psi.6 X 20.245 psi (C) o = Íci = -2. the distance between the cgc and cgs lines..298.438 in. .~1 ).2...-lb is sufficiently accurate.60 X _23. hence.9 405 Sb r2 Ac = -2. (l _ 13. the eccentricity e..1 MPa) 4.-lb.lb.K. 10.250 psi.Chapter 4 128 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements From Equation 4. Revised Wv = 422 plf = assumed Wv = 425 plf.) tendons. the final midspan fiber stresses are r = + 302 . (345 mm) for the fourteen !" (12.2. 4.60 in. .253 psi ( C) Íb = -1.841 + 2. 0.330 = +489 psi (T) = Íc = .438 = +2.K. accept < fi = 849 psi.6 MPa) 4.4 PROPER SELECTION OF BEAM SECTIONS ANO PROPERTIES 4.3b = _ 331.298.438 in.1 General Guidelines Unlike steel-rolled sections.7 mm dia. O. (b) Analysis of Final Service-Load Stresses at Support Pe = 14 X 0. accept the tria! section with a constant eccentricity e= 13. is proportional to the required prestressing force.3a.250.967 228 9 405 < fi = 849 psi. (e) Analysis of Final Service-Load Stresses at Midspan.330 psi (T) (16.250 psi. the total moment Mr= Mv + Msv + ML = 10. From Equation 4.( 1 + -ecb) + -Mv = -404.438 = -2.555 psi (C) (17.~.K.( 1 + 13. r = - ~: ( 1 . O.60 X 20.K.03).967 (l + 13.

(f) End part of beam in (b). and consequently the more economical is the design. Note that flanged sections can replace rectangular solid sections of the same depth without any loss of flexura! strength. (e) Double-T-section. .lü(d). a T-section ora wide-flange 1-section becomes suitable. are used as short-span supporting girders or ledger beams.4 Proper Selection of Beam Sections and Properties Since the midspan moment usually controls the design. hollow box girders are used as bridge girders for very large spans in what are known as segmenta! bridge deck systems. (c) T-beam section. the larger the eccentricity at midspan the smaller is the needed prestressing force. and also in order to increase the shear capacity of the support section. Rectangular sections. Figure 4. (b) 1-beam section. and prevent anchorage zone failures. Other sections such as hollow-core slabs and nonsymmetrical sections are also commonly used. These segmenta! girders have large torsional resistance. For a large eccentricity. (g) End part of beam in (e).129 4.10 shows typical sections in general usage. Hollow-core cast and extruded sections are shallow one-way beam strips that serve as easily erectable floor slabs. which is 10 to 15 feet wide in many cases. particularly because of the composite action advantage of the top wide flange. Large. This section adds the advantages of the single-T-section to its own ease of handling and erection inherent in its stability. are generally used in bridge structures. T-sections with heavy bottom flanges. D (a) (b) lfTI '-------!}!~l~If (e) (f) (d) (e) (g) ~11 ~I------lf } (h) (i) Figure 4. (h) End part of beam in (d}. The end section is usually solid in order to avoid large eccentricities at planes of zero moment. Hence. however. (a) Rectangular beam section. (i) End part of beam in (e). and their flexura! strength-to-weight ratio is relatively higher than in other types of prestressing systems. Double-T-sections are widely used in floor systems in buildings and also in parking structures. such as that in Figure 4. (d} T-section with heavy bottom flange.10 Typical prestressed concrete sections. 1-sections are used as typical floor beams with composite slab topping action in long-span parking structures. Another popular section in wide use is the double-T-section. a large concrete area at the top fibers is needed.

.130 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 4. that the transformed section or the net concrete area excluding U1e duct openings has to be used. -e= r 2/cb• where the negative sign represents measurements upwards from the neutral axis.la. giving e= r 1c. since positive eccentricíty is positive downwards. Hence. Gerwick. we have Íc P. or CEB-FIP. It is only in cases of large-span bridge and industrial prestressed beams. From Equation 4. and the Presence of Ducts In general.4.2 Gross Area. It is therefore important to establish the limjtiog zooe in tbe concrete section. Global Marine Developmenl. PCI.2 k I = -Cb Photo 4.6b) .3 Envelopes for Tendon Placement The tensile stress in the extreme concrete fiber under service-Joad conditions cannot exceed the maximum alJowable by codes sucb as the ACI.. i. the accuracy gained in accounting for the contribution of tbe area of tbe reinforcement to tbe stiffness of the concrete section is normally not warranted. ( = o = -1Ac ec. where ducts are grouted. the lower kem point (4.2 2 for the prestressing force part only. ao envelope within which the prestressing force can be applied without causing tension in the extreme concrete fibers. the Transformed Section. iffb =O. where the area of the prestressing reinforcement is large.4 Super CIDS offshore platform under tow to Arctic. AASHTO.) - .4. 4. from Equation 4. the upper kern point . the gross cross section is still adequate far ali practica! design considerations. Wbile some designers prefer refining tbeir designs through the use of the transformed section in their solutions.e.) (4. (Courtesy.6a) Similarly. the gross cross-sectional area of the concrete section is adequate for use in the service-load design of prestressed sections.lb. H ence. In post-tensioned beams. the late Ben C..

. respectively.14 describe the alignment bending moment and stress distribution far beams that are prestressed with straight. In Figure 4.12.12.14 are smaller at the midspan than the force required in the straight tendon of Figure 4.14 shows the uniform compression if the tendon acts at the cgc of the section at the support. the use of curved tendons is more common in in-situ-cast post-tensioned elements. 4. a smaller number of strands are needed in the case of draped or harped tendons. Nonstraight tendons are of two types: (a) Draped: gradually curved alignment such as parabolic forms. 4.3 again. used in beams subjected primarily to concentrated transverse loading. (b) Harped: inclined tendons with a discontinuity in alignment at planes of concen- trated load applications.13 and 4.13 and Ph for the harped tendon in Figure 4. (Compare Examples 4. Another advantage of draped and harped tendons is that they allow the prestressed beams to carry heavy loads because of the balancing effect of the vertical component of the prestressing nonstraight tendon. far the same stress level.11 shows far a rectangular section. In other words. tensile stresses result at the extreme lower concrete fibers of the section.4 Proper Selection of Beam Sections and Properties 131 From the determination of the upper and lower kern points. it is clear that (a) If the prestressing force acts below the lower kern point. the required prestressing forces PP for the parabolic tendon in Figure 4. undesirable tensile stress in the concrete is shown at the top fibers. Section 1-1 in Figures 4. as Figure 4. used in beams sub- jected primarily to uniformly distributed externa! loading. at section 1-1. These diagrams are intended to illustrate the economic advantages of the draped and harped tendons over the straight tendons.13.12. and harped tendons. and sometimes smaller concrete sections can be used with the resulting efficiency in the design.4. kern points can be established far the right and left of the vertical line of symmetry of a section so that a central kern or core area far load application can be established.2 and 4.4. In a similar manner. tensile stresses result at the extreme upper concrete fibers of the section. (b) If the prestressing force acts above the upper kern point. Figures 4.) Figure 4.11 Central kern area for a rectangular section. draped. Hence.4 Advantages of Curved or Harped Tendons Although straight tendons are widely used in precast beams of moderate span. and 4.

3).5 Limiting-Eccentricity Envelopes It is desirable that the designed eccentricities of the tendon along the span be such that limited or no tension develops at the extreme fibers of the beam controlling sections. (c) Externa! load balancing moment diagram.. If Mn is the self-weight dead-load moment and MT is the total moment ..:a: (a) P. 1 2 3 pretensioned tendon -. 2.-f- w ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ¡ j R -~. (d) Prestressing force bending moment diagram.15 with the draped tendon. (a) Beam elevation. (b) Free-body diagram. R wL • 2 (b) (e) P. X e (-)Y / (d) 1 3 2 ~ 2 (e) Figure 4.::=J-·J.Chapter 4 132 1 t Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 2 t t t Uniform load w/ft 3 t t t t t + t t t t=~f~. (e) Typical stress distribution in sections 1.12 Beam with straight tendon. and 3 (Equation 4. the controlling eccentricities have to be determined at the sections that follow along the span. 4.4. If it is desired to have no tension along the span of the beam in Figure 4.

and 3 (Equation 4. Lower cgs Envelope. due to all transverse loads.3). (e) Externa! load bending moment diagram.=•-P. The minimum arm of the tendon couple is MD amin =y 1 (4. PP sin 8 . =.13 Beam with parabolic draped tendon. then the arms of the couple composed of the center-ofpressure line (C-line) and the center of the prestressing tendon line (cgs line) dueto MD and Mr are amin and amax• respectively. = wL 2 (b) (e) (d) 2 3 2 (e) Figure 4.4. as shown in Figure 4.7a) . (e) Typical stress distribution on sections 1. 2. (a) Beam elevation.f Uniform load w/ft t Parabolic post-tensioned ten don (a) w ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! - • • R • R -~.PP + t t + + L/4 2 3 =small angle i.4 Proper Selection of Beam Sections and Properties 133 1 2 t t t t ~L/4 1 8 P. (d} Prestressing force bending moment diagram. (b) Freebody diagram.15.

7c) . (a) Beam elevation.3). = (amin + kb) (4. and 3 (Equation 4. thereby preventing tensile stresses at the top extreme fibers.Chapter 4 134 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 1 2 3 1 1 ~o f +4~·-Í2·-r~~¡ i• ¡-+--.14 Beam with harped tendon. This defines the maximum distance below the bottom kern where the cgs line is to be located so that the C-line does not fall below the bottom kern line. (c) Externa! load bending moment diagram. Hence. (e) Typical stress distribution in sections 1. 2. the limiting bottom eccentricity is eb Upper cgs Envelope. (b) Free-body diagram.L/4 L/4---J • 3 2 1 () = small angle z Harped post-tensioned ten don (a) R R=Q 2 (b) PL (e) (d) 2 3 2 3 (e) Figure 4.7b) The maximum arm of the tendon couple is MT llmax = p e (4. (d} Prestressing force bending moment diagram.

it is possible to allow the cgs line to fall slightly outside the two limiting cgs envelopes described in Equations 4. e. (c) Limiting cgs envelope. the limiting top eccentricity is (4.15 Cgs envelope determination. zero tension Lower limit permitting tension Figure 4.4.zero tension Envelope permitting tension in concrete extreme fibers.16 (4.Sa) Upper limit permitting tension Lower limit . (a) One tendon location in beam. thereby preventing tensile stresses at the bottom extreme fibers. Hence. (b) Bending moment diagram. If an additional eccentricity e~.c1 Je Upper limit. . In such cases. is superimposed on the cgs-line envelope that results in limited tensile stress at both the top and bottom extreme concrete fibers. the additional top stress f(t) and bottom stress Í(b) would be f(t) = P.7d) Limited tensile stress is allowed in sorne codes both at transfer and at service-load levels. This defines the minimum distance below the top kern where the cgs line is to be located so that the C-line does not fall above the top kern.eí.7a and c.4 Proper Selection of Beam Sections and Properties 135 ttt!tt (a) ~---~ ~:: (b) (e) Figure 4.

J.136 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements and (4.84 in.-lb (211 kN-m) MT = 0.4.490.638 in. From Equation 4.2 is a post-tensioned bonded beam and that the prestressing tendon is draped in a parabolic shape. quarter-span moments are Mn = 0.6 Prestressing Tendon Envelopes Example4. = 6000 psi.095.536 cm2) f ~ = 6.423 lb (2.-lb (1.9a) and (4.141 kN-m) Ac = 377 in2 (2.431 kN) Pe = 450. the shape of the bending moment diagram is parabolic. = 549.210 cm2) e.571. (537 mm) cb = 18.7b and d would be eí.2 but that P.729 in. (479 mm) Since bending moments in this example are due to a uniformly distributed load.9b) The envelope allowing limited tension is shown in Figure 4. indicates a non-economical section.16 in.004 kN) Mn = 2. Solution: The design moments of the 1-beam in Example 4.867.-lb (859 kN-m) My = Mn + Msn + ML = 10. and ee = 6 in.75 X 10.526 lb. A change in eccentricity or prestressing force improves the design. Assume that the magnitude of prestress losses is the same as in Example 4.638 in.75 X 2.638 = 1. = 549. = 21. Consider the midspan. the additional eccentricities to be added to Equations 4.000 in.2 can be summarized together with the section properties needed here: P.605.= 187. respectively.000 psi r2. It should be noted that the upper envelope is outside the section. Pe= 450.-lb (281 kN-m) Msn + ML = 7. f(t)Ackb =--- P¡ (4. and beam ends as the controlling sections.4 Suppose that the beam in example 4.979 in.638 = 7.-lb (856 kN-m) . Hence.8b) where t and b denote the top and bottom fibers.5 in 2 (1. with the moment value being zero at the simply supported ends. Determine the limiting envelope for tendon location such that the limiting concrete fiber stresses are at no time exceeded. quarter-span.526 lb (2.095.6. but the stresses are within the allowable limits.490.16. ec = 13 in. 4.423 lb.

41 m. (225 mm) Upper Envelope From Equation 4.979 . 253 mm 18 84 . = 9.95 = 6.26 in. (174 mm) (iii) Support llmax =O e 3 =O .638 . the maximum distance that the cgs line is to be placed below the top kern to prevent tensile stress at the bottom extreme fibers is determined as follows: (i) Midspan = ¡.4 Proper Selection of Beam Sections and Properties 137 From Equations 4. (569 mm) 450 .5 . ( ) k 6 = . (86 mm) giving e2 = 8.638 . = 3.= ~.85 in. (427 mm) 450' 526 = 16.2 allow- ing tension at top at transfer (ii) Quarter span amin = 1.95 = 12.:i 181. used in Ex.53 m.46 in. the kern point limits are k.:i = cb 181. = .95 in.80 .86 in.40 m.86 + O = 8.0 in.7a.9. (-253 mm) (9.86 + 3.490. 423 giving e1 = k 6 + amin = 8.729 . (311 mm) (iii) Support llmin =O giving e3 = 8.95 m.4.6a and b.= 8.5 .571.867. (340 mm) vs ec = 15 in.41 .-e = MT 10. (115 mm) 549 . (ii) Quarter span llmax e2 = 7. the maximum distance that the cgs line is to be placed below the bottom kern to prevent tensile stress at the top fibers is determined as follows: (i) Midspan amin = MD y t = 2. = 4. (316 mm) ªmax Clear minimum cover = 3.86 m. above cgc line) . 526 e1 = amax - k 1 = 22. Note that e1 cannot exceed c6 otherwise tendon is outside the section. ( ) .53 = 13.95 in.7b. 4. = 22.095. 21.95 = -9.40 = 12.86 + 4. 549 423 .9.1 6 Lower Envelope From Equation 4.9.39 in. = 16. 225mm e.80 m.

16. This eliminates the prestress transfer of part of the cables at sorne distance from the support section of the simply supported prestressed beam. _ f(t) Ac eb - p. Two common and practica! methods of reducing the stresses at the support section due to the prestressing force are: l.69 -13.4.83 12. this additional eccentricity to add to the lower cgs envelope in order to allow limited tension at the top fibers is .2. This reduces the moment values.87 m.000 psi from Example 4. 2. (98 mm) We thus have the following summary of cgs envelope eccentricities: Zero tension. Changing the eccentricity of sorne of the cables by raising them towards the support zone. the additional eccentricity to add to the upper cgs envelope in order to allow limited tension at the bottom fibers is e(= Í(b)Ac k1 p e = 465 X 377 X 9.5. kb _ 465 X 377 X 8. as shown in Figure 4.22 in. tendon is also inside envelope at support.87 Upper envelope -9. lncrement Midspan Lower envelope 13.83 Upper envelope 12.39 +2.83 m.< 16.95 450 ' 526 .4. Allowable tension. 7 Reduction of Prestress Force Near Supports As seen from Example 4. 72 mm 549 423 1 ' Similarly.09 2. assume for practica! purposes that the maximum fiber tensile stresses under working-load conditions for the purpose of constructing the cgs envelopes does not exceed ft = 6~ = 465 psi for both top and bottom fibers both at midspan and the support. Hence.2.9a.18(b ).82 Figure 4.69 in.3 and Sections 4. From Equation 4. Actual support eccentricity ee = 6 in. Note that raised cables are also used in long-span post-tensioned prestressed beams.18(a).99 11.138 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Now. tendon is inside envelope at midspan. in.22 8.87 6.87 Quarter span Lower envelope +2.86 Support Lower envelope +2.86 -3. straight tendons in pretensioned members can cause high-tensile stresses in the concrete extreme fibers at the support sections because of the absence of bending moment stresses due to self-weight and superimposed loads and the dominance of the moment due to the prestressing force alone. in. ( ) . since f ~ = 6.83 8.4.9b. = 3.95 Actual midspan eccentricity ec = 13 in. from Equation 4. < 11. 4. theoretically discontinuing part of the tendons where they are no longer needed .46 -3. Sheathing sorne of the cables by plastic tubing towards the support zone. as shown in Figure 4.3 and 4.26 Upper envelope -3.59 15.17 illustrates the band of the cgs envelopes for both zero and limited tension in the concrete. Hence.86 _ .

5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones 139 Zero tension envelope Limited tension envelope Figure 4.18 Reduction of prestressing force near supports. (a) Raising part of the tendons.4. Additional frictional losses due to these additional curvatures have to be accounted far in the design ( analysis) of the section.= 25. (b) Sheathing part of the tendons.5.4 mm). .sheathed -----¡ ~ 9 tendons (b) Figure 4.1 Stress Distribution A large concentration of compressive stress in the longitudinal direction occurs at the support section on a small segment of the face of the beam end.17 Cgs-line envelopes for the prestressing tendon (1 in.5 END BLOCKS AT SUPPORT ANCHORAGE ZONES 4. both in pretensioned and Raised tendons (a) 1 3 tendons ~I f--. by raising them upwards. 4.

19(a)]. However. or anchorage devices eoclosing aU the rnain prestressing and mild nonprestressed longitudinal reinforcement. in order to accommodate the raised tendons [see Figure 4. to preventing bursting or spalling cracks. Wben the stresses exceed the modulus of rupture of the concrete. Also. Such an increase in the cross-sectional area does not contribute. stirrups. In the pretensioned beams the concentrated load transfer of lhe prestressing force to tbe surrounding concrete gradually occurs over a length L. sorne or ali of the tendons in the posl-tensioned beams are raised or draped towards the top fibers through lhe web part of the concrete section. from the face of the support section uatil it becomes essentially unlform. longitudinal bursting cracks develop al the aachorage zone. this manner of gradual load distribution aad traasfer is oot possible since the force acts directly on the face of the end of the beam through bearing plates and anchors. It is sometimes necessary to increase the area of the section towards the supporl by a gradual transmission of the web to a width at the support equal to the Oange width. . In post-tensioned beams. however.140 Chapter 4 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements post-tensioned beams. and has no effect on reducing the transverse tension in the concrete. properly reinforced end blocks are required. due to the large tendon prestressing forces.5 Tbree-dimensional instrumentation for end-block stress determination (Nawy et al. the end block has to split (crack) longitudinally unless appropriate vertical reinforcement is provided. both test results and the tbeoretical analysis of this three-dimensional stress problem demonstrate that the tensile stresses could increase. Consequently. As the nongradual transition of the longitudinal compressive stress from coacentrated to linearly distributed produces high transverse tensile stresses in the vertical (transverse) direction. Typical stress contours of equal vertical stress based on three-dimeasional Pboto 4. ln fact. If the design has to follow AASHTO requirements for bridges.). The location of the concrete-bursting stresses and the resulting bursting cracks as well as the surface-spalling cracks would thus ha ve to depend on the location and distribution of the horizontal concentrated forces applied by the prestressing tendons lo the end bearing plates. it is essential to provide the necessary anchorage reinforcement in the load transfer zone in the form oí closed ties. it is al the same time advisable to insert reinforcing vertical mats and confining hoops close to the end face behind the bearing places in the case of post-tensioned beams.

1 4. it is plain that the embedment length ld that gives the full development of stress is a combination of the transfer length [1 and the flexural bond length t1.2 Development and Transfer Length in Pretensioned Members and Design of Their Anchorage Reinforcement As the jacking force is released in pretensioned members.28.241 MPa). Asan example fod-in. 4. an embedment of 40 in. analysis and test results from Refs.5. The length of embedment determines the magnitude of prestress that can be developed along the span: the larger the embedment length. The interlock or adhesion between the prestressing tendon circumference and the concrete over a finite length of the tendon gradually transfers the concentrated prestressing force to the entire concrete section at planes away from the end block and towards the midspan. (102 cm) develops a stress of 180. support (a) Cracks spalli ng Bursting crack (b) Figure 4.7. From Figure 4.420 MPa).5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones 141 Concrete cover Transition ~ 1---l --1 <t. (178 cm) develops a stress of 206. These are given respectively by [ __ 1 t - 1000 (fpe) 3 db (4.19 End anchorage zones far bonded tendons. 4. 7-wire strand. 4. An idealization of the tensile and compressive stress paths is shown in Figure 4. the higher is the prestress developed.lüa) .000 psi (1. the prestressing force is dynamically transferred through the bond interface to the surrounding concrete.000 psi (1.21. whereas an embedment of 70 in.5.20. 4. (b) End-zone bursting and spalling cracks. (a) Transition to salid section at support.

Transfer length 1. Figure 4.lüc) Distance from free end Flexura! bond length t.lüb) and (4.20 ldealized tensile and compressive stress paths at end blocks.21 Development length for prestressing strand. or (4.Chapter 4 142 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Tensile stress path Compressive stress distribution p Compressive stress path Figure 4. ----- Full development length Id _ ____. .

~ fpe )db (4. Solution: P. Substituting this for Fin Equation 4.11) li where h is the pretensioned beam depth and 11 is the transfer length.021 .2 Reinforcement Selection in Pretensioned Beams Example 4..' l Js t From Equation 4.2.11 gives A1 = P..2. p db = 2 m. 0.1 Design of Transfer Zone Reinforcement in Pretensioned Beams.000)db.000 X .lüd gives the mínimum required development length for prestressing strands. Based on laboratory tests.021 .lüd) Equation 4.980 psi and 1 .lüb.h 0. (66 cm) Now. then F =!A 1.~OO (tps . empirical expressions developed by Mattock et al. e = 154.h A. = 376. Combining Equations 4.4. P·h A 1 = 0.980 3. we get .12.673 kN) From Equation 4.000 psi. pretensioned. ~ 20.12) Js t where A 1 is the total area of the stirrups and fs purposes. = 154.lüc gives Min ld = l. the transfer length is !1 = (fp/3.5. 4./ l (4.000 psi (138 MPa) for crack-control 4.5 Design the anchorage reinforcement needed to prevent bursting or spalling cracks from developing in the beam of Example 4.5. If part of the tendon is sheathed towards the beam end to reduce the concentration of bond stresses near the end.).' l Js t So since fs ~ 20.5 = 25. If the average stress in a stirrup is taken as half the maximum permissible steel fs.0106 -'(4.021 . P.83 m.= 0.fs.5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones 143 where fps =stress in prestressed reinforcement at nominal strength (psi) Ípe = effective prestress after losses (psi) db =nominal diameter of prestressing tendon (in. give the total stirrup force Fas P·h F = 0.110 lb (1. the stress transfer in that zone is eliminated andan increased adjusted development length ld is needed. So since f.lüb and 4. we have l.2.

22(a). The entire prism wbich would ha ve a transfer length. Wrap the tendons with helical steel wire through the developrnent lengtb. 2.83 = 0. The length of this zone follows St. that the stress becomes uniform atan approximate distance ahead of the anchorage device equal to the depth.11 = 0.144 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 376. 4. = 0. is the total anchorage zone.22(c) and its magnification in Fig. 4. in order to effect good transfer.6 End block of post-tensioned f-beam al ultimate load (Nawy et al.9 cm2 ) Trying #3 closed ties.3 Post-Tensíoned Anchorage Zones: Linear Elastic and Strut-and-Tie Theories The anchorage zooe can be defined as the volume of concrete through whicb tbe concentrated prestressing force at the anchorage device spreads transversely to a linear distribution across the entire cross-section depth along the span (Ref. = 2.000 X 25. namely.7.5.22 in. h. See the shaded area in Figure 4. o stlITI. Its length extent along the span is therefore equal to the section depth.30). of the section. This zone is thus composed of two parts: l. 4. Local Zone: This zone is the insert prism of concrete surrounding and immediately ahead of the anchorage device and the confining reinforcement it contains.2 (3. in standard cases.02l 20. 4. .110 X 40 A. General Zone: The general extent of the zone is identical to tbe total anchorage zone. h. 2 (9.).61 in. 4.5 mm dia) ties f . 2 x 0. Venant's principie.12.61 8 Min no. /1.5. 0.lps = 0.7 22 Use three #3 tiesto provide the envelope for aU the main longitudinal reinforcemeat. 4. h. Also shown are the distribution of tensile and compressive stresses in the local zone and their stress Photo 4.

checks have Lo be made of the bearing stresses on the concrete in the local zone due to these high compressive forces to ensure lhat the allowable compressive bearing capacity of lhe concrete is nevcr exceeded. Ncvertheless. Linear Elastic Stress Analysis Approach lncluding Use of Finite Elemems: This involves computing the detailed state of stresses as linearly elastic.3. 2.2 Linear Elastic Analysis Method for Confining Reinforcement Determination The anchorage zone is subjected to tbree levels of stress as seen in Figure 4. appropriate assumptions can always be made to get reasonable results. In addition. 3. T he confining reinforcement throughout the enlire anchorage zone has to be so chosen as to prevent bursting and splitting whicb are the result of the high concentrated compressive forces lransmitted through the anchorage devices.ilibrium-Based Plasticity Approach such as the Strut-anc/-Tie Models: The strutand-tie method pro vides for idealizing the path of the prcstrcssing forces as a truss structure with irs forces following the usual equilibrium principies.22(a) and the stress contour zones: (a) High bearing stresses abead of the anchoragc devices.5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones 145 Photo 4.4. contours obtained Crom the finite element analysis of Lhe Rutgers tests (Ref.3.22(b). 1. Lhree methods are applicable to the dcsign of the anchorage zone. Equ. 4. Approximate Methods: Tbese apply to rectangular cross scctions without disconlinuities. The application of lhe finite element method is somewhat limited by the difficulty of developing adequate models thal can correctly model the cracking in lhc concrete (Ref. 4. 4. The ultimate load predicted by this method is controlled by failure of any one of the component struls or ties. The length of the local zone has to be considcrcd as the larger of either its maximum width or the length of the anchorage devicc confining reinforcement.7 Ancborage block instrumenlation (Nawy et al.5.7). Proper confinernent of tbe concrete is necessary in order to prevent the compressive failure of the compressive segment shown in the darkly shaded area ofFigures 4. The method usually gives conservative results for this application.5.30). 4. .).1 Design Methods for the General Zone Essenlially.22(a) and 4.

7.28) (b) Extensive tensile-bursting stresses in the tension contour areas. 4. (e) High compression in the stress field-area s marked D and E in Figure 4. (b) Stress distribution at 4. (c) Segment of beam elevation.22(a).23(b).5 in.22 Principal tensile stress contours of equal vertical stress at anchorage zone (eccentricity ee = 6 in. inches (a) p~~k-i-n-(a_) ____--t (e) (b) Figure 4. The following discussion illustrates that a linear elastic stress analysis can predict the cracking locations and give a reasonably reliable approximate estimate of the flow of . Refs.).22(a) and (b) and in Figure 4.g 8 e ~ 5 º A= O psi B=50psi c = 100 psi D=150psi E= 200 psi F = 250 psi B 3 o 2 cgc = center of gravity of section 4 6 Distance from loaded face..146 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 9 B 8' A E . 4. normal to the ten- don axis as shown in Figures 4. above base. (a) Contours of stress. (Nawy et al.

---- X P. (d) Moment values on crack surface AB for all possible locations y across beam block depth.__ _ _ _ _ (d) -h·----+-l·I (e) --------~-------. as well as the bending moment value for each possible crack height y above the beam bottom CD. However. Figure 4... Y et. The . ~__.23 schematically illustrates the linearly elastic end block forces.. a linearly elastic finite element analysis as shown in Figure 4. It shows the end-block forces and the fiber stresses due to the prestressing force P¡. showing transfer length Ir (b) Free-body diagram ABCD....23 Post-tensioned beam end-block forces..i (b) Figure 4. the design engineer expects less rigor and faster answers in the routine day-to-day office applications. In compressive stress regions. the provision of additional compressive reinforcement would become necessary.. stresses after cracking.Cl--y D. (c) Fiber stress distribution across beam block depth. -1 L 1 T 1 .-cgc 1·me I crack 1 e A L---- -. (a) Beam elevation. The results can be limited because of the difficulty of developing adequate models that can correctly model the cracking in the concrete.--:.22 results in more accurate determination of the state of stresses in the anchorage zone.. if the compressive force is very high.. e 1 (a) r---------------- 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -:--.147 4. On a parallel approach.5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones ---1-~'~---s y .. the process of computation is time-consuming and costly..n. e 'T_ ___. The area of the tensile reinforcement is computed to carry the total tensile force obtained through integrating the tensile stresses in the concrete.. A nonlinear finite element analysis to predict the postcracking response could resolve this discrepancy...

evaluation of the compression strut nominal strength. resulting ties.14) where the steel stress fs used in the calculation should not exceed 20. In summary and in lieu of a linear elastic finite element analysis. Figure 4.5 MPa) for crack-width control purposes.148 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements maximum moment value Mmax determines the potential position of the horizontal bursting crack. 4. while the horizontal shear force V at the crack split surface is resisted by the aggregate interlock forces. the B and D regions.29). 4.27 sketches standard strut-and-tie idealized trusses for concentric and eccentric cases both for solid and flanged sections as given in ACI 318 Code. Figure 4. 4.3 Strut-and-Tie Method for Confining End-Block Reinforcement The strut-and-tie concept is based on a plasticity approach approximating the flow of forces in the anchorage zone by a series of straight compression struts and straight tension ties connected at discrete points that are called nodes to form truss units.2 of the principies governing the strut-and-tie modeling procedures.3. Figure 4. The tension tie in the ensuing truss analogy can be reasonably assumed to be at a distance h/2 from the anchorage device. particularly . T = Mmax h-x (4.13) and the total required area of vertical steel reinforcement becomes = !_ A t Ís (4. and the range of applicability of this fully plastic approach. the vertical anchorage zone stirrups that provide the force T should be distributed over a zone width h/2 from the end-face of the beam such that x in Figure 4. and ensuing nodes.24 (adapted from Ref. From equilibrium of moments.6 part (a).17) illustrates the flow of the concentric and eccentric prestressing forces P ahead of the point of application of these forces through the anchorage device towards the end of general zone where the stresses become uniform by St. From practica! observations.25(a) shows the development of a strut and Figure 4.23 of the elastic stress-analysis approach. compressive stress trajectories in the concrete tend to congregate into straight lines that can be idealized as straight compressive struts in uniaxial compression.000 psi (138. The yield strength of the anchorage confining reinforcement is used to determine the total area of reinforcement needed in the anchorage block. These struts would become part of truss units where the principal tensile stresses are idealized as tension ties in the truss unit with the nodal locations determined by the direction of the idealized compression struts. Venant's principie. A detailed discussion is presented in the author's Ref. the procedure outlined can reasonably though less precisely give a detailed anchorage design as given in Example 4.26 summarizes the concept of the idealized struts and ties in the anchorage zone.23 can vary between h/3 and h/5.5. This assumption is essentially consistent with the approximated location of the tensile force T in Figure 4. It is clear from all these diagrams that the designer has to make an engineering judgment on the number of paths of struts. This moment is resisted by the couple provided by the tensile force T of the vertical anchorage zone reinforcement and the compressive force C provided by the endblock concrete. Figure 4. 4. After significant cracking is developed. The compressive forces are carried by the plastic compression struts and the tensile forces are carried either by non-prestressed reinforcement such as mild steel bars as confining ties or by prestressing steel reinforcement.25(b) sketches the resulting strut-and-tie trusses for multiple anchorage in a flanged T-section (Ref.

149 4._+T \ \ 1 \ \ P~- -- 1 '---------¡ C = T 1--------+-P ~h/2--t (d) Bearing plate at bottom p p p 1 h .P/2 1 1 (a) Centrally located bearing plate p -l.~~~~~~~.~ J_ ~~ ~ ~ :. :=. .. . . 'r---------:: p / -----------.17). . 1 '-----------.-------- ' / 1/ I I ¡ I¡ I h I (c) Bearing plate at top ~1.5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones ldealized Actual t-h/2i 1 _l/ /1---------i+1 P/2 p P/2 1 / P/2 1 1 '. .-=e 1 -----------------------~ 1 1 1 P/2 typical H h/2 (e) Three symmetrically located bearings Figure 4.-¡ typ1ca - __________ --k--- 11-----------: -----------.p p 1 // 1 (b) Bearing plate at top and bottom p r----1 /-r------ ' I I >-r.. 4.~_____. ~~~=~ '-==~ P/~ 1 -c1---------..24 Schematic of Compression Strut-and-Tie Force Paths (Adapted from Ref.

Tbursi and its centroid distance. Part (b) of Example 4. The member has to bave a rectangular cross-section with no discontinuities . d bum• from the major bearing surface of the aocborage (Ref.150 Chapter 4 Flexura! Oesign of Prestressed Concrete Elements (a) Strut Development (iii) Section C1&2 -2(i) Plan Cs (il) Elevation (b) Strut-and-Tie Oevelopment In Multiple Anchorage Flanged Section Figure 4.5 times the width of the anchorage device 4.5. 4.25 Strut-and-Tie Development. in tbe usual case of multiple anchorage devices.3.4 Approximate Method for Confinement of End Block Reinforcement Simpüfied equations can be used to compute the magnitude of the bursting force.6 illustrates the assumed idealized patbs for the anchorage zone in the I-beam under considcration. Anchorage devices are treated as closely spaced if their center-to-center spacíng does not exceed 1.30).

..1 -+-T \ \ -2 P/2 P/2 \ '~::[_ \ -'1.---------- P/2 P/2 .151 4._ V (d} Eccentric Anchor and Support Reaction (c) Multiple Anchors shear stress distribution - '' '' --- ' t-+-P/2 V1 l~P/2 v.-p/2 ~P/2 + T ---------.....+[I ~~P/2 v. ....5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones o ....3-P/2 -2 (a) Concentric or Small Eccentricity (b) Large Eccentricity h/2 F1 - --¡------- h p P/2 p P/2 : 6~--_¿_-1_--_-_-_._-_-.compression -+-P/2 tendon (f) lnclined and Curved Tendon Figure 4.f ~ (e) lnclined and Straight Tendon tendon deviation force ...26 Typical Strut-and-Tie Models For End-Block Anchorage Zones....

ACI 318. h = depth of the cross-section in the direction considered. The beam cross section would usually be the depth. of the section times the width b.15a) (4.2e) *) (4.50 P Figure 4. (a) Rectangular section Concentric P (b} Flanged section Concentric P T-0. dbursP can be computed from the following expression: Tburst = 0. 4. The bursting force. e = eccentricity ( always taken positive) of the anchorage device or group closely spaced devices with respect to the centroid of the cross-section. Tburst• and its distance. in. r-h/2_. For stress- .27 Strut-and-Tie ldealized Trusses in Standard Concentric and Eccentric Cases. in.25 P T-0.4.152 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements r-h/2_.S(h . along the span. = 0.3. which can reduce to an average value of 0. h.2 is to be applied to an end anchorage stress level fp. The ACI 318 Code requires that the design of confining reinforcement in the end anchorage block of post-tensioned members be based on the factored prestressing force Psu for both the general and local zones described at the outset of Sec.70 fpu for the total group of strands at the completion of the jacking process.50 P r-h/2_. lb a = plate width of anchorage device or single group of closely spaced devices in the direction considered.25 2 Psu ( 1 - dburst = O. in.15b) where 2 Psu = the sum of the total factored prestress loads for the stressing arrangement considered. A load factor of 1. (c) Flanged section Eccentric P T-0.80 fpu for low-relaxation strands at the short time interval of jacking.

4 Design of End Anchorage Reinforcement for Post-tensioned Beams Example 4.. Pu. (317 mm) From Example 4.35 in. Assume that the beam ends are rectangular blocks extending 40 in.5 Allowable Bearing Stresses The maximum allowable bearing stress at the anchorage device seating should not exceed the smaller of the two values obtained from Equations 4.25 f. -= 6·35 m.5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones relieved strands.2. from the beam bottom fibers. = 0. Ag = gross area of the bearing plate Equations 4.0 in.5 in. Establish the configuration of the strands to give eccentricity ee = 12.16(a) and 4.. with the upper base being the loaded surface area of the concrete and sloping sideway with a slope of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal.. giving the size.7f~. adds the term [0. distance of the centroid of tendons = 5 X 5 25 5 70 3 · O ·K · · + X13 · + X ll. The maximum force Psu stipulated in the ACI 318 Code for designing the confining reinforcement at the end-block zone is as follows for the more widely used low-relaxation strands: Psu = (1.8 fpu) (4.84 in.! in.15c) The AASHTO Standard.5.49 in. contained wholly within the section.~ Íb ~ 2.5 MPa) normal-weight concrete.153 4. 2nd row: 5 strands at 7.16 (b) where Íb = maximum factored tendon load. Use f~ = 5. fpu = 270.ee = 6. (a) Solution by the Linear Elastic Stress Method: l. type.5 in.2) Aps (0. (b) the plastic strut-and-tie method.16(a) and 4. cb = 18. .000 psi low-relaxation steel.70 fpu is advised.5 I (Pus sin a)] to Equation (4.000 psi (34. 4. (161 mm) For a centroidal distance of the 13 .16(b) are valid only if general zone reinforcement is provided and if the extent of concrete along the tendon axis ahead of the anchorage device is at least twice the length of the local zone.15b ). hence distance from the beam bottom fibers = cb . a lower fp. and distribution of reinforcement.6 Designan end anchorage reinforcement for the post-tensioned beam in Example 4. 3rd row : 3 strands at 11.) into the the anchorage devices then transitionally reduce to the 6-in. for the case where Psu acts at an inclined angle a in the direction of the beam span.5. Sketch the truss model you determine. thick web.16(b) as follows: 4.16 (a) Íb~0.35 in. try the following row arrangement: lst row : 5 strands at 2. (104 cm. 4.3. 4. For horizontal Psw sin a= O. size tendons = 6. divided by the effective bearing area Ab f . = concrete compressive strength at stressing A = maximum area of portian of the supporting surface that is geometrically similar to the loaded area and concentric with it. Solve beyond span the problem using (a) the linear elastic stress analysis method..2.15a) and 5e(sin a) to Equation (4.

From Figure 4.-lb 32 21.-lb (70.121. (61 cm) above the beam bottom fibers (spalling potential crack effect).0. 110 lb M 20 18. the concrete interna! moment at the plane 4 in.-lb = 0.12 X 106 in.1 kN-m) The net moment is then 1.49" 376.851X4 X 18 + 10 . from the bottom fibers is .117 X 4 X 18 X (6m. Elastic analysis of forces Divide the beam depth into 4-in.6.110 lb (1. (b) Transfer concrete stress distribution across depth.-lb (34.12 x 106 .5.582 in. we can find the net moment for ali the other incremental planes at 4-in.50 x 106 in. from Example 4.-lb (127 kN-m) The prestressing force moment at the plane 8 in.-lb = 1. 75 X 106 in.6 kN-m) at the horizontal plane 6. (a) Post-tensioned end-block zone. Mes= 2.) + 1.110 X (8 . the initial prestressing force before losses. X (2m. 2.) 2 = 1.6. and assume that the concrete stress at the center of each increment is uniform across the depth of the increment.20x10 6 in. increments of height as shown in Figure 4.35) = -620.856 in.16 28 24 l -+ .-lb (84.673 kN).28.35 in. = 376.-lb 1585 8 1851 4 2117 o o -2250 psi (15.28.-lb (56.154 Chapter 4 40" Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 409 psi 36 0.62 x 106 = 0.2.cgc 16 12.6 kN-m).117 X 4 X 18 X (2in. from the bottom fibers is Mes = 376.-lb = -0.84" 1319 12 O. The net maximum moment will determine the position of the potential horizontal bursting crack and the reinforcement that has to be provided to prevent the crack from developing. In a similar manner. about each horizontal plane in arder to determine the net moment on the section. (c) Net anchorage zone moments on potential horizontal cracking planes along the beam depth. increments to get the values tabulated in Table 4. is P.5 MPa) (a) (b) (e) Figure 4.3 X 106 in.) = 304. Then calculate the incremental moments due to these interna! stresses and due to the externa! prestressing force P. . the maximum net moments are +Mmax = 0.848in. From the table. above the beam bottom fibers (bursting potential crack effect) and -Mmax = -0.28 Anchorage zone stresses and moments in Example 4.75 x 106 in. from the bottom fibers is Me4 = 2.4 kN-m) and that at the plane 8 in.-lb at the horizontal plane 24 in.2 X 106 in.62 X 106 in. Using a plus (+) sign for clockwise moment.

65 +0.2.20 -0.000 20.319 -1.75 +l. (4) about horiz.Mp) col. (1) Anchorage Zone Moments for Example 4. fs = 20.1.25 +3. we have .0)* psi Concrete resistance force at (d. The spalling zone force Ts = -0.40in2 (250mm) Hence.04 -0.117 -1.22 in2) Required no. (1) in. assuming that the center of the tensile vertical force T is at a distance x "' 15 in. plane in col.296 18.11 = 0.000 = -. 75 Allowing a maximum steel stress.60 fy = 36.02 -O o 4 6.3 10 6 6 6 6 6 6 18 18 -2. .44 +7.SO = 6.400 31.X 106 = 30 000 lb (133 kN) X ' 40 .155 4. we obtain T = Mmax h . plane in col.SO +0.13. of No. (6)col.656 25.872 -29.000 152.912 12.5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones Table 4.15 = +ü.54 +4.000 _ .000 lb 40 So Ts As= Ís 8.12 -0.65 -11.528 6.22 Use seven No. d from bottom in.30 +0.35 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 -0.15 -12.0)* lb Moment MP for a P.851 -1.2 X 106 _ lS = 8. 3.585 -1.15 -0.66 *d =distance from plane about which moment is taken less half the depth of one slice (in this example slice depth =4 in.656 63.13 +12.64 -8. 3 stirrups = 0.448 o o o o o +0.50 m.94 +6.19 -0.-lb X 106 Net moment (Me.144 -O -19. (1) in.250 -2.61 +11.000 psi) The bursting zone reinforcement is . 3 closed ties (As= 2 x 0.2.75 +O.).= 2 0.62 -2.13 -6. Design of anchorage reinforcement From Equation 4.82 0.12 +2.99 +9. of stirrups = l.6 Moment Me of concrete in col.-lb X 106 (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 18 18 13. 2 968 mm2 ) F 1 20 ' 000 Js So Try No.63 -5.40 _ 0 22 = 1.054 -788 -522 -256 -O +276 +409 162.14 -9.424 103. (the Code allows 0. (5) in.5 Moment pi a ne dist. Req no.-lb X 106 Section width in. Stress at plane (d. 3 ties in addition to what is required for shear. about horiz.13 -3. ( A _ Tb _ 30.30 +0.09 -0.82 .000 psi.

Also.K. U stress-relieved strands are used.82 + 1. hence distance from the beam fibers cb . lst row force P. Add spiral reinforcement under the anchors íf the manufacturer specifies thal sucb a reinforcemenl is useful.11 = 1. Next.· The factored jacking force at the short jacking time inlerval is: P. (882 kN) 3rd row force P. (882 kN) 2nd row force P112 = 5 x 0. center lo center with the first stirrup starting 3 in. Factored forces in tendon rows and bearing capacity of the concrete From Equation (4. from the end face al the anchor location. from the beam end./P.200 = 198.5 in.80 f¡.973 lb.).153 x 259..545 lb.2 Aps (0.286 + 198.5 =6.23.5 1stance o t e centro1d o tendons = +5 X 7. O .l = 5 x 0. from the beam bottom fibers.0 in..84 in. long al 3 in. 3 closed ties.ration of the strands 10 give ecce111ricity e. center to center each way 2 in. (2290 kN) Total area of rigid bearing plates supporting the Supreme 13-chucks anchorage devices = 14 X ll +6X4 = 178 in.153 X 259.•.m.l5c) for low-relaxation strands.153 x 259. since cracking can occur vertically and horizontally. cb 18.286 + 118. 2 (113 cm 2) .70 f¡. psi. So use two No.200 A P.35 in. check the bearing plate slresses.J = 0. = 0. =0. (b) Solution by the Plastic Strut-and-Tie Method: L Establish the configu. 3rd row: 3 tendons at 1 L. try the following row arrangement of tendons with the indicated distances from the bottom fibers: lst row : 5 lendons at 2.-size st rands =6. 2. 3 closed ties at 3 in.200 = 198. Then Total number of stirrups = 6.35 in.286 lb. 2nd row: 5 tendons at 7.973=515. provide four No. f 5 X 2.96 X 270. (529 kN) Total ultimate compressive force= 198.0 13 +3 X 11.96 fpu Aps = 0.64 Use 13 No... 3 additional stirrups.2. (161 mm) = = For a centroidal distance of the 13-!-in. d' f b .000 A P1 = 259.49 in. Extend the stirrups into thc compression zone in Figure 4. 3 bars 10 in.80/r.156 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Photo 4. = 6.200 = 118.J = 3 x 0.286 lb. it would have been advisable to use f p. (317 mm) From Example 4. = 12.35 . Space the No.8 Typical bursting crack of thc anchorage zone (Nawy et al.82 + 4 • 12..e.5 in.

2.5 End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones Actual bearing stress fb = 515.11) = 11.~ Íb :=. the maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete is the lesser of Íb :=. Number of ties = 0 .000 2 X O.29.880 lb 203.000 = 3750 psi = Concentric area. 4 closed ties @ 1 hn. truss analysis in Figure 4. Start the first tie at a distance of 1! in. the rectangular dimension of the beam end.5 155 13 155 = 203.545 ~ = 2896 psi (19. from the end rigid steel plate transferring the load from the anchorage devices to the concrete. fb X 3750&.5.5. 4 ties. 3-2 . and the arrangement and spacing of the strand anchorages in contact with the supporting steel end bearing plates. As defined in Section 4. Try No.Pu 3 = 11.5.16(a) and (b). 1-2 . Construct the strut-and-tie model assuming it to be as shown in Figure 4..304 lb to concentrate additional No. O.5 respectively. 3.5 = 9..5 in.5. t1e tens1on = 11 8. Assume that the initial concrete strength at stressing is f~. 4 vertical ties ahead of the anchorage devices. = 0.7 Allowable bearing stress. and the corresponding concrete pyramid base area A within the end block assumed to receive the bearing stress.405 lb (904 kN ) = 166. are purely determined by engineering judgement. 3 closed ties.25 f ~.286 X 26.0/15. = 3.. Draw the strut-and-tie model Total length of distance a. > 2. . From statics.75 X 5.1 157 4. Hence depth a/2 ahead of the anchorages = 9.3.973 X . tie tens10n = 198.5 .25 between forces Pu 1 .90 X 60.1 11..= 17 . (12. it should be noted that the area Ag of the rigid steel plate or plates. 2. ahead of the anchorage devices.29 gives the member forces as follows: . Only thirteen ties in lieu of the 15.7 Use eight No.29.75 fe = 0. The areas are based on the geometry of the web and bottom flange of the section.7 mm @ 32 mm) center to center with the first tie to start at H in. as defined for the concrete pyramid base in Section 4.9 MPa) From Equations 4. The geometrical dimensions for finding the horizontal force components from the ties 1-2 and 3-2 have cotangent values of 26.0 in.0/2 = 4. use the force Pu= 166. A. 3 closed ties@ 2~ in. 4.000 X 2(0.7 f. Use 13 No.681 psi. of concrete with the bearing plates (14 + 4)(11+4) + (6 + 4)(4 + 4) = 350 in. = 0.K.90 X 166.3.405 required number of stirrup ties = .5 and 13. 0.880 For the tension tie a-b-c in Figure 4. The bearing stress from Eq.5 mm@ 57 mm) center to center . (9.14 (b) does not control.896 psi. as in Figure 4.304 ( 60 . 2 . giving a tensile strength per tie = <I> fy Av = 0.0 calculated are needed since part of the zone is covered by the No.5/15.304 lb (699 kN ) Use the larger of the two values for choice of the closed tension tie stirrups. 20 ) = 7.

29 18" Tension ties =salid lines Compression struts = dashed lines Truss nades = 1. Sometimes the precast.. Adopt this design of the anchorage zone. Composites have the advantage of the precast part becoming in many cases the falsework for supporting the situ-cast top slab and topping in bridges and industrial buildings./ C') -------i _ _T_ _]_ _ ""'" cV>/ !l)'I 20" 1189731 ~ i h = 40" 26. The concrete stress distribution due to composite action can be seen in Figure 4. Hence.. 4 tie so that a total distance of 40 in.6 beyond the last No.. the concrete stress calculations have to take this situation into account in the design. This can be seen in Example 4.--------- ·I 15 Tension Tie .286 lb W' 21/2'' b g / -~ -2~~412 ----- 1~1. which has a substantially larger section modulus than the precast section.6 FLEXURAL DESIGN OF COMPOSITE BEAMS Composite sections are normally precast.5" 198.j h/2 = 20" > 1e .30 shows a schematic of the anchorage zone confining reinforcement details resulting from the strut-and-tie analysis. It should also be noted that the idealized paths of the compression struts for cases where there are severa! layers of prestressing strands should be such that at each !ayer leve! a stress path is assumed in the design.973 lb ---1--1~ 4 198./~ / ~/ <o/ / 2" j 18" C') ~ 2 ..32. If layers are combined.286 118. which is not necessarily justified.0" ---2. w· f l 3 7. prestressed element is shored during the placement and curing of the situ-cast top slab. Figure 4.158 Chapter 4 r-- r-- Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Rectangular Anchor B l o c k .31. 2.39(b).. Note that this solution requires a larger number of confining ties than the semi-elastic solution in part (a)..I . the slab weight acts only on the composite section.. 4. as shown in Figure 4.. prestressed supporting elements over which sit situ-cast top slabs that act integrally with them. a more conservative solution with more confining reinforcement area results.Compression Strut 11( • Figure 4.7 and Figure 4.. (104 cm) width of the rectangular anchor block is confined by the reinforcement closed ties. In such a case. . 3 Struts-and-Ties in Example 4.. in part (e) of which the load taken by the cured composite section is the sum of WSD + WL.

6.19a) Situ-cast concrete slab Precast slab panel Precast prestressed beam Figure 4. the extreme concrete fiber stress equations before casting the top slab are (4.30 End anchorage reinforcement in Example 4.. (a) Anchorage zone.g. \ _L.35" f- ~~ . 4.6. with the cgc line moving upwards towards the top fibers.18a and b for the extreme top and bottom fibers of the precast part of the composite section (level AA in Figure 4. After the situ-cast slab hardens and composite action takes place.2 (4.31 Composite prestressed concrete construction.""'"I• 1 t I· ~ < 1 ------L. ·I 40" Web Cross-Section Elevation Figure 4.c.1 Unshored Slab Case From Equations 4. 6.159 4.2a and b. .17) and Íb Msn Mn-+Pe ( 1 + -ecb) + Sb Ac = -- .g. new higher moduli S~ and Scb are available. (b) Beam cross section.6 Flexura! Design of Composite Beams rª #4 ties @ 11/4"c/c Closed ties as required by shear in addition to anchorage zone ties t 13 #3 ties @ 2W'c/c M!• •! 1 1W'-1 1 40" (10 2cm) c.18) where S1 and Sb are the section moduli of the precast section only. and Msn is any additional superimposed moment such as the wet slab concrete. ~f-- -~ -------- Tendon c.s. The concrete fiber stress counterparts to Equations 4.32( e) are (4.

and S/ and S cb are the section moduli of tbe composite section at the leve! of the top and bottom fibers. of the precast section. at service. (e) Final service-load stress dueto all loads. S'cr (4. (a) Composite beam.Meso+ M1. (d) Uve-load stress for shored case..32 Flexura! stress distribution in composite beams. (4.20b) .32(e)) are ps =.).160 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Situ-cast slab B A •• • • •• •• •• W7 • W0 + W50 + WL + W¡ wtiere W1 impact load in case of bridges Fig.19b) where M eso is the additional composite superimposed dead load after crection. i.e.9 Jacking tendons of post-tensioned beam (Nawy et al. or live load plus superimposed dead load for unshored case.. respectively.2) e- P. (b) Concrete stress distribution.20a) and Íbs = Pboto 4. and (4. Tbe fiber stresses al the leve! of the top and bottom fibers of the situ-cast slab (levels BB and AA of Figure 4. + w 0 + W50 unshored (al (d) (b) (e) (e) Figure 4. 4 . (c) Concrete stress distribution with precast beam shored.

respectively. of the slab in Figure 4.6 give the ACI and AASHTO requirements for determining the effective top flange width of the composite section. the width b has to be modified to account for the difference in the moduli of the two concretes in arder to ensure that the strains in both materials at the interface are compatible. Figure 4.2 Fully Shored Slab Case In cases where the situ-cast slab is fully shored until composite action develops. (4.19.33 and Table 4. (4.32( e).18 and 4.-----+-r-------Lc Figure 4. 4. Equations 4.22a) and ecb) Mcsn + ML +Mn Pe ( ----.161 4.21a) and Íb Mn 2 + .6. If the topping concrete is of different strength than that of the precast section.+Msn + 1+fb=-2 Ac r Sb (4. The modified width of the composite topping for calculating the composite Ice is (4. and S~b and Sbcb are the section moduli of the composite section for the top and bottom fibers AA and BB.6 Flexura! Design of Composite Beams where Mcsn + ML are the incremental moments added after composite action has developed.21b) Sb After the top slab is situ cast and full composite action is developed when the concrete hardens.6.3 Effective Flange Width In arder to determine the theoretical composite action that resists the flexura! stresses. the concrete fiber stresses befare shoring and top slab casting become. 4. for the beam shored after erection. .( 1 + -ecb) = -Pe Ac r (4.22b) Scb Note that adequate check has to be made for the horizontal interface shear stresses between the situ-cast and the precast beams.19a and b become.23) 11 1 1 ~----L.33 Effective flange width of composite section. from Equations 4. as will be discussed in Chapter 5. a determination has to be made of the slab width that can effectively contribute to the stiffness increase resulting from composite action.

. 'Y= - (b) Far straight tendons.. the type of concrete.• f~. Find the minimum required section modulus of the minimum efficient section far evaluating the concrete fiber stresses at the top and bottom fibers. = 0.'Y) Mn + Msn + ML --------- ti . and whether the prestress type is pretensioning or post-tensioning. the live-load intensity Wv the span and the height limitation. (a) Far harped or draped tendons.. Assume the intensity of self-weight Wn. and calculate moments Mn. and ML. Determine net stresses fpe = fp. use the midspan controlling section: (1 .6 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Values of Effective Flange Width Width b as the least of the tabulated values (Modify to bM = n. or 0. fe= 0. fc and fe. where ne = Ec/Ec when flange concrete is of different strength from that of the precast web) End beam ACI lntermediate beam bw+ 6h¡ bw + l6h¡ bw+!Lc bw+Lc L 4 L b+w 12 AASHTO bw+6h¡ bw + l2h¡ bw +!Le bw+Lc L bw + 12 L 4 L = span of end or intermediate beam where Eet = modulus of the topping concrete Ee = modulus of the precast concrete Once the modified width bm is defined. Msn.45 f.60 f~.b. = 3~. the material strengths fpu' f~.11fpr 5.. 4. where fp. = 0. 2. the entire composite section is considered to be of the higher strength concrete.. and Ít.60 f.fe si~---------- sb ~ (1 . 3.'Y)Mn + Msn + ML 'YÍti .70 fpu' fe. Given the superimposed dead-load intensity Wsn.'Yfci where Pe P. as allowed and fc = 6~ to 12~· 4. Calculate the prestress losses 11fpT = 11fpES + 11fpR + 11fpsH + 11fpcR + 11fpE + 11fpA + 11fp8 far the type of prestressing used. use the end-support controlling section: .7 SUMMARY OF STEP-BV-STEP TRIAL-AND-ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURE FOR THE SERVICE-LOAD DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED MEMBERS l. fc.162 Chapter 4 Table 4. far the midspan section. Calculate fp.

Sr -. Far (a) the controlling section in the span (usually the midspan or at 0. and amax = M r!Pe.Íc si~------- MD + MsD + ML fr .-::¡e Íb 1- MD ec1) . and (c) any other section along the span if both straight and draped tendons are used. fw0c k 1 e = Pe t to the bottom and top envelopes.k 1). If the tension in the concrete is used in the design.7 Step-By-Step Trial-and-Adjustment Procedure for the Service-Load Design of Prestressed Members 163 MD + MSD + ML 'YÍt. Determine the minimum development length of which the transfer length /1 = 3 . or both. and . 8. or both. establish the envelopes of limiting eccentricities far zero tension eb = (kb + amin) and e1 = (amax .4. add f(tlAckb eí. Analyze the concrete fiber stresses far the service-load conditions. (b) the controlling section at the support. analyze the concrete fiber stresses expected at stress transfer immediately befare such transfer: P. ( _ f 1 . as in step 7: ~: ( 1 _ ~t) _~tT j1 = _ Íb = -- Mr Pe ( 1 + -ecb) 2 + Sb r Ac where Mr= MD + MsD + ML.z MD P. . or change the eccentricity ec or ee. enlarge the section. 10. . If the stresses exceed the allowable values. respectively. ( 1 + -ecb) 2 + Sb r Ac = -- If the stresses exceed the allowable values. where fpe is in psi units. where amin = MDIP. Investigate the end-block anchorage zone stresses. Select a trial section with section modulus properties clase to those required in step 5 to be checked later far composite section fiber stress requirements.=--P.~¿0 db.4 of span). where ¡<t) and Í(b! are the extreme fiber stresses calculated to be in the concrete. Far cases where many strands have to be used. and design the necessary reinfarcement to prevent bursting or spalling cracks. enlarge the section or change the eccentricity ec oree. 9. 7.'YÍci sb~------- 6.

and befare the topping is situ-cast. and revise the section if these stresses exceed the maximum allowable concrete fiber stresses both in the precast section and the situ-cast top slab. Befare shoring. Use the strut-and-tie plastic truss units to compute the ultimate tension force in the tie for confining reinforcement selection. (a) Unshored Slab Case. Befare the top slab is situ cast: f1 Íb = _Pe Ac (i _rz ec1) _ MD + MSD 51 Pe ( 1 + -ecb) + MD-+MSD Ac rz 5b = -- After the top slab is cast and cured to develop full composite action. Use the modified effective width bm = (Ec/E)b for the top composite flange when calculating the section modulus of the composite section.164 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Post-tensioned Anchorage Design the anchorage block reinforcement.Mv + Msv _ McsD + ML r2 51 5~ Pe ( 1 Ac Mcsn + ML + -ecb) + MD + MSD + --2 r 5b 5cb where 5: and 5cb are the section moduli of the composite section at the level of the top and bottom fibers of the precast section.021 -/¡ Js t 11. f1 =_Pe Ac (i _rz ec1) . Determine the composite action stresses. Also. Pretensional Prestress Transfer Zone A1 Ph = 0.Mv 51 . (b) Fully Shored Slab Case. the stresses at top and bottom fibers of the precast part of the composite section will be f1 =_Pe Ac Íb = -- (i _ ect). M L includes M 1 if impact stresses exist. The fibers stresses at the level of the top and bottom fibers of the situ-cast hardened slab are McsD + ML r=----5~s t where 5:s and 5csb are the section moduli of the composite section at the level of the top and bottom of the situ-cast slab.

with deck slab unshored during construction. Figure 4. The width of the bridge is such that the exterior beams are 28 ft (8.34 shows a flowchart far the service-load flexura! design of prestressed beams. Flowchart for service-load flexura! design of prestressed beams.. Extreme fiber stress in tension f. = -0.. Design the supporting interior post-tensioned beams. 12.. to carry START 8 ..34 =12 v't.. Proceed to determine the strength of the section far the limit state at failure and far shear and torsional strength. W0 . .'Y Straight or drapee! tendons 0 Compute moments: M0 = W0 22 /8 M50 = W50 22 /8 ML = wL221a Mr = Mo + Mso + ML Compute permissible linear stresses At transfer: Extreme fiber stress in compression fe. of bearings... Msv = moment due to situ-cast slab and any other construction load. center to center. The spacing of the interior beams is at 7 ft center to center. = 6~ At service: Extreme fiber stress in compression fe = -0.6f. 2.7 A two-lane simply supported bridge has a 64 ft (19. Extreme fiber stress in tension f. Read fpu• f. W50 .165 4. f..8 Design of Composite Post-Tensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section After the situ-cast slab is cured and ful! composite action develops. 4.8 DESIGN OF COMPOSITE POST-TENSIONED PRESTRESSED SIMPLV SUPPORTED SECTION Example 4.-------'---------.54 m) center to center.. and Mcsv =moment dueto additional composite superimposed load. Figure 4..5 m) span. Mv = moment dueto self-weight of the precast element.45f. WL. ¡i =_Pe Ac (i _ecr)r2 Mv _ Msv 1 S + Mcsv + ML S~ The effective width of the top flange of the composite section is determined in accordance with the applicable ACI or AASHTO specifications.

..... Select fr-0m rectangular section according to Sb or s. controlling Select from I section according to Sb or S.166 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements ~ ~ ~ \V ----< Are the concrete dimensions to be selected?-.. S'.______.-----.34 (continued) Goto 8 . 10%? Yes Compute section properties Ac.__-~ Read the data block (... Sb..---i 0 Goto @ . controlling e @-----< Select from T section according to Sb or s.----___.....5? Yes S' l <30ft? No 0 . le. controlling Input chosen dimensions Difference between assumed and calculated self-weight::. r 2 Figure 4.'\ Yes \V----< Constant eccentricity? No No [S'-Sb] ---->0..

___~-(1 + ecb/r 2) (-1 + ec'!r 2) p..' 1 + Ac S' Mo -ecb) + r2 sb At service top stress= --Pe (1 .- and ---~ tí3' .-------. ( bottom stress = .< .34 (continued) .. Print: .------'lnput-chosen P and corresponding \:.167 4..Mo 1 top stress = --P (1 .1 + M0 !S')Ac or P1 < _.------'.) r2 Ac -p.::/ dP 1 @ Actual fiber stresses At transfer .-ec.Actual concrete fiber stresses END Figure 4. ( 1 + -ecb) Mr r2 Ac r2 Ac S' +sb Warning message SAFE Goto Select new dimensions G) No @.8 Design of Composite Post-Tensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section Compute range of initial prestressing force and its eccentricity: (-fc 1 + M0 /Sb)Ac (f.) Mr bottom stress = --P..-ec.Permissible concrete fiber stresses .

000 psi aormal-weight concrete ¡:.8 MPa) f. (122 cm) deep.10 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Photo layout of bridge deck prestressing tendon.862 MPa) fpy = 0.= 6 ft . (20 cm) thick at midspan and 45 in.000 psi normal-weight concrete 5~ in..6 in. Assume a deck slab Si in. = -2. Use a live-load moment value includiag impact due to AASHTO HS20-44 loading for oae interior beam of the 64 ft span bridge = 9.000 in.675 MPa) fp.2 MPa) fe= 0.051 kN-m).000 psi (1. .6 MPa) f. Since the beam spacing and span length are known.-lb (1. = 4. situ-cast topping anda diaphragm 8 in.40/.200 psi (l. givea lhe following information: Concrete Precast beamf: = 5. precast panels and 4 in. The clear distaoce between the webs of the beams is 7 ft .55/. We have: . = 212 psi = 3Vf: f. establish the tendon eccentricities and tendon eavelopes: aad design the anchorage block and reinforcement.168 Chapter 4 Photo 4.000 psi (27. (14. = -2.90/pu = 243.. = 0..303 MPa) after losses = 0.300.000 psi (1. = 151 .70fpu = 189.. = 6V[: = 424 psi Prestressing Steel fp. f~ = 0.. = 3. = 270.000 psi (l. cast integrally with the deck slab.6 cm) thick made of U in.80f. deck f.000 psi (13.200 psi {15. AASHTO HS20-44 loading.043 MPa) Locate and draw lhe distribulion of tendons in both tbe midspan and end sections. the momenls duc to situ-cast slab and diaphragms can be initially determined. Solution: Be11ding Moments and New Allowable Stresses (Steps 1-4). 6 in. Oin..

480 + 2. 143 in.370 cm3) le = 125. We have as in Figure 4.952 + 3. S' = 5.390 in.558.912 + 9.-lb (403 kN-m) M csv = Oin this case Minimum Section Moduli and Choice of Tria/ Section (Steps 5-6) 151.257 m..2 X 106 cm4 ) Ac = 560 in..- 'YÍt.215 m. 4 (5..215 in. 940.75 X = 12 7 4 12 150 = 350 plf (5.186 in.-lb (405 kN-m) (1 .35..032 + 2.440 lb (11.(1 .880 = 3.618. (101.(-2. Then Mv • = t - Mm S - 583(64) 2 8 X 12 = 3.535 cm ) .1 kN/m) 7 X X X 150 = 153 plf (2. 2 (3.3 (83.912 + 9. .2 kN/ m ) .. (102..581.Íc sb (1 .3 (101.581.000 = 0·80 S' (1 .440 (64 X 12) 4 350(64)2 (12) +---8 = 468.558.8 Design of Composite Post-Tensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section .- .032 m.80)3...300..000 .558.000 . 3 3 0.'Y)Mv + Msv + ML 2: . situ-cast topping weight = MsDJ = 153~4f 8 X 12 = 6. precast formwork panel we1ght 4 in..3 since AASHTO type IV has a much larger section modulus.400 = 2.-lb = 940.6.215 in.846 cm) 424 0 80 2 200 The expected actual section modulus for the top fibers is usually considerably larger than the section modulus for the bottom fibers of the composite section.912 in. . ) .952 in.4.80(212) . 3 AASHTO type 111 is chosen as the closest trial section for Sb = 6.0.082 cm 3) sb = 6..80)3.300..581.613 cm2 ) ..3 kN) 1.5 kN/m).0.618...5 X X 169 150 = 2.fi - 'YÍci Assume that the self-weight of the precast beam element is approximately 583 plf (8.952 + 3.070 in.150.200 'Y = 189.880 in.6. .000) . 3 3 Mm Sb _ _ (.-lb Mcsv = composite superimposed dead load = O WsvL 2 PL Msv2=4+-8- = Total Msv 2. Diaphragm we1ght 8 12 = X 45 12 . So choose the precast element based on sb = 6.'Y)Mv + Msv + ML 2: .

223.9 in.. = e.37 in.36 m.174 r2 3.7 cm2 ) = = 636.69 in.69 +l.471.27 in.4.584 in.69 = 16.1 cm) 3.27" cgc t l (b) f--1·-10"---J (a) Figure 4.80 X 636.940 lb (2. (a) Section (AASHT0-111).27 .= MD ªmin 3. = = .27 in.8 cm) cb = 20.952 636 174 l My llmax = = = -. 9.581.2 kN/m) ~-in.0 = 16.861 kN-m) amin 16.05/636.05 = 32.471.153 P. (413 mm) ee = 10 in. (62.7 mm) 7-wire stress-relieved strands. = 3.952 + Aps = 22 X 0.632 + 9.Chapter 4 170 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements f. Try ec = 16. (28. (23.-lb (1.-1'-4"--l TI 7" -r _l 1 3'-9''.36 = .73 = P.000 k.174 lb (2. 20 27 kb = - r2 e.68 in.= 24.589.5 cm) WD = 583 plf (8.174 = 1. (Upper e°:velope. (51.05 in. .27 L 16. 32. (254 mm) .445 cm2) e. = Apsfp.70 X 270.830 kN) 508.= (21. Try Aps = twenty-two dia (12.11.35 Example 4.366 X 0.366 in. = 21. U sing 4 in.05 m.91 24. = cb = 223. as the tendon is within the band. . = ' p = e eb = = 11. giving a maximum ec with tension = 14.300. 19" 4" 45" 20.63 m.K..63 + 9.264 kN) ) .584 508 ' 940 + kb llmax - k.05 14.=212 x 560 x 9. eí.7. 5.0 = 20.91 .37 in. ou~s1de sect1on. 2 (1. cover gives ec = cb . ? = 223. (b) Composite section properties.000 Pe= 0.80P¡ = 0. 2 = = 16.0 cm . hence sect10n can be 1mproved) 5.581.73 in.31 in. Stresses at Transfer My = 3.4. = f1AcKb/P. hence O.

91 6.390 + 560(31.000~ ----= =0. 2 seb = 9.952 1 560 223. Ae (l _eect) r2 = + 118.+Ae Sb .91 5.56) 2 = 297.174 560 < X 24.3 + 579. (b) Support Section 1 f = _ P. + eecb) = _ 636.43 .200 psi. 32 m.581.952 1 560 223.77 cb = = X 84 in.K.4 . slab top d = 13.27 X 24.490 in.174 r2 560 = -2.4 MPa) ~ Íci = -2.75)(65) + 560 = 31. (213 cm) 84 = 65 in.9 psi (T) < 212 psi. 4 r2 = 318.(19. 3 sbes .K. 3 13.73).27) 223. O.68 in.714 in.K.000 Effective flange width = 7 ft Modified effective flange width = 0.15. t - ses - 297.K.7 psi (T) Íb = _ P.19.27) + 3. I.251 m.77 Ee (precast) 57. Composite Section Properties Ee (topping) 57. O.32 - 20. O.2 = _ 636.875) + (560 X 20.91 212 psi. at bottom of slab .070 = 905.0 = -2.164. at top of slab 297.5 = 198.174 ( + 16.044 in.31.4.8 Design of Composite Post-Tensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section 171 = _ 636.73) 223.3.714 m. 3 s~ = 21.68 .75 X 65)(47.230.27) 2 + 65(5.044 . 3 19.4) .200 psi.044 .3 (C) (15. = 125.044 .9 < -2.68 + 5.32 = 13.706. 0. 3 at top of precast section Precast c1 = 45 .27 X 20.174 ( _ 16.186 = -2.581.43 in.288 m.43 . Ae (l (l _10 = _ 636.000\/5.21. t - se - 297.75) 3 + 65 12 X 5.4 psi (C) (l 10 + X 20.12 in.809.27) .75(16. P¡ ( 1 eecb) Mn fb=-+.75 = 19. (165 cm) (5. (5.

159.K.581.5 MPa < 13.K. = .27 X 20.2 psi (C) < -2.27 X 20.186 223. no tension.9 psi (T) < f. Íb Msv +eccb) Pe ( 1 + -.247. = 508.088. Stresses Immediately A/ter Casting Concrete Slab Topping: Midspan Section (Slab Concrete Not Hardened) f'= M 0 + M 50 - Pe Ac (1 - ecc'). Precast Panel Is Erected As Formwork. (b) Support Section f' = 508.73).K.K. 223 9 = .1.891.27223.0 = -1.4 psi (C) < 2.984 1 6.584 1 6.3 = -1.27) = -1.27 X 24.521.9 560 = -2.600 = 7.27) + 7.6 psi (C).521.247. O.984 + 2.4 + 1.940 ( + 16.414. 94. O.9 = -167.K.-lb .516. Msv Mv-+eccb) + -(1 + Íb = -Pe Sb r2 Ac = _ 508.6 psi (11.940 ( -56() 1 - 10 10 508.940 ( Íb = -56() 1 + X 24.521. X 20.000 psi (7. 223 9 < -2.584 5.73) . .984 in.7.1 psi ( C) < = -2.032 4. 424 psi.3 .171.5 = -690.4 + 731.9 560 - 1 _ = f - = +724.000 psi.649.171.K.924.171.27) + 4. O.940 ( + 16. (a) Midspan Section f ' =_Pe Ac M 0 + Msv = ( 1 _ ecc').952 + 940.521.9 560 = -2.000 psi. Stresses at Service Load (Step 11) Add the Effect of MsD2 Dueto Unshored Slab (a) Midspan Section .186 223. O.9 MPa)( C) .984 1 5.Mv + Msv r2 S' 3.000 psi.+Mv Sb r2 =--- Ac = _ 508.4.584 in.73).070 X = 724.070 223.8 MPa).3 .904 ( _ 16. O.Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Chapter 4 172 Stresses A/ter Hin. O.Mv + Msv S' r2 = 4.731.-lb 508.940 f 560 (l _16. Wsv (Step lla) Be/ore Diaphragm and Slab Are Cast.

492 = -1088. Íb precast section in composite action is = -1088.300.63 in.171. Tendon Envelope (a) Midspan Section llmax = 32.( ) .248 ªmax = p MT .000 9.118.-lb + ML = O + 9. = 24.77 15 288 . Stress at top fibers of 9.22 m. -372 psi (C) ' (b) Support Section.1 psi ( C).731. = 4. ¡t = -690.-690. .28 m.686.1 + 979.-690.300..36 for the tendon envelope and Figure 4. amin = 5.000 .6 psi (C).-1.K. ~~. Same kind of calculations as in previous step.8 = < -2000 psi.000 = From the previous stage.37 for the stress distribution.2 .77 19 251 = . Stress at top fibers of slab after concrete hardened is f~s = 9.355.5 psi C 21 714 t - fe .2 psi ( C).4.38 gives the anchorage zone stresses and the net moments along the depth of the beam. = -468 psi (C) ' stress at bottom fibers of the slab is Íbcs = 9.428.300.1 = -1088.36 in.2 - Íbc 173 + 9. Figure 4.000 X 0. . P.000 X 0.36 Prestressing tendon envelope.9 psi (T) andfb = -1.584 in.000 McSD 9.300.300.( ) -108. ¡ MT = 12.464 ªmin = MD .~~-----i-----32'-0"----Figure 4.3 .3 psi e Modular ratio n = 0. .300.77 from before. Result isf' = +94. e See Figure 4. ( b) Quarter Section M D = 2. O.8 Design of Composite Post-Tensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section MD + MSD = 7.

e J_ = compression.174 lb ee = 10 in. f' = + 119 psi (T) fb = -2. (d) Service-load stage.164 psi (C) (i) Bursting Crack Reinforcement h = 45 in.Chapter 4 174 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Ali stresses are psi (1000 psi= 6. . = 636.895 MPa) 5~ in. (b) Erection. (c) Topping cast. + = tension +905 -707 T + 45" J_ -2809 -2230 +579 (a) Mp. (a) Transfer.7.37 Midspan concrete fiber stresses in Example 4. Design of End-Block Anchorage (a) Solution by Linear Elastic Method: P. + M0 +724 -892 + -2247 +731 -1516 -522 + -1516 +428 -1088 (c) Mp0 + M 0 + M50 +Meso (fresh concrete) -428 + -1088 +980 -108 (d) Figure 4.

x 2 in.35" +119 (16) lb/in. 7 2 s .1 cm2) 20 . N um b er reqmred = 3.15 = 133 .- (ii) Spalling Crack Reinforcement Tsp = Mmin -h-.x +0.000 .0 in.20 X 2 Arrangement of Strands.58 + 0.4 cm) The arrangement of the strands to develop the required tendon eccentricities are shown in Fig. (41.0. intervals along the height of the section are given in Table 4.65 = 9.X = 45 .0 m Total reinforcement = 3. 2037 (22) -2164 (22) psi (section width) Figure 4.3.7 mm dia.000 ..--¡..13 0.): . depth intervals.39(a). Mmax 2.20 .670 lb (316 kN) _ Tb _ 71. 4. (b) Net bursting or splitting moments (Mp ..8 Design of Composite Post-Tensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section 175 2. Bracketed values are section widths (in.-lb --~­ t---------__.04 X 106 45 . o A _ ~ _ 1. Use X = h/3 = 15 in.7. Use a 2 in. (25 mm x 25 mm) grid for arranging the distribution of strands.38 Anchorage zone elastic stresses and net moments in Example 4. The anchorage zone moments at the various planes at 5-in.330 _ .3 cm) ee = 10. (a) Anchorage zone stresses.670 _ . (25.27 in.65 in2 (23.20 .04 X 106 in.07 = 3. OOO .5 cm2) Try #4 vertical reinforcement (12. Eccentricities are: ec = 16.15 X 106 Tb = h . .7.. Js As . T~ 'in V l8N V +0.Me) at 5-in.15 = 71.58 m 2 (23.4.) along which anchorage stresses are acting.

{b) End section (ee = 10.91 -22.725 53.915 25.2. (2) determine concrete bearing capacity at the anchorage devices plane: From Equation (4.530 -1.) 5 10.2 Aps (0.5) (psi) Concrete resist. Pu 3 = 4(0.27 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 -3.80 fpJ = 1.022 -769 -515 -216 +119 o 237.15c ).550 44.01 -6.0 in.750 20.5) (lb) Moment MP of force P.153)(259.2 Aps (0.7 Anchorage Zone Moments for Example 4.56 +2.200) = 237.04 +ü.39(a) Strand arrangement in Example 4.56 +2.80 +12.936 lb Table 4.).040 133.07 +0.09 Moment Me of concrete in col.7.27" J~ + + + + + + + ' ++++•++++ +++++++ ~~~~~~~~~ t ' cgs + + + + + ++ (b) (a) Figure 4.42 +7.80 +18.037 -1.19 +0.153)(259. plane in col. (1) (in.-lb X 106) (7) o o +0.-lb X 106) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) o 22 22 15 7 7 7 7 12 16 16 -2.27 in.81 +0. 7 Section width (in.73 -18. = = 10.15 +4. (4) about horiz.164 -2.27) + 3(27.Mp) col.33 in.660 35.630 lb Pu2 = 6(0.95 +22. (6)col. about horiz.27" +-·-+ + + + 1 20.) Stress at plane (d.880 +9. (b) Solution by the Plastic Strut-and-Tie Method: (1) compute distance of the centro id of strands: 4(2) + 6(4) + 4(6) + 3(15.80 X 270. plane in col.2.55 -15. force at (d.-lb X 106) (6) Net moment (Me. used in the design.520 o o o Moment plane dist.770 26.76 +15.43 +0.).15 +l. Psu = 1.00 +9.~·q.37 -12. d from bottom (in. (a) Midspan (ec= 16.41 +0.8) + 2(20. tendons at 2" X 2" grid 16.783 -1. (5) (in. (1) (in.77) 22 which is clase to ec = 10 in.276 -1.06 .000) = 259.19 -9.200 Aps lb row forces: Pui.15 +o.5" --Ti-· cgc 22 .Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Chapter 4 176 + + + 7.200) = 158.

2. 2 .K.39(b) Strut-and-Tie Forces in Example 4.153)(259. Note that the bearings are acting against the rectangular end block section.4.16(a) and (b).7 X 3750 ~ = 3439 psi. = 0.Compression Strut Beam Elevation Figure 4... O.457 lb Total area of rigid bearing plates supporting the anchorage chucks: Ab = 20 Íb X 12 + 7 X 16 872.8 Design of Composite Post-Tensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section 177 2" T 79.000 = 3750 psi = Concentric area. Allowable bearing stress Íb = 0..973 2" 4" 181/2" .200) = 118.7..14 (b) does not control.. 4.25 f :¡ Assume that the initial concrete strength at stressing is J. the maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete is Íb ::. > 2480 psi..315 118. of concrete with the bearing plates (20 + 4)(12 + 4) + (7 + 4)(16 + 4) = 604 in. = 3(0.200) = 79..973 lb Pu4• Pu6 = 2(0. 2480 psi From Equations 4.5.75 X 5.457 = 3s2 = = 352 in. = 0.153)(259. 2.315 lb Pus Total ultimate compressive force= 2(158..315 = 872. . The bearing stress from Eq.5. as defined for the concrete pyramid base in Section 4.3.973) + 79.630 + 237.221/2'' 45" --1 ~ • > Tension Tie .936 + 2(118.75 ¡.. A.

including its abrupt change of slope at the first cracking load.90 .50) = 97. 4 confining tie number of ties = = 0.3.178 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements (3) Draw the strut-and-tie model and select the anchorage reinforcement choose distance a. used five No.p u6 = 7 . on centers over a distance of 40 in.973 (15.000 X 2(0.11) = 11. Choosing the larger value of 97. 600 lb.154 and 97. on centers. Construct the strut-and-tie model assuming it to be as shown in Figure 4.90 X 60. P1/ = 118. the moment arm of the interna! couple continues to increase with the load without any appreciable change in the stress fpe in the prestressing steel. It shows not only the load-deformation curve.880 lb .23/18. say 4 in. 4.40 relates load to steel stress at the various loading stages. The tension tie forces range between 32. where the modulus of rupture of concrete f.5 in.39 (b ). Tensile strength of one No. Beyond that dislocation point the beam can no longer be considered to behave elastically.000 X 2(0. It should be noted that if a smaller number of path lines are assumed in the idealization of the compression strut paths. . from the beam end: Use five No.944 880 = ll. is reached dueto the cracking moment Me.944 lb. the tension tie forces would have been larger resulting in more confining reinforcement. a sudden increase in the steel stress takes place and the tension is dynamically transferred from the concrete to the steel. As the flexura! moment continues to increase when the full superimposed dead load and live load act. but also the dynamic dislocation in the load-stress diagram at the first cracking load after decompression in a bonded prestressed beam. 4 closed U-stirrups starting at 1 hn. Asan example. and the rise in the compressive .1 Cracking-Load Moment As mentioned in Chapter 1. from the anchorage devices plane and spaced at Hin. 97. Figure 4.9 ULTIMATE-STRENGTH FLEXURAL DESIGN 4.944 lb. use nme No.944 lb. caused by the first cracking load. This stage of stress is called the limit state of decompression: Any additional external load or overload results in cracking at the bottom face. = 8.5. 4 closed U-Stirrups in the compression zone adjacent to the anchorage devices plane. reqmred number of stirrup ties X 97. 60.75 in..20) = 21.944 = 4. . At this stage. the applicable force can also be assumed in this case to be approximately 97. adopt the following confining reinforcement in the anchorage zone over a distance h = 45 in. depth a/2 ahead of the anchorages = ~ 7 5 = 3. one of the fundamentals differences between prestressed and reinforced concrete is the continuous shift in the prestressed beams of the compressive C-line away from the tensile cgs line as the load increases.9. as in Figure 4. hence.39(b) between two forces p uS . then continue with the nine stirrups at 5 in. . 4 closed U-stirrups. . 3 closed U-stirrups Trying No. 3 closed U-stirrups confining reinforcement within the anchorage zone area: tensile strength per tie = e!> fy Av = 0.944 lb and using No. In other words. a loading stage is reached where the concrete compressive stress at the bottom-fibers reinforcement level of a simply supported beam becomes zero. 21 600 Comparing solutions (a) and (b).

The concrete fiber stress at the tension face is (4. Also..-- § 1 Unbonded ~I "iii 1 ~ 1 e 81 -el El ~I 1 ~I m¡ o 1 <l:[ 1 :g 1 Range of zero tension in Figure 4. 4. \ . since it is not intended to denote that a beam is prestressed partially. C-line stabilizes and stops so that the section starts to behave like a reinforced concrete section with constant moment resistance arm.40 concrete~ S!~:~e ~ Post-cracking to failure range ~ Load Prestressing steel stress at various load levels. partial prestressing describes prestressed beams wherein limited cracking is permitted through the use of additional mild nonprestressed reinforcement to control the extent and width of the cracks ..24) where the modulus of rupture f.2 Partial Prestressing "Partial prestressing" is a controversia! term. 4. _..24... Consequently..9 Ultimate-Strength Flexura! Design 179 Stress ~ -----------------. since the section stiffness is reduced and hence an increase in deflection has to be considered....5Vf'c and the cracking moment Me.4....-------- fp$ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - - - - - Steel stress after cracking - - - - - - - --~---..... Mcr = f. _.. is the moment dueto all loads at that load level (MD + MSD + ML).9. Rather.. From Eq.Sb + Pe(e + ::) (4. such as at the bottom fibers at midspan of a simply supported beam.-----------------. It is important to evaluate the first cracking load.. = 7.. the term f. _. as might seem to be the case. Unbonded 1 fpe -g ----¡---¡[ 1 E1 -e¡ E1 := 1 ~I 1 1 1 O ¡. the crack width has to be controlled in order to prevent reinforcement corrosion or leakage in liquid containers.25) Note that the term r 2/cb is the upper kern value k 1 so that Per 2/cb denotes the elastic moment required to raise the C-line from the prestressing steel level to the upper kern point giving zero tension at the bottom fibers..Sb is that additional moment required to cause the development of the first crack at the extreme tension fibers due to overload.

207 = 725. or in members that are concentrically prestressed with small amounts of steel.255(14 + 9.225 lb (1.141 kN-m) Overload moment = MT .25. or in hollow members. Also.2 presupposed. (35.095.3 Cracking Moment Evaluation Example 4. The safety factor against cracking is given by 9. where Mcr approximates the nominal moment strength Mn of the section. (25.5v1fl = 7.000 = 530 psi (3. resulting in crushing of the concrete at the compression top fibers in a somewhat less ductile failure.3 cm) Sb = 3.638 in.207 in.2. Pe r/cb = 308.5V5.Mcr = 10.370.-lb (281 kN-m) whereMsv =O ML = 7.638 . This type of failure can occur in members that are prestressed and reinforced with very small amounts of steel.000 = 10. using a large percentage of steel.638 in.00 in.451 cm3) ec = 14 in.605. It is generally advisable to evaluate the magnitude of the cracking moment Mcr in order to determine the reserve strength and overload limits that the designed section has. the beam had tensile cracks at service load.2. leading to rupture of the tensile steel at failure.-lb (859 kN-m) From Equation 4.8 Calculate the cracking moment Mcr in the 1-beam of Example 4. Solution: From Example 4..5/18. premature failure occurs at the first cracking load level.207 10.-lb (1. Another type of. Given is f.095.638 = º· 93 .3 (61. and evaluate the magnitude of the overload moment that the beam can tolerate at the modulus of rupture of concrete.7 MPa).605.638 + 7. determine what safety factor the beam has against cracking due to overload.370.490. Two major advantages of partial prestressing are the efficient use of all constituent materials and the control of excessive camber dueto the long-term creep of concrete under compression. Prestressed beams can be either underreinforced using a relatively small percentage of mild nonprestressed steel. say.95) = 9.431 in.095. 4.6 cm) in this example.Chapter 4 180 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements and to assume part of the ultimate flexural moment strength.490.9.-lb (1.95 in. or essentially overreinforced.-lb (83 kN-m) Since M T >Me. Mv + Msv = 2.370.750 in. Mcr = frSb + Pe(e + = 530 X ~) 3750 + 308.509 kN-m) MT = Mv + Msv + ML = 2.371 kN) = 187. = 7. as the design in Example 4.84 = 9.9. Reinforced concrete beams always have to be designed as underreinforced to ensure ductile failure by yielding of the reinforcement.

Load conditions: 1..8 Baker's Weighted Safety Factor Weighted Failure Effect Maximum Wt l. = 10. only the exposure of nondamageable material 2. as in nonpartially prestressed members. as required by the ACI code. Workmanship: 0. As additional experience is accumulated and more knowledge is gained from failures as well as familiarity with the properties of concrete.5 to 2.0 Cast in place Precast "factory manufactured" 3.5 Total= :EW.5 1.4.0 0.26) where the maximum total weighted value of all parameters affecting performance equals 10.0 (high for simple spans and overload possibilities. Results of failure: 1.5 2. Warning of failure 6.0 to 4. based on probabilistic evaluation. = 2.10.0 2.1 O Load and Strength Factors 181 lf the service load MT is less than Me. This method expects the design engineer to make critical choices regarding the magnitudes of safety margins in a design. the safety factor S.0 0.0 Serious.24) proposed a simplified method of safety factor determination. 4. Until recently. the total factored moment <l>Mn.0 + lO . most safety factors in design have hadan empirical background based on local experience over an extended period of time. as shown in Table 4.::: l. Depreciation of strength 4.0 S. ~w. and resistance capacity are tabulated in the table. = 1.1 Reliability and Structural Safety of Concrete Components Three developments in recent decades have majorly influenced present and future design procedures: the vast increase in the experimental and analytical evaluation of concrete elements. factors of safety are adjusted and in most cases lowered by the codifying bodies.0 1. the safety factor against cracking will be greater than 1.0 0. either human or economic Less serious.. loading conditions. Note that where nonprestressed reinforcement is used to develop a partially prestressed section.F. The safety factor against failure is S. the probabilistic approach to the interpretation of behavior. Table 4.8. results of failure. low for load combinations such as live loads and wind) 4. In other words.0 to 2.10 LOAD ANO STRENGTH FACTORS 4. In 1956.0. 4. LW1 = 1. The weighted failure effects W 1 far the various factors of workmanship. The method takes into consideration that different weights should be assigned to the various factors affecting a design. and the digital computational tools available far rapid analysis of safety and reliability of systems. Importance of member in structure (beams may use lower value than columns) 5.0.F.2Mc.0 + lO (4. far the worst combination of conditions affecting structural performance. Baker (Ref.F.

they reduce the number of individual variables that have to be considered.28) . i:f the weighted factors are numerous.41(a) and (b) show a plot of the separate frequency distributions of the actual load W and the resistance R with meaos values R and W.41(c). Figure 4.8. (4. U Rn is the nominal resistance of the concrete element and W. As tbese approaches are basically load oriented. live. Tbey are intended for use in proportioning structural members on tbe basis of load types sucb tbat tbe resisting strength levels are greater than tbe factored load or moment distributions. Figures 4. Its approaches far steel and concrete structures are generally similar: both the load-and-resistance-factor-design method (LRFD) and first-order second-moment method (FOSM) propase general reliability procedures for evaluating probability-based factored load design criteria (see Refs. Failure. Additionally.ll Post-tensioojng bridge deck conduits. Sucb data in many instances are not readily available for deterrnining safe weigbted values W. Assume that <l>. and to the right of intersection C 011 the resistance curve R. in Eq. lf 13 is a safety iodex.25 and 4. It is recognized that safety and reliable integrity of tbe structure can be expected to exist if the load effect W falls ata point to the left of iotersection Con the W curve.182 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements This metbod assumes adequate prior performance data similar to a design in progress.27) where i represents the load in question. on the other hand. 4. represents the Load factors for the various types of load. sucb as dead. wind. or timedependent effects. 4.4l(c) gives tbe two distributions superimposed and intersecting at point C. represents the resistance factors of a concrete element and that 'Y. 4. an undue valuejudgrnent burden is probably placed on the design engineer if tbe fuJJ economic benefit of tbe approach is to be achieved.26. a probabilistic determination of them is more difficult to codify.26). represents tbe load effect for various types of superin1posed load. then R. Hence. would be expected to occur if the load effect or tbe resistance fall within the sbaded area in Fig. such as those listed in Table 4. Another method with a smaller number of probabilistic parameters deals primarily with loads and resistances.W vu~ + ui ¡3 =------:::== Pboto 4. earthquake. (4.

volcanic erup- . A plot of the safety index 13 for a hypothetical structural system against the probability of failure of the system is shown in Fig. 4. hurricane. U (b) [---ii-w--j 1 1 1 1 1 1 Load. It is economically unreasonable to design a structure for zero failure.41(c). R (a) w Load. resistance. or the variability of resistance as measured by their standard deviations aR and ªw is decreased. where aR and ªw are the standard deviations of the resistance and the load. 4. One can observe that such a probability is reduced as the difference between the mean resistance R and load effect W is increased.41 Frequency distribution of loads vs. such as the risks of severe earthquake. U (e) Figure 4.W) or decreasing the degree of scatter of a R or a w is naturally dictated by economic considerations. particularly since types of risk other than load are an accepted matter.42. thereby reducing the shaded area under intersection C in Fig.4. respectively. The extent of increasing the difference (R .1 O Load and Strength Factors 183 [---ii-w---1 -2oR I 1 +2oR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Resistance.

0 2. and load factors 'Y¡ in Equation 4.2 for concrete structures is suggested where the lower value accounts for load contributions from wind and earthquake.6L] (4. that is.Rn = Maximum[l.17) for maximum U. and overstress whose probability of occurrence is very low.1 General Principies The general concepts of safety and reliability of performance presented in the preceding section are inherent in a more simplified but less accurate fashion in the ACI code.2. and fire. safety index.0 4. In spite of this.Chapter 4 184 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 10.8.42 4.a ~ o > 10-3 -~ :e ~ ~ 10-4 10-5 10-6 2. If the factored externa! load is expressed as U.. 4.5 5. Safety factors and corresponding load factors would thus have to disregard those types or levels of load. A safety index ¡3 having the value 1. safety. it is still possible to achieve reliable safety conditions by choosing such a safety index value ¡3 through a proper choice of Rn and W¡ using the appropriate resistance factors <!>.27. stress.29) As more substantive records of performance are compiled.11. 4. the details of the foregoing approach to reliability. In cases where other load combinations. 4. a typical U¡ value recommended in the ASCE-7 Standard (Ref.0 R-W = ~=== Jo~+ o~ Probability of failure vs.W = U.5 Safety index Figure 4.1 10-2 ~ . ::::: U¡ max' as follows: U= <!>. such as described in Table 4.5 3. then L 'Y. and reserve strength evaluation of structural components will be more universally accepted and extended beyond the treatment of the component elements to the treatment of the total structural system.14) and IBC 2000 (Ref. tion. to be used in Equation 4.2D + l.0 3. <j>¡ Rn ::::: 'Y¡ W.75 to 3. such as snow or lateral pressure are not present.11 ACI LOAD FACTORS ANO SAFETY MARGINS 4. The load factors 'Y and the strength reduction factors <!> give an overall safety factor based on load types such that . for the different loading combinations.

with the basic combination of vertical gravity loads is dead load plus live load.12 T endon stressing with Frcyssinetjack. or lateral pressures dueto earthftU or fluids should be considered: . Variation in resistance capacity is accounted Cor in <j>.30) where <!> is the strength reduction factor and 'Yt and "12 are the respective load factors for the dead load D and the live load L. D+L <!> (4. etc. Basically. The philosophy used for combining the various load components for carlhquake loading is essentially the same as that used for wind loading. = "11D + "12L X_!_ SF .31 (g). a single common factor is used for dead load and another for live load. IBC. as Lhey restrict the esti mation of reserve strength to the loads only as compared to the o thcr parameters listed in Table 4.25). a higher load factor is normally used for live loads then for dead loads. the method is a simplified empirical approach to safety and the reliability of structural performance thal is nol economically efficient for every case and not full y adequate in other instances.11.11 ACI Load Factors and Safety Margins 185 Photo 4. depending on the type of stress being considered in the design.2 ACI Load Factors Equatíons The ACI 318 Building Code Cor concrete structures is an international code. Tbese two standards contain the same probabilistic vaJues for the expected safety resistance factors <!>1 R11 where <!> is a strength reduction factor. Hence. 4. The transient nature of live loads malees them difficult to estimate more accurately.2 for dead loads and l. The effect of onc or more loads not acting simullancously has to be investigated.3l(a) through 4. can be estimated more accurately than tbe live load. which constitutes the wcight of the structure and other relatively permanent features. such as combinations of dead and wind loads. and be consistent witb the ASCE-7 Standard on Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structurcs (Ref.4. earthquake. 4. such as people and furniture. such as a coefficient of 1. The live Load is estimated using the weight of nonpermanent loads. it has to conform to the lnternational Building Code. the current ACI design loads U (factored loads) have to be at lcast cqual lo the values obtained from Equations 4. The ACI factors are termed Load factors. Therefore. The dead load. The estimated service or working loads are magnified by the coefficients. Structures are seldorn subjected to dead and live load alone. . Thus. As such. T he following equations present combinations of loads for situations in whicb wind.8. namcly.6 for live load. Oexure or shear or compression.

it should not be included in H but shall be included in the design resistance. or Sor R) (4. W = wind load. It should be noted that the philosophy used for combining the various load components for earthquake loading is essentially similar to that used for wing loading.OL or 0. or Sor R) + (l. the ACI Code allows sorne reduction in the stipulated strength reduction factors <!>.6W + O. Where lateral earth pressure provides resistance to structural actions from other forces.5(L.6W in Eq. such as strength for combined flexure and axial load or shear strength in members with axial load. it is reasonable to assume that the ful! intensity of live load <loes not cover the entire floor area. 4.25 (4.2(D + F + 1) + l.9D are specifically included for the case where a higher dead load reduces the effects of other loads.9D + l. (c) Where earthquake load E is based on service-level seismic forces.31c) U = l.1 Reduction in Live Loads For large areas. and all areas where the live load L is greater than 100 lb/ft2.31a) U = l.SL + l. 4. = roof load.5 except for garages. l. Exceptions to the values in these expressions (a) The load factor on L in Eq.4(D + F) (4.2 m2 ) or more can be designed for a reduced live load from the following equation: .3l(g) if the structural action due to H counteracts that due to W or E.Chapter 4 186 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements U= 1.31f) U = 0. The load combinations with 0.OE + l. members having an influence area of 400 ft 2 (37.3l(f). In cases where special circumstances require greater reliance on the strength of particular members than encountered in usual practice. Due regard has to be given to sign in determining U for combinations of loadings.6(L + H) + 0.6H (4. 4. (b) Where wind load W has not been reduced by a directionality factor.3l(e) is allowed to be reduced to 0.9D + l.OL + 0.6W + l. Hence.31(d) and 4. Consideration also has to be given to various combinations of loading to determine the most critica! design condition.11.2D + l.OE + l. areas occupied as places of public assembly. or Sor R) (4. 4. L.31(f) and Eq.3l(g). as one type of loading may produce effects of opposite sense to that produced by another type.2D + l.6H (4.31b) U = l.6(L. R =rain load.2. particularly when strength is dependent on more than one load effect. 4.O(L. H =load due to the weight and lateral pressure of soil and water in soil. F = lateral fluid pressure load & maximum height. T = self-straining force such as creep.OE in Eq. or an increase in the stipulated load factors U.4E shall be used in place of l. E= earthquake load.31(e) and 4. L = live load. the code permits to use l. (d) The load factor on H is to be set equal to zero in Eq.3W in place of l.3l(c) to 4.31e) U = 0.2D + l. S = snow load. shrinkage and temperature effects.31g) where D = dead load.31d) U = l.8W) (4. 4.

32b) where L. the probability of load magnitude and reliability of performance are subject to higher randomness. Equation 4.65. A 1 is tributary area for beams. <!>is 0. slightly greater than. This nominal strength is reduced using a strength reduction factor <!> to account for inaccuracies in construction. are in sorne cases more conservative than they should be.32a) where L = Reduced design live load per square foot of area supported by the member. In cases of earthquakes. and to guard against progressive collapse and brittle failure with no advance warning of collapse. . 4.11 ACI Load Factors and Safety Margins 187 L = L 0 (0. A 1 = Influence area: For other than cantilevered construction. are designed to undergo excessive deflections befare failure. and shear forces. 4. on the other hand.79 kN/m 2) or less.24 indicates that the <!> values in this table. the resisting moment capacity of the section calculated using the equations of equilibrium and the properties of concrete and steel is called the nominal strength moment Mn of the section. the design moment strength <l>Mn should be at least equal to. In SI units. or better. The reduced design live load cannot be less than 50 percent of the unit live load L 0 for members supporting one floor or less than 40 percent of the unit live load L 0 for members supporting two or more floors. and hence a higher coefficient of variation than the other types of loading. in the case of a beam. Table 4. the factor<!> equals 0.25 + ~) (4. Nominal Strength: Strength-Reduction Factor <!> The strength of a particular structural unit calculated using the current established procedures is termed nominal strength. 4. For tied columns that carry dominant compressive loads. Beams. L 0 = Unreduced design live load per square foot of area. except that in the case of garages for passenger cars a reduction of up to 20 percent can be made. wind. Live loads in all other cases not stipulated by the code cannot be reduced except as accepted by the jurisdictional authority. The factor <!> varies for the different types of behavior and for the different types of structural elements. A 1 is the tributary area for a column.9 summarizes the resistance factors <!> for various structural elements as given in the ACI code. L 0 . For example. For a beam.11.9. For beams in flexure. For live loads of 100 lb/ft2 (4. for instance. or equal area for a twoway slab (Ref. such as in the dimensions or position of reinforcement or variations in properties.57) L 0 ( 0. the externa! factored moment Mu for the worst condition of factored load U. The reduced strength of the member is defined as the design strength of the member. The smaller strength-reduction factor used for columns is due to the structural importance of the columns in supporting the total structure compared to other members. the inherent capability of the beam for advanced warning of failure permits the use of a higher strength reduction factor or resistance factor.31.25 + VÁ¡ (4.31 becomes L = 4. no reduction can be made for areas used as places of public assembly. A comparison of these values to those given in Ref. and A 1 are in square meters of area. as well as the load factors of Equation 4.3 Design Strength vs.25). Hence.4.

when the compressive stress in the surrounding concrete at the level of the prestressing tendon is neutralized by the tensile stress due to overload.12 LIMIT STATE IN FLEXURE AT ULTIMATE LOAD IN BONDED MEMBERS: DECOMPRESSION TO ULTIMATE LOAD 4.43). The ultimate theory in flexure and the principles and concepts underlying it are thus equally applicable to prestressed concrete. <!> = 0.1.12. <!> = 1.95 Shear and Torsion: Reduction factor for prestressed members. To follow the loading step-by-step states.75 0. or 0.75 AASHTO STRENGTH-REDUCTION FACTORS Flexure: For factory-produced precast prestressed concrete members.1 lntroduction As discussed in Section 4.9 0. A detailed fundamental treatment of this subject is given in chapter 5 of Ref.9. 4.3 and 4.0 For post-tensioned cast-in-place concrete members.. suppose that the effective prestress fpe at service load due to all loads results in a strain E 1 such that = fpe Ei = Epe =E (4. Cracking develops when the tensile stress in the concrete at the extreme fibers of the critical section exceeds the maximum stress level fr 7.65 0.65-0. a decompression strain Ectecomp = E2 results such that . modified to reflect the characteristics of the different reinforcing materials and the geometry peculiar to prestressed concrete.90 See LRFD and Standard AASHTO other factors in Chapter 12.Chapter 4 188 Table 4.9. i.2. The stress level in the tendons is correspondingly termed the decompression stress (see Figures 4. such as the bottom midspan fibers of a simply supported beam. A minor difference results in the analysis using this definition of the decompression load.9 0.75-0.9 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Resistance or Strength Reduction Factor <!> Structural Element Factor<!> Beam or slab: bending or flexure Columns with ties Columns with spirals Columns carrying very small axial loads (refer to Chapter 9 for more details) Beam: shear and torsion 0. The same fundamental format of equations will be given here.e. Sorne investigators define the decompression load as the load at which the first crack appears at the extreme fibers of the critical section. the overload causes the compressive stress in the concrete at the leve! of the prestressing steel to continually decrease until it becomes zero at a load level termed the decompression load. the prestressed concrete beam starts to behave like a reinforced concrete beam when the value of the flexura} moment is well beyond the cracking moment Mcr and the total service load moment MT. Prior to attaining this level. 4.SVf::. <!> = 0.33a) ps At decompression.

(a) Cross section. This assumption is based on Bernoulli's hypothesis that plane sections remain plane befare bending and perpendicular to the neutral axis after bending.12 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load Compression Compressian 189 Decompression --1> 6f--0 f't (a) (b) (e) - V'c (d) Figure 4. Consequently. Hence.43 and 4.2 The Equivalent Rectangular Block and Nominal Moment Strength It is important to be able to evaluate the reserve strength in the prestressed beam up to failure. 4. It cracks at an early stage of loading at about 10 percent of its compressive strength limit.:) (4.44(b ).33c) where e is the depth of the neutral axis. 4.fin. Ez = Ectecomp = A~~c ( 1 + . 3.¡' l 4. (b} Entire section in compression. The strain distribution is assumed to be linear.003 in. (c} Tension at the lower fibers below the modulus-of-rupture level.1 through 4. Concrete is weak in tension. 2. Consequently.44 illustrate the stress distribution at and after the decompression stage where the behavior of the prestressed beam starts to resemble that of a reinforced concrete beam. the steel strain increment due to overload above the decompression load is E3 e) = Ec ( -d e - (4. the total strain in the prestressing steel at this stage becomes (4. In such a case. where the maximum compressive strain at the extreme compression fibers is Ec = 0. as discussed in Chapter l. The strain in the steel and the surrounding concrete is the same prior to cracking of the concrete or yielding of the steel as after such cracking or yielding. (d) Decompression stage with zero stress in the concrete at the level of the prestressing reinforcement.33d) The corresponding stress fps at nominal strength can be easily obtained from the stressstrain diagram of the steel supplied by the producer.7. the total design would have to incorporate the moment strength of the prestressed section in addition to the service-load level checks described in detail in Sections 4. The following assumptions are made in defining the behavior of the section at ultimate load: l.12. As the load approaches the limit state at ultimate. the additional strain E3 in the steel reinforcement follows the linear triangular distribution shown in Fig.43 Strain in the concrete up to the decompression stage at the tension reinforcement level. concrete in the tension zone of .33b) Figures 4.

. (d) Assumed equivalent stress block. _L (dp- ·---- . -1T [ -d h ____ ~ '~·· r.... (b) Strains. (a) Beam cross section. . T= AP• fP• -j ~e.. .. <O o e T Compression si de f.--i Te~sion sade (a) Lj_ g T = AP•'P• THJ N~ ~ e .. (c) Actual stress block.44 Stress and strain distribution across beam depth..'--J T 3 (e) = AP•'P• i) J (d) (b) Figure 4... .

such as those subjected to small axial loads. being equal to or less than a compression-co ntrolled strain limit.002 in the extreme tensile reinforcement.34) The terms in Figure 4. but large bending moments." being equally applicable to flexura! analysis of prestressed concrete elements. sometimes referred to as the "unified method.4. a brittle mode of failure is expected.005 result in a <!>-factor value lower than 0. Compression members are usually compressioncontrolled. sorne sections.::: 0. However.fin.90 (4. e 1. It also stipulates that when the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel.65 ::5 [ <!> = 0. the net tensile strain.005 can be linearly interpolated to give the following expressions. the strain limit e 1 = 0.005 in. Therefore.U. will have an intermediate or transitional value between the two strain limit states.63. Variation of the ¡p value far the range of strain between et= 0. as discussed in the previous section. The concrete beam section is characterized as tension-controlled.fin.002{ 2~º)] ::5 0.005 far a tension-controlled state is a single value that applies to all types of reinforcement regardless whether mild steel or prestressing steel. Tied Sections: 0. with little warning of such an impending failure.. and the tension reinforcement is assumed to take the total tensile force. namely.fin..005 corresponds to reinforcement ratio p/pb = 0. it is more efficient to add compression reinforcement if necessary or deepen the section in arder to make the strain in the extreme tension reinforcement. the behavior is fully ductile. with ample warning of failure as denoted by excessive cracking and deflection. is sufficiently large. is small. Flexura! members are usually tension-controlled.12 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load 191 the section is neglected in the flexura! analysis and design computations. To satisfy the equilibrium of the horizontal forces. et. Variation of 'P as a Function of Strain. between the compression-controlled strain limit e1 = fy/ Es = 60. et.fin. the nominal flexura! strength of a concrete member is reached when the net compressive strain in the extreme compression fibers reaches the ACI code-assumed limit 0. such as in compression members.005 in.3. High reinforcement ratios that produce a net tensile strain less than 0. The net tensile strain e 1 = 0. C=T (4.35a) . at a value equal to or greater than 0. where Pb is the balanced reinforcement ratio far the balanced strain et= 0.003 in.3 Strain Limits Method for Analysis and Design 4.1 General Principies In this approach. If the net tensile strain in the extreme tension fibers. Figure 4.45 delineates these three zones as well as the variation in the strength reduction factors applicable to the total range of behavior. resulting in less economical sections.002 and e 1 = 0. the compressive force C in the concrete and the tensile force T in the steel should balance each other-that is.90.005.44 are defined as follows: b = width of the beam at the compression side d = depth of the beam measured from the extreme compression fiber to the cen- troid of steel area h = total depth of the beam 4.000/29 x 106 = 0.002 in.65 +(et - 0.12. el' in the extreme tensile fibers. Far the tension-controlled state.. and the tension-controlled strain limit et= 0.

where the reinforcement at the tension side yields at the same time as the concrete crushes at the compression face (fs = fy). .E.2{ e.=0.90 (4. .90 (4.90 (4.600 dt [c1 i J <P = 0.002\2~J .002)t2 gºj--~ <P = o. .75 ::5 [ <!> = 0.005 .65 (: ~ <P=0.65 + 0.45 Strain limit zones and variation of strength reduction factor el> with the net Tensile Strain e 1 Spirally-reinforced sections: 0.75 + (e 1 - 0.15[c... when the net tensile strain in the extreme tension reinforcement is sufficiently large (equal or greater than 0. Tied sections: 0.-----t .35(b) can be expressed in terms of the ratio of the neutral axis depth c to the effective depth d 1 of the layer of reinforcement closest to the tensile face of the section as follows.000 + fy (4.65 + (€1-0.---0-n-tr_o_lle-d---1 Et= 0.._= 0.002{ 2 ~º)] ::5 0.37) In summary.75 + (€1- 0. the neutral axis depth ratio far a limit strain e 1 = 0.36a) ~]) ::s 0.70 <P 0.E.000 ) 87.65 ::5 ( <!> = 0.35(a) and 4..--------~--'----T------.90 . 0. SPIRAL ---------·' OTHER Compression r---c-=--on_t_ro_ll_e_d_~---Transition Et =0..25 [c1 .65 + 0.i J 1 lnterpolation on e/di: Spiral cp = 0. where ample warning of failure with extensive deflection occurs.. di - ~]) 0.005)..36b) ::5 Spirally-reinforced sections: 0.35b) Variation of <!>as a Function of Neutral Axis depth Ratio cid.002 in.375 dt .75 + o.fin.75 ::s ( <1> = 0.75 + 0... can be defined as ( cb dt = 87. Equations 4.15 Other 1 - Figure 4.002 Tension -----c.d 1 For balanced strain. the section is defined as tension-controlled.Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements Chapter 4 192 o.

The tensile strain at the extreme tensile reinforcement has the value et = 0.4 Negative Moment Redistribution in Continuous Beams The Code permits decreasing the negative elastic moment at the supports for continuous members by not more than [1000 et] percent. and 0.38a) Asan example. A maximum strain 0. The ACI 318 Code stipulates a maximum strength reduction factor <!> = 0.) 10 e: Q) ~ Q) 5 5 a.1) = 0.46.fin. 25 e: Q) E 20 o E . In this case..0075 at the tensile face is comparable to the case where the reinforcement ratio for the combined prestressed and mild steel reinforcement has a reinforcement index of w not exceeding 0.~ .5% redistribution. so that the net tensile strain is within the range of et = 0. The redistribution of the negative moment as permitted by the code can only be used when et is equal or greater than about 0. this neutral axis depth ratio should be considerably lower.015 0. with a maximum of 20 percent. Figure 4. plastic hinge regions develop at points of maximum moment and cause a shift in the elastic moment diagram.005. the result is a reduction of the negative moment and a corresponding increase in the positive moment. et= 0.003 ( ~t .8% This gives a net reduction in the negative moment value = (100 .46 shows the permissible moment redistribution for minimum rotational capacity.0088 in.005 for the tension-controlled state is comparable to a reinforcement index wP = 0.46 0. o o Figure 4.01 Net tensile strain 0. A minimum strain of 0.1 in.e 10 (. minimum value for inelastic redistribution to be applied.003 ( ~t - 1) = 0.------120 1) zone 15 Cl e: Ctl . In many cases.12.3613 1 as described in the Code commentary.8. The reason is that for ductile members.0075 in. For a useful redistribution of moment in continuous members. at the section at which the moment is reduced. This corresponds to neutral axis depth ratio cld1 = 0.fin > 0. giving 20% redistribution.. with a lower cld1 ratio recommended.02 0. as shown in Figure 4.0075 in.375 for a strain et= 0.005 0. to be used in computing the design strength of flexural members.1) (4.90 for tension-controlled bending.2413 1 as an upper limit for ductile design. giving a 7.020.8) = 91.003 {d - .l 193 4.2%.025 t:¡ Allowable redistribution percentage for maximum rotational capacity .003 (~.!: 15 Q) t:1 = 0.fin. Redistribution is inapplicable in the case of slab systems proportioned by the direct design method (DDM). if d1 =20 in.12 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load 4.0075. the maximum allowable moment redistribution = 1000 et= 8. and neutral axis depth c = 5.3213 1 or wT= 0.

85f~ for the average stress of the equivalent compressive block is based on the core test results of concrete in the structure at a minimum age of 28 days. the ACI 318-05 code stipulates that a redistribution (reduction) of the moments at supports of continuous flexura! members not to exceed 1000 e.fin.44(d). the volume of the compressive block at ornear the ultimate when the tension steel has yielded (Es> Ey).85f~ ba-that is. resulting in a compressive force C of essentially the same value in both cases. thus.5 Nominal Moment Strength of Rectangular Sections The actual distribution of the compressive stress in a section at failure has the form of a rising parabola. It should be noted that the total amount of prestressed and non-prestressed reinforcement should be adequate to develop a factored load of at least 1. The value 0. as shown in Figure 4. Even though severa! forms of stress blocks. with a maximum of 20 percent. equating C and T. This provision in ACI 318 Code is permitted to be waived for (a) Two-way. it is more reasonable to limit the redistribution percentage to about 10.85f~. the stress distribution diagram shown in Figure 4. The behavior of the steel is assumed to be elastoplastic.39) A little algebra yields (4. This limit can be represented by a reinforcement index relationship for bonded prestressed concrete members as follows: wP + : (w .15 percent.194 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements A 20 % maximum redistribution is approximately = 0. An adjustment in one span should also be applied to ali the other spans in flexure. can be rewritten as (4.a/2). The tensile force T can be written as ApsÍps. Based on exhaustive experimental tests.40) The nominal moment strength is obtained by multiplying C or T by the moment arm (dp . shear and bar cutoffs. Using ali the preceding assumptions. It is time-consuming to evaluate the volume of the compressive stress block if it has a parabolic shape.44(c). including the trapezoidal.44(c) can be redrawn as shown in Figure 4.2413 1 (4. as in previous codes. yielding .0075 at the section for which moment is reduced.2413 1. was adopted by the ACI as a safe limiting value. As seen from Figure 4. But inelastic moment redistribution should only be made when e 1 is equal or greater than 0. Summarizing. while increasing the positive midspan moment accordingly. One can easily deduce that the compression force C can be written 0. 0. This equivalent stress block has a depth a and an average compressive strength 0. unbonded post-tensioned slabs. and (b) Flexura! members with shear and flexura! strength at least twice the load level causing the first cracking moment Mcr· 4.44(d). as seen in Figure 4. the simplified equivalent rectangular block is accepted as the standard in the analysis and design of reinforced concrete. a maximum allowable strain of 0.38b) p Although the code allows a maximum redistribution of 20% or 1000 e 1. the equilibrium Equation 4.12. percent.46. An equivalent rectangular stress block due to Whitney can be used with ease and without loss of accuracy to calculate the compressive force and hence the flexura! moment strength of the section.34.003 in..w')::::. have been proposed to date. the value of a= 131c is determined by using a coefficient 13 1 such that the area of the equivalent rectangular block is approximately the same as that of the parabolic compressive block.2 times the cracking load computed on the basis of the modulus of rupture f.

85/.59pp . Equation 4.59wp) (4. Potyondy).0.44) E3 e) d = e.4lb) If wPis the reinforcement index = Pp(Íp/f. 4..41a) where dP is the distance from the compression fibers to the center of the prestressed reinforcement.4.b lf e= a/f3 1. 12 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load 195 Photo 4.41(b).~) {4..59p.0.4lc) The contribution of tbe mild steel tension reinforcement should be similarly treated.. so that the depth a of the compressive block is ª= A. {4. ( -e- (4.• fps + A sfy {4.42b) Equatíon 4..J + PfybcP(_1 . (1 .59 or can be rewritten as eíther ~) (4.0.43a) ..41b becomes Mn = Pp fpr bd~( l . = Ppfps bd'p(1 . becomes M. The steel percentage Pp = Ap/bd" gives nominal strength of the prestressing steel only as follows Mn = Ppfpsb<Íf.13 Flexura! cracks at failure of prestressed T -beams (Nawy.. the strain at the leve) of the mild steel is (Fíg.42a) 0.0. for rectangular sections but with mild tension steel and no compressíon steel accounted for.).

85/~ bwa Substituting in Equation 4. the nominal moment strength in Equation 4.47.85/~ bw or (4. From the figure.ab Ap. a= Apsfps + Asfy 0. When the compression flange thickness h¡ is less than the neutral axis depth e and equivalent rectangular block depth a. (b .~) + A~ty(~ - d') (4. (a) Beam section.43c) The contribution from compression reinforcement can be taken into account provided it has been found to have yielded.45) 4. (b) Strain.85/~ A~fy (4.5.43b becomes Mn = Aps/ps( dp - ~) + Asfy(d . where w = p(f/f~).48(c) and (d).46.44) b where b is the section width of the compression face of the beam. Taking moments about the center of gravity of the compressive block in Figure 4. or (4. we obtain Tpw = ÁpsÍps + Asfy .85/.48.46) where TP =total prestressing force = Apsfps Ts = ultimate force in the nonprestressed steel = Asfy Tpw = part of the total force in the tension reinforcement required to develop the web =Apwfps Apw = total reinforcement area corresponding to the force Tpw Tpf = part of the total force in the tension reinforcement required to develop the flange = C¡= 0.47) giving Apwfps a=--0. and forces across beam depth of rectangular section. we have (4. e.0. stress.85t.48a) .12.bw)h¡ Cw = 0. the section can be treated as a flanged section as in Figure 4.196 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 0. -'--+--0 ~--+--e A. (a) (b) (e) Figure 4. Tp + Ts = Tpw + Tp¡ (4.bw)h¡ Summing up all forces in Figures 4.47 Strain. (c) Stresses and forces.1 Nominal Moment Strength of Flanged Sections.85 f~(b .

4. 4.5.49b) where <!> = 0. a= ApsÍps + Asfy - 0..50a) 0.85f:~ _lm Ec Ta J_ --[ dPdL TP TP. ) (4. (a) Beam section.85fXb . 4.bw)h¡( dp .sst:j.. where the total compressive force Cn is larger or smaller than the total tensile force Tn. Otherwise. (c) Web stress and forces. stress. Another method of determining whether the section can be considered flanged is to calculate the value of the equivalent rectangular block depth a from Eq. -2- --jo.50fpu with separate equations for fps given for bonded and nonbonded members. If TP + Ts in Figure 4. However. it should be treated as a rectangular section of the width b of the compression flange. Tpw Ep 1 T.49a) The design moment in all cases would be Mu= <!>Mn (4.48 is larger than C1.2 Determination of Prestressing Steel Nominal Failure Stress fps· The value of the stress fps of the prestressing steel at failure is not readily available.48b.85f~ (b ..50fpu ps Approximate determination is allowed by the ACI 318 building code provided that fpe =A< fpe = APeps 2: 0.48 Strain.50b) . Such a procedure is required if Pe (4. the neutral axis falls outside the flange and the section has to be treated as a flanged section. Ey (el (b) (a) (di Figure 4. (d) Flange stress and force. as discussed in Ref. taking moments about the center of the prestressing steel: Mn = Apwfps(dp - ~) + Asfy(d - dp) + 0.197 4.12 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load b b -b.hI e. 4. (b) Strain.45 for a beam with compression reinforcement can be rewritten to give the nominal moment strength for a flanged section where the neutral axis falls outside the flange and a > h¡ as follows. requiring a flanged section analysis.90 for flexure.48b) Eq.2. (4. thereby determining the neutral axis depth e = a/f3 1. it can be determined by strain compatibility through the various loading stages up to the limit state at failure. ~ ~ -10. one has to determine.bw)h¡ (4. c. and forces in flanged sections.12. In order to determine whether the neutral axis falls outside the flange.

9. If the percentage of reinforcement is too small.000). the term [pp(fp)f~) + (d/dp)(w .52a) where fps shall not be greater than fpy or (fpe + 60.28 for fpy/fpu not less than 0.5. For a span-to-depth ratio of 35 or less. with premature abrupt failure through rupture of the reinforcement. fP" differ from Equations 4. shows seating losses for typical unbonded tendons.3 Limiting Values of the Reinforcement lndex.3.51 and 4. as shown in Section 12.3.000 + .2Mcr (4. For a span-to-depth ratio greater than 35. the minimum area of bonded nonprestressed reinforcement in beams in accordance with the ACI code has to be computed as MinAs = 0.17 and d' should not be greater than 0. If the compression reinforcement is taken into account when calculatingfps by Eq.51.12.80 = 0. 4.51) where the reinforcement index for the compression nonprestressed reinforcement is w' = p'(fjf~). fps = f~ fpe + 10. .85 = 0.49. The total amount of prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement required by the ACI should not be less than that required to develop a factored moment Mu= c!>Mn such that Mu :2::: l.54a) where Mcr is based on a modulus of rupture f. This reinforcement has to be uniformly distributed over the precompressed tensile zone as close as possible to the extreme tension fibers.lOOpp (4.f3i Pp f ~ + dp (úl 1 - ] ) úl ) (4. is given by Apsfps f' p e wP = bd = fps Pp -f1 (4. An exception can be made where the flexura! member has shear and flexura! strengths at least twice those of the factored loads in Equations 4.2). a measure of the percentage of reinforcement in the section. a minimum percentage Pmin with a minimum wP min has to be observed in the design in order to prevent such a failure.90 The value of the factor "lp is based on the criterion that fpy = 0. 'Yp = 0.52b) where fps shall not be greater than fpy or (fpe + 30.004A 1 (4.80 fpu for high-strength prestressing bars.15dr Also.90 for low-relaxation strands. The reinforcement index wP. = 7. 4.000). the concrete section will be too weak to resist the tensile stress level after cracking and the section will behave almost as a plain section. Unbonded Tendons.53) e Minimum Reinforcement. 4. Figure 4.40 for fpy/fpu not less than 0. and 0.SVf'c.85 for stress-relieved strands.55 for fpy/fpu not less than 0. 0. Note that the AASHTO expressions for the ultimate design strength.31.300pp (4. Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements The empirical expression for bonded members is 'Yp [ fpu d fps = fpu ( 1 .w')] should not be less than 0.000 + . from Ref. fps = f~ fpe + 10.52. Hence.198 Chapter 4 Bonded Tendons. Also.54b) where A 1 is that part of the cross section between the flexura! tension face and the center of gravity cgc of the gross section (in.

_. ._.08 pu a= 1..... 205.5 MPa) . 0. -.----<_ -. ~. 000 psi = 0..000psi=0. 720 PSI ..• pu • ·-o762f 1 -.85fpu 1n itial stress = 0..80fpu / ..ce ce µ =0..80fpu --~ 212 6 80 psi= 0..788fpu _ _..80fpu ---- ~ - 183.83' (38..<t.._ 0...85fpu 189...85fpu ______ >-..198rad Stress diagram for unbonded tendons with various values of initial stress and seating loss (100. lnitial stress= 0..:.<:::: · >=- 1 199800ps1= · ~-----.550 psi L = 125..:Z-¿-= ~- -<.... 2nd pull-.-.4 m) K = 0..0014 Figure 4.000 psi= 689.. ---.. ---- 164.1 229..500 psi = 0.49 ._ ~ inch seating loss 181..70fpu 1 174.._¡<________ 216..950 psi O 74f ....840 psi .380 psi ~~ ===t.....

200

Chapter 4

Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements

In two-way flat plates, where the tension stress in the concrete at service load exceeds 2~, bonded nonprestressed steel is required such that
Ne
A=s
O.Sfy

(4.55a)

where fy ::; 60,000 psi
Ne= tensile force in the concrete dueto unfactored dead plus live loads (D + L).
In the negative-moment areas of slabs at column support, the minimum area of nonprestressed steel in each direction should be
(4.55b)

As = 0.00075hl

where h = total slab thickness
l = span length in the direction parallel to that of the reinforcement being determined.
The reinforcement As has to be distributed with a slab width between lines that are
1.Sh outside the faces of the column support, with at least four bars or wires to be provided in each direction and a spacing not to exceed 12 in.
Maximum Reinforcement. If the percentage of reinforcement is too large, the
concrete section behaves as if it were overreinforced. As a result, a nonductile failure
would occur by initial crushing of the concrete at the compression fibers since the reinforcement at the tension side cannot yield first. Reinforced concrete beams always have
to be designed as underreinforced with a minimum strain e 1 = 0.005, as discussed in Sections 4.12.3 and 4.12.4.
In prestressed beams, however, it is not always possible to impose an underreinforced condition. The prestressing forces P¡ and Pe at transfer and service load also control the value of the area of the tensile reinforcement needed, including the area of the
nonprestressed reinforcement. Additionally, the yield strength, and in turn the yield
strain value of the prestressing steel is not well defined. Consequently, the prestressed
beam designed to satisfy all the service-load requirements could behave as either underreinforced or overreinforced at the limit state of ultimate-load design, particularly if it is
a partially prestressed beam.
In arder to ensure ductility of behavior, the percentage of reinforcement should be
such that the reinforcement index, wP, does not exceed 0.3613 1 noting that 0.3213 1 is comparable to 0.005 in.fin., as discussed in Section 4.12.4. The ACI Code, in an indirect measure
to limit the reinforcement percentage, requires determining the tension zone in Fig. 4.45
that applies to the analyzed beam section in arder to choose the applicable <j> factor for
the design moment Mu. This is established by finding the ratio c/d1 at the ultimate limit
state, hence the controlling <j> value for Mu,= <j> Mn, where e is the depth of the the neutral
axis = a/13 1, anda is the depth of the equivalent rectangular block. Also, M) Me, has to be
~ 1.2 in arder to prevent abrupt flexure failure immediately after cracking.
O.OS(!~

131

=

0.85 -

- 4,000)
1,000

2:

0.65

(4.56)

for a rectangular section with prestressing steel only,
fps
wP = Pp

f ~ : : :; 0.32131

(4.57a)

for rectangular sections with tensile and compressive mild steel,
[ wp

+

~ (w - w')] : : :; 0.36131

(4.57b)

201

4.12 Limit State in Flexura at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load

where

and
A~fy

w'

=

bdf;

finally, for flanged sections,
(4.57c)
where wpw• ww, and w~ are computed in the same manner as in Equation 4.57a, b, except
that the web width bw is used in the denominators of these equations. Note that the terms
wP, (wp + (d/dp)(w -w')), and (wpw + (d/dp)(ww - w~) are each equal to 0.85aldP, where a is
the depth of the equivalent rectangular concrete compressive block as follows:
(a) In rectangular sections and in flanged sections in which a ~ h1,

Apsfps + Asfy - A;fy

0.85a
dp

bdp ·t:

(b) In flanged sections in which a > h1, let CF be the resultant concrete compression

force in outstanding flanges. Then,
d
, ]
[ Wpw + dp (ww - Ww)

=

[(Apsfps - Cp)
d (As fy
bwdJ':
+ dp bwd. ¡;
Apsfps + Asfy - A;fy - Cp
bwdpf;

-

A; fy)]
bwd.

n

(4.57d)

compression force in web
bwdpf;
0.85f; bwa

0.85a

bwdpf';

dp

An exception can be made in Equations 4.57a, b, and c, provided that the design moment strength does not exceed the moment strength based on the compression portion of the moment couple. In other words, unless a strain compatibility
analysis is performed, the overreinforced prestressed beam moment strength
should be determined from the empirical expression
(4.58a)
for rectangular sections, and
(4.58b)
for flanged sections. These equations can be modified as follows:

202

Chapter 4

Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements

(a) For the overreinforced rectangular section,
Mn

=

n bd~ (0.36¡3¡ -

0.0813D

(4.59a)

(b) For the overreinforced flanged section,

Mn

=

J: bwtt;(0.36¡3¡ - 0.08¡3i) + 0.85f: (b - bw)h¡(dp - 0.5h¡)

(4.59b)

In summary, the maximum reinforcement index w to be allowed should not exceed
0.85 a/dP (or 0.85 a/d1) in order to ensure ductile behavior through limiting the reinforcement percentage. However, the ACI 318 Code as previously discussed, indirectly stipulates limiting the reinforcement percentage by setting a <1> value in the tensile zones of Fig.
4.45 from the c/d1 ratio corresponding to low tensile strain at the limit state at failure.
4.12.5.4 Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Nonbonded Tendons. The discussion presented in Sections 4.12.1and4.12.2 defines the design and analysis process for
pretensioned beams, where the concrete is cast around the prestressed tendons, thereby
achieving full bond, as well as for post-tensioned beams, where the tendons are fully
grouted under pressure after the tendons are prestressed.
Post-tensioned tendons that are not grouted or that are asphalt coated (many in the
United States) are nonbonded tendons. Consequently, as the superimposed load acts on
the beam, slip results between the tendons and the surrounding concrete, permitting a
uniform deformation along the entire length of the prestressing tendon. As cracks develop at the critica! high-moment zones, the increase in the steel tensile stress is not concentrated at the cracks, but is uniformly distributed along the freely sliding tendon. As a
result, the net increase in strain and stress is less in the nonbounded case than in the case
of bonded tendons as the load continues to increase to the ultimate. Hence a lesser number of cracks, but of larger width, develops in nonbonded prestressing (Ref 4.4). The final
stress in the prestressed tendons at ultimate load would be only slightly higher than the
effective prestress fpe·
In order to ensure a structure with good serviceability performance, a reasonable
percentage of nonprestressed steel has to be used, within the limitations mentioned in
Section 4.12.5.3. The nonprestressed reinforcement controls the flexura! crack development and width, and contributes to substantially increasing the moment strength capacity
Mn of the section. It undergoes a strain larger than its yield strain, since its deformation at
the postelastic range has to be compatible with the deformation of the adjacent prestressing strands. Hence, the stress level in the nonprestressed steel will always be higher than
its yield strength at ultimate load. Figure 4.50 shows a typical stress-strain diagram for a
270-K 7-wireHn. prestressing strand, while Fig. 4.51 schematically illustrates the relative
stresses of the prestressed and the nonprestressed steel and seating losses.
From this discussion, it can be concluded that the expressions presented for the Mn
calculations of the nominal moment strength for bonded beams can be equally used for
nonbonded elements. Note that while it is always advisable to grout the post-tensioned
tendons, it is sometimes not easy to do so, as, for example, in two-way slab systems or
shallow-box elements, where the concrete thickness is small. Also, consideration has to
be given to the cost of pressure grouting in cases where there is a congestion of tendons.
4.13 PRELIMINARY ULTIMATE-LOAD DESIGN
If the preliminary design starts at the ultimate-load level, the required design moment

Mu= <l>Mn has to be at least equal to the factored moment Mu- The first trial depth has to
be based on a reasonable span-to-depth ratio, with the top flange width determined by
whether the beam is for residential floors or parking garages, where a double-T-section
or a hollow-box shallow section is preferable, or whether the beam is intended to support

203

4.13 Preliminary Ultimate-Load Design

1500
210

'b
X
·¡¡;

c.

[

~" diam. (12.7 mm) - 7-wire strand

..

Area = 0.153 in. 2 (98. 7 mm2)

140

1

[

...~
en

1000 c..

:!:

~" diam. (9.5 mm) - 7-wire stress relieved strand
Area = 0.080 in. 2 (51.6 mm 2)
Fracture at strain of 6%

500

70

e, = strain, in.fin.

Typical stress-strain relationship of 7-wire 270-K prestressing

Figure 4.50
strand.

a bridge deck with spacing decided by load and the number of lanes, where an 1-section
might be preferable.
As a rule of thumb, the average depth of a prestressed beam is about 75 percent of
the depth of a comparably loaded reinforced concrete beam. Another guideline far an
initial trial is to use 0.6 in. of depth per foot of span. Once a first-trial depth is chosen, a
determination is made of the other geometrical properties of the section.

1
1

(b)

Ae,-+-j
240

200
160
M

~

fpe

X

140

·¡¡;

c.
1

::¡

120

~

~

100

.... ......... (a)
fy

40

o
nfc

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

Strain (in.fin.)

Figure 4.51 Stress-strain diagrams for reinforcement. (a) Nonprestressed steel.
(b) Prestressed steel (100,000 psi= 689.5 MPa).

204

Chapter 4

Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements

Assume that the center of gravity of the prestressing steel is approximately 0.85/h
from tbe middepth of the flange. Then the lever ann of the moment couple jd 0.80h.
Assume also that the nominal strength of the prestressed steel is fps 0.90 fw Then the
area Aps of the prestressing tendons is

=

A =
ps

Muf<t>
0.9fp,l0.80h)

=

(4.60a)

or
A

ps

=

(4.60b)

M,,

0.72fp,,h

If the compressive block depth a equals the flange thickness h1, tbe volume of tbe compressive block of Figure 4.44(d) in terms of the area ba =A ~ is

C = 0.85f~ A ~
M,,
T = 0.9/p,,Aps = O.Bh
From the equilibrium of forces, C = T. Hence, the area of tbe compression flange is

Mn

A~= 0.85f~(0.8h)

M,,
= 0.68nh

(4.61)

Once the width of the flange is chosen for tbe first tria! and the beam depth is
known, the web thickness can be chosen based on the shear requirements to be discussed
in Chapter 5. Thereafter, by trial and adjustment, one can select tbe ideal section for the
particular design requirement conditions and proceed to analyze tbe stresses for the
service-load conditions.

4.14 SUMMARY STEP-BY-STEP PROCEDURE FOR LIMIT-STATE-AT-FAILURE DESIGN
OF THE PRESTRESSED MEMBERS

L Determine whether or not partial prestressing is to be chosen, using an effective
percentage of nonprestressed steel. Cboose a trial depth h based on either 0.6 in.
per ft of span or 75 percent of the depth needed for reinforced concrete sections
after calculating the required nominal strength M,, = MJ$.

Pboto 4.14 Bridge deck prestressing reinforcement set up prior to concreting.

4.14 Summary Step-by-Step Procedure tor Limit-State-at-Failure Design of the Prestressed Members

205

Photo 4.15 Full-scale bridge test (Nawy, Goodkind).

2. Select a tria! Oange thlckness sucb that the total concrete arca of the flange
A ~= M,,10.68/~ h, based on choosiog a flaoge width dictatcd by planning requirements and spacing of beams. Choose a preliminary arca of prestressing steel
Aps =M,,I0.72fpuh.
3. Use a reasonable value for the steel stress Ípr at failure for a first trial. lf fpe < OSf¡,11 ,
strain compatibility analysis would thereafter be needed. Determine wbetber tbe
te ndons are bouded or nonbonded. Use the value of lhe effective prestress fpe from
the service-load analysis if that design was already made. If fpe > 0.5fpu• use tbe approximate values froro the following applicable cases by ACI procedures:
(a) Bonded tendons

n

, })
d
"'lp { fpu
+ dP (w - w )
fps = fpu ( 1 - ~ Pp
(b) Nonbonded tendons, spanldepth ratio s;J5

t:

fps = Ípe + 10,000 + - 100pp

(e) Nonbonded tendons, spanldepth ratio> 35

fps

n

= Ípe + 10,000 + 300pp

Note that AASHTO stipulates differeot expressions for fps as shown in Sectioo 12.3.3.
4. Determine whether the trial section chosen should be considered rectangular or
flanged by determining tbe position of tbe neutral axis, e= a/~ 1 • lf rectangular,

a=

A psÍps +

AJy - A;J,.

0.85/~b

lf ílanged,

a=

A p,..fps
0.85/;b..,

where Ap,..fps =Apsfps + A,f,,- 0.85/~(b- b,..)h¡
S. lf h¡ is larger than e aod a, aoalyze the element as a rectangular section singly or
doubly reinforced.

206

Chapter 4

Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements

6. Find the reinforcement indices wP, w, and w' for the case a< h¡ (neutral axis within
the flange; hence, use for a rectangular section).
(a) Rectangular sections with prestressing steel only:
fps
Aps fps
wr = wP = Pp -f' = bd -f,
e

p

e

(b) Rectangular sections with compression steel in addition to nonprestressed tension steel:

w

T

=

w + !!_ (w - w,)
P

d

p

If the total index in (a) or (b) is less than or equal to 0.3613 1, then the moment
strength is

7. Find the reinforcement indices wpw' ww and w ~ for the case a > h¡ (neutral axis outside the flange ), with the total index

The indices are calculated on the basis of the web width bw. If the total index
wr < 0.3613 1, then

where

and

If the total index wr > 0.3613 1, the section is overreinforced and the nominal strength
is

8. Check for the minimum required reinforcement As > 0.004A. Also, check whether
Mu;;::: 1.2Mc, to ensure the use of adequate nonprestressed tension steel, particularly
in nonbonded tendons.
9. Select the size and spacing of the nonprestressed tension reinforcement, and compression reinforcement where applicable.
10. Verify that the design moment Mu= <PMn is equal to or larger than the factored moment Mu. If not, adjust the design.

4.14 Summary Step-by-Step Procedure for Limit-State-at-Failure Design of the Prestressed Members

207

START

Input: Formatting type, section shape (T, l, or rectangular),
b, d, dp, f;, fP•' fpu• fPY' fP•' E,, EPI

Yes

fP, known?

No
Determine f P• from
strain compatibility
Yes
Span·to-depth
ratio~ 35?

Determine f P,

Bonded element?

(i - ;:

fP• = fpu

No

a = AP,fP,

[Pp

~u

+

~

(w - w')])

+ A,f, - A; f,
0.85f:b

Flanged section?
AP.,fP,

No

Yes

a•---

No

0.85f:b.,

Design asa
rectangular section

where:
AP.,fP, = Ap,fp, + A,f, - 0.85f:(b - b.,lh,

No

Overreinforced

Overreinforced

M• • f:b.,d: (0.36(J1 - O.Olltl~l +
0.85 lb - b.,I h, ldp - 0.5h,I

t:

Compute

Compute
M.•AP.,fP,(dP-

í) +A,f,(d-dpl

+ 0.85f:(b - b.,I h,

(dP -

M. = AP,fP, ( dP -

í) + A,f, ( d - í) +A;t, (í - d')

t)

where:
AP.,'P•. AP•'P• + A,fy - 0.85f:(b - b.,lh,

END

END

Figure 4.52 Flowchart for flexura! analysis of rectangular and flanged prestressed sections based on cgs profile depth.

208

Chapter 4

Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements

START

Input: Formatting type, section shap~ dimensions,
no. of prestressing layers, no. of non-prestressed steel layers,
A,. Apr• d; to d¡, dp; to dPi' fy, fpu• fPY' fP•' E,, EP•' fpe• q,

Compute {J1, A., 1.,

,2

Compute strains and stresses
1----i for each of prestressed and
.....___ _ _ __,
non-prestressed steel

e =O.Olh

i-----..

Compute resultant forces acting on the section

Yes
1

Resultant force 1
Comp. stress block

Yes

< l%?

e= e +O.OOlh

No

Section flanged?

Compute for each layer

Compute for each layer

Mn = Apwfp1 ldp - a/2)
+ A,fy(d - dP)
+ 0.85f; (b - bwlh,(dp - h,/2)

Mn = AP,fP1 (dP - a/2)
+ A,fy(d - a/2)
+ A;fy (a/2 - d')

where
Apwfp, = Ap,fp,

+ A 1 fy

- 0.85f;(b - bwlh,
Expression for "a" as in Fig. 4.40

Print:

Expression for "a" as in Fig. 4.40

(i) Prestressing steel force P8 , AP•' dP, fP•' and Epr for each layer
(ii) Non-prestressed steel A,. d, f,, and e, for each bar layer

(iii) Total moments Mn, Mu and rotation q,

END

Figure 4.53 Flowchart far flexura! analysis of rectangular and flanged prestressed sections using compatibility analysis far individual layers of strands and
bars.

4.15 Ultimate-Strength Design of Prestressed Simply Supported Beam by Strain Compatibility

209

A flowchart for programming the step-by-step trial-and-adjustment procedure in
analyzing the nominal flexura! strength of rectangular and flanged prestressed sections
taking dP as the single-layer cgs depth of tendon is shown in Fig. 4.52. Similarly, a flowchart for programming the nominal flexura! strength of prestressed beams using straincompatibility analysis of multilayered strand depths dP 1 to dP n.is given in Fig. 4.53. Both
.
charts are apphcable to fully prestressed beams that use no mild steel and that allow no
tension in the concrete, as well as to "partially prestressed" beams where limited tensile
stress is permitted in the concrete through the use of nonprestressed reinforcement. A
computer program based on the flowcharts in the two figures can be equally used for a
single effective depth dP of the cgs tendon profile.
4.15 ULTIMATE-STRENGTH DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED SIMPLY
SUPPORTED BEAM BY STRAIN COMPATIBILITY
Example 4.9

Design the bonded beam in Example 4.2 by the ultimate-load theory using nonprestressed
reinforcement to partially carry part of the factored loads. Use strain compatibility to evaluate fps• given the modified section in Fig. 4.54 with a composite 3 in. top slab and
fpu = 270,000 psi (1,862 MPa)
fpy = 0.85fpu for stress-relieved strands
fy = 60,000 psi (414 MPa)
f~ =

5,000 psi normal-weight concrete (34.5 MPa)

Use 7-wire !-in. día tendons. The nonprestressed partial mild steel is to be placed with a Hin. clear cover, and no compression steel is to be accounted for. No wind or earthquake is
taken into consideration.
Solution:

From Example 4.2,

Service WL = 1,100 plf (16.1 kN/m)
Service Wsv = 100 plf (1.46 kN/m)
Assumed Wv = 393 plf (5.74 kN/m)
Beam span

=

65 ft (19.8 m)

l. Factored moment (step 1)
Wu = l.2(Wv + Wsv) + l.6WL

= 1.2(100 + 393) + 1.6(1,100) = 2352 plf (34.4 kN/m)
The factored moment is given by
w) 2 2352(65) 212
= 14,905,800 in.-lb (1684 kN-m)
Mu = - - =
8
8
and the required nominal moment strength is

Mn =

14,905,800
Mu
= 16,562,000 in.-lb (1871 kN-m)
_
=
-;¡;
09

2. Choice of preliminary section (step 2)
Assuming a depth of 0.6 in./ft of span, we can have a trial section depth h = 0.6 x 65
40 in. (102 cm). Then assume a mild partial steel 4 #6 = 4 x 0.44 = 1.76 in. 2 (11.4 cm2).
From Equation 4.61,

=

. 2
_
16,562,000
, _ Mn _
2
Ac - 0.68f:h - 0.68 X 5,000 X 40 - 12 1. 8 m. (786 cm )

210

Chapter 4

Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements

40"

_l__
4"

Figure 4.54

Midspan section of the beam in Example 4.9.

Assume a flange width of 18 in. Then the average flange thickness = 121.8/18 =7.0 in.
(178 mm). So suppose the web bw = 6 in. (152 mm), to be subsequently verified for
shear requirements. Then from Equation 4.60b,
Mn
Aps = 0.72fpu h

0.72

16,562,000
_
. 2
2
270,000 X 40 - 2·13 m. (13. 3 cm)

X

and the number oO-in. stress-relieved wire strands = 2.13/0.153 = 13.9. So try thirteen
Hn. tendons.
Aps = 13

X

0.153 = 1.99 in. 2 (12.8 cm2)

3. Calculate the stressJ;,, in the prestressing tendon at nominal strength using the strain·
compatibility approach (step 3)
The geometrical properties of the tria! section are very close to the assumed dimensions for the depth h and the top flange width b. Hence, use the following data for the
purpose of the example:
Ac

=

377 in. 2

e, = 21.16 in.

dP = 15

r

2

=

+ e, = 15 + 21.16 = 36.16 in.

187.5 in. 2

e = 15 in. at midspan

e2 = 225 in. 2

e2/r 2 =

225/187.5 = 1.20

Ec = 57,000\/5,000 = 4.03
Eps = 28

X

106 psi (193

X

X

106 psi (27.8

X

103 MPa)

lü3 MPa)

The maximum allowable compressive strain ec at failure = 0.003 in.fin. Assume that the
effective prestress at service load is fpe =155,000 psi (1,069 MPa).
(a)

e1 =

epe

Ípe
155,000
. .
=
= 0.0055 m./m.
6
Eps
28 X 10

=-

211

4.15 Ultimate-Strength Design of Prestressed Simply Supported Beam by Strain Compatibility

Pe = 13

X

0.153

X

= 308,295 lb

155,000

The increase in prestressing steel strain as the concrete is decompressed by the increased externa! load (see Figure 4.3 and Equation 4.3c) is given as
2

Ez

= Ectecomp =

e )
Pe (
ACEC 1 + r2

308,295
(1
4.03 X 10

----6

377

X

.

.

+ 1.20) = 0.0004 m./m.

=

205,000 psi as a first tria!. Suppose the neutral axis inside the flange is verified on the basis of h¡= 3 + 4h 3! /2 = 9.25 in dueto the 3 in.
topping. Then, from Equation 4.42a

(b) Assume that the stress fps

Apsfps + Asf,
0.85n b

a=----=

1.99

X

205,000 + 1.76 X 60,000
0.85 X 5,000 X 18

6.71 in. (17 cm)

<

=

8.00 in.

Hence, the equivalent compressive block is inside the flange and the section has
to be treated as rectangular.
Accordingly, for 5,000 psi concrete,

131 = 0.85 - 0.05 = 0.8
e=

a

~

)
. (
6.71
= 8.39 m. 22.7 cm
80

= 0.

d = 40 - (1.5 + ~in. for stirrups +

f¡, in. for bar) 2' 37.6 in.

The increment of strain dueto overload to the ultimate, from Equation 4.37(c) is
E3

=

Ec

. ¡·m.
(37.6 .- 8.39) = 0.0104 m.
d - e)
( -e- = 0.003
8 39

>>

. ¡·m. 0 .K.
0.005 m.

and the total strain is

= 0.0055 + 0.0004 + 0.0104 = 0.0163 in./in.
From the stress-strain diagram in Figure 4.50 the fps corresponding to Eps = 0.0163
is 230,000 psi.
Second tria! far fps value
As sume
fps

=

229,000 psi

a

=

1.99 X 229,000 + 1.76 X 60,000
0.85 X 5,000 X 18
7.34
80

e= 0.
EJ

=

=

=

7.34 in., consider section
as a rectangular beam.

.
9.17 m.

0.003( 37 · 69 ~;· 11 ) = 0.0093

Then the total strain is Eps = 0.0055 + 0.0004 + 0.0093
4.50,fps = 229,000 psi (1.579 MPa); use
As

= 0.0152 in.fin. From Figure

= 4 #6 = 1.76 in. 2

4. A vailable moment strength (steps 6 through 10)
From Equation 4.43c, if the neutral axis were to fall within the flange,

212

Chapter 4

Mn = 1.99

X

Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements

229,000 ( 36.16 - -7.34)
2

+ 1.76

X

60,000 ( 37.6 - -7.34)
2

= 14,806,017 + 3,583,008 = 18,389,025 in.-lb (2,078 kN-m)
> required Mn = 16,562,000 in.-lb, O.K.
A reduction in the area of the mild steel can be made to make the section relatively more
efficient since its available moment strength is about 11 % larger than the required moment.
5. Check for minimum and maximum reinforcement (steps 6 and 9)
(a) MinAs=0.004A
where A is the area of the part of the section between the tension face and the cgc.
From the cross section of Figure 4.8,

A = 377 - 18 ( 4.125 +

l.~75 )- 6(21.16 -

5.5)

= 201 in. 2

< 1.76 used, O.K. for non-prestressed reinforcement.
As checked in the following Example 4.10, Mu = 0.90 X 18,389 in.-lb > 1.2 Me,;

Min As = 0.004

X

201 =O.SO in. 2

hence, the requirement of minimum reinforcement is satisfied for the combined
mild and prestressing steel.
(b) The maximum steel index, from Equation 4.57b, is
wP

+ dd (w - w' ) ::::; 0.36¡3 1 < 0.29 for ¡3 1 -- 0.80
p

and the actual total reinforcement index is
Wr

= 18
=

1.99 X 229,000
37.6 ( 1.76 X 60,000 )
X 36.16 X 5,000 + 36.16 18 X 37.6 X 5,000

0.14 + 0.03

=

0.17

< 0.29, O.K.

Alternatively, the ACI Code limit strain provisions as given in Fig. 4.45 do not prescribe a maximum percentage of reinforcement. They require that a check be made of
the strain El' at the leve! of the extreme tensile reinforcement to determine whether the
beam is in the tensile, the transition, or the compression zone, for verifying the appropriate <!> value. In this case, for e= 9.17 and d, = 37.6 in., and from similar triangles in
the strain distribution across the beam depth,
E1 = 0.003 X (37.6 - 9.17)/9.17 = 0.0093>0.005.
Hence the beam is in the tensile zone, with <!> = 0.90 as used in the solution and the design is O.K.

6. Choice of section for ultimate load (step 11)
From steps 1-5 of the design, the section in Example 4.2 with the modifications shown in
Fig. 4.54 has the nominal moment strength Mn that can carry the factored load, provided
that four #6 nonprestressed bars are used at the tension side as a partially prestressed section.

So one can adopt the section for flexure, as it also satisfies the service-load flexura! stress
requirements both at midspan and at the support. Note that the section could only develop the
required nominal strength Mn = 16,562,000 in.-lb by the addition of the nonprestressed bars at
the tension faceto resist part of the total required moment strength. Note also that this section is
adequate with a concrete f ~ = 5,000 psi, while the section in Example 4.2 has to have f ~ = 6,000
psi strength in order not to exceed the allowable service-load concrete stresses. Hence, ultimateload computations are necessary in prestressed concrete design to ensure that the constructed
elements can carry ali the factored load and are thus an integral part of the total design.

4.16 STRENGTH DESIGN OF SONDEO PRESTRESSED BEAM
USING APPROXIMATE PROCEDURES
Example 4.10
Design the beam in Example 4.9 as a partially prestressed beam using the ACI approximate
procedures if permissible. Use the exact standard section used in Example 4.2 with (a)

213

4.16 Strength Design of Bonded Prestressed Beam Using Approximate Procedures

bonded prestressing steel, and (b) nonbonded prestressing steel. Neglect the contribution of
the compressive nonprestressed steel.
Solution:
l. Section properties (steps 1and2)
The width of the top flange in Example 4.2 is b = 18 in., and its average thickness from
Figure 4.8 is
1

h¡ = 42 +

.
3~
2 = 6.25 m

Try four #6 (four 12.7 mm día) nonprestressed tension steel bars in this cycle in addition to the prestressing reinforcement.
2. Stressfps in prestressing steel at nominal strength (step 3)
From Example 4.9,
fpe

= 155,000 psi

0.5fpu = 0.50
fpe

>

X

270,000 = 135,000 psi

0.5fpu

Hence, one can use the ACI approximate procedure for determining fps·
(A) BONDED CASE

If the position of the neutral axis is not known, analyze as a rectangular section as
follows: From Equation 4.51,

;:[Pp;; + ~ (w -

fps =fpu(l -

w')D

229,500
fpy
fpu = 270,000 = 0.85, use 'Yp = 0.40
Aps

= 13

A,

=4

X

0.153 = 1.99 in2

0.44

X

= 1.76 in2
l.99

Aps

Pp = bdP = 18 X36.16 = 0.003l
fy

A,
w

= bd

X

J: =

18

l.76
X 37.6

X

60,000
5,000 = 0.03 l 2

Forw' =0,
270,000
0.40[
fps = 270,000 ( 1 - 0. 0 0.0031 X ,000
5
8
1.99

])

= 242,190 psi (1,670 MPa)
.
242,190 + 1.76 X 60,000

= 270,000
a =

37.6

+ 36 _16 (0.0312)

X

X

0.897

0.85

X

5,000

X

= 7.68 m > h¡ = 6.25 in

18

Hence, the neutral axis is outside the flange, and analysis has to be based on a Tsection. Using in such a case the web width bw.
l.99

Aps

Pp = bwdp = 6 X36.16 = 0.0092
A,
Ww = bwd

fps

=

fy
X

f: =

270,000 ( 1 -

6

l.76
37.6

X

X

60,000
5,000 = 0·0936

0.40[
_ 0.0092
0 80

X

270,000
,000
5

])
_ (0.0936 - O)
+ 37.6
36 16

214

Chapter 4

Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements

= 189,793 psi (1,309 MPa)

Apwfps = ApsÍps + AJy - 0.85J;(b - bw)h¡

+ 1.76

= 1.99 X 189,793
X

60,000 - 0.85

X

5,000(18 - 6)

6.25

= 377,688 + 105,600 -

ª

X

318,750

= 164,538 lb

164,538
.
= 0.85 X 5,000 X 6 = 6.45 m. (l 6.4 cm)

3. A vailable nominal moment strength (steps 4-8)
Mn = ApwÍps( dp =

~) + Asfy(d -

dp) + 0.85J;(b - bw)h¡( dp - ; )

6 5
·; ) + 1.76(60,000)(37.6 - 36.16)

164,538 (36.16 -

+ 0.85 (5,000)(18 - 6)

X

.
6.25 ( 36.16 - -6.25)
= 16,071,226 m.-lb
2

(1,816 kN-m) < required Mn = 16,562,000 in.-lb (1871 kN-m), hence the section is inadequate.
Proceed to another trial and adjustment cycle using more nonprestressed reinforcement. Try four #8 bars (four 25 mm dia), As= 3.16 in. 2 (25 cm2). We have
Ww

3.16
37.6

= 6

X

X

60,000
5,000 = 0.1 7

givingfps = 179,068 psi and ApJps = 227,195 lb (1010 kN). So
227,195

.

a = 0.85 X 5,000 X 6 = 8.9 m. (22.6 cm)

Mn = 227,195 (36.16 -

8
:)

+ 0.85(5,000)(18 - 6)

+ 3.16(60,000)(37.6
X

- 36.16)

6.25 ( 36.16 - -6.25)
2

= 18,007,283 in.-lb (2035 kN-m) > Required Mn = 16,562,000 in.-lb, O.K.
Hence, use four #8 nonprestressed bars at the bottom fibers, and adopt the design for
the bonded case.
(B) NONBONDED CASE

Span-to-Depth ratio

=

65

:O 12 = 19.5 < 35

Hence, from Equation 4.52a,

¡;
fps

=

fpe + 10,000 + lOOpP

=

5,000
155,000 + 10,000 + 100 X 1.99/(6 X 36.16)

= 170,451 psi (1,175 MPa)

Notice that bw = 6 in. is used here for Pp' since it is now known that the section behaves like a T-beam, as the neutral axis is below the flange. Thus,

fps

=

170,451 psi (1,175 MPa)

l. Selection of nonprestressed steel
Try four #8 nonprestressed tension reinforcements to resist part of the factored moment:

215

4.16 Strength Oesign of Bonded Prestressed Beam Using Approximate Procedures

Photo 4.16 Diaphragrn anchorage.
A,= 4

X

0.79 = 3.16 in 2 (19.8 crn 2)

A pwfp1 = 1.99 X 170,451

+ 3.16

X

60,000 - 0.85

X

5,000(18 - 6)6.25

= 210,047 lb
Ap..,/PJ

ª = 0.85/;b..

.
210,047
0.85 X 5,000 X 6 = 8.24 IO. (20.9 cm)

2. Available moment strength (steps 4--8)
Frorn Equation 4.48,

8.24) + 3.16
.
Mn = 210,047 ( 36.16 - 2
Available

+ 0.85

X

5.000(18 - 6)

X

6.25

X

60,000(37.6 - 36.16)

X

(36.16 -

6 5
·: )

= 17,537,057 in.-lb (1981 kN-m)

> Req. M,.

= 16,562,000 in.-lb, O.K.

(C) CHECK FOR RELNFORCEMENT LIMITS

l. Minimum reinforcement
From Equation 4.25, the cracking mornent, M,, is given by
Mcr = f,Sh

+

P,(e + ::)

From Example 4.2, /, = 7.SVS,000 = 530.3 psi (3.7 MPa). So since Sb = 3,750 in.3 ,
e= L5 in., r2tc,, = 187.5/18.84 = 9.95 in., and P, =308,255 lb (1.37 l kN). we get
M0

= 530.3 X 3.750 + 308.295(L5 + 9.95)
= 9,680,585 in.-lb (1,090 kN-m)

l.2Mcr = 1.2 X 9,680,585 = 11 ,616,702 in.-lb (1,3 13 kN-m)

216

Chapter 4

Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements

Mu = <l>Mn = 0.90 X 18,026,667
= 16,224,000 in.-lb (1,833 kN-m)
Finally, from Equation 4.54a,
Mu> l.2Mcr
Hence, the requirement for minimum reinforcement is satisfied for both the nonbonded and the bonded case.
2. Maximum reinforcement index

Max. allow. wP = 0.36~ 1 = 0.36 X 0.80 = 0.288
(et= 0.005 in.fin. minimum strain is comparable to 0.32~ 1 )
F rom E q. 4.57d , max1mum
.
total w

= O.85a/dP = 0.85 .X 8.9 = O. 209 < 0.288, 0.K.

36 16
Alternatively, the ACI Code limit strain provisions as given in Fig. 4.45 do not prescribe a maximum percentage of reinforcement. They require that a check be made of
the strain Ep at the leve! of the extreme tensile reinforcement to determine whether the
beam is in the tensile, the transition, or the compression zone, for verifying the appropriate <!> value. In this case, for c = a/[31 =8.9/0.80=11.1 and and dt = 37.6 in., and from
similar triangles in the strain distribution across the beam depth,
E1 = 0.003X(37.6-11.1)/11.6

= 0.0072>0.005.
Hence the beam is in the tensile zone, with <j> = 0.90 as used in the solution and the design is O.K.
Accordingly, adopt the design that uses the concrete section in Example 4.2 and include four #8 nonprestressed steel bars at the tension side. Note that the moment
strength capacity of the non-bonded section for the same area of nonprestressed steel
is less than the moment strength capacity of the bonded section, which is expected.

If f ~ = 6,000 psi would have been used in the strength design in this example, as it
was in the service-load design of this section in Example 4.2, less mild steel reinforcement
would have been needed.

4.17 SI FLEXURAL DESIGN EXPRESSION
f~;

= 0.8f~

fe;= 0.60f~;

Ít;

= ¡~ (midspan)
= ~~ (support)

fe
fe

= 0.45f~ due to prestress + sustained load
= 0.6n due to prestress + total load if it includes transient load

Stress at transfer

(4.la)
(4.16)

(4.2a)

217

4.17 SI Flexura! Design Expression

Íb

=-

Pe (

ecb)

+7

Ac 1

+ 5b :::; fe

MD

(4.2b)

5ervice load final stress
f

1

fb

= -

Ac 1 -

ect) Mr
72
- Sr :5 fe

(4.3a)

= -

Ac 1

Pe (

ecb)

(4.3b)

fctecomp =

51

Pe (

+7

Mr

+ S:

: :; Ít

~: ( 1 + ::)

(4.3c)

(1 - "f)Mv + MSD + ML

2: - - - - - - - - -

( 4.4a)

'YÍt; - fe

sb
ee

(1 - 'Y)MD + MSD + ML

2: - - - - - - - - -

ti -

= (Ít; -

(4.4b)

"!fe;

- 51
fe;) p.

(4.5c)

l

,2

k=t

(4.6)

cb

(4.23)

Unshored case
(4.19a)
(4.19b)

5hored case
(4.22a)
(4.22b)
Equation 4.51 for bonded tendons

_
(
"lp [ fpu
d
fps - fpu 1 - l3i Pp f ~ + dp (W
where "lp = 0.55 for fp/fpu;;:: 0.80
= 0.40 for fp/fpu ;;:: 0.85
= 0.28 for fp/fpu ;;:: 0.90
Equation 4.52 for nonbonded tendons

1

-

W )

] )

MPa

218

Chapter 4

Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements
f~

span

¡;

span

fps = fpe

+ 70 + lOOpP MPa for depth :::::; 35

fps = fpe

+ 70 + 300 Pp MPa for depth > 35
MPa
(lb) 4.448

=
=

N/mm2
N

(psi) 0.006895

=

MPa

(lb/ft) 14.593
(in.-lb) 0.113

=

106 N/m2

= N/m
= N-m

1 Kg force= 9.806 N
4.17.1 SI Flexura! Design of Prestressed Beams
Example 4.11

Solve Example 4.10 using SI units. Tendons are bonded.
Data:
Ac = 5045 cm2

b = 45.7 cm

bw = 15.2 cm

le = 7.04 X 106 cm4

r

=

1,394 cm2

d = 32.5 cm
ec = 60.4 cm
S, = 216,210 cm 3

cb = 89.4 cm

ee

=

84.2 cm

sb

=

78,707 cm 3

WD

l

= 11.9 X 103 kN/m
=

¡; =

WsD

= 1,459 N/m

= 16.1 kN/m

wL

19.8 m
34.5 MPa

fp;

fpu = 1,860 MPa
Prestress loss y= 18%

=

1,300 MPa

fpy = 1,580 MPa
fy = 414 MPa

Aps = 13 tendons, diameter 12.7 mm (Aps = 99 min 2)

= 13

X

Required Mn = 16.5

99 = 1,287 mm2
X

106 in.-lb = 1871 kN-m

Solution:

l. Section properties (Steps 1and2)
Flange width b = 18 in.= 45.7 cm
Average thickness h¡= 4.5 +!(3.5) 6.25in.=15.7 cm
Try 4 No. 20 M mild steel bars for partial prestressing (diameter = 19.5 mm, As= 300
mm2 ).

=

As

=

4

X

300

=

1,200 mm2

2. Stress fps in prestressing steel at nominal strength and neutral axis position (Step 3)
fpe = "Yfp; = 0.82 X 1,300 = 1,066 MPa
Verify Neutral Axis Position
If outside flange, its depth has to be greater than a= Apwfp/0.85f~b w

0.5fpu = 0.50 x 1,860 = 930 MPa < 1,066, hence, one can use ACI approximate procedure for determiningfps· From equation 4.51,
'Yp [ fpu
d
fps = fpu ( 1 - ~ Pp J: + dp (W

1

-

W )

])

40 f.2)15. = 15.7 . the ACI Code.80 x 91.166 kN-m > Required Mn = 1871 kN-m hence. = 95.85f: bw where Apwfps = Ap/ps + AJy .375.bw)h¡ Apwfps = 1. .2) N-cm = 2.8) = <0.033 = 0.00275 Aps wp = -bd p fps X - .2) X 102 = 106(96.5 MPa. .7) + 1. Available nominal moment strength (Step 4-8) wT = + w = 0.00 306 As l.0. Hence. the beam is in the tensile zone of Fig. 85 X 34 . allowing <I> = 0.287 Pp = bdP = 457 X 918 = 0.00306 X .85.0.4.7/(0. Alternatively. hence.2 = 24.7 X 15 .7 .17 SI Flexura! Design Expression 219 dP = 36.674 + 1. = 0.0.85f ~ (b .7 cm > h¡ = 15.15.= 1e 1.240 X 10 a = 0.6 in.36fj 1.24 X 10 \91.8 + -27.173 wP < 0. maximum reinforcement index w is satisfied. section is O.l15. fj 1 = = = 0. = 91.287 X 1.47a. and thus OK for the chosen reinforcement.8 . 5 As fy 414 w = bd X = 0.K. + X 0. a= Apwfps 0.033 fl 34 5 w' =O For f ~ fps 34.90 for determining the design moment Mu as assumed. O. .00306 X .14 34.= = 0. 4.= a!f3 1d.16 in.80 0.860 ( 1 .200 X 414 . hence.14 + 0.580 .674 0.674 MPa From Equation 4.K.6 + 1.91. use 'Yp = 0.pu 1' 860 Aps 1.5(45.15.200 p = bd = 457 X 955 = 0.5 .5 .0.7 X 102 = 106(2.= 0.033 8 45 918 = 1.8) 2 +0. 0 0.45 and did not exceed the maximum permissible reinforcement.83 + 118. d = 37.85 X 34.200 X 414(95.00275 X .15 + 0..860(1 .7( 91. Available Mn = ¡ 1.5 cm fpy 1. 3.5 X (45. cid.240 kN 1.85 X 34.2)15.14) N = 1.1) = 1.1.8 cm.40[ 1860 955 ]) 1.7 cm Hence neutral axis is outside the flange and analysis has to be based on a T-section.

1982. T. D. E.. and Chiang. Gergely..156. ASCE 108 (1982): 978-997. Design of Section. and Deflection of Spirally Bound Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Beams. McGraw Hill. "Serviceability Behavior of Post-Tensioned Beams." Journal of the Structural Division. G. E. Y. K.25 mentary. G. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. 936. and Comell. Gadebeku.8 4.9 4. M. Ezeldin. 214. and Goodkind.. New York. P. 2008. N.24 4. Canada. 1-97. and Mitchell. A.. Prentice Hall. 1-766 p. McGregor. G. H. 2006-2009.15 4. AZ. Y. N.. Y.21 4." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 25. Prestressed Concrete Designer's Handbook.10 4. CRC Press. 1972. Supplements. E. pp. I.1 ACI Committee 318. 1789-1805.C. B. ANSI-ASCE 7-95.12 4.. T. V.: Bureau of Engineering Research. "Design of Anchorage Zone Reinforcement in Prestressed Concrete Beams. Phoenix. G. L.220 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements SELECTED REFERENCES 4. pp. pp. T.." Engineering Research Bulletin No. May 1986. Precast and Prestressed Concrete. and Mattock. PCI Design Handbook. 2008. August 1987. Ontario." Journal of the American Concrete Institute.C. J. AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges.. Galambos. and Potyondy.7 4. and Nawy." ASCE Structural Division Journal. and Bums. August 1997. and Sozen. New York. G. Limit State Design of Prestressed Concrete. Naaman. American National Standards Institute..W. pp. Upper Saddle River. E.6 4.. Viewpoint Publications. A.. 465 Nawy. G. and Balaguru. FL." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 22 (1977): 30-47. American Concrete Institute. MacMaster University. 890-900. P.: AASHTO. Federal Highway Administration. Nawy. N." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete lnstitute 14 (1969): 62-71.3 4." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute Chicago. ACI 318R-08. H. G. 6th Ed. Rutgers University. D.. "Control of Horizontal Cracking in the Ends of Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Girders. C.16 4. 1995.. "Longitudinal Crack in Prestressed Box Beam.. Vol. E." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 7 (1962): 56-74. Nilson.4 4. No. P.. Yong. Nawy. Farmington Hills. pp. Vol. K.-Feb. (1969): 38-42. E." Paper presented at the First Canadian Conference on Computer Applications in Civil Engineering. John Wiley & Sons. pp. C. Abeles.13 4.. Cracking.J. RD-95-180. and Huang.. A "Probability Based Load Criteria: Load Factors and Load Combinations. Gerwick B. "Flexura! Design Equations for Prestressed Concrete Members.. MI. T.2 4. Ellingwood. Construction of Prestressed Concrete Structures. "Anchorage Zone Stresses of Post-tensioned Prestressed Beams Subjected to Shear Forces. Upper Saddle River. "Flexura! Cracking Behavior of Pretensioned and Post-Tensioned Beams-The State of the Art.. Nawy. "Crack and Deflection Control of Pretensioned Prestressed Beams." FHWA Publication No. 18th Ed.5 4. Post-Tensioning Manual. C. 5th ed.. 1980: 74-85. Mínimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. 1956.20 4.17 4. Chicago Jan. A H. "Moment Rotation. Washington. Prentice Hall. NJ. Prestressed Concrete Institute. New Brunswick. Boca Raton. John Wiley & Sons. Reinforced Concrete-A Fundamental Approach. 2006. . pp.14 4. Washington.23 4. 8. J. December 1985. A H. D. and Bardhan-Roy. NJ: 2009. B. Nawy. Chicago. G. 3d ed... Collins. P. The Ultimate Load Theory Applied to the Design of Reinforcement and Prestressed Concrete Frames. London: Concrete Publications. E. M. 1981. Post-Tensioning Institute.11 4. Lin. G. Nawy. Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures. 113. A L. 6th Ed.22 4. Marshall. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Com4. "Analysis of Partially Prestressed Beams for Strength and Serviceability Using Microcomputers." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 12 (1967): 63-75. New York. Y. P.19 4.18 4. Prestressed Concrete Structures. Baker.. 3rd Ed. 1991.. 1981. Guyon. W. Hamilton. J. Prestressed Concrete Institute. 1999. "Optimized Sections for High Strength Concrete Bridge Girders. A E. 51. London. 1970. Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design.

Farmington Hills. Assume the strands to be harped at midspan.1 cm) concrete topping. Design the prestressing reinforcement and the appropriate eccentricities using 270-grade prestressing strands (fpu = 1. C. K. including the anchorage zone reinforcement and arrangement of strands for (a) straight-tendon case." NCHRP Report 356.M. Design the anchorage zone reinforcement by the strut-and-tie method. "Anchorage Zone Stresses of Post-Tensioned Prestressed Beams.27 4. Washington. V. 2nd Edition. Chinese Academy of Sciences. It also carries a 2-in. E. PROBLEMS 4.. D.. and Wollman. 1996. = 3.40b...000 psi (34.29 4.30 4. John Wiley and Sons.873 Pa. The following data are given: fpu = 270.. using the following data: fpu = 270. 4. Chairman. 77. American Concrete Institute. Yong. Nawy. pp.2 Solve Problem 4. Breen J.. G. Burdet. 1995." ACI Committee Report. Fundamentals of High Performance Concrete..000 psi V/S = l. New York. ACI Committee 435.6 m) and carries superimposed service live and dead loads of 60 psf (2." Proceedings.79in. E. FL. = 3. Y. Nawy.2 m) simply supported span. K. and Gadebeku..1 if the beam is post-tensioned bonded and the tendon is draped. = 5. Also.000 psi (20. D. "Control of Deflection in Concrete Structures. .2h. 1560. E. pp. G.3 A double-T pretensioned roof beam is shown in Figure P4. "Design of Post-Tensioned Girder Anchorage Zones. = 12 V¡.7 MPa) normal-weight concrete 4. Sanders. Assume total prestress losses of 22 percent.Problems 221 4. 1992.. assuming deflection is not critica! Sketch the design details. = 5. 1986.5 MPa) normal-weight concrete ¡." Journal of 4. E. G.95 kN/m) and a sustained service live load of 1. C.1 Design. It has a simple span of 74 ft (22.. Use the appropriate percentage of nonprestressed mild steel for partial prestressing behavior at the limit state at failure. 2nd ed. MI.28 4... Assume that the sectional properties are b = 0.. Nanjing Institute of Technology. (5. ed.862 MPa) with a total prestress loss of 20 percent. Sept. 1994.. pp 203-242. 204 p.31 4.5 X 106 psi (196 X 103 MPa) ¡.3.32 the Prestressed Concrete Institute 29 (1984): 64-109. B. and sketch the reinforcing details including the anchorage zone strands. stress-relieved strands (1. "Cracking of Concrete-ACI and CEB Approaches.1 MPa) f. G. and Breen. Nawy. "Anchorage Zone Reinforcement for Post-tensioned Concrete Girders. W. Nawy E. h¡= 0. Malhotra. G. Wsn part of load= 25 psf). CRC Press.000 psi (34. J. Use strain compatibility to determine the value of the tendon stress fps at nominal strength.C. and (b) a harped tendon at the third span points with end eccentricity zero. draw the distribution of stresses for the various loading stages in your solution.000 psi (1. = 28. for service-load and ultimate-load conditions.5h. Roberts. and bw = 0. Concrete Construction Engineering Handbook 2nd ed. for topping = f .90 kN/m) on a 50 ft (15.." Proceedings of the International Conference on Structural Mechanics of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete. Transportation Research Board. E. 2008. International Conference on Advances in Concrete Technology. editor-in-chief.500 psi (24.862 MPa) EP. 2001.500 plf (21. CANMET/ACI. G. 4. Boca Raton. O.862 MPa) EP.000 psi.5 MPa) normal-weight concrete f. 460 pp. a pretensioned symmetrical 1-section beam to carry a sustained superimposed dead load of 750 plf (10.26 Stone. Farmington Hills. = 28 X 106 psi (193 X 103 MPa) ¡. E. Nawy.

Use the tie-and-strut method to design the anchorage zone reinforcement. 2. = 28 X 106 psi (193 X 103 MPa) 5.21 in. to c. Design the anchorage zone reinforcement by the strutand-tie method and compare the results with those obtained using the linear elastic analysis approach.8 m). Assume a 7 in.34 in. Design the section as a post-tensioned bonded beam using an AASHTO standard section with parabolically draped tendons.5 MPa) normal-weight concrete 3.66 in.862 MPa) Eps = ¡. 4 21.464 in. Ac Je cb e. = 4.600 plf (67. and detail all the reinforcement including the anchorage zone steel and the nonprestressed tensile steel. sb S' WD Untopped Topped 567 in. 3.000 psi stress relieved (1.000 psi (34.658 cm2) 55. situ-cast slab over the precast section and the following data: Beams spaced at 7' -6" c.4 if the draped tendons are nonbonded. 4. Assume a total prestress loss of 20 percent.5 Solve problem 4. It is subjected to a total superimposed service load of 4.2 kN/m).140 in. . ec = 17.222 Chapter 4 Flexura! Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 8'-0"---l "~ 1¡• r- =h- 1 2" 32" ~-~i f-4'-o"--H 1 -j Figure P4. 3 6. Assume the tendons are harped at midspan. for the limit state at failure analysis.3 5. and (b) strain compatibility. 2 (3. fpu = 270.79 in.3 791 plf 4.886 in.4 A bridge girder has a simple span of 55 ft (16. and.000 psi (27.615 in.6 MPa) Design the bridge section as unshored for service-load and ultimate-load conditions. 10.7 MPa) normal-weight concrete f.3 f-4~" Double-T cross section. 4 23.. = slab ¡. find the stressfps at nominal strength by (a) the ACI approximate procedure. 10.038 in. Assume the section to be constant throughout the span.3 591 plf 71.000 psi (20.71 in.952 in. and compare the two solutions.

but by a combination of externa! Empire State Performing Arts Center. Since the strength of concrete in tension is considerably lower than its strength in compression. Notice the curvelinear plane of twist depicting torsional failure caused by the imposed torsional moments. (Courresy. Photos in this chapter show typical beam shear failure and torsion failure. the shearing stresses in regular beams are caused. The behavior of prestressed concrete beams at failure in shear or combined shear and torsion is distinctJy differenl from their behavior in ílexure: They fai l abruplly without sufficient advance warning. and the diagonal cracks that develop are considerably widcr than the ílexural cracks. New York. prestressed concrete shell ring. Such a stress can result in principal tensile stresses at the critica! section which can exceed the tensile strength of the concrete. Botb sbear and torsional forces result in shear stress. not by direct shear or pure torsion. Albany. As wiU be discussed in subsequent sections. Ammann & Whitney design. New York Office of General Serviccs. design for shear and Lorsion becomes of major importance in alJ types of concrete structures.SHEAR ANO TORSIONAL STRENGTH DESIGN 5.) 223 .1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents procedures for tbe design of prestressed concrete sections to resist shear and torsional forces resulting from extemally applied loads.

The tensile normal stress ft and the shear stress v are the values in element A 1 across plane a¡-a 1 at a distance y from the neutral axis. From the principles of classical mechanics. in the member. ..A. Only in special applications in certain structural systems are direct shear or pure torsion applied. or flexura! shear stresses.1 Stress distribution for a typical homogeneous rectangular beam. or a cantilever balcony involving essentially a direct twist on the supporting beam.2 BEHAVIOR OF HOMOGENEOUS BEAMS IN SHEAR Consider the two infinitesimal elements.2) where M and V = bending moment and shear force at section a¡-a 1 A = cross-sectional area of the section at the plane passing through the centroid of element A 1 a . A 1 and A 2 of a rectangular beam in Figure 5. and linearly elastic material. Examples of such cases are corbels or brackets involving direct shear. isotropic.224 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design loads and moments.-----+-----w- IJ-N.l(a) made of homogeneous..l(b) shows the bending stress and shear stress distributions across the depth of the section. Figure 5.1) f=- I and VAy VQ Ib lb v=--=-- (5. Cross section Bending stress distribution Shear stress distribution (b) Figure 5. \ f. 5. the normal stress f and the shear stress v for element A 1 can be written as My (5. ~ (a) Neutral axis a. This leads to diagonal tension.

6 v -.. element A1 .2 Stress state in elements A 1 and ~·(a) Stress state in element A 1• (b) Mohr's circle representation. v - -l~c r - y X 1.- 1. 1. v Maximum sheer stress.~¡ V (a) Shear stress. A. Vmu o Principal compressive 1 stress.) V V N •. v) Principal tensile stress.2 Behavior of Homogeneous Beams in Shear Pholo 5.I --- 1 Normal stress. element ~· . (T est by Nawy et al... I Plane x Coordinates (!. 1 1rCmeaJ (b) Figure 5. (e) Stress state in element ~· (d) Mohr's circle representation. 1.1 Typical diagonal tension (flexure shear) failurc al ruplurc load leve!.225 5.. lecn... ~ 1..

3a) 2 principal compression (5.)(Ít) l + 2 Ít(max) -.2(b ). Normal stress. ft(maxl (d) Figure 5. v Maximum shear stress.3b) 2 Íc(max) - V and tan 20max V = Ít/ 2 (5.1 Principal tensile stress. 1 1 1 ~--------o~ 1 Principal compressive stress.Ít l V 2 principal tension (5.2 Continued y = distance from the element to the neutral axis y = distance from the centroid of A to the neutral axis I = moment of inertia of the cross section Q = statical moment of the cross-sectional area above or below that level about the neutral axis b = width of the beam Figure 5.3c) . fc(max) 1.. the principal stresses for element A 1 in the tensile zone below the neutral axis become + )(!t) l + .226 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design -+---f- V t 1 y X (e) Shear stress.Ít l . f Plane x Coordinates (f<' v) 1 1 1 1 l.2 shows the internal stresses acting on the infinitesimal elements A 1 and A 2• Using Mohr's circle in Figure 5.

ll Principal diagonal tension crack at failure of beam in the preceding photograph (load stage 12).3 . Photo 5.3 Behavior of Concrete Beams as Nonhomogeneous Sections 227 . as the maximum principal stress in the element is in comprcssion. ' ~. (Test by Nawy et al. The compression stress fe in eJement A 2 of Figure 5. hence #).2 Simply supported beam prior to developing diagonal tension crack io nexure shear (load stage 11 )..2(b) above the neutral axis prevents cracking.) 5.· ll· Photo 5.5.. the maximum principal stress is in tcnsion. For elemcnt A 1 below the neutral axis.3 BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE BEAMS AS NONHOMOGENEOUS SECTIONS The behavior of reinforced and prestressed concrete beams differs from that of steel beams in that the tensile streogtb of concrete is about one-tenth of its strenglh in compression.

diagonal cracking develops along planes perpendicular to the planes of principal tensile stresshence the term diagonal tension cracks. clase to the support of Figure 5. cracks develop almost perpendicular to the axis of the beam. These cracks are called flexura/ cracks. To prevent such cracks from openings. 5. The principal stress Ít(max) in tension acts at an approximately 45º plane to the normal at sections clase to the support.4 CONCRETE BEAMS WITHOUT DIAGONAL TENSION REINFORCEMENT In regions of large bending moments.3. In regions of high shear dueto the diagonal tension.4 portrays the types of cracks expected in a reinforced concrete beam with or without adequate diagonal tension reinforcement. accompanied by a corresponding increase in the shear stress. Because of the low tensile strength of concrete. However. dashed lines are compressive trajectories. Solid lines are tensile trajectories. using Equation 5. and the principal tensile stress. the inclined cracks develop as an extension of the flexural crack and are termed flexure shear cracks. cracking ensues.3 Trajectories of principal stresses in a homogeneous isotropic beam.Yifc/2) 2 + v2 principal tension (5. the principal stresses far element A 2 would be ftr. Figure 5. the bending moment and hence ¡.4c) . the section is mostly in compression at service load.. As one moves toward the support.4a) 2 + v2 principal compression (5. Definitive understanding of the correct shear mechanism in reinforced concrete is still incomplete. If ¡.max) = -~ + Vifc/2) !c(max) = -~ . It is this diagonal tension stress that causes the inclined cracks. the approach of ACI-ASCE Joint Committee 426 gives a systematic empirical correlation of the basic concepts developed from extensive test results. In prestressed beams. is assumed equal to zero. as seen in Figure 5.3. the element becomes nearly in a state of pure shear. From Figures 5.3b.2( c) and (d). would be equal to the shear stress v on a 45º plane.decreases. special diagonal tension reinforcement has to be provided.228 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Figure 5.4b) and V tan 20max = fc/ 2 (5.

that is. one of the diagonal cracks widens into a principal diagonal tension crack and extends to the top compression fibers of the beam. failure occurs in a ductile manner by initial yielding of the main longitudinal flexura! reinforcement. Such beams can be considered of intermediate slenderness. FS] Diagonal tension failure precipitates if the strength of the beam in diagonal tension is lower than its strength in flexure.2 Flexura! Failure [F] In the regían of flexura! failure. determines the failure mode of the beam. the shear span le is the clear beam span. Fundamentally.5 for the case of concentrated loading. This type of behavior gives ample warning of the imminence of collapse of the beam.5(c). additional cracks develop in the central regían of the span and the initial cracks widen and extend deeper toward the neutral axis and beyond. the stronger the tendency toward flexura! behavior. .4. two or three diagonal cracks develop at about 1~d to 2d distance from the face of the support in the case of reinforced concrete beams. with a marked increase in the deflection of the beam.4. For distributed loads.229 5. The shear span-to-depth ratio for this behavior exceeds a value of 5. 5.4 Concrete Beams Without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement External load Simpleand end support Continuous support Web Flexura! and flexure-shear shear (OT) Figure 5.5 demonstrates schematically the failure patterns for the different slenderness ratio limits.5(b) and 5. 5.5 in the case of concentrated loading. cracks are mainly vertical in the middle third of the beam span and perpendicular to the lines of principal stress.5 and 5. Figure 5. a few very fine vertical cracks start to develop in the midspan area at about 50 percent of the failure load in flexure. three modes of failure or their combinations occur: flexura! failure. Thereafter. diagonal tension failure. As they stabilize. The more slender the beam. As the externa! load increases. These cracks result from a very small shear stress v anda dominant flexura! stress fwhich results in an almost horizontal principal stress Ít(max)· In such a failure mode. its shear span-to-depth ratio.4. and in excess of 16 for distributed loading. and shear compression failure (web shear).1 Modes of Failure of Beams Without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement The slenderness of the beam. and usually at about a quarter of the span in the case of prestressed concrete beams. as seen from the following discussion.3 Diagonal Tension Failure [Flexure Shear. as seen in Figure 5. without ample warning of impending failure. If the beam is underreinforced. Cracking starts with the development of a few fine vertical flexura! cracks at midspan.4 Web Flexura! and flexure-shear shear (DT) Crack categories. The shear span a for concentrated load is the distance between the point of application of the load and the face of support. varying between 2. followed by the destruction of the bond between the reinforcing steel and the surrounding concrete at the support. The shear span-to-depth ratio is of intermediate magnitude. 5.

--1 (b) p d !-4-----lc-------i (el Figure 5. (b) Diagonal tension failure (flexure shear). d (a) p Iª d le l--1. depending on the magnitude of the prestressing force and the variation in its eccentricity. which has relatively small deflection at failure. Notice that the flexura} cracks do not propagate to the neutral axis in this essentially brittle failure mode. discussed next. the critica} location of the maximum principal stress in tension is not. Although the maximum externa} shear is at the support. taking in to account the balancing contribution of the vertical component of the prestressing force. It is considerably reduced at that section because of the high compression force of the prestressing tendon. and noted by a combination of flexura! and diagonal cracks. . (a) Flexura! failure.230 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design p 1-·. and is more common to account for than web shear. In sum. It is best termed flexure shear in the case of prestressed beams. This is the reason why the stabilized diagonal crack is located further into the span. the diagonal tension failure is the result of the combination of the flexura! and shear stresses. in addition to the vertical compression force of the beam reaction at the supports.5 Failure patterns as a function of beam slenderness.a _ _ _ . . with an average value of about onequarter of the span in flanged prestressed beams. . (e) Shear compression failure (web shear).

0 for distributed loading.5 for the case of concentrated loading and less than 5. WSJ Beams that are most subject to shear compression failure have a smaU span-to-depth ratio of magnitude 2. 5. As in the diagonal tension case.4 Shear Compression Failure [Web Shear.S .5.).4 Concrete Beams Without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement Photo 5. Pboto S. an inclined crack steeper Lhan in the diagonal tension case suddenly develops and proceeds to propagate toward the neutral axis.4. Thereafter.4 231 Shear failure in prestresscd T-beam (Nawy et al. The rate of its progress is reduced with the crushing of the con- lnstallation of precasl prestressed double-T íloor beams in a multiíloor office slructure. a few fine ílexural cracks start to develop at midspan and stop propagating as destruction of the bond occurs between Lhe longitudinal bars and the surrounding concrete at tbe support region.

Crushing of the web of the section causes the beam to resemble a tied arch. considerably reduces the effect of the tensile flexura! stresses. (e) Shear stress.5(c). and such a design should be avoided completely. (b) Beam cross section. and the net transverse load to which a beam is subjected is markedly less in prestressed than in reinforced concrete beams. a check of the capacity of the section at critica! locations along the span becomes necessary. one cannot expect that a stabilized failure diagonal crack occurs at both ends of the beam. A concrete beam or element is not homogeneous. As a . and the strength of the concrete throughout the span is subject to a normally distributed variation.4. crete in the top compression fibers and a redistribution of stresses within the top region. which is a combination of flexure and shear effects.6. If the appropriate amount of shear reinforcement is provided. the compressive force of the prestressing tendon. This type of failure in prestressed beams can be better described as web-shear failure. Additionally.232 Chapter 5 (a) (b) Shear and Torsional Strength Design (e) Figure 5. Sudden failure takes place as the principal inclined crack dynamically joins the crushed concrete zone. Because of the abrupt change of section width at the corner A. (a) Beam elevation. even in cases of straight tendons. The shear-compression type of failure. 5. particularly for web-shear failure. leads to separation of the tension flange from the web in the flanged section as the inclined crack extends towards the support. a brittle type of failure with limited warning.6 Maximum horizontal shear stress distribution across depth. with the resulting crushing of the top compressive area of the concrete and failure to resist the flexura! forces. lt is important to evaluate both the flexure-shear capacity and the web-shear capacity of each critica! section in order to determine which type predominates in determining the shear strength of the concrete section. as illustrated in Figure 5. in fact. Also. Hence. 1t should be emphasized that most failures tend to occur by diagonal tension. brittle failure of horizontal members can be eliminated with little additional cost.5 SHEAR ANO PRINCIPAL STRESSES IN PRESTRESSED BEAMS As mentioned in Section 5. Yet it is. overlapping combinations of flexure-diagonal tension failure and diagonal tension-shear compression failure can occur at overlapping shear span-todepth ratios. The distribution of the maximum horizontal shearing stress in an uncracked flanged section is shown in Figure 5. The vertical component of the prestressing tendon force reduces the vertical shear caused by the externa! transverse load. This type of failure can be considered relatively less brittle than the diagonal tension failure due to the stress redistribution. flexure shear in prestressed concrete beams includes the effect of the externally applied compressive prestressing force that the reinforced concrete beam does not have. because of these properties. so that the extent and magnitude of flexural cracking in prestressed members are reduced.

If the effective depth is dP.5) From Equation 5.4a. 5.6) The compressive fiber-stress distribution fe due to the externa! bending moment is Íc Pe e Peec = -. the net unit shearing stress v at any depth of the cross section is VeQ Ve = ----¡¡.1 Flexure-Shear Strength [Ve. the basic equations developed for prestressed concrete in shear are identical to those developed for reinforced concrete and described in detail in Refs.4. (b) Beam with draped tendon.~ (5. The net shearing force Ve carried by the concrete is (5.2.7 illustrates the contributions of the vertical component of the tendon force in counterbalancing part or most of the vertical shear V caused by the externa! transverse load.+ - Ae - le Myc =f . the shear forces and the resulting principal stresses in a prestressed beam are considerably lower than those same forces and stresses in reinforced concrete beams.8. from Equation 5.5. (a)Beam with harped tendon. The inclined stabilized crack at a distance d/2 from a flexural crack that develops at the first cracking load in flexure shear is shown in Figure 5. (c) Interna! shear vector VP due to prestressing force Pon infinitesimal element dx. result. Consequently.] To design for shear.3 and 5. = V(fc/2)2 +V~ .7) and the principal tensile stress. Figure 5. is f.5 Shear and Principal Stresses In Prestressed Beams w w/ft (a) (b) + (e) (d) Figure 5. the depth from the compression fibers to the .7 Balancing load to counteract vertical shear.8) 5.- (5. it is necessary to determine whether flexure shear or web shear controls the choice of concrete shear strength Ve. all else being equal.le (5.233 5. (d) Interna! shear vector V dueto externa! load W on infinitesimal element dx.

Extensive experimental tests indicate that an additional vertical shear force of magnitude 0. (c) Moment diagram with first cracking moment Mc. centroid of the longitudinal prestressed reinforcement.234 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Diagonal tension crack Section: 1 2 3 (a) (b) 2 3 (c) Figure 5.9b) V= M/V. the change in moment between sections 2 and 3 is VdP M-Mcr =Z- (5.6bwdp is needed to fully develop the inclined crack in Figure 5. 5. {b) Shear diagram due to externa! load with frictional shear force Ve.9a) or (5. the total vertical shear acting at plane 2 of Figure 5.8 (Ref. ordinate at section 2.8 Flexure-shear crack development. Hence.ordinate at section 2.8 is Vfi .dp/2 where V is the shear at the section under consideration. (a) Crack pattern and types.5).

7 ~ if the value of the tensile splitting strength fct is known.5 Shear and Principal Stresses In Prestressed Beams 235 Mcr • r. psi y1 = distance from centroidal axis to extreme fibers in tension.85 for sand-lightweight concrete = 0.6X.3 for reinforced concrete where an asymptotic horizontal value of shear is achieved along the span. The value of V in Equation 5.6 of Ref. at the section under consideration due to externally applied loads occurring simultaneously with the maximum moment Mmax occurring at that section. The vertical component VP of the prestressing force is disregarded in Equation 5. Vjj bwdp (5.. = M/V _ dp/ 2 + 0. i. + Vd (5.10.12 are calculated using the precast section geometry. = factored shear force at section due to externally applied load occurring simultaneously with Mmax· For lightweight concrete. calculation of the shear strength Ve should be based on the properties of the precast section since most of the shear strength is provided by the web of the precast section. = fe/6.0X. Vjj bwdp + Vd + ~(Mer) :::: l.0 for normal-weight concrete = 0. Compare this plot with an analogous one in Figure 6.10 is given in Figure 5. Sb may be substituted for Ijyt' A plot of Equation 5.7X. .75 for all-lightweight concrete Vd = shear force at section dueto unfactored dead load vei = nominal shear strength provided by the concrete when diagonal tension cracking results from combined vertical shear and moment V. psi.10 is the factored shear force V. the same design stipulations used for precast sections apply.e.11) Mmax :5 where 5. Vci = 0. Consequently. Vfj bwdp X.9 with experimental data from Ref. and Mer = that portion of the applied live load moment that causes cracking. Note that the value ~ should not exceed 100. is given by (5. Note that in shear design of composite sections.5. At the centroid. = 1. X. Íee is termed as fpe where fee =concrete compressive stress due to effective prestress after losses at extreme fibers of section where tensile stress is caused by externa} load. 5.::. Íee =fe Íd =stress due to unfactored dead load at extreme fiber of section resulting from self-weight only where tensile stress is caused by externally applied load.12) In the ACI code. 5. The equation for Mm the moment causing flexura} cracking due to externa} load. since it is small along the span sections where the prestressing tendon is not too steep.6bwdp V f.10) where Vd is the vertical shear due to self-weight. For simplicity. Although the entire composite section resists the factored shear as a monolithic section.6. Ve. fee and Íd in Equation 5. This is because design for shear is based on the limit state at failure due to factored loads.

...5 VJ..w - ~ (5.14(a) becomes Vew 3. 4 -=··1:·· •• o Mc.13) where vew = Vew!(bwdp) is the shear stress in the concrete dueto all loads causing a nominal strength vertical shear force Vew in the web..14b) which can be further simplified to Vew = 3. = 3... ·:· .5'\jfl (Yl + fc/3..Vd 5 b'dv'f: . Equation 5.l ( ~ - Figure 5. Solving for vew in Equation 5. . ~ 3 2 ..13 gives Vew = J/Yl + fc/J: (5. If vew is substituted for ve and/0 which denotes the concrete stress fe due to effective prestress at the cgc level. the expression equating the principal tensile stress in the concrete to the direct tensile strength becomes f! = Y(fj2) + v..f~ is termedfpc The notation used herein is intended to emphasize that this is the stress in the concrete..+ 0.5 Y¡. 5.. as a reasonable value of the tensile stress on the basis of extensive tests.Jf: Moment-shear relationship in flexure-shear cracking. The nominal shear strength Vew provided by the concrete when diagonal cracking results from excessive principal tensile stress in the web becomes ..5. and not the prestressing steel.14a) Using ¡. • ..3 fe (5...·. as extensive tests to failure have indicated..2 Web-Shear Strength [ Vcw1 The web-shear crack in the prestressed beam is caused by an indeterminate stress that can best be evaluated by calculating the principal tensile stress at the critical plane from Equation 5. The shear stress ve can be defined as the web shear stress vew and is maximum near the centroid cgc of the section where the actual diagonal crack develops.8.14c) In the ACI code. . .236 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Chapter 5 9 • 8 • • 7 • 6 • Ve..9 4 3 2 ~) 5 6 bwd. is substituted for fe in the equation.5 VJ~) = (5..

a reduced prestressed value has to be considered when computing vew· This value of Vew has to be taken as the maximum limit of Ve in the expression Vew = ( 0.5.3 in the second term inside the bracket in Equation 5.5.6'11.. In case of composite sections.5. and less for lightweight concrete dP = distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of prestressed steel. fe is calculated on the basis of stresses caused by prestress and moments resisted by the precast member acting alone.10..5v'f vcw = 3. The code also allows using a value of 1. 5.~bwdp 10 9 Vcw = 3.15.0 instead of 0.-----.8h. (Eq.-. and Vew in order to choose the required value of ve in the design: (a) In pretensioned members where the section at a distance h/2 from the face of the support is closer to the end of the member than the transfer length of the prestressing tendon. Vf'c + 700 ~:p }wdp ~ 2'11.¡¡: 6 5 4 -.16) :::::.3 Controlling Values of Ve. showing that the approximation used in the latter linearized equation is justified.3f.15) where VP = the vertical component of the effective prestress at the particular section contributing to added nominal strength A = 1. or 0.10 Centroidal compressive stress vs. and Vcw for the Determination of Web Concrete Strength Ve The ACI code has the following additional stipulations for calculating Ve. nominal shear stress in webshear cracking.-- [j. Note the similarity between the plots of Equations 5. ~ bwdp (5.14b and c. . J """"":. 5'11.---___ + _f_c 3.5. A plot relating the nominal web shear stress vew to the centroidal compressive stress in the concrete is given in Figure 5.0 for normal-weight concrete. whichever is greater..5 Shear and Principal Stresses In Prestressed Beams 237 (5.jf[ + 0.14c) 3 2 o 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Figure 5.\.jf[ 8 7 Vcw . The ACI code stipulates the value of fe to be the resultant concrete compressive stress at either the centroid of the section or the junction of the web and the flange when the centroid lies within the flange. 5.

3. It provides sorne confinement to the concrete in the compression zone if the stirrups are in the form of closed ties. 2. It restricts the growth of the diagonal cracks. and other forms of reinforcement are improvised to neutralize the tensile stresses at the critica! shear failure planes.12(a) shows the analogy truss for the case of using vertical stirrups instead of inclined bars.Chapter 5 238 Shear and Torsional Strength Design the value Vudp/Mu cannot exceed 1. as shown in Figure 5. is less than the nominal total vertical shearing force Vj<P = Vn> web reinforcement has to be provided to carry the difference in the two values. 5.6 WEB-SHEAR REINFORCEMENT 5.ll(b ).17) .ll(c).16 can be used in determining Ve for members where the effective prestress force is not less than 40 percent of the tensile strength of the flexura! reinforcement. It carries a portian of the externa! factored shear force Vu. It holds the longitudinal main reinforcing bars in place so that they can provide the dowel capacity needed to carry the flexura! load.15 for vew and choosing the lesser of these two as the limiting ve value to be used as the capacity of the web in designing the web reinforcement. (b) In pretensioned members where bonding of sorne tendons <loes not extend to the end of the member. and 5. 5. (5. as seen in Figure 5. steel reinforcement has to be provided. If one isolates the main concrete compression element shown in Figure 5. 3.2 Web Steel Resistance If Ve.6. the value of Vew calculated using the reduced prestress must consequently be taken to be the maximum limit of Equation 5. the nominal shear resistance of the plain web concrete.11 for Ve. As can be seen from the previous discussion. unless a more detailed analysis is performed using Equations 5.1 Web Steel Planar Truss Analogy In arder to prevent diagonal cracks from developing in prestressed members. Figure 5. ideally in the form of the salid lines depicting tensile stress trajectories in Figure 5.16 or with the lesser of the two values of Ve obtained from Equations 5. with the polygon of forces Ce. hence.ll(a).6.0. 4. whether due to fiexure-shear or web-shear action. with the forces polygon having a vertical tensile force T8 instead of the inclined one in Figure 5. The mode of failure in shear reduces the beam to a simulated arched section in compression at the top and tied at the bottom by the longitudinal beam tension bars. Force Ce is the compression in the simulated concrete strut. Tb. practica! considerations preclude such a solution.15. Also. force Tb is the tensile force increment of the main longitudinal tension bar. a reduced prestress has to be considered when computing Ve in accordance with Equation 5. and T8 representing the forces acting on the truss members-hence the expression truss analogy. However.16. it can be considered as the compression member of a triangular truss. (d) The first plane for the total required nominal shear strength Vn = Vj<P to be used for web steel calculation is also at a distance h/2 from the face of the support.11 and 5. the shear reinforcement basically performs four main functions: l.ll(c). and Ts is the force in the bent bar. (e) Equation 5.

If s1 = ns in the bottom tension chord of the analogous truss cell. Ve is the lesser of Vci and Vew· Ve can be calculated from Equation 5.ll(c). then s1 =jd(cota + cot¡3) (5.18a and b. and Vs can be determined from equilibrium analysis of the bar forces in the analogous triangular truss cell.11 or 5. becomes Ts s1 Ts ns Vs 1 sin a d(cot 13 + cota) (5.18a) where Ts is the force resultant of all web stirrups across the diagonal crack plane and n is the number of spacings s. Here. ti.11 Diagonal tension failure mechanism.5.15.18c) .6 Web-Shear Reinforcement 239 ---e (a) (b) -~ T. From Figure 5. (e) Planar truss analogy. (5.18b) Assuming that moment arm jd = d. (b) Concrete simulated strut. ex j (e) Figure 5. (a) Failure pattern. the stirrup force per unit length from Equations 5. where s1 =ns.V.

(c) Spacing of web steel.12 Web steel arrangement. spacing) (e) Figure 5.Chapter 5 240 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Top compression cord Vertical (a) (b) Potential diagonal tension crack Potential diagonal tension cracks T T ~ d J_~~==4t==lt::=~===~====~pl d 2 d 2 d 2 d ( Max. (b) Three-dimensional view of vertical stirrups. (a) Truss analogy tor vertical stirrups. .

then (5.0y/j". where h is the total depth of the section. so Equation 5.19a) Hence.21a and b. as shown in Figure 5. V. . (e) If V 5 > 8X. (b) If V 5 > 4X.20b) If the inclined web steel consists of a single bar or a single group of bars all bent at the same distance from the face of the support. a (cot (5. enlarge the section.s (5. maximum spacing limitations are to be applied for the vertical stirrups as follows: (a) smax $. solving for s and using the fact that Vs = Vn .Ve.VJ.ve (sin a + cos a) (5.~h $. ~ bwdP' the maximum spacing in (a) shall be reduced by half. giving Avfytdp V = -s. AJy1d (sin a + cos a) s = -- (5.21 give an inverse relationship between the spacing of the stirrups and the shear force or shear stress they resist. bwd If vertical stirrups are used. then V. and if Av is the area of one inclined stirrup. 24 in.6 Web-Shear Reinforcement If there are n inclined stirrups within the length s1 of the analogous truss chord. dP is the distance from the extreme compression fibers to the centroid of the prestressing reinforcement.20a) or. s Avfy 1d = vn ..ll(c).3 Limitation on Size and Spacing of Stirrups Equations 5.[sin a(l +cota)] or V. with the spacing s decreasing with the increase in (Vn .21b) In Equations 5. In arder for every potential diagonal crack to be resisted by a vertical stirrup.= . angle a becomes 90º..21a) or (5.6.80h.19b) But it can be assumed that in the case of diagonal tension failure the compression diagonal makes an angle 13 = 45º with the horizontal.241 5. ~ bwdp. = Avfyt sin a ::5 3. ns 13 +cota )'F1 y 1 nAv = d sm . The value of dP need not be less than 0.20 and 5. 5. and d is the corresponding distance to the centroid of the nonprestressed reinforcement.19b becomes Avfy1d s V.

This means that the stirrups or mesh should extend to the compression and tension surfaces of the section. 4' 1 envelope 1 1 Figure 5. b.. (5. V vn = _!!.13.75 ~ ¡.:. 5.:. 7. 50b. \j -¡. less the clear concrete cover requirement and a 90º or 135º hook used at the compression side.13 Web steel envelope for uniformly loaded prestressed beam.22a) Jyt If the effective prestress force Pe is equal to or greater than 40 percent of the tensile strength of the flexural reinforcement.1 Service-Load Level The maximum horizontal shear stress mechanics and the equation vh can be evaluated from the basic principies of . may be used instead.. the equation A = V Apsfpu S 80fydp {J. A typical qualitative diagram showing the zone along the span of a uniformly loaded prestressed beam for which web reinforcement has to be provided is given in Figure 5.s or Av= --r-whichever larger yt (5.242 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design <t. 5.7 HORIZONTAL SHEAR STRENGTH IN COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION Full transfer of horizontal shear forces has to be assumed at the contact surfaces of the interconnected elements.. This area may be computed by the equation Av= 0.s Y f~ -f..22b) which gives a lesser required minimum Av. The shaded area is the envelope of excess shear Vs requiring web steel. (d) If Vu = <!> Vn >~<!>Ve. a minimum area of shear reinforcement has to be provided. (e) The web reinforcement must develop the full required development length in order to be effective.

with the following assumptions. Equation 5. all horizontal shear has to be taken by ties in the pependicular plane such that ..= -- (5. and minimum vertical steel in (b) is provided. then vu::.2 Ultimate-Load Level Direct Method.23 can be simplified to V vh = -bv dpc (5.24 can be modified such that the factored load Vu can be substituted far V to give (5. If vnh is the nominal horizontal shear strength.25c) The ACI code limits vnh to 80 psi if no dowels or vertical ties are provided and the contact surface is roughened. 5. or if minimum vertical ties are provided but there is no roughening of the surface of contact..26a) where Ac is the area of concrete resisting shear = bvdpc (b) When minimum vertical ties are provided. the shear friction theory can be used to design the dowel reinforcement.23) vh=- Icbv where V = unfactored design vertical shear acting on the composite section Q = moment of area about cgc of the segment above or below cgc le = moment of inertia of entire composite section bv = contact width of precast section web. use vnh ::::. in terms of the nominal vertical shear strength V IV V h n Vu/<I> bv dpc Vn bv dpc = -. has to be used: (a) When no vertical ties are provided.26b) (d) If the factored shear Vu > <!>(500 bvdp). vnh cango up to 500 psi.s)lfY' but the contact surface of precast elements is not roughened.7.25b) where <!> = 0.75. vnh and the total nominal shear strength is (5. otherwise the friction theory. or width of section at which horizontal shear is being calculated. 7 Horizontal Shear Strength in Composite Construction VQ (5.25a) or.¡ ¡ ~ 243 5. In the limit state at failure.24) where dpc is the effective depth from the extreme compression fibers of the composite section to the centroid cgs of the prestressing reinforcement. use (5. use (5.. where Av = 50(b. 80bvdpc (e) lf the contact surface of the precast element is roughened to a full amplitude of hn. Equation 5. In this case.. but the contact surface of the precast element is intentionally roughened.

l ·!>". = factor for type of concrete.. Fh = C = T Case 2: e> c. .20[~ Acc:::. for concrete placed against unroughened concrete surface X. ·º . or AP. <l.· J>. : <\ '"·1 T : i---+---+---Fh Dowel A.fP. o·. .0X.f.. 800 Aw where Acc is the concrete contact area resisting shear transfer. the shear friction theory is not normally necessary in designing the dowel reinforcement for composite action."" = effective area of the cast-in-place composite topping c. . the nominal shear strength Vn : :.: -~:. T T Case 2 A..•º·."" e = total compressive force T= total tensile force= A. . . t). The maximum allowable spacing of the dowels or ties for horizontal shear is the smaller of four times the least dimension of the supported section and 24 inches. -+---IH " Precast (b) Figure 5. .. Note that in most cases. 2 fy = design yield strength. not to exceed 60..60X. o· .. :-. ¡ •. / o. p ..· ·. or AP...244 Chapter 5 vnh = Shear and Torsional Strength Design (5. ~ . .14 Composite action forces (Fh acts longitudinally along the beam span).000 psi µ = coefficient of friction = 1. = compressive force capacity of the composite topping = 0. . Case1: C<c.c = compressive strength of the topping Fh = nominal horizontal shear force (a) Situ-cast .85f:CA. o. Fh =Ce< T t. for concrete placed against intentionally roughened concrete surface = 0. p . . In all cases.·o •. (b) Negative-moment section. 0. •. Hence.. ".: -~ <\ . Precast T • Case 1 A.. ó. (a) Positive-moment section. ó .27) µAv¡fyt where Av¡ = area of shear-friction reinforcement. the shear stress vnh resulting from the factored shear force does not exceed 500 psi. . in.

respectively. and a maximum design shear force Vu ::::.000X.29) where lvh is the horizontal shear length defined in Figures 5.9 instead of µ = l.7.. whichever is less. The ACI code allows an alternative method wherein horizontal shear is investigated by computing the actual change in compressive or tensile force in any plane and transferring that force as horizontal shear to the supporting elements. a maximum µe = 2. 5. or vertical legs of welded wire fabric.2 Acc (5.28) where Vnh ~ Fh. multiple leg stirrups..7). a quite conservative value as demonstrated by extensive testing (Ref.25b and c to give (5. If µ is the coefficient of friction.) The value of the contact area Acc can be defined as (5. and is at least equal to the compressive force Cor tensile force Tin Figure 5.25X. Basic Method.i 245 5.15 Horizontal shear length in composite action. (See Equation 5. for concrete placed against an intentionally roughened concrete surface.31a) with a required area of shear-friction steel of t.7 Horizontal Shear Strength in Composite Construction j[_ _ll ll ][ ~ 1 Moment diagram 1. ' l (5.14. 1.30) The ACI values of µ are based on a limit shear-friction strength of 800 psi. The area-of-contact surface Acc is substituted for bvdpc in Equations 5. 5. 2f~ Ac ::::. then the nominal horizontal shear force Fh in Figure 5.OX. 2~. the horizontal shear force.3 Design of Composite-Action Dowel Reinforcement Ties for horizontal shear may consist of single bars or wires.3lb) .15(a) and (b) for simple span and continuous span members.h • Simple span member Continuous member Figure 5.30 for the value of Fh.8) recommends.14 can be defined as (5.. The spacing cannot exceed four times the least dimension of the support element or 24 in. 0. The Prestressed Concrete Institute (Ref. 5.

60X..9 where bJvh = Aec The mínimum reinforcement is 50b. <!> = 0. Vflbwdp :5. Vf'c + 0. V¡ = factored shear force at section due to externally applied loads occurring simultaneously with Mmax fee = compressive stress in concrete after occurrence of all losses at extreme fibers of section where external load causes tension. Ve :5. Determine the required nominal shear strength value Vn = VJ<f> at a distance h/2 from the face of the support.246 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design or Vnh µefy Fh µefyt A1=- v (5. Vfl (b) Detailed analy sis where Ve is the lesser of Vci and Vew Vci Vew = 0.s fyt 50bJvh fyt (5. Calculate the nominal shear strength Ve that the web has by one of the following two methods.33) A1=--=-- v 5.) .8h. Vfl + Íee . whichever is larger. 2.0X. :5. then X.5X. Vfl bwdp + Vd + : .= Sb (6X. Vflbwdp and where Vud/Mu same section for which Mu is calculated.32) Vnh :5 with µ. 1. Equation 5.60X. (Me. = 1..75.:.40 fpu • r.0 and Vu is calculated at the If the average tensile splitting strength fet is specified for lightweight concrete.Íd) whereMer = (Ijy 1) (6X. fee becomes fe for the stress at the centroid of the section.3lc becomes Fh :5 µ.Av¡fyt (5.31c) Using the PCI less conservative values. Ve = ( 0.8 WEB REINFORCEMENT DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR SHEAR The following is a summary of a recommended sequence of design steps: l.7X. and Vfl + Íee . Vfl bwd¡ max = (3.Íd) or Me.3fc)bwdp + VP using dP or 0.000X.7Vfl with not to exceed a value of 100. V f ~ + 700Vudp) Mu bwdp where 2X.:::: 1. . 5X.2 bvlvh Fh :5 2. Vfl bwdp :s 5. (a) ACI conservative method if fpe > 0.= fj6.

5.8 Web Reinforcement Design Procedure for Shear

247

3. If VJ<!> ::;~Ve, no web steel is needed. If Vj<!> >~Ve< V 0 provide minimum reinforcement. If VJ<!> > Ve and Vs = VJ<!> - Ve ::; 8.\ -~/f::bwdp, design the web steel. If
Vs = VJ<!> - Ve> 8.\
fwdp, or if Vu ><!>(Ve+ 8.\ \!flbwdp), enlarge the section.
4. Calculate the required minimum web reinforcement. The spacing is s::; 0.75h or 24
in., whichever is smaller.

Vt'c

Min.

Av=

• r,:; bwS

0.75vf~---¡-

Jyt

or Av=

50bwS
--1'

Jyt

whichever is larger.

If fpe ~ 0.40 Ípu' a less conservative Min Av is the smaller of

A

=
V

where dP

~

ApJpus (d;
80fy dp '\/ -¡;:,

0.80h, and

• r,:; bws
0.75 v f~ 1yt
5. Calculsrte the required web reinforcement size and spacing. If Vs = (Vj<!> - VJ
::; 4.\ V bwdp, then the stirrup spacing sis as required by the design expressions in
step 6, to follow. If Vs = (VJ<I> - VJ > 4.\ \!fl bwdP' then the stirrup spacing sis half
the spacing required by the design expressions in step 6.

Av

=

50bws/fy 1 or Av

=

n

6.
s

Avfydp

Av<!>fydp

:::; 0.75h :::; 24 in. ::::: minimum s from step 4
Vu<!> - Ve
Vu - <!>Ve
7. Draw the shear envelope over the beam span, and mark the band requiring web
steel.
8. Sketch the size and distribution of web stirrups along the span using #3- or #4-size
stirrups as preferable, but no larger size than #6 stirrups.
9. Design the vertical dowel reinforcement in cases of composite sections.
(a) Vnh ::; 80bvdpe for both roughened contact and no vertical ties or dowels, and
nonroughened but with minimum vertical ties, use
= (

)

=

Av= 50bws
50bvlvh
fyt
fyt
(b) vnh:::; 500bvdpe for a roughened contact surface with full amplitude ~in.
(e) For cases where Vnh > 500bvdpe' design vertical ties for Vnh = Av¡Íy µ,
where Av¡ = area of frictional steel dowels
µ = coefficient of friction = 1.0.\ for intentionally roughened surface,
where .\ = 1.0 for normal-weight concrete. In all cases, Vn ::; Vnh ::;
0.2f~ Aee::; 800 Aw where Aee = bJvh·
An alternative method of determining the dowel reinforcement area Av¡ is by
computing the horizontal force Fh at the concrete contact surface such that

Fh :::; µe Av¡ fy :::; Vnh
where

Figure 5.16 outlines the foregoing steps in flowchart form.

Chapter 5

248

Shear and Torsional Strength Design

START

A = 1 for normal concrete, 0.85
for sand-lightweight concrete,
O. 75 for all-lightweight concrete

A= 1 for normal concrete, 0.85
for sand-lightweight concrete,
O. 75 for all-lightweight concrete

Detailed design method

Alternativo design method

d• = d• or d• = 0.8h,
whichever is larger.

whichever is largar

v.

v. = bwdp

dp= dpor dp= 0.8h

lesser of

Ve; = 0.6>. .,/t;bwdp

+ V•

+ V;Mc, > 1 7A .j¡;,b d
Mmax -

,

(o.6>. .,/t; + 700

';~•)

~ 2'A .,/t;bwdp
:5 5>. ,/f;bwdp

e w P

Vudp :51.0
Mu

and

Vcw = (3.5A .,/t; + 0.31,,)bwdp + Vp

M., = I.tv, (6>. .,/t; + '•• - fd)

Yes

Next section

No web steel

Enlarge section
Yes

Yes

Use min req'd
web steel

-

No

vu

-V

</>

e

Or

Given s :5 0.75h:::;; 24 in ..

Select web steel

compute (A,lm;n = 50b,.sff,

A,frtdP
s= -,---,---

lf fP• ~ 0.40fpu•
-

ApsfpuS

(A,lm;n - 80f d
rt p

or (A,lm;n

=

(Vuf<I> -

/ii;-

y'

f-

v.)

:::;; 0.75h $24

in.~

min. req.

s

w

50b,.sffy1. A,= 0.75.jf/, b,.sffy1

whichever is smaller,
where d• ~ 0.80h

Next section

No

Use s = s/2 for same A, computed above

END

Figure 5.16

Flowchart for shear-web reinforcement.

249

5.9 Principal Tensile Stresses in Flanged Sections and Design of Dowel-Action Vertical Steel

5.9 PRINCIPAL TENSILE STRESSES IN FLANGED SECTIONS ANO DESIGN
OF DOWEL-ACTION VERTICAL STEEL IN COMPOSITE SECTIONS
Example5.1
A prestressed concrete T-beam section has the distribution of compressive service load
shown in Figure 5.17. The unfactored design external vertical shear V= 120,000 lb (554 kN),
and the factored vertical shear Vu = 190,000 lb (845 kN).
(a) Compute the principal tensile stress at the centroidal cgc axis and at the reentrant cor-

ner A of the web-flange junction, and calculate the maximum horizontal shearing
stresses at service load for these locations.
(b) Compute the required nominal horizontal shear strength at the interaction surface
A-A between the precast web and the situ-cast flange, and design the necessary vertical ties or dowels to prevent fracture slip at A-A, thereby ensuring complete composite action. Use the ACI direct method, and assume that the contact surface is
intentionally roughened. Given data are as follows:

f; for web = 6,000 psi normal-weight concrete
f; for flange = 3,000 psi normal-weight concrete
fyr

=

fy

=

60,000 psi

Effective width of flange bm = 60 in. (152.4 cm)
where bm is the modified width to account for the difference in moduli of the concrete
of the precast and topping parts.
Solution:

Service-Load Horizontal Shear Stresses.

The maximum horizontal shear stress is

Now,
QA = 60 X 12(19.32 - 6) = 9,590 in. 3 (157,172 cm3)
Qcgc

= 60

X

12(19.32 - 6) +

12

X

(7.32) 2
2

= 9,912 in. 3 (162,429 cm3)

So the horizontal shear stresses at service load are
Situ-cast
1350 psi

1--...____

235 psi

i-----<243

Compressive
stress f 0

Figure 5.17

Beam cross section in Example 5.1.

Horizontal shear

stress vh

250

Chapter 5

Shear and Torsional Strength Design

120,000 X 9590
.
,
X
= 235 psi (1.6 MPa)
408 240 12

vh at A =

and
.
120,000 X 9,912
X
= 243 psi (1.7 MPa)
,
408 240 12

vh at cgc =

From Equation 5.13, the corresponding principal tensile stresses are, at A,

2,160)2
( - 2-

2,160
2

+ (235) 2

-

-

1,831)2
+ (243) 2
( - 2-

-

-

=

25 psi (111 Pa)

and at cgc,

fi =

1,831
- = 32 psi (221 Pa)
2

Thus, the principal tensile stresses are low and should not cause any cracking at service load.
The horizontal shear stress vh = 235 psi at contact surface A-A has to be checked to
verify whether it is within acceptable limits. In accordance with AASHTO, the maximum allowed is 160 psi< 235 psi, and hence special provision for added vertical ties or dowels has to
be made if AASHTO requirements are applicable.

Dowel Reinforcement Design
Vu = 190,000 lb

Req.

Vnh

bv

vu

= =

<!>

190,000
= 253,333 lb (1126 kN)
0.75

= - --

12 in. (30.5 cm

dpc = 57 in. (145 cm)

From Equation 5.26b,
Available Vnh = 500bvdpc = 500

12

X

X

57 = 342,000 lb (1520 kN)

> 253,333 lb

Hence, specify roughening the contact surface of the precast web fully to Hn. amplitude.
From Equation 5.22 (a), 0.75\ijj

= 0.75V6000 = 58 > 50, use 58 in the expression.

.
. Av _ 58bv _ 58 X 12 _
.
.
mm umt- - - f - 0.0116 m. 2/m. along span
1vh
6
00
yt
0,0

So using #3 vertical stirrups, Av= 2 x 0.11=0.22 in. 2 , and s = 0.22/0.0116=18.9 in. (48 cm) center to center < 24 in., O.K. Vertical-web steel reinforcement for shear in the web would most
probably require smaller spacing. Hence, extend ali web stirrups into the situ-cast top slab.

5.1 O DOWEL STEEL DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE ACTION
Example5.2

Using (a) the ACI friction coefficient and (b) the PCI friction coefficient, design the dowel
reinforcement of Example 5.1 for full composite action by the alternative method, assuming
a simply supported beam of effective 65 ft (19.8 m) span.
Solution:

From Figures 5.14 and 5.17,
A 10P = 60
Ce =

X

12 = 720 in 2 ( 4,645 cm2)

0.85f~cAtop

= 0.85

X

3,000

X

720 = 1,836,000 lb (8,167 kN)

5.11 Dowel Reinforcement Design for Composite Action in an lnverted T-Beam

251

Assume ApJps > Ce, since the prestressing force is not given. Then
Fh = 1,836,000 lb
l

_ 65 X 12 _
.
- 390 m.
vh 2

bv

=

12 in.

80bJvh = 80 X 12 X 390 = 374,400 lb (1,665 kN)

< 1,836,000 lb

Hence, vertical ties are needed.
For roughened surface to full Hn. amplitude and minimum reinforcement,
Vnh = 500 bvd = 500
Vu

Req. -

<!>

X

12

X

190,000
= - -- = 253,333 lb
0.75

57 = 342,000

<

Vnh = 342,000

<

available Fh = 1,836,000 lb

Use Fh =253,333 lb for determining the required composite action reinforcement.

Using ACI µ Value.

From Equation 5.27 and µ = 1.0, with lvh = 390 in.,

253,333
. 2
2
Total Av¡ - 1.0 X 0,000 - 4.2 m (26.3 cm )
6
.
_ 50bv lvh _ 50 X 12 X 390 _
.
Mm Av¡ - - ¡ : - OOO
- 3.90 m2 (25.1 cm2)
60
Jyt
'

From Example 5.1, min Av¡= 0.01 in. 2/in. = 0.12 in. 2/12 in., controls. So, trying #3 stirrups, we
obtain Av= 2 x 0.11=0.22 in. 2 , and
lvh Av
Av¡

s = -- =

390 X 0.22
.
= 20.42 m. center-to-center
4.2

.

.

< 24 m. < max. allow. 4 X 12 = 48 m.

So use #3 U ties at 20 in. center to center.

Using PCI µ, Value
A.= 1.0
µ. =

--

1,000A.2 bv lvh
::; 2.9
Fh
1,000

1 X 12 X 390
-- 255
1836
.
, ,000

X

< 29
.

So use µ. = 2.55; then, from Equation 5.32,
Req. Av¡ -

253,333
. 2
X 0,000 - 1.66 m.
255 6

.

-

.

2

< mm. Av¡ - 3.90 m. , controls

So use #3 U ties at 20 in. center-to-center (9.5 mm dia at 55 cm).

5.11 DOWEL REINFORCEMENT DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE ACTION IN AN INVERTED T-BEAM
Example 5.3

A simply supported inverted T-beam has an effective 24 ft (7.23 m) span length. The beam,
shown in cross section in Figure 5.18, has a 2 in. (5.1 cm) situ-cast topping on a nonroughened
surface. Design the required dowel action stirrups to develop full composite behavior, assuming that the factored shear Vu to which the beam is subjected at the critical section is
160,000 lb (712 kN). Given data are as follows:

252

Chapter 5

Shear and Torsional Strength Design

~"".'"'."7"'.'""".":~~b~=~4=8'~'=(1=22~c7m~)~:-:;-'~·~"'."4:A~·j.~
.•

·.·,"4·.··~·.· ... ·t:i· .. ~··:·.,..
.. ·--"~··_,.·,,........,.-.._-.;.......¡~

.·:.·.·.::o:

10"

1
Figure 5.18

¡; (precast)

Beam cross section in Example 5.3.

= 6,000 psi (41.4 MPa), normal-weight concrete

f;e (topping)

=

3,000 psi (20.7 MPa), normal-weight concrete

Prestressing steel:
Twelve ! in. dia 270 k strands
fpu

=

270,000 psi (1,862 MPa)

fps = 242,000 psi (1,669 MPa)

Tie steelfyr = 60,000 psi (414 MPa)
Use both the ACI direct method and the alternative method with effective µe to carry
out your design.
Solution:

dP = 2 + 2 + 10 + 12 - 3 = 23 in.
Aps

= 12

X 0.153

= 1.836 in. 2

Tn = Ap/ps = 1.836
bv

=

lvh

=

A 10P

X

242,000 = 444,312 lb (1,976 kN)

12 in.
24

=2

X

X

2

12

48

.

= 144 m.

+2

X

12

= 120 in. 2

Ce = 0.85f~eAtop = 0.85 X 3,000 X 120 = 306,000 lb (1,361 kN)

<

Tn

=

444,312 lb

Accordingly, use Fh = 306,000 lb (1,361 kN). Then, for a nonroughened surface,
Available Vnh = 80bvfvh = 80

X

12

X

144 = 138,240 lb (615 kN)

< ce =

306,000 lb

Hence, ties are required for developing full composite action using >.. = 1.0.

ACI Direct Method

vu 160,000
Req. Vnh = ~ = ~ = 213,333 lb (949 kN)
Use µ = 1.0. Then, from Equation 5.26a, with dowel reinforcement, we have

l

253

5.12 Shear Strength and Web-Shear Steel Design in a Prestressed Beam

Available Vnh = 80bvdpc = 80

X

12

X

23 = 22,000 lb

<<

required Vnh

From Equation 5.27, for an unroughened surface µ = 0.6.1'1. = 0.60. Then
Req. total Av¡=
From Eq. 5.22 (a), 0.75Vjj

V
µ,fr,
=

213,333
_ X
OOO
0 60 60

0.75V6ciüo

=

=

58

>

=

2

5.93 in

50, hence use 58 in the expression.

_ 58bJvh _ 58 X 12 X 144 _

.

f

Req. mm Av¡ -

-

.
- 1.67 m2

OOO

<

.

5.93 m2

60 ,
yt
2
So use Av¡= 5.93 in. (37.0 cm ), and try #3 inverted U ties. Then Av¡= 2 x 0.11
(1.4 cm2) and the spacing is
2

s

= 0.22 in. 2

= fv0v = 144

X 0.22 =
. (l 5 4
)
5.34 m.
5 93
. cm

Av¡

.

The maximum allowable spacing is s = 4(2 + 2) = 16 in., or 0.75h = 0.75 x 26 = 19.5 in.< 24 in.
Thus, use #3 inverted U ties 5 in. (13 cm) center-to-center over the entire simply supported
span.

Altemative Method Using µ.,
Fh = 306,000 lb
µ. =

l,OOOA2bJvh

1,000

Fh

X

1.0 X 12
306,000

X

144
=

5 65
º

> 2·9

So use µ. = 2.9; then, from Equation 5.31c, we get

Fh
306,000
Req. Av¡= µJy1 = 2.9 X 60 000 = 1.76 in2
Req. min. Av¡from (a) = 1.67 in2

< 1.76 in2

So use Av¡= 1.76 in. 2 Then the spacing is four times the least dimension:
fv0v
144 X 0.22
.
s = Av¡ =
1.
= 18 m. center-to-center

76

and the maximum allowable spacing is four times the least dimension:
s = 4(2

+ 2) = 16 in. < 24 in.

Hence, use #3 inverted U ties at 16 in. center to center over the entire simply supported span.

5.12 SHEAR STRENGTH ANO WEB-SHEAR STEEL DESIGN IN A PRESTRESSED BEAM
ExampleS.4
Design the bonded beam of Example 4.2 to be safe against shear failure, and proportion the
required web reinforcement.
Solution:

Data and Nominal Shear Strength Determination
fpu

=

270,000 psi (1,862 MPa)

fy = fyt =

60,000 psi (414 MPa)

fpe = 155,000 psi (1,069 MPa)

¡; =

5,000 psi normal-weight concrete

Aps = 13 7-wire !-in. tendons = 1.99 in. 2 (12.8 cm2)

254

Chapter 5

Shear and Torsional Strength Design

As = 4 #6 bars = 1.76 in2 (11.4 cm2 )
Span = 65 ft (19.8 m)
Service WL
Service Wsv

1,100 plf (16.1 kN/m)

=

100 plf (1.46 kN/m)

=

Service Wv = 393 plf (5.7 kN/m)

h

=

40 in. (101.6 cm)

dP = 36.16 in. (91.8 cm)
d = 37.6 in. (95.5 cm)

bw = 6 in. (15 cm)
ee

=

15 in. (38 cm)

ee = 12.5 in. (32 cm)
le = 70,700 in. 4 (18.09 X 106 cm4 )
Ae = 377 in. 2 (2,432 cm2 )

r

= 187.5 in. 2 (1,210 cm2 )

cb =

18.84 in. (48 cm)

c1 = 21.16 in. (54 cm)

Pe

=

308,255 lb (1,371 kN)

Factored load Wu = l.2D + 1.6L

= 1.2(100 + 393) + 1.6

X

1,100 = 2352 plf

Factored shear force at face of support = Vu = WuL/2

= (2352

X 65)/2

= 76,440 lb

Req. Vn = Vu/<!> = 76,440/0.75 = 101,920 lb at support

Plane at ldpfrom Face of Support
The ACI 318 Code allows in the case of prestressed concrete members to consider the critica!
section for shear and torsion to be taken at a distance of h/2 from the face of the support while
in reinforced concrete members it mandates a distance of d/2. For uniformity in the treatment
of both materials, d/2 is chosen in the solutions, which is slightly more conserva tive.

l. Nominal shear strength Ve of web (steps 2, 3)
_!_

2

d

=
P

Vn

=15f

36.16
2 X 12

.

= 101,920

Vu ad dp = 0.75

X

t

[(65/2) - 1.5]
X

6512

= 97,216 lb

97,216 = 72,912 lb (Vu ad h = 72,206 lb)

fpe = 155,000 psi
0.40fpu = 0.40

X

270,000 = 108,000 psi (745 MPa)

<

fpe = 155,000 psi (1,069 MPa)

Use ACI alternate method
Since dP > 0.8h, use dP = 36.16 in., assuming that part of the prestressing strands continue straight to the support. From Equation 5.16,

ve =

( 0.60A. Vil

+ 700

~p }wdp 2: 2A. Vilbwdp :s 5A. Vilbwdp

255

5.12 Shear Strength and Web-Shear Steel Design in a Prestressed Beam
A = 1.0 for normal-weight concrete

Wu(l.5) 2

Mu at d/2 from face = reaction X 1.5 -

= 76,440
Vudp
Mu

=

X

2

2352(1.5) 2
= 112,014 ft-lb = 1,344,168 in.-lb
2

1.5 -

72,912 X 36.16
1,344,168

= 1. 96 > l.O

So use Vud/Mu = 1.0. Then
Min. Ve = 2X. Yt: bwdp = 2

1.0V5,0oü

X

X

6

X

36.16 = 30,683 lb

Max. Ve = 5X. Yt: bwdp = 76,707 lb
Ve = (0.60 X 1.0V5,0oü

>

161,077 lb

=

max

+ 700

ve =

X

1.0)6

X

36.16

76,707 lb

Then Ve= 76,707 lb and controls (341 kN). Also, VJ<I> >i Ve; hence, web steel is needed.
Accordingly,

vs =
8AYt:bwdp

=8

vu
el>= 0.7

5 -

ve = 97,216 -

1.0V5,0oü

X

X

6

X

36.16

76,707 = 20,509 lb

= 122,713 lb (546 kN)
> vs = 20,509 lb

So the section depth is adequate.
2. Minimum web steel (step 4)
From Equation 5.22b,
.

Av

ApJpu

{d;

Mm.----¡- = 80fytdp\j
-

hw

1.99 X 270,000 N6.16 6 . 2¡·
- 0.007 m. m.
80 X 60,000 X 36.16
6

3. Required web steel (steps 5, 6)
From Equation 5.2lb,

or
20,509
. 2 .
60,000 X 36.16 - 0.0095 m /m.
(prestressing force is> 0.4 x tensile strength)
Then the minimum required web-shear steel A/s = 0.0095 in. 2/in. So trying #3 U stirrups, Av= 2 x 0.11=0.22 in. 2, and we get 0.0095 = 0.22/s. so that the maximum spacing
is
0.22
. (59cm )
s=- = 23.2m.
0.0095

and
4AYt:bwdp = 4 X i.oV5,0oü X 6 X 36.16 = 61,366 lb

Hence, we do not need to use is. Now,
0.75h = 0.75 X 40.0 = 30.0 in.

> vs

256

Chapter 5

Shear and Torsional Strength Design

Thus, use #3 U web-shear reinforcement at 22 in. center to center (9.5 mm dia at 56 cm
center to center).

Plane at Which No Web Steel Is Needed.
support. By similar triangles,
1

Assume such a plane is at distance x from

76,707
65/2 - = 101,920 X
2
6512

X

zVe = -

or
65
76,707
65
--x=---x2
101,920
4
giving
x

=

20.3 ft (6.11 m)

= 244 in.

Therefore, adopt the design in question, using #3 U at 22 in. center-to-center over a
stretch length of approximately 244 in., with the first stirrup to start at 18 in. from the
face of support. Extend the stirrups to the midspan if composite action doweling is
needed.

5.13 WEB-SHEAR STEEL DESIGN BY DETAILED PROCEDURES
ExampleS.S
Solve Example 5.4 by detailed procedures, determining the value of Ve as the smaller of the
flexure shear Vci and the web shear Vew· Assume that the tendons are harped at midspan and
not draped. Also assume f ~ = 6000 psi.
Solution: The profile of the prestressing strands is shown in Figure 5.19.

Plane at d/2 from Pace of Support.

From Example 5.4, Vn = 97,216 lb.

l. Flexure-shear cracking, Ve; (step 2)
From Equation 5.11,

Vci

=

0.60'>. vflbwdp + Vd+

~(Me,)~ l.TA. vflbwdp
Mmax

From Equation 5.12, the cracking moment is
Je

• r,:.

Mer = -(6A. vf~ + Íee - Íd)
y,
where ljy, =
Now,

sb since y, is the distance from the centroid to the extreme tension fibers.

+f---------rw,-- -..- lfil ""
12.~¡;

1

32'-6"

1:

65'-0" (19.8

Figure 5.19

~

in.)--------<~

Tendon profile in Example 5.5.

257

5.13 Web-Shear Steel Design by Detailed Procedures
le = 70,700 in. 4
cb = 18.84 in.

Pe

=

308,255 lb

sb

=

3,753 in.3

r2

=

187.5 in. 2

So from Equation 4.3b, the concrete stress at the extreme bottom fibers due to prestress only is

and the tendon eccentricity at d/2

=1.5 ft from the face of the support is

+ (15 - 12.5)

e = 12.5

1.5
= 12.62 in.
6512

Thus,
.
308,255 (
12.62 X 18.84)
-----y:¡¡1+
== -1,855 psi (12.8 MPa)
.
187 5

Íce =

From Example 4.2, the unfactored dead load due to self-weight W v = 393 plf
(5.7 kN/m) is
Md/2

=

WvX(l - x)

2

=

393

X

1.5(65 - 1.5)
2

X

12

.

= 224,600 m.-lb (25.4 kN-m)

and the stress due to the unfactored dead load at the extreme concrete fibers where
tension is created by the externa! load is
Md¡2Cb

Íd = - 1e

=

224,600 X 18.84
.
= 60 psi
70' 700

X

V6,00o + 1,855 -

Also,

Mcr = 3,753(6
=

Vd=

Wsv

X

1.0

60)

8,480,872 in.-lb (958 kN-m)

WvG- x) = 393( ~ -1.5) = 12,183lb(54.2kN)
6

= 100 plf

WL = 1,100 plf

W u = 1.2

X

100

+ 1.6

X llOO

= 1880 plf

The factored shear force at the section due to externally applied loads occurring simultaneously with Mmax is

V;=

WuG- x) = 1880 (~ - 1.5) = 58,280 lb (259 kN)

and
Mmax

=

Wux(l - x)

2

=

1880

X

1.5(65 - 1.5)
X 12
2

= 1,074,420 in.-lb (122 kN-m)

Hence,

258

Chapter 5

Vci = 0.6

X

• e-;:;:;:.
1.0 V O,UUU X 6 X 36.16

Shear and Torsional Strength Design

+ 12,183 +

l

58,280
(8,480,872)
074 420

'

'

482,296 lb (54.5 kN-m)

=

l.?Av'T:bwdp

= 1.7

X

i.ov6.000 X

6 X 36.16

= 28,569 lb (127 kN)
< vci = 482,296 lb

Hence, Vci = 482,296 lb (214.5 kN).
2. Web-shear cracking, Vew (step 2)
From Equation 5.15,
Vew = (3.5Vf:

+ 0.3fc)bwdp + VP

fe = compressive stress in concrete at the cgc

Pe

308,255

= A = 37? = 818 psi (5.6 MPa)
e

VP = vertical component of effective prestress at section
= P,

tan 0 (more acurately, P, sin 0)

where 0 is the angle between the inclined tendon and the horizontal. So
VP

(15 - 12.5)

= 308,255

X

6512

12

= 1,976 lb (8.8 kN)

Hence, Vew = (3.5V6,0oü + 0.3 x 818) x 6 x 36.16 + 1,976 = 114,038 lb (507 kN). In this
case, web-shear cracking controls (i.e., Ve= Vew = 114,038 lb (507 kN) is used for the
design of web reinforcement). Compare this value with Ve= 76,707 lb (341 kN) obtained in Example 5.4 by the more conservative alternative method.
Now, from Example 5.4,

=

V,

<I>

Vu

= 0. 75

- Ve

= (97,216

So no web steel is needed unless Vj<I>
1

- 114,038) lb, namely Ve

>~Ve

>

Vn

Accordingly, we evaluate the latter:

114 038

2 Ve=-~-= 57,019 lb (254 kN) < 97,216 lb (432 kN)
Since Vj<I>

>~Ve

but < Ve, use minimum web steel in this case.

3. Minimum web steel (step 4)
From Example 5.4,

A
Req.----"s

=

0.0077 in. 2/in.

So, trying #3 U stirrups, we get Av= 2 x 0.11=0.22 in. 2, and it follows that

s=R

Av

eq.

A /
V

0.22

= 0 00

S

77

.

= 28.94 m. (73 cm)

We then check for the minimum Av as the lesser of the two values given by
Av

= 0.75vjj (~:,}Av = 50bwS/fy, whichever is larger,

and
A

=
V

Aps fpus {d;
80 fytdp \j

b;,,

So the maximum allowable spacing ::; 0.75h ::; 24 in. Then use #3 U stirrups at 22 in.
center-to-center overa stretch length of 84 in. from the face of the support, as in Example 5.4.

259

5.14 Design of Web Reinforcement for a PCI Double T-Beam
L__

18"

_[

¡ -(45. 7 cm)------¡
-----,,----~-

ff
t
-

'

#3 closed ties at
22 in. c. to c.
(9.5 mm dia. at 61 cm)

40"

_L
4"

Figure 5.20

Web reinforcement details in Example 5.5.

Details of the section reinforcement (step 8) are shown in Figure 5.20.

5.14 DESIGN OF WEB REINFORCEMENT FOR A PCI DOUBLE T-BEAM
Example 5.6

A simply supported PCI 12 DT 34 pretopped double-T-beam has a span of 70 ft (21.3 m). It
is subjected to a superimposed service dead load of 200 plf (2.9 kN/m), including a 2-in. additional topping placed sometime after service, and a service live load W L = 720 plf. Design the
web reinforcement needed to prevent shear cracking at the quarter-span section 17 ft 6 in.
(5.3 m) from the support, calculating the nominal web-shear strength Ve by the detailed design method. Also, design any dowel reinforcement if necessary, assuming that the top surface of the precast T-beam is intentionally unroughened. The section properties are shown in
Figure 5.21 and are as follows:

f:=s·-o . ______._-~::.· _ _ Z~h
34"
3" Chamfer

l - + - - - - - - - - - 7 0 ' - 0 " (21.3 m ) - - - - - - - - .

(b)
(a)

Figure 5.21

Beam geometry in Example 5.5. (a) Section. (b) Elevation.

260

Chapter 5

Shear and Torsional Strength Design

Section property

Pretopped

978 in. 2
86,072 in. 4
88.0 in. 2
25.77 in.
8.23 in.
3,340 in. 4
10,458 in.3
1,019 plf
12.50 in.
Other data are:

¡; (precast) = 5,000 psi (34.5 MPa), normal-weight concrete
J;c (topping) = 3,000

psi (20.7 MPa), normal-weight concrete, for future topping if

used

J;; = 4,000 psi (27.6 MPa)
fpu = 270,000 psi (1,862 MPa), low-relaxation steel
fps = 240,000 psi (1,655 MPa)
Ípe = 148,000 psi (1,020 MPa)

ee = 11.38 in. (28.3 cm)
ec = 21.77 in. (57.2 cm)
Aps = 18 Hn. (12.7 mm) día strands
fyt for stirrups = 60,000 psi (414 MPa)
Use the same value for the effective depth dP for the midspan as well as other sections. Note
that bw for both webs = 2 (4.75+7.75)/2=12.50 in. (32 cm).
Solution:
Wu

=

1.2 (200 + 1,019) + 1.6
Vu at face of support

=

X

720

=2615 plf (58kN/m)

2615 X 70
2

Vn at 17 ft 6 in. from the face of the support =

= 91,525 lb

1 (
_ 91,525
0 75

X

(35 - 17.5))
35

= 61,017 lb (271 kN)

l. Flexure-shear cracking, Vci (step 2)
dP

= 34 - 25.77 + 21.77 = 30.0 in. (76 cm)

Pe= 18 X 0.153 X 148,000
e at 17 ft, 6 in. from support

=

407,592 lb (18,176 kN)
1

= 11.38 + (21.77 - 11.38) ;~ = 16.58 in.
5

Use the precast section properties for computingfce andfd as discussed in Section 5.5:
Íce

=_Pe
Ac

(l + r2

ecb) = _ 407,592
978

= -2,440 psi (16.8 MPa)

(l + 16.5888.025.77)
X

1

261

5.14 Design of Web Reinforcement for a PCI Double T-Beam

Use allowable extreme compressive stresses as follows:
(a) prestress + sustained load: fe= 0.45f~
(b) prestress +total load (allowing 33% increase dueto transient load: fe= 0.60 f~)
Note that although fce = 0.45 f ~, this should not affect the shear strength since fce is
dueto prestress only, and the inclusion of self-weight reduces it to less than 0.45 f~.
We thus have
Self-Weight Wv

= 1,019 plf
WpX(l - x)

Ml7.5 =

2

1,019

=

X

17.5(70 - 17.5)
X

2

12

= 5,617,238 in.-lb (634 kN-m)

Íd

Mcb
1e

=

5,617,238 X 25.77
86 ' 072

Mcr

=

Sb(6.0A

=

3,340 (6.0

= -

vfl + Íce X

.
1,682 psi (11.6 MPa)

=

Íd)

1.0v5,000 + 2,440 - 1,682)

= 3,948,762 in.-lb (445 kN-m)
It should be noted that the factor 6.0 in the cracking moment expression is low, since
the modulus of rupture is taken 7.5. If 7.5 is used in the expression the cracking mo-

ment value would have become 4,303,022 in.-lb, thereby reducing the number of stirrups needed in this design.
Unfactored shear due to self-weight dead load is:

Vd= Wv

G-

x)

(7º - 17.5) = 17,833 lb

= 1,019 2

Wsv = 200plf
WL = 720 plf
Factored externa! load intensity is:

Wu

=

1.2

X

V;

=

wu

G-X)

200 + 1.6
=

X

720

1392

=

1392 plf (20.4 kN/m)

C2º - 17.5)

_WuX ([ - X)-- 1392

X

=

24,360 lb (108 kN)

17.5(70 - 17.5)
2

X

12

vfl bwdp = 1.7 X i.ov5,000 X 12.5 X 30.0 = 45,078 lb

<

Mmax -

=

0.6

2

X

1.0

X

v5,00o X

12.5

X

30.0

+ 17,833

24,360

+ 7,673,400 (3,948,762)
= 46,279 lb (201 kN)
1.7>..

Hence, Vci = 46,279 controls.
2. Web-shear cracking, Vcw (step 2)
Íc

P.

= -

Ac

407,592
978

= - --

=

417 psi (2.9 MPa)

46,279 lb

262

Chapter 5

Shear and Torsional Strength Design

For the vertical component of the prestress force,
VP =Pe tan 8 = 407,592
Vcw

(21.77 - 11.38)
X
= 10,083 lb (44.0 kN)
7012 12

=

(3.5X. ~ + 0.3fc)bwdp + VP

=

(3.5

Vs:o0o + 0.3 X 417) X 12.5 X 30.0 + 10,083

= 149,803 lb vs. vei = 46,279 lb
Now, Ve is the smaller of Vci and Vew; hence,
ve

=

vei

=

46,279 lb

3. Design of web reinforcement (steps 3--8)
Fromabove,
ve = 46,279 lb
So

~Ve = 23,140 lb
Now, Vu /<!>ata section 17.5 ft from support = 61,017 lb> Ve>! Ve; hence design of stirrups is necessary. If Vu / <I> < Ve>! Ve, only minimum-web steel is needed.
Av
Vn - Ve
Req.- = , d
=

Using d

Wu!<I>) - ve
fy,dp

Jyt p

s

61,011 - 46,279
60,000 X 30.0

0.0082 in. 2/in. spacing

=dP = 30.0 in. and bw = 12.5 in.:

. (Av)
Mm.
s

= -Aps -fpu- ff:p
- = 18
80 fy,dp

bw

0.153 X
270,000
~O.O
80
60,000 X 30.0 12.5

X

= 0.008O

o.15Vjf = o.15V500o = 53
, (Av)- 53bw _ 53 X 12.5 _
. 2 •
or Mm. --; - -----¡;: ,
- 0.011 m. /m.
60 000
The lesser of the two minimum value applies, consequently, min. Av= 0.0080 in. 2/ in.
applies as the lesser of the two values.
A
Hence controlling--". = 0.0080 in. 2/in.
s

=

0.10 in.2/ft for both webs or
0.05 in. 2/ft per web

Try one row of D5 deformed welded wire fabric at 10 in. center-to-center weld spacing.
The maximum allowable spacing is, then 0.75h::; 24 in. So we have
0.75h = 0.75

X

34 = 25.5 in.

Accordingly, adopt one row D5 WWF web reinforcement in one !ayer at 10 in. centerto-center weld spacing per web at the quarter-span section.
Note, in comparing the solution for Ve; and Vew in Example 5.6, that Ve; has its highest value close to the support and rapidly decreases toward the midspan, while Vew has
a lesser variation in its value, as can be seen from Figure 5.13. It is important to calculate the flexure shear Vci and web shear Vew at severa! sections along the span in order
to determine the most efficient distribution of the web steel. A computer program facilitates finding these values at constant intervals of, say, /oth of the span, and a plot can

263

5.15 Brackets and Corbels

be made similar to the one in Figure 5.13 showing the variation of the shear strengths
of the web along the span.
4. Design of dowel steel for ful! composite section of the additional 2-in. topping (step 9), if
such topping is added later to the pretopped section.
Section at ! dP from face of support

= 30.0 + 2.0 = 32 in.

Used dP
Vu at support = 91,525 (408 kN)

1
2dP =

2

32.0
= 1.33ft(40cm)
X
12

= 91,525

Vu

Req

Vnh

bv

35

X (

=

Vu

~

~ 51. 33 ) = 88,047 lb (393 kN)
88,047
= 117,396 (522 kN)
75

= 0.

topping h

12 ft.

=

h/2 = 17in. = l.33ft

=

2 in.

From Figure 5.14
Ce = 0.85f:cAtop = 0.85
Ts = ApsÍps = 18

X

X

0.153

3000

X

12

12

X

X

2 = 734,400 lb (3,267 kN)

240,000 = 660,960 (2,940 kN)

X

< ce

= 734,400 lb

Hence,
Fh = 660,960 lb (2,178 kN)
lvh =

70

2
bv

80bvfvh = 80

X

144

X

X

=

12

.

= 420 m. (1,067 cm)

144 in. (366 cm)

420 = 4,838,400 lb (21,520 kN) >> 660,960 lb

No dowel reinforcement is needed to extend to future additional 2-in. topping for full
composite action to be developed. The section is adopted when it satisfies the flexura!,
deflection, and cracking requirements.

5.15 BRACKETS ANO CORBELS

Brackets and corbels are short-haunched cantilevers that project from the inner face of
columns or concrete walls to support heavy concentrated loads or beam reactions. They
are very important structural elements for supporting precast beams, gantry girders, and
any other forms of precast structural systems. Precast and prestressed concrete is becoming increasingly dominant, and larger spans are being built, resulting in heavier shear
loads at supports. Hence, the design of brackets and corbels has become increasingly important. The safety of the total structure could depend on the sound design and construction of the supporting element, in this case the corbel, necessitating a detailed discussion
of this subject.
In brackets and corbels, the ratio of the shear arm or span to the corbel depth is
often less than 1.0. Such a small ratio changes the state of stress of a member into a twodimensional one. Shear deformations would hence affect the nonlinear stress behavior of
the bracket or corbel in the elastic state and beyond, and the shear strength becomes a
major factor. Corbels also differ from deep beams in the existence of potentially large
horizontal forces transmitted from the supported beam to the corbel or bracket. These

264

Chapter 5

Shear and Torsional Strength Design

(e)
(a)

(d)

(b)

Figure 5.22 Failure patterns. (a) Diagonal shear. (b) Shear friction. (e) Anchorage splitting. (d) Vertical splitting.

horizontal forces result from long-term shrinkage and creep deformation of the supported beam, which in many cases is anchored to the bracket.
The cracks are usually mostly vertical or steeply inclined pure shear cracks. They
often start from the point of application of the concentrated load and propagate toward
the bottom reentrant comer junction of the bracket to the column face, as in Figure
5.22(a). Or they start at the upper reentrant comer of the bracket or corbel and proceed
almost vertically through the corbel toward its lower fibers, as shown in Figure 5.22(b).
Other failure pattems in such elements are shown in Figure 5.22(c) and (d). They can
also develop through a combination of the ones illustrated. Bearing failure can also occur
by crushing of the concrete under the concentrated load-bearing plate, if the bearing area
is not adequately proportioned.
As will be noticed in the subsequent discussion, detailing of the corbel or bracket
reinforcement is of majar importance. Failure of the element can be attributed in many
cases to incorrect detailing that does not realize full anchorage development of the reinforcing bars.
Two approaches can be used far the analysis and design of corbels as deep concrete
members: the shear friction hypothesis, and the strut-and-tie modeling of forces hypothesis. In the following section, criteria are presented far computing the forces ensuing from
the shear friction approach with the resulting design expressions and the applicable design example of a typical corbel. Section 5.21 presents the strut-and-tie model development far the analysis of deep beams and corbels, with the applicable design examples.
5.15.1 Shear Friction Hypothesis for Shear Transfer in Corbels

Corbels cast at different times than the main supporting columns can have a potential
shear crack at the interface between the two concretes through which shear transfer has
to develop. The smaller the ratio a/d, the larger the tendency far pure shear to occur
through essentially vertical planes. This behavior is accentuated in the case of corbels
with a potential interface crack between two dissimilar concretes.
The shear friction approach in this case is recommended by the ACI, as shown in
Figure 5.22(b ). An assumption is made of an already cracked vertical plane (a-a in Figure 5.23) along which the corbel is considered to slide as it reaches its limit state of failure. A coefficient of friction µ is used to transform the horizontal resisting forces of the
well-anchored closed ties into a vertical nominal resisting force larger than the extemal
factored shear load. Hence, the nominal vertical resisting shear force
(5.34a)

5.15 Brackets and Corbels

265
8

As.wmed

crack

8

Figure 5.23 Shear-friction reinforcement at crack.
to give

Av¡= -

V,,

fy µ,

(5.34b)

where A .1 is the total area of the horizontal anchored closed shear ties.
The externa! factored vertical shear has to be V11 $ <!> V,,, where for normal concrete,
V,,

~

0.2/; b,.d

(5.35a)

or
(5.35b)
whichever is smaller. The required effective depth d o[ the corbel can be dctermined
from Equation 5.35a, or b, whichever gives a largcr value.
For all-lightweighl or sand-lightweigbt concretes, the shear strengtb V,, should not
be taken greater than (0.2 - 0.07avld)J; b..,d, or (800 - 280a!d)b..,d in pounds.
If the shear friction reinforcement is inclined to the sbear plane such that the shear
force produces sorne tension in the shear friction steel,
(5.35c)

Photo 5.6 High-strength concrele corbcl at failure (Nawy et al.).

Part of the horizontal steel Av¡ is incorporated in the top tension tie. the horizontal factored force Nuc cannot exceed the vertical factored shear Vu. and 0. 7X.35d) + cosa) The assumption is made that all the shear resistance is due to the resistance at the crack interface between the corbel and the column. Shear plane Reinforcement schematic for corbel design by the shear friction . The reinforcement area becomes Av¡= fy(µ sin a (5. often termed the strut theory approach. a modified approach is used.4X. In all cases. 0.Chapter 5 266 Shear and Torsional Strength Design where a 1 is the angle between the shear friction reinforcement and the shear plane. are used in the corbels to interface with the normal concrete of the supporting columns. Evaluation of the top horizontal primary reinforcement layer As will be discussed in the next section. The PCI values are less conservative than the ACI values based on comprehensive tests. l. 5. As shown in Figure 5.2 Horizontal Externa! Force Effect When the corbel or bracket is cast monolithically with the supporting column or wall and is subjected to a large horizontal tensile force Nuc produced by the beam supported by the corbel. reinforcing steel An has to be provided to resist the force Nuc Angle welded to top steel and framing bar Framing bar Figure 5. and the remainder of Av¡ is distributed along the depth of the cor bel as in Figure 5.75 for alllightweight concrete. O. 0.85 for sand-lightweight concrete. such as polymer-modified concretes.24 hypothesis. = 1. X.6X. If considerably higher strength concretes. Work in the field (Ref. higher values of µ could logically be used for such cases as those listed above.7) substantiates the use of higher values.OX.15.24. 5.25.0 for normal-weight concrete. The ACI coefficient of friction µ has the following values: Concrete cast monolithically Concrete placed against hardened roughened concrete Concrete placed against unroughened hardened concrete Concrete anchored to structural steel l.

d) A¡=------<!>fytjd (5. Mu A¡=-<!>fyt jd (5. Compression strut . ee Figure 5.. Reinforcement A 1 also has to be provided to resist the bending moments caused by Vu and Nuc· The value of Nuc considered in the design should not be less than 0.= .85f~ l31cb = . shrinkage. that is. - (5..20 Vu.f l 5. The axis of such an assumed section líes along a compression strut inclined at an angle 13 to the tension tie As..d) and <!> = 0.-1 . Tensile force Nue should not be taken less than 0.25 Compression strut in corbel.. as shown in the figure.37) and Reinforcement An to resist tensile force Nue should be determined from Nue ~ <!> An fy. The flexura! steel area A 1 can be obtained approximately by the usual expression for the limit state at failure of beams.36) Vuav + Nuc(h .15 Brackets and Corbels 267 Bearing plate Shear plane -+---+----¿ .= .2 Vu unless special provisions are made to avoid tensile forces. or temperature changes.. . where Nuc A=n <!>fy (5. Tensile force Nue should be regarded as a live load even when tension results from creep..75.·.39a) .·1 d _··~. The volume of the compressive block is ce = Ts cos 13 Asfyt cos 13 Vu sm 13 0..38) where Mu= Vuav + NuJh .

13 1 c/2 cos 13) (5.85cpfyd (5. Welded to top steel Framing bar Figure 5. Then p where An = f' 2. the lever arm jd from Equation (5.26 Ah closed stirrups (min. Therefore.. . fy bd reinforcement area resisting tension.42) or (5.Chapter 5 268 Shear and Torsional Strength Design for which the depth 13 1c of the block is obtained perpendicular to the direction of the compressive strut.39c) If the right-hand side is substituted for jd in Equation 5. ºd = d - J l31c 2cos13 (5.40) To eliminate severa! trials and adjustments.e.38.85d (5.39c) can be approximated for all practica! purposes in most cases as jd =0.25. i. then A 1- Mu cpfy(d .41a) so that Mu 0.26: (5.39b) 0.43) whichever is larger.) Reinforcement schematic for corbel design by strut theory.85f: b cos 13 The effective depth d minus 13 1c/2 cos 13 in the vertical direction gives the lever armjd between the force Ts and the horizontal component of Ce in Figure 5.: 004~ = A~ . l3ic = (5.41b) A¡=--- The are a Ase of the primary tension reinforcement (tension tie) can now be calculated and placed as shown in Figure 5. ~A.

5. Calculations of As depend on whether Equation 5.3 Sequence of Corbel Design Steps As discussed in the preceding section.. V)<I> should be ::. the corbel has to be designed to resist these three parameters simultaneously by one of the following two methods.42 or 5. Calculate the flexura! steel area A 1 and the direct tension steel area A. Ase= A 1 + An. that is.. the primary tension reinforcement plus the closed stirrups automatically yield the total amount of reinforcement needed for either type of corbel.43 governs. a horizontal factored force NuC' a vertical factored force Vu. 2.36 resisting the horizontal force Nuc (b) By calculating the steel area Av¡ by the shear friction hypothesis if the corbel and the column are not cast simultaneously.5. the horizontal closed stirrups are also a major element in reinforcing the corbel.43 controls. additional inclined closed stirrups are also used. using part of Av¡along the depth of the corbel stem and incorporating the balance in the area As of the primary top steel reinforcing layer. depending on the type of corbel construction sequence. 0. whether the corbel is cast monolithically with the column or not: (a) For a monolithically cast corbel with the supporting column. The following sequence of steps is proposed for the design of the corbel: l.d)] basically act on the corbel. by evaluating the steel area Ah of the closed stirrups which are placed below the primary steel ties Ase Part of Ah is dueto the steel area An from Equation 5. As seen from the foregoing discussions. where <I> = 0. where Vullv + Nue(h . 3. with the addition of lA¡ provided as closed stirrups parallel to Ase and distributed within id vertical distance adjacent to Ase In both cases.. Occasionally. If not. 800bwd for normal-weight concrete.75 for all calculations. VJ<I>. and use in the subsequent calculation of the primary tension top steel As.26. Ase= i Av¡+ An is used and the remaining ! Av¡ is distributed overa depth id adjacent to Ase If Equation 5.. If Equation 5. anda bending moment [Vua + Nue (h . Since the mechanism of failure is highly indeterminate and randomness can be expected in the propagation action of the shear crack.20f ~ bwd. Calculate the factored vertical force Vu and the nominal resisting force Vn of the section such that Vn 2". To prevent failure. Calculate Av¡= Vn/fyµ for resisting the shear friction force.15. The primary tension steel area Ase is the major component of both methods. or::.75 .42 controls.44) The bearing area under the externa! load Vu on the bracket should not project beyond the straight portion of the primary tension bars. Aso nor should it project beyond the interior face of the transverse welded anchor bar shown in Figure 5.d) A-------! <l>fy Jd and where <I> = 0. the concrete section at the support should be enlarged.15 Brackets and Corbels 269 If Ah is assumed to be the total area of the closed stirrups or ties parallel to Aw then (5. it is sometimes advisable to choose the larger calculated value of the primary top steel area Ase in the corbel regardless of whether the corbel element is cast simultaneously with the supporting column.

4 = 1.667 X 1. µ A vf 106. a total thickness h = 18 in.7 Design a corbel to support a factored vertical load Vu = 80.K. If case (b) controls. 5.0A: 106. Select the size and spacing of the corbel reinforcement with special attention to the detailing arrangements.000 psi (34.777 in.5(Ase .Shear and Torsional Strength Design Chapter 5 270 4.2f~ bwd = 0.000 psi (414 MPa) = Assume the corbel to be either cast after the supporting column was constructed.04 j: bd 5. whichever is larger.000 lb (160 kN) acting at a distance a = 5 in. The corbel has a width b = 10 in. 2 (819mm) . Then Ah 2: 0.4 Design of a Bracket or Corbel Example 5. X 12 in. Solution: Stepl 80.5 MPa).4A. (b) Nonmonolithic construction. . Figure 5.<!> = -.000 lb > > Vn Vm 0.: A Vu vf = -. Neglect the weight of the corbel.0 = 60. (356 mm). (127 mm) from the face of the column.24. normal-weight concrete fy 60. andan effective depth d = 14 in. the remaining i Av¡ has to be provided as closed stirrups parallel to Ase and distributed with a id distance adjacent to Ase' as in Figure 5. 2 as controlling. or cast simultaneously with the column. If case (a) controls.000 Vu 5 = 106.7o 0. Step2 (a) Monolithic construction.= <j>fyµ. (457 mm). Ase = 0.26. 60 000 X 1.000 X 10 X 14 = 140. Calculate the primary steel area from (a) Ase= i Av¡+ An and (b) Ase= A¡+ An.2 X 5. Supporting column size is 12 in.15.667 lb vn 2: .000 = 1. use in addition !A¡ as closed stirrups distributed within a distance id adjacent to Ase' as in Figure 5. (254 mm).27 shows a flowchart for proportioning corbels. normal-weight concrete µ = 1.000 lb 800bwd = 800 X 10 X 14 = 112. The following data are given: n = 5.777 in .667 2 = 1270in.An) and A ¡:r =~2:004{!: bd p . fy or Min.2 (1110 mm 2) Choose the larger Av¡= 1. as many corbel failures are due to incorrect detailing.

Vu...= 0. b.a.E• frµ >--Y_es _ _. ----~A. A.) .2 .. (800 . f. - A. N~.15 Brackets and Corbels 271 CORBELS Start Input: f~.04f bd y ..27 Flowchart for proportioning corbels.¡N"' = 0..20V" .X Nota corbel a/d Enlarge section No Enlarge section No • (0.--Y•-•-< Ah > 0.) :>--N-o-~ Ah = 0.280a/d)bd <1 for lightweight and sand-lightweight concrete Yes V. A...5.07a/d)f~bd ..5(A" - End Figure 5. h.. d..0. µ.5(A.

Provide Ase= 1.000 = 16.5 SI Expressions for Shear in Prestressed Concrete Beams (5.K.000 Nuc A=4'fy n Step 4.<t>fyjd - _ 80.541 in. Vu A1 = = 80.000) A 1 2 .000 0.14) _ 60. use three No. lts thickness has to be designed based on the manner in which V" is applied as an undeformable plate. use Min Nuc = 0. O. 5.12) . 2.541 in.000 lb Vuav + Nuc(h . Also use three framing size No.85 0.70 X 80. Details of the bracket reinforcement are shown in Figure 5.541 . Step 5.66 in.161 mm2) Ase· 2 (b) Required Ah= 0. ~Av¡= ~ X 1. 2 26. 2 .813 mm ) Use a plate 5hn.2 X 80. 2 1. Horizontal closed stirrups: Since case (a) controls.28.33 in.70.5(1.356) = 0.777 + 0.85 X 14) .0. 3 closed stirrups = 2 x 3 x 0.000(18 . Select bar sizes: (a) Required Ase= 1.-3 bars and one welded No. 2 (a) Ase= (i Av¡+ An) = i X 1.541 in. and the bearing pad designed such that the bearing stress at the factored load Vu should not exceed q.15. 7bars=1. Since no value of the horizontal externa! force Nuc transmitted from the superimposed beam is given. where A 1 is the pad area.000 0.593 in 2 .An) = 0. bd = 0. X (where jd Check the controlling area of primary steel Ase.000(0. cen3 at stirrups closed No.70(0.11) (5.04 X 5.593 in. = 0.0.80 in. 2 16. Mm Ase = 0. vertical distance.-7 anchor to bar. (b) Ase= A¡+ An = 0.541 in.356 m (280 mm ) 0 . 2 .04 < ¡.(0.000 .85d) 2 (524 mm) 2 .¡.47 in. x 5hn.000 6 X 10 X 14 = 0.727+0. 2 U se the larger of the two values i Av¡ and Ah.85f~ A 1).000 lb = 0.9 m (16. Hence.-3 three use over id= 9.11=0.356 = 1. 2 (994 mm2 ).-.90 - X 5 + 16.------<t>fyjd ¡ . ter to center. 2 (three bars of diameter 22 mm gives 1. 2 Ah = 0. 2 º·727 m ~ 0.d) Mu A .85 X 5000 = X 5. The bearing area under the load has to be checked.75 X 60.083 in.356=1.000 0.592 in..Chapter 5 272 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Step 3.5(Asc . use three No.20Vu = 0. spread in.777 = 0. We have Bearing strength reduction factor q.

I> ·. . ·....7). Vud) Ve = ( 2Q + 5 Mu bwd. Vd _u_$ 1. 3 in. for shear = moment causing flexura! cracking at section due to externally applied load. 'A Vf.0 Mu ~ ['A~] bwd $ s= Max s = !h $ [0. Me. anchor bar 3 in. 5.1 for explanation onfc vs.28 - •.15) (See Sec. 3 in. (5. Primary tension steel Ase= 3 No. .4'A VÍl bwd] Avfytd Wu/ <!>) . . Min. 3 No..35bwS Íyt or ApJpuSH 80fy¡d bw where bw.fce of the ACI code).5. enlarge section.o . 7 T 1 9in.6. :v·· Corbel reinforcement details (Example 5. ·c. · . max s $ 3/l6h $ 300 mm Vs > (2'A \/Tc!3)bwd.21b) V.Ve Avfy1d (5. s and d are in millimeters andfyt is in MPa.15 Brackets and Corbels 273 . 600 mm when Vs > ('A \/Tc!3)bwd. Av: the smaller of Av~ 0."'.5. 3 framing bars º.o A Figure 5.

2 X 21.507 =38.7 MPa.3 = 407 kN 2 .870N/m 17.2 cm Aps = 18 . section pretopped (topping) = 20.6 using the SI units system.376 cm3 14.-lb) X X 0.862 MPa. ata later stage if used f~.6 MPa Ípu = 1.6 SI Shear Design of Prestressed Beams Example5. = 27.7 mm diameter tendons = 99 mm2 fyt for stirrups = 414 MPa f~c Use the same value for the effective depth dP for the midspan as well as other sections.020 MPa ee=28.5 MPa.1130 = N-m 1 Pa = N/m2 (lb/ft) X 1 MPa = N 14. low-relaxation steel fps = 1.448 = N 0.58 x 106 cm4 568 cm2 65. Note that bw for both webs = 32 cm.507 N/m 32cm Ac Je r2 cb C¡ sb S' WD Wv+ Wsv WL 2bw Other data are: f~ (precast) = 34. normal-weight concrete. allowable shear friction force without dowels.006895 = MPa 1 lb psi X (in.593 = N/m X 106/m2 5. normal-weight concrete.12.6 Vu at face of support = X 10.55b)vh 4. Solution: Wu = 1.2 X 17.789 N/m 10.9cm.3 cm ec=57.2kN/m 38.310 cm2 3. 54.655 MPa Ípe = 1.733 cm 3 171.15.789 + 1.5 cm 20. The sectional geometric properties of the beam are as follows: Pretopped Section property 6. Fh = 0.8 Solve Example 5.Shear and Torsional Strength Design Chapter 5 274 Max.

50A.3 .W uX 2 - 2 20.1 cm Use the precast section properties for computingfce andfd as discussed in Section 5.3 .0\!34. this should not affect the shear strength since fce is dueto prestress only.6 MPa 3.33)) _ 407 X _ 10 67 0 75 Vn at 5.33(21. and the inclusion of self-weight reduces it to less than 0.15 Brackets and Corbels 275 ~ of the span = 21.33 ) = 108kN _ (/ -x)- Mmax .33) 2 = 2 Ms.l 6.lkN 3 Wsv = 2. = 54.5.46) 568 = 16. 1 ( (10.870 N/m W üX(/ .5 = 445 kN-m fd) + 16. vJ: bwdp .x) = 14.310 l X 65.507 N/m Factored external load intensity is W u = 1.2 cm = 1. Vd (step 2) dP Pe = 18 99 X 76.6 X 10.870 (2~· .870 X 5.3/ 4 = 5.33(21.3 (20.33m..3 ..58 X 106 vJ: + fce - = Sb(0.45 f ~.507 = 20.x) 14. vJ: bwdp + Vd + 5.3 kN/m / V¡= Wu ( 2x ) = 20.5: fee = _Pe (l + Ae ecb) r = _ 18.33) 2 :¡ max (Mcr) ~ 0.020 MPa = 18.2 X 2.919 + 1.33 m.33 m from support = 42.45 f ~ (b) prestress +total load (allowing 33% increase dueto transient load: fe= 0.45 f~. We thus have: Self-weight WD = 14.33 = = 634 kN-m Mcb fd = Mcr le = 6.33A.176 ( + 42.340.6) Unfactored shear due to self-weight is vd = wDG.11.60 f~) Note that although fee =0.176 kN X e at 5.000 X 65.5. from the face of the support = = 272 kN (1) Flexure-shear cracking.3 X = 864kN-m Vci = 0.6A.733 (0.5.5.5.33) = 79.8 .919 N/m WL = 10.8 MPa Use allowable extreme compressive stresses as follows: (a) prestress + sustained load: fe= 0.67 .50 X l.46 = 11.5.

5 X 31.(Av) s = Aps fpu (d.bw _ 318 _ . Controlling web steel is hence Av - s 0.1 = 220kN 0.0 = 0.105 mm 2 /mm per web. from support = 272 > Ve>! Ve.0\/34. Ve is the smaller of Vci and Vew. Av= 0.25 mm /mm X Mm. (55.28. Ve = Vci = 211 kN (3) Design of web reinforcement (steps 3-8) From above.9) 1.176 Vew = [0.9MPa fe= A= 6310 ' e For the vertical component of the prestress force.860 18 X 99 X 414 X 762\Íll = 0. consequently. VP = Pe tane = 18. ..3 .3(1. min.8x76.V f.20 mm /mm 80 Or 2 . So Now. If Vu / <!> < Ve>! Ve. only minimum-web steel is need.0 kN 2 Vfl + fc)Jbwdp + VP = [0.fyt 3 414 3 2 The lesser of the two minimum value applies.20 mm /mm applies as the lesser of the two values. Vew (step 2) 18.3/2 = 44. d yt p Vn .0.62 + 79. s (Vu/<l>) .3(A.5 + 2. (2) Web-shear cracking.21 mm /mm for both webs or . = z 0.33A Vfl bwdp = 0. hence design of stirrups is necessary. (Av). d " yt p = (272 . ---.-':'.18 X 7.19 mm2/mm spacing Using d =dP = 762 mm and bw = 318 mm: Min. hence.Ve f.33 X l. Vci 211 kN = = X 318 X 762 + 44 Now.2 = 202 kN < 220 kN Hence.176 Pe = 2.0x\/34.Chapter 5 276 1.9)] 681 kN vs.211) 414 X 762 = 0. A Req. 80 fytdp \j hw = 2 (762 1.33 m. Vu / <j> at a section 5. Vci = 220kN controls. Ve= 211 kN.6 + 108 (445) 864 X X \/34.5 X Shear and Torsional Strength Design 3.

cAtap = 0. The section is adopted when it satisfies the flexura!. Section at !dP from face of support = 76.1 = 81. then 0.267 kN 1655x10.940 kN X < Ce = 3.3 = 2. .55 X 366 X 1067 = 21. if such topping is added later to the pretopped section.55bJvh = 0. while Vcw has a lesser variation in its value. A computer program facilitates finding these values at constant intervals of.75h where h = 864 mm but not to exceed 610 mm. and a plot can be made similar to the one in Figure 5. and cracking requirements. say.267 kN Then Fh = 2.7 . adopt using one row D5 WWF in one layer at 254 mm center-to-center of welds per web at the quarter-span section. in comparing the solution for Vci and Vcw that Vci has its highest value close to the support and rapidly decreases toward the midspan.5.85f.14 Ce = 0. topping (step 9).08 X 10. as can be seen from Figure 5.85 Ts = Apsfps = 18 X 99 X 20.15 Brackets and Corbels 277 Try one row of D5 deformed welded wire fabric at 254 mm center-to-center weld spacing.520 kN >> 2940 kN No dowel reinforcement is needed to extend to the additional 5 cm topping for full composite action to be developed.08 cm From Figure 5.3 = 10.067 cm bv = 366 cm 0.4) 10. It is important to calculate the flexure shear Vci and web shear Vcw at severa! sections along the span in order to determine the most efficient distribution of the web steel. (4) Design of dowel steel for ful/ composite section of the additional 2-in.13 showing the variation of the shear strengths of the web along the span.940kN lvh = 221.0.2 + 5. = 392 kN 7 Vu ~ 392 = 523 kN 75 = 0. topping h bv = 366 cm = 5.75 X 864 = 648 Accordingly. deflection.3 = 3.3 cm Use dP Vu at support = 407 kN h/2 Vu = 407 X ( Req Vnh = 0. 1/lüth of the span. Note.7 X 366 X 5.13. So we have 0.4 m = 10.67m = 1. The maximum allowable spacing is.

the axis of the circular cylinder is assumed to remain straight. An introduction to the subject of torsional stress distribution has to start with the basic elastic behavior of simple sections.) In rectangular sections.e. This is due to the redistribution of stresses in the structure. a canopy or a bus-stand roof projecting from a monolithic beam on columns. The maximum torsional shearing stress would occur at midpoints A and B of the larger dimension of the cross section. As in the case of flexure. a spandrel beam receiving load from one side. All radii in a cross section also remain straight (i.e. As a result. loss of integrity due to torsional distress should always be avoided by proper design of the necessary torsional reinforcement. The originally plane cross sections undergo warping due to the applied torsional moment. then (a) When deformation takes place in the circular shaft.16 TORSIONAL BEHAVIOR ANO STRENGTH 5. If r is the radius of the element. as shown in Figure 5.30. there is no warping) and rotate through the same angle about the axis. a brief discussion of torsion in circular sections serves as a good introduction to the torsional behavior of other types of sections.Chapter 5 278 Shear and Torsional Strength Design 5. However. and v1e the elastic shearing stress dueto an elastic twisting moment Te. Photos in this section illustrate the extent of cracking at failure of a beam in torsion. for example. Shear stress is equal to shear strain times the shear modulus at the elastic level in circular sections. In actual spandrel beams of a structural system. the extent of damage due to torsion is usually not as severe. the stress is proportional to its distance from the neutral axis (i. the torsional problem is considerably more complicated. As the whole cross section becomes plastic. This moment produces axial as well as circumferential shear stresses with zero values at the corners of the section and the centroid of the rectangle. the stress in the plastic outer ring becomes constant while the stress in the inner core remains elastic.. Most concrete beams subjected to twist are components of rectangles. These moments occasionally cause excessive shearing stresses. and peripheral beams surrounding a floor opening are all examples of structural elements subjected to twisting moments. (The subscript f denotes failure. J = 7rr4/2.29.16.. and maximum values on the periphery at the middle of the sides. such as circular or rectangular sections. b = Oand the shear stress (b) where v11 is the nonlinear shear stress due to an ultimate twisting moment TP. its polar moment of inertia. They show the curvilinear plane of twist caused by the imposed torsional moments. These complications plus the fact that the reinforced and prestressed concrete sections are neither homogeneous nor isotropic make it difficult to develop exact . An end beam in a floor panel. flanged sections such as T-beams and L-beams. the axis through the center of the circular section) and is maximum at the extreme fibers. Although circular sections are rarely a consideration in normal concrete construction. As the circular element starts to behave plastically. as shown in Figure 5. severe cracking can develop well beyond the allowable serviceability limits unless special torsional reinforcement is provided.1 lntroduction Torsion occurs in monolithic concrete construction primarily where the load acts ata distance from the longitudinal axis of the structural member.

-Venant presented his solution to the elastic torsional problem with warping due to pure torsion which develops in noncircular sections. mathematical formulations based on physical models such as Equations (a) and (b) for circular sections. The behavior of concrete was found to be better represented by the plastic approach. But it was found experimentally that the elastic theory is not entirely satisfactory for the accurate prediction of the state of stress in concrete in pure torsion. The model establishes particular 5.16. 5.-Venant's )..16 Torsional Behavior and Strength r v. Prandtl demonstrated the physical significance of the mathematical formulations by his membrane analogy model.2. Both theories were applied essentially to the state of pure torsion.1 Torsion in elastic materials.. St.16..29 Torsional stress distribution through circular section. In 1903.30 Pure torsional stress distribution in a rectangular section. For over seventy years.279 5. = torsional shear stress r = shaft rad iu s Figure 5. or (2) the theory of plasticity represented by the sand-heap analogy (Nadai's). Consequently almost ali developments in torsion as applied to prestressed concrete and to reinforced concrete have been in the latter direction. v.. . Figure 5. v.2 Pure Torsion in Plain Concrete Elements In 1853. the torsional analysis of concrete members has been based on either (1) the classical theory of elasticity developed through mathematical formulations coupled with membrane analogy verifications (St.

lt can be seen from Figure 5. Figure 5. at the corresponding point in the actual member. Similarly. (2) the maximum slope of the membrane at any point is proportional to the magnitude of shear stress . . it can be proved that the differential equation of the deflected membrane surface has the same form as the equation that determines the stress distribution over the cross section of the bar subjected to twisting moments.-Venant's theory. the higher the stress. this maximum stress has to be proportional to the steepest slope of the tangents at points A and B. (b) Contours in a real beam or in a membrana. and (3) the twisting moment to which the actual member is subjected is proportional to twice the volume under the deflected membrane.45a) Contours of constant shear stress Steepest tangent (Tmaxl h Interna! pressure B A (a) (b) Horizontal tangent (V. then from basic principies of mechanics and St.31 shows the membrane analogy behavior for rectangular as well as L-shaped forms. (a) Membrana under pressure.3l(b) that the torsional shearing stress is inversely proportional to the distance between the contour lines. E!! O) Horizontal tangent Tangent at any point Tangent to membrane at base (Vtmax =O) (e) (d) Figure 5. The closer the lines. From the membrane analogy. it can be demonstrated that (1) the tangent to a contour line at any point of a deflected membrane gives the direction of the shearing stress at the corresponding cross section of the actual membrane subjected to twist.. leading to the previously stated conclusion that the maximum torsional shearing stress occurs at the middle of the longer side of the rectangle.Chapter 5 280 Shear and Torsional Strength Design relationships between the deflected surface of the loaded membrane and the distribution of torsional stresses in a bar subjected to twisting moments. (d) Rectangular section. (e) L-section.31 Membrana analogy in elastic pure torsion. 8 = b2 Ge (5. If 8 is the maximum displacement of the membrane from the tangent at point A. For small deformations.30 and 5.

3 Sand-heap analogy applied to L-beams. Or yet again. where x is the shorter side. But v1(maxJ is proportional to the slope of the tangent.45d) The denominator kb 3h in 5. V _ t(max) - Teb kb3h = Teb f1 (5. the plastic sand-heap analogy provides a better representation of the behavior of brittle elements such as concrete beams subjected to pure torsion than does the elastic analogy.45c) with k 3 constant.32 is a two. such as an inner concentric rectangle of dimensions x and y.16. The torsional moment is also proportional to twice the volume under the heap.2 Torsion in plastic materials. The torsional moment TP in part (d) of the figure is proportional to twice the volume of the rectangular heap shown in parts (b) and (c).45b) where k 1 is a constant. 5.16. This characteristic of the sand heap considerably simplifies the solutions. except that the factor k in the equation far the rectangular section takes into account the shear strains due to warping.45d represents the polar moment of inertia 1 1 of the section. 5.kb2h (5. As indicated earlier. Comparing this equation to Equation (a) far the circular section shows the similarity of the two expressions.16 Torsional Behavior and Strength 281 where G is the shear modulus and 0 is the angle of twist.45d can be further simplified to give V Te --t(max) . Most concrete elements subjected to torsion are flanged sections. so that Te Vt(max) = -k 2 xy (5. hence. From Equations 5. Equation 5. whereas it is continuously variable in the membrane analogy approach.2. rendering the torsional shear stress calculations lengthy.47) It is important to note in using the membrane analogy approach that the torsional shear stress changes from one point to another along the same axis as AB in Figure 5.and three-dimensional illustration of the sand heap.46) It can also be written to give the stress at planes inside the section.2.45a and b. The L-beam in Figure 5. Te= k 3 b 3hG0 (5. or Te ex 2(~8bh) = k 2 8bh where.5.31. It can also be recognized that the slope of the sand-heap sides as a measure of the torsional shearing stress is constant in the sand-heap analogy approach.33 is chosen in applying the plas- . Figure 5. again. The corresponding torsional moment Te is proportional to twice the volume under the membrane. (5. be- cause of the changing slope of the analogous membrane. k 2 is a constant. most commonly L-beams comprising the externa! wall beams of a structural floor. and the maximum torsional shearing stress is proportional to the slope of the sand heap.

bw)] 2 2 (5. tic sand-heap approach to evaluate its torsional moment capacity and shear stress to which it is subjected.32 Sand-heap analogy in plastic pure torsion.48 give us . hence. (d) Torsional shear stress. the torsional shear stress is proportional to the slope of the sand heaps. (5.48) Also. The sand heap is broken into three volumes: V1 = pyramid representing a square cross-sectional shape = y1b ~13 V 2 = tent portion of the web.bw)/2 The torsional moment is proportional to twice the volume of the sand heaps. representing a rectangular cross-sectional shape = Y1bw(h .49) (5. hence. [ y¡b~ T=--+ 3 p Y1bw(h .50 into Equation 5. (a) Sand-heap L-section. transferring part PDI to NQM = y 2hjb . (b) Sand-heap rectangular section.bw) 2 + y2hj_b .50) Substituting y 1 and Yz from Equations 5.49 and 5.Chapter 5 282 Shear and Torsional Strength Design (b) (a) ~ ¡~ 1 1 T h l ____ I• b-----l (d) (e) Figure 5. (c) Plan of rectangular section.bw)/2 V 3 = tent representing the flange of the beam.

)1)2 Vl(max) = [!(3 - bw/ h) ] + !(h¡/b. (b) Composite pyramid from web (V1) ._ M (al F E.51 are divided by (b.51) lf both the numerator and denominator of Equation 5.h/ (b.5... _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. (a) Sand heap on L-shaped cross section. is the denominator in this equation and Lhal JE= C...16 Torsional Behavior and Strength 283 L : ----b=b--bw== o t-+--- T h. (e) Tent segment from web (V2).7 Reinforced plaster beam at failure in pure torsion...F A H 8 (b) J D (e) (di Figure 5./(b.. et al... the equation becomes Photo 5.bw/h) (5...bw) (5.bw) + (h}/2)(b . Vl(max} = (b~/6)(3h .)1)2 and Lhe terms rearranged..i.) ..'7)2. (d) Transformad tent of beam flange (V3).52a) lf one assumes that C.. we have 1'¡.33 Sand-heap analogy of flanged section. (Rutgers tests: Law.)2(b/ h . Nawy.

c =2. so that (5. It was also establishcd thal 6-V¡j can be considered as a limiling value of the pure torsional strength of a member withoul torsional reinforceand mcnt.or L-section.17 TORSION IN REINFORCED ANO PRESTRESSED CONCRETE ELEMENTS Torsion rarely occurs in concrete structures without bcing accompanied by bending and shear.52a can be readily applied to rectangular sections by setting h¡= O.) (5.54b) 5. such that (5.4 using k 2 = ! in Equation 5.5 is used to offset any effect of bending moments that might be present.5 for tbe firsl cracking Lorsional load v. Exlensive work on reinforced concrete bcams by Hsu and confirmed by otbers has established Lhat k 2 can be taken as i . Te = 0. a funclion of the shape of the beam cross section.8 Plain mortar beam in pure torsion. Note that Equation 5.53.54a) where x is the shorter side of the rectangular section. Nawy et al. Equation 5.45d from the membrane anaJogy. This value originatcd from research in tbe skewbending theory of plain concrete. hence. Using a reduction factor of 2. the area can be broken into component recLangles as in Figure 5. (b) Bottom view.52b is similar in formal to Equation 5.c using ACl terminology. Thc high reduction factor of 2.52b can be rewritten designating TP = Te as the nominal torsional resistance of Lhe plain concrete and vl(max) = v. (Rutgers tests: Law. (a) Top view.53b) where x is the smaller dimension of Lhe rectangular section.52b) where JE is the equivalent polar moment of inertia. results in Vfl. lf the cross section is a T. The foregoing sbould give a sufficient background on the contribution of tbe plain concrete in the section toward resisting part of the combincd stresses resulting from tor- .8Vf:x2 y (5. lt must also be recognized lhal concrete is not a perfectly plastic material. the actual torsional strengtb of the plain concrete section has a value lying between the membrane analogy and tbe sand-heap analogy values.Chapter 5 284 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Photo 5.34. except for the different values of the denominators J and JE· Equation 5.53a) or (5.

Gesund. including the reinforcement Te = nominal torsional resistance of the plain concrete and Ts = torsional resistance of the reinforcement then (5.55) Severa! theories have been proposed over the past half century.1 Skew-Bending Theory Skew-bending theory considers in detail the interna! deformational behavior of the series of transverse warped surfaces along the beam. and Elfgren among the several researchers in this field.34 285 Component rectangles for calculation of Te. shear. The capacity of the plain concrete to resist torsion when in combination with other loads could. Consequently. (b) the space truss analogy theory. A general discussion presented here concentrates on (a) the skew bending theory. 5. be lower than when it resists the same factored externa! twisting moments alone. Zia. sional.17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements Figure 5. axial. (c) the compression field theory. Mattock. Except for the skew bending theory. torsional reinforcement has to be provided to resist the excess torque. the other models consider the shear flow in hollow box sections as the principal element in evaluating the torsional capacity of solid and hollow sections.5.17. in many cases. Hsu details the development of the theory of torsion as applied to concrete structures and how the skew-bending theory formed the basis of the initial ACI code provisions on tor- .9). 5. it had subsequent contributions from Collins. Inclusion of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement to resist part of the torsional moments introduces a new element in the set of forces and moments in the section. Hsu made a major contribution experimentally to the development of the skew-bending theory as it presently stands. If Tn = required total nominal torsional resistance of the section. Initially proposed by Lessig. and (d) the plasticity equilibrium truss theory. or flexura! forces. In his book (Ref. Hsu.

35 and torsion. cracks develop on three sides of the beam cross section. neither the longitudinal bars nor the closed stirrups have any appreciable contribution to the torsional stiffness of the section. The neutral axis of the skewed surface and the shaded area in Figure 5. At the postcracking stage of loading. a skewed failure surface results dueto the combined torsional moment Tu and bending moment Mu. as shown in Figure 5. with the steel ties (stirrups) at those faces carrying the tensile forces at the cracks and the longitudinal bars resisting shear through dowel action with the concrete. The polygon in Figure 5. It assumes the cracks on the remaining three faces of the cross section to be uniformly spread.36(a) shows the forces acting on the skewly bent plane. but subtend a varying angle e with the original plane cross sections. It has to be emphasized that little additional torsional strength can be achieved beyond the capacity of the plain concrete in the beam unless both longitudinal torsion bars and transverse ties are used. the stiffness of the section is reduced. but its torsional resistance is considerably increased. Skew bending dueto torsion. and compressive stresses appear on portions of the fourth side along the beam. (b) Bending . The failure surface of the normal beam cross section subjected to bending moment Mu remains plane after bending. and the normal compressive block force Ce The torsional moment Te of the resisting shearing force Fe generated by the shaded compressive block area in Figure 5. Prior to cracking.35(b) denoting the compression zone would no longer be straight.35(a). Figure 5. As torsional loading proceeds to the limit state at failure.36(b) gives the shear resistance Fe of the concrete. If a twisting moment Tu is also applied exceeding the capacity of the section. depending on the amount and distribution of both the longitudinal bars and the transverse closed ties.36(a) is thus (a) (b) Figure 5. (a) Bending before twist. the force T1 of the active longitudinal steel bars in the compression zone. The complexity of the torsional problem permits here only the brief discussion that follows.Chapter 5 286 Shear and Torsional Strength Design sion. The skew-bending theory idealizes the compression zone by considering it to be of uniform depth.

17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements 287 y Compression zone in skew bending z T~ Fx• FY =forces on longitudinal bars F• = forces on vertical stirrups spaced ·at distance s e = resu ltant force on compression zone at failure (a) (b) Figure 5. and others.36 Forces on the skew-bent planes.56a) where x is the shorter side of the beam.10) to evaluate Fe in terms of the interna! stress in concrete k 1 and the geometrical torsional constants of the section k 2x 2y led to the expression Vfl (5.9 and 5. (a) All forces acting on skew plane at failure. Thurliman.56b) f [ 5.5.11). with additional work by Hsu. Further refinement was introduced by Rabbat and Collins (Ref.2 Space Truss Analogy Theory Space truss analogy theory was originally developed by Rausch and later extended by Lampert and Collins.13) on the variable angle space truss and Collins and Mitchell (Ref. . Elfgren. 5. 5. Te F = cos ~ 5 o X its arm about forces Fv in the figure or (5. Extensive tests (Refs. 5.17. (b) Vector forces on compression zone.

in which the diagonal tension cracks. producing a constant torsional moment. The use of hollow-walled sections rather than solid sections proved to give essentially the same ultimate torsional moment.Chapter 5 288 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Hsu (Refs.18) proposed combining the equilibrium. as shown in Figure 5. In this code.~.37.37. 5. a space truss composed of the stirrups is used as the diagonal tension members. and the idealized concrete inclined compression struts in the plane of the cage wall. y F Yo TtYo l tan 4> . Such a conclusion is borne out of tests which have shown that the torsional strength of the solid sections is composed of the resistance of the closed stirrup cage. consisting of the longitudinal bars and transverse stirrups. where D 0 is the diameter of the circle inscribed in the rectangle connecting the comer longitudinal bars. namely. provided that the walls were not too thin. The CEB-FIP code is based on the space truss model. The space truss analogy is an extension of the model used in the design of the shear-resisting stirrups. F F = tensile force in each longitudinal bar ex = inclined compressive force on horizontal side Cy = inclined compressive force on vertical side Tt = shear flow force per unit length of wall Figure 5. Because of the nonplanar shape of the cross sections due to the twisting moment. compatibility and the softened constitutive laws of concrete in a unified theory that can predict with reasonable accuracy the shear and torsional behavior of beams (the softened truss model). It is assumed in this theory that the concrete beam behaves in torsion similarly to a thin-walled box with a constant shear flow in the wall cross section.37 Forces on hollow-box concrete surface by truss analogy.17 and 5. The shear flow concept was utilized in deriving the relevant expressions for shear equilibrium. . and the idealized concrete strips at a variable angle 0 between the cracks are used as the compression members (struts). the acceptability of the space truss analogy approach based on hollow sections.37. D 0 = x0 in Figure 5. The compression struts are the inclined concrete strips between the cracks in Figure 5. In summary. once they start to develop. are resisted by the stirrups. the absence of the core <loes not affect the strength of such members in torsion-hence. the effective wall thickness of the hollow beam is taken as!D 0 .

testing setup. 5.. C. proposing the lcrms to be subsequently discussed.17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements 5.17.11).+ E.1 + E. = tTansversc tensile strain in bars B ed= diagonal compression strain The area A 0 in the figure enclosed by the shear ílow q can be obtained as (5. the angle of inclination 0 of these struts can be defined as E.38 points up the fact that tbe torsional force is resisted by tbe tangencial components of the diagonal compression struts.289 5.d tan2 a = --E.57) wbere e1 = longitudinal tensile strain in the main bars A e. Hsu.9 T.58) where A 0 h = area enclosed by the centerline of the hoop p11 = hoop centerline perimeter Photo 5. Figure 5. Assuming that concrete carries no tension after cracking. The anglc of inclination 0 in Fig. 5. and that torsional shear is carried by the field of diagonal compression struts.) Reinforced concrete beams in ton.ion. and Collins and Mitchcll modified tbe approacb. which produce a shear ílow q around the perimeter (Ref. (Courtesy. but rather uses limits bascd on the arcas of the longitudinal tension steel and lhe transverse torsional web steel (inclined or vertical closed stirrups or ties).37 of the diagonal cracks or the comprcssion struts between the diagonal cracks is not idealized to 45°.d (5. Elfgren proposed the compression fields to describe components of the plasticity truss model current ly used in the European Code.3 Compression Field Theory The compression field theory can be considered a special case of tbe general truss model theory. Thomas .

10 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Closeup of torsional cracking of bcams in the preceding photograph.38 (d) Equilibrium of comer Compression field truss model by Collins and Mitchell (Ref. (Courresy.11). . 5.290 Chapter 5 Photo 5. C. Hsu.) (a) Cracked beam in tol'1ion (b) Longitudinal equilibrium Diagonal compresslve stresses actlng et angle 8 (e) A Shear flow. Thomas T. q per unit length around perlmeter Po Figure 5.

291 5.39 Effective thickness td and compression block depth ao- .59a) ) (5.6 L.1 0. and tbe depth a0 of the compressive block is defined in Equatioa 5. The transverse and longitudinal straios in the steel at the nominal torsional moment Tn can be respectively defined as e. as we ll as the exposed transverse ties after spa lling of the concrete cover at torsion failure.39.17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements a0 =compressio o block depth (identical to the deptb a of the equivalent rectangular block in flexure) The equivalent wall thickness td in the analysis of the twisted beam is shown in Figure 5. The diagonal torsional cracks. are demonstrated in Figure 5. = ( 0.85f31Af e A Tn 0 ) 1 0.003 (5.59b) tan 0 .40.003 olr where the nominal torsional shear stress is Figure 5.85J3tf:A 0 TnÁoh tan0 e. = ( 0.

but not Less than the vertical distance bctween tbe centers of bars or prestressing tcndons at the corners of the stirrups. tbe lower the value of 0 selected for a given torque. = mínimum effective web width within shear deptb d. and 5. This can be taken as the flexura! lever arm. Hence.58. b.dv (5.60.-A~h b.) 1 Tn Ph ( tane P1r 0.85/. . the less is the transverse hoop steel needed and thc more is the required .11).59. afler spalling of cover.. Tbe predicted values of lbe compressive strut inclination 0 in Figure 5. = cffective shear deptb.60) The area A 0 cnclosed by tbe shear flow can be obtained from Equation 5.p11 V.+ . the shearing stress at nominal slrengths T.61) wbere T11 is lhe nominal torsional moment strengtb at the limit state at failure.61 becomes T.60 and the following expression for the compression block depth a0 in torsion according lo Collins and Mitchell (Ref. Il should be noted that Equations 5. 5. and (2) using non-softened stress-slrain curve of the concrete. Ref.63 are based on the assurnptions: (1) spalling of concrete cover. 5. Sublract the diameters of ducts from the web width if ungrouted. 5... 5.. d. A~1r + -l-)] tane (5.292 Chapter 5 Shear and Torslonal Strength Oesign Figure 5.11): a0 = -A 0 1r [ 1 . For combined torsion and shear. considering the actual torsional behavior of the concrete element.. (5.38 range between 24º for pure torsion and 90° for pure flexure. 5. Tbese assumptions do not seem to be correct.VP Tn = .61. and V..62) where VP = vertical component on the prestressing force. in Equation 5.40 Torsional failure of web-reinforced beam after spalling of cover (Collins and Mitchell. or balf the diameter of ducts for grouted tendons.

The Code approach assumes a constan/ iocljnation anglc 0. leading to the design expressions presented in that section for determining the compression strut variable inclination angle 0. adopted by AASHTO after modifications. A modified compression field theory was subsequently proposed by Collins and MitcheU. the transverse strain E. in thal tbe contribution in shear resistance by the plain concrete. taking into account tbe contribution of tensile stress in the concrete between tbe cracks.. Consequently.41 (Hsu.63) lt sho uld be noted that in tbe compression fie ld theory.17. Alabama.) 0.18) proposed combining the equilibrium.4 Plasticity Equilibrium Truss Theory Hsu (Ref. A unit sq uare membrane clemcnt of tbickness t is subjectcd Lo shear flow q due to pu re shear in Figure 5. V0 is attributed to compression iliagonals inclined atan angle 0 :::::45º for reinforced concrete.) area of longitudinal steel.58a should be taken as tbe yield strain Ew Tbe range of the compressíon strut angle 0 in degrees can be evaluated from 10 + 35(7. in Equations 5.57 and 5. compatibility and the softened coustitutive laws of concrete in a unified theory that can preilict with reasonable accuracy the shear and torsional behavior of beams (The softened truss model). assembly of segmenta! bridge unüs.4.18). tbe principal tcnsile stress is assumed to be equal to zero after the concrete has cracked-a hypotbesis subject to justification.8 (c). 5.4..17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements Pboto S. 5. This is discussed in Section 12. a choice of lower values of 0 is more economical in design. The shear flow concept is utilizcd in deriving tbe relevant exprcssions fo r shear equilibrium. Since transverse closed stirrups or ties are more cxpensive than longitudinal bars.42 .5º for prestressed concrete members.//. (5. Rcf.1 Equilibrium in element shear.65e.17..l and Figure 12.293 5.50e1 < 0 < 80 - 35(7n//~) 0. (Courresy. 5. 5. This approach also differs fundamentally from the present standard ACT Code. Tbe compression field tbeory assumes that tbe geometrical properties of the designed section are cbosen on tbe basis of yielding of the transverse web reinforcement and longitudinal steel prior to diagonal crushing of the concrete.42 .17. 5. Reinforcement in bolh the longitudinal (E-W) direction I and transverse (N-S) direction t is subjected to a unit stress f¡ls1 and /Js respectively sucb that the shear ílow q can be defined by the equilibrium equations .11 Dauphin lsland Bridge. Prcstressed Concrete Ioslitutc. and 37.

From the geometry of the triangles in Figure 5.~ t t s...66a) and qy=~ (5.64a._..64b) where unit F1 = A 1f¡!s 1 and q where unit F1 = AJvls A 1 and A 1 are the cross-sectional areas of the reinforcement.. b and 5. it can be assumed that only shear stresses develop in the tube wall in the form of shear flow q in Figure 5..42b... The case of a hollow tube of any shape and variable thickness is considered (Figure 5.~ -.42a and that the in-plane normal stresses in the wall vanish. and s1 and s are the spacings in the l and t directions..... 5.-:¡ (a) Shear element (thickness h) Figure 5. It is subjected to pure torsion. St. Hence._$+--.... q = (F1) tan 0 (5....41 (b) Truss model Equilibrium forces in element shear (Ref.66b) where the subscript y denotes the yielding of the reinforcement. respectively. Equations 5. 5.42)..4.17. If an infinitesimal wall element ABCD is isolated as in Figure 5.65) If the reinforcement in both directions is assumed to have yielded.67) .65 give (5. t _. the shear flow in the l direction has to be equal to the shear flow in the t direction or (5.____..---:..2 Equilibrium in element torsion.-Venant's theory stipulates that the cross-sectional shape remains unchanged in elastic small deformations and the warping deformation perpendicular to the cross-section would be the same along the member's axis.41 the shear flow can also be defined as q = lfvt) sin e cos e (5.294 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design s s t ~to---1-t _. q .64a) = (F1) cot 0 (5.18).

72) .68 gives q = T 2A (5.42 Hollow tube equilibrium torsion forces.18).42a becomes identical to the membrane shear element in Figure 5. Hence.(2A 0 ) tan 0 Po (5.17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements (al (b) Figure 5. and 5. b. 5. (a) Section of tube subjected to torsion T.41a. F1 is the total longitudinal force due to torsion. the shear flow q is considered constant throughout the cross-section (Ref. The torsional force over an infinitesimal distance dt along the shear flow path is qdt so that the torsional resistance to the externa! torsional moment T in Figure 5.71b can be written at yield as Tn = 2AoArfyv s cote (5. A summation of the total area around the cross sec- tion gives f r dt = 2A 0 (5.64a.295 5. the shear element subjected to pure torsion in the tube wall of Figure 5. substituting for the shear flow q from Equation 5.68) It can be seen from Figure 5. (b) Unit shear element from tube wall of varying thickness h.42a becomes (5. T = F 1 (2A 0 ) cot 0 T = (fDt)(2A 0 ) sin 0 cos 0 (5. Substituting 2A 0 into Equation 5.69) where A 0 = cross-sectional area bounded by the shear flow center line.65. On this basis.70) 0 By neglecting warping. the following three equations of equilibrium for torsion result in F1 T = .71a) where F1 = F1 p 0 and p 0 = perimeter of the shear flow path. Note: I and t denote the longitudinal and transversa directions.71b) (5.42a that rdt in the integral is equal to twice the area of the shaded triangle formed by r and dt.71c) Equation 5.70 into Equations 5.

then A1 A1 =--.43 JL 2Yo (bJ qr=L 2Ao 11ll1C+J11111 (e) q= qv+ qr Hollow section shear flow q due to combined shear and torsion. Ph (fyv) fyi cot 2 e (5. 2 (5.. 5. .37 and 5. they can be defined as follows Mo Va = = 2y0 )(FT)A1fv Yo -s. (a) Bottom Tension Steel Yielding If the failure mode is caused by yielding of the longitudinal bottom stringer (tensile steel) and the transverse stirrups due to combined shear and torsion. Failure can precipitate in two distinct modes: (a) yielding of the longitudinal bottom tension steel and the transverse stirrups.4.17.18) ~+ (J::_) Yo _s_ + (_I__) (Yo + xo) _s__ 1 2 2 (5.296 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design where Tn is the maximum torsional moment strength. (b) yielding of the longitudinal top compression steel and the transverse stirrups.3 Shear-torsion-bending interaction.qT 11111011111 (a) qv= Figure 5.43.76b) 11111[+)11111 qt--t t qv q.43. 5. b b --qb _. The shear flow q will not be the same on the four walls of the box when subjected to combined shear and torsion as shown in Figure 5. The required torsional reinforcement in the transverse and longitudinal directions become Tns A=----1 2A 0 fyv cot 0 A 11 (5.for a two-web box 11111011111 Xo qr--t Yo + t t t r (5.76a) FsYo (5. and T0 are the moments and forces acting alone. If s1 as the longitudinal reinforcement spacing represents the perimeter Ph of the center-line of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement.74b) where A 1=total area of all longitudinal torsional steel in the section. the following expression can be derived from equilibrium (Ref. Consider the rectangular box in Figures 5. V 0 ..74a) 0) where A 11 is the area of one longitudinal bar.75 ) FsYo 2yo Fs AJv 2Ao Fs AJv if M 0 .73) _A1 (fyv) fyi (s cot - 1 --.

0 on the peak planes gives the circular plots shown in Figure 5.C.77b) From both Equations 5.44. -T.297 5.78 for R = 0.76d) FB A nondimensional interaction surface relationship can be obtained by introducing Equation 5.=2A o ~(2Fr)A. Wilden & Assoc.77a and b give + (I_)2= ~ (~)2 2R T V 0 (5.77a and 5. all on the side where shear flows due to shear and tor- .76 into Equation 5.12 The Woodley Park Zoo station.76c) where Po =2(y0 + x 0 ) Fr R=- (5.f. 0. in the bottom bar. and in the transverse reinforcement. s Po o (5. A third mode of failure is caused by yielding in the top bar.25.5. D.75 sucb that (5.). (Co11rtesy. H. Equation 5. and 1.77a becomes -(~) _!_ + (~)2 + M0 R V0 (I_)2= T0 1 (5.78a) 0 Equation 5.. The inlersection of the two failure surfaces for these two fa ilure modes forms a peak interaction curve between V and T tbat Equations 5.77a) (b) Top Compression Steel Yielding Tf the (ailure mode is caused by yielding of the longitudinal top chord (compression steel) and the transverse stirrups.17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements Photo 5. WashingLon.77b tbe interaction of V and T is circular for a constant bending moment M for both failure surfaces.

where Tn = Tj<!> with <!> = 0. 5. left wall (Ref. the shear resisted by concrete. 5. ali the torque is assumed to be resisted by the closed stirrups and longitudinal steel with the torsional moment Te resisted by the concrete compression struts assumed as zero.44 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Shear-torsion interaction diagram. and Bending in Accordance with the ACI 318-08 Code Adjusting in the equilibrium truss model of Section 5.5 Design of Prestressed Concrete Beams Subjected to Combined Torsion. stiffness assumptions.78b) The factored torsional moment strength.1 Compatibility torsion. \j (5. sion are additive i.85.17.78 results as follows .e. In statically indeterminate systems. leading to a reduction of the resulting torsional shearing stresses. compatibility of strains at the joints and redistribution of stresses may affect the stress resultants.{.1).= 2(x0 + y0 ) Tu = <!>4 v'.298 Chapter 5 Figure 5. 5. (A~P) Ppe /1 + __l_ 4v'.Yo = outside perimeter of concrete cross section Aep' in. 5.4. due to the factored loads. Shear.17.15). The ACI Code permits a maximum factored torsional moment at the critical section h/2 from the face of the supports for prestressed concrete members as follows: where Aep Pep = area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross section = Xo. and M used in the previous codes.5. the following are the ACI 318 Code provisions for designing the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement in prestressed elements. In summary. Ref.79) . must equal or exceed the external torsion. <l>Tn. Tu.~ ( __!' V0 T0 V 0 T0 2R (5. A reduction is permitted in the value of the factored moment used in the design of the member if part of this moment can be redistributed to the intersecting members. the web reinforcement for shear is determined by the value of vs = vn . This simplification eliminates the need for the rigor of the lengthy interaction expressions for V.:_)2 + (Z. Ve is assumed to be unchanged by the presence of torsion.17.)2 + v2 (__!:Z_) . T.{. In the calculation of Tn(ACI 318-99. A modified form of Equation 5. At the same time.ve while the web reinforcement for torsion by the Tn value alone.

47 give guidance to the determination of the area A 0 h and the shear flow area A 0 0. If the actual factored torque is less than that given in Equation 5.3.. lead to failure of the structure but may result in excessive cracking if <!>4~(A 2c/Pcp) is considerably smaller in value than the actual factored torque.1.7A bwd (5. Note that in a salid section the shear stresses due to torsion still concentrate in the outer zones of the section as in Figure 5. 8~ far shear without torsion. in.2 Torsional moment strength. in effect. If the wall thickness in the hollow section varies around its perimeter.82 has a maximum value.) :5 <1>(~ + 8 ~) (~) bwd l.80) The size of the cross section is chosen on the basis of reducing unsightly cracking and preventing the crushing of the surface concrete caused by the inclined compressive stresses due to shear and torsion defined by the left hand side of the expressions in Equation 5.17.48a. = 5. Also. the beam has to be designed far the lesser torsional value. the section geometry has to be evaluated at such a location where the left-hand side of Equation 5.82 should be taken as .81) (b) Hollow Sections + ( TuP. Torsional moments are neglected however if far prestressed concrete (5. sq.5. This is similar to the limiting strength Vs::.84(a). in. 5.48b andas discussed in Section 5. The area A 0 h far different sections are given in Figure 5.3 Hollow sections wall thickness. Figures 5.17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements where fe = average compressive stress in the concrete at the centroidal axis due to effective prestress only after allowing far all losses.17.81.85A 0 h in Equation 5. (a) Solid Sections (5.45.79.82 should not exceed the stresses causing shear cracking plus 8~. The shear stresses dueto shear and to torsion both develop in the walls of the hollow section as seen in Figure 5. Ph = perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinfarcement. The sum of the stresses at the left hand side of Equation 5.46 and 5. if the wall thickness t < A 0h/ph the left-hand side of Equation 5.17.5. fc is denoted in the ACI Code as fpc Neglect of the full effect of the total value of externa! torsional moment in this case does not.82) 0h where A 0h = area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinfarcement.299 5. The geometrical dimensions far torsional moment strength in both reinfarced and prestressed members are limited by the fallowing expressions.

17.7A. A 1 is the total cross-sectional area of the longitudinal bars.300 Chapter 5 Acp = XOYO Ao = 0.4 Torsional web reinforcement. (5. If s is the spacing of the stirrups. 1. (TJ<I>) where 1 l Figure 5.S 5.3. Ideally. As indicated in Section 5. Torsional geometric parameters. and A 1 is the cross section of one stirrup leg.46 Shear-flow geometry and effective shear area.4fpu5. equal volumes of steel in both the closed stirrups and the longitudinal bars should be used so that both participate equally in resisting the twisting moments.45 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Note: All stirrups should be closed.83) where fpe > 0.5.0 Mu Vf'c bwdp :'.85 Aoh Aoh =x1 Y1 =shaded area to center line of stirrups Figure 5. .0A Vf'c bwdp 2:: l. Vudp --:::.17. the transverse reinforcement for torsion has to be based on the full externa! torsional moment strength value Trv namely. This principle is the basis of the ACI expressions for proportioning the torsional web steel. The wall thickness t is the thickness where stresses are being checked. meaningful additional torsional strength due to the addition of torsional reinforcement can be achieved only by using both stirrups and longitudinal bars.

47 tions.17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements Flanges prevent cover from spalling d.301 5.= jd Diameter of duct = dd Figure 5. !11 Effective shear width and depth of typical prestressed concrete sec- .

85A 0h in lieu of the analysis.30b). A 1 = cross-sectional area of one leg of the transverse closed stirrups.17.17 and 5. (b) Torsion acts on "tubular" outer-wall section while shear stress acts on the full width of salid section: stresses combined using square root of sum of squares (Equation 7. The additional longitudinal reinforcement for torsion should not be less than _ A1 A1 .302 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design . The angle 0 subtended by the concrete compression diagonals (struts) should not be taken smaller than 30º nor larger than 60º. sq.~ ---. of the concrete disregarded. 0 = angle of the compression diagonals (struts) in the space truss analogy for torsion (See Figure 5. .---. Transposing terms in Equation 5. 1 1 m 1 Wi im m 1 1 1 1 !!!!!!U! ----' ===E Torsional stresses Shear stresses Torsional stresses (a) Hollow section Shear stresses (b) Solid section Figure 5. sq. (a) Directly additive occurring in the left wall of the box (Equation 7. lt can be obtained by analysis as detailed in Ref. As discussed in Section 5.3. in.84a) (See the derivation of Equation 5. 5. Ph (fyt) 2 fy cot 0 (5. namely Te = O.84b) The area A 0 has to be determined by analysis (Ref.84b.85) where ÍyI = yield strength of the longitudinal torsional reinforcement. the factored torsional resistance cJ>Tn must equal or exceed the factored external torsional moment Tu. 7. Te. the transverse reinforcement area becomes A1 s Tn 2A 0 fyt cot 0 (5. (5.000 psi.000 psi.72) A 0 = gross area enclosed by the shear flow path.39).14 and 7. not to exceed 60.2). All the torsional moment is assumed in the ACI 318 code to be resisted by the closed stirrups and the longitudinal steel with the torsional resistance.30b). The shear Ve resisted by the concrete is assumed to be unchanged by the presence of torsion (see Section 5.48 Superposition of torsional and shear stresses.3. in.15) except that the ACI 318 Code permits taking A 0 = 0.17.18 by Hsu. Íyt = yield strength of closed transverse torsional reinforcement not to exceed 60.

The longitudinal bars or tendons should be placed inside the closed stirrups and at least one longitudinal bar or tendon in each comer of the stirrup.6 Sl-Metric Expressions for Torsion Equations In order to design for combined torsion and shear using the SI (System International) method.17.5. The bar diameter should be at least is of the stirrup spacing but not less than a No.. Also. the ACI Code allows a value of 0 equal to (i) 45º for non-prestressed members or members with less prestress than in (ii). b 1 is the width of that part of cross section containing the stirrups resisting torsion.17 Torsion in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements 303 The same angle 0 should be used in both Equations 5.l.<!> cote = . The minimum total area of the additional longitudinal torsional reinforcement should be determined by 5. d being the effective depth and h the total depth of the section. In lieu of determining the angle 0 by analysis.86) lt is necessary to provide a minimum area of torsional reinforcement in all regions where the factored torsional moment Tu exceeds the value given by Equation 5. the minimum area of the required transverse closed stirrups is 50bws (5.7Aoh(Ajs)fyt (5.80. (5. The PCI (Ref. In such a case..85.12) recommends computing the value of 0 from the expression: Tu. the amount of stirrups required by Equation 5.5. At the same time the amount of longitudinal steel required by Equation 5. 5.jfyi· The additional longitudinal reinforcement required for torsion should be distributed around the perimeter of the closed stirrups with a maximum spacing of 12 in. the following equations replace the corresponding expressions in the PI (PoundInch) method (5.5º for prestressed members with an effective prestressing force larger than 40 percent of the tensile strength of the longitudinal reinforcement.79) .85 increases. (ii) 37 . 3 bar. The critica! section in beams is at a distance d from the face of the support for reinforced concrete elements and at h/2 for prestressed concrete elements.5 Minimum torsional reinforcement..84 and 5. 5.17.88) where A 1 Is should not be taken less than 25b.84 decreases. the torsional reinforcement should extend for a minimum distance of (b 1 + d) beyond the point theoretically required for torsion because torsional diagonal cracks develop in a helical form extending beyond the cracks caused by shear and flexure.87) Av + 2A 1 ::::: -fyt The maximum spacing should not exceed the smaller of Pnl8 or 12 in. lt should be noted that as 0 gets smaller..

min - Acp _ 12fy (5. A flowchart describing the sequence of operations in graphical form is shown in Figure 5.:=: (Ve .. Use the lesser of the two sets.\ ~)bwd ~ (0. sin millimeter. and bars should have a diameter of at least h of the stirrups spacing but not less than No. dP and s are in milimeters 16 yt = - Jtb .85) where fyv and fy 1 are in MPa. Min.\ ~ )bwd and Vudp/Mu ~ 1. fyi or fy should not exceed 400 MPa.7A6h - bwd (5.88) where A/s should not be taken less than 0. A 0 .0 Tn = 2A 0 A 1 fy 1 cote s (5..:=: -f.49.4.18 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR COMBINED TORSION ANO SHEAR The following is a summary of the recommended sequence of design steps. .17. Max.+ 8~) -- <<j> l. (bw) v ¡: -f. A 1 in mm2 and Tn in kN-m. A1 s Tn 2A 0 fy 1 cot e _ A1 A1- ----.175 bJfyi· Maximum allowable spacing of transverse stirrups is the smaller oOPh or 300 mm.81) Vu) ( -bwd TuPn) + (- Ve= .82) 12 (A ~/20 + 5~ud)bwd (5.87) (A S 1) (fy1) Ph fy (5. Avr the smaller of Avt - 0. whichever is larger.80) (5.83) (0. 10 M bar size. where bw. A 1in mm2 • 0.304 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design (5. r.- s yt .:.35bws Av= f yl _5~ A/. Ph (5.35bw .:=: ApsÍpu Qf' d 8 ~yt p Avl or s 1 . ph and sin millimeters and A¡.84b) (fy1) 2 fy cot e (5. w 5.84a) where fyv is in MPa.

average stress f08 alter losses. y0 .+ 700 ~dp ) bwd. far pis.. factored the to equivalent at least Vf'c .JP. The critical section is taken at h/2 from the face of the support in prestressed concrete beams.0 u "2'2/. If Tu is less than <PVf¿(A~p/Pcp) Vl + fc14V'[. allowable stresses and strengths. for prestressed members. fyt' fy. concrete stressed that such section the proportioning Tjd. pcp' ph' t. e= 37.-H'b w dp e d ºs5A. and T= torsion: <f> u ¡.. Far compatibility 4-{(' e 10 J1 + (A~P) 4 .7 A!h Vd where ve= (0. Determine the critical section and compute the factored torsional moment Tu.>. --/.\ .5º PIS Calculated factored \{. Classify whether the applied torsion is equilibrium or compatibility torsion.7 A!h + 8 ff) s<t>(~ e bwd Far hollow sections: ~) +( Tuph ) sq. h.(~+aff) ( bwd e bwd 1. torsional effects are neglected. Check whet.------1 can be neglected Far salid sections: ~) ( bwd 2 2 + ( Tuph ) 1.-H'b e w p The cross section has to be enlarged. limit the design torsional moment to the for prelesser of the actual moment Tu or Tu = <P4 Y'[: (A~p/Pcp) Vl + fcl4 to be has Tn strength nominal design the of value The members. Pcp far PIS sections Torsional effects . y1' Acp' A0 . at a distance d from the support.49 Flowchart for the design reinforcement for combined shear and torsion: (a) torsional web steel. (b) shear web steel. bw' d. l.her the factored torsional moment Tu causes equilibrium or compatibility torsion...18 Design Procedure for Combined Torsion and Shear Given: loading.¡--u V $ 1. x 1 . repeat design Figure 5.305 5. Aoh' A 5 .¡p. x 0 . fe is the compressive stress in the concrete after prestress losses at the centroid of the section resisting externally applied loads (termed as fpc in the ACI Code ). support conditions. 2. For compatibility torsion.6 .

)s.1 306 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Ar Tn 5= 2 Ao fytcot 8 where Ao = 0..49b Total stirrups area/two legs.0A Vj:: bwdp ::5 5.4fpu ~¡ ..¡p.6A V f~ + 700 Mu bwdp. Ve = ( • r. the second term should be taken as Tjl.min.Ph . where .:. Fig. Ar bw .. 5. s y s yv Routine to calculate shear reinforcement.o: 25 -..85 Aoh AeAr.. but not less than .:::: 0.7A 0ht. Vudp) 0.0A YJ:: bwdp and fpe . 'Y Ar f.S.f.~ o:3 -¡:-bwdfor+As y ~ o:6-¡:-bwdfor-A5 y Spacing at closed stirrups....:. Minimum bar diameter = s/16 or No. A.:::: 2..7Aoh bwd ::5 If the wall thickness is less than A 0h/ph. . A vr=2Ar+ Avo: 50bwS --¡. End (a) Figure 5. A cp 5. A.49 Continued (a) for solid sections: (b) for hollow sections: + ( Tup~) <1>(~ + 8 ~) (~) bwd l. ~r Ph (~) cot2 8. 5 = area of twoÁ~: of stirrup Maximum allowable s = smaller of 1!8Ph or 12 in. 3 bar for longitudinal bars Arrange the stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement.

000 psi.. Select the required torsional closed stirrups to be used as transverse reinforcement. 5. 3 bar size. but not less than _ 5Vj. END OF ROUTINE (b) Continued Figure 5.5º for prestressed members with an effective prestress not less than the tensile strength of the longitudinal reinforcement.86. use A 0 = 0.0 AVf'c bw d .18 Design Procedure for Combined Torsion and Shear Sub-routine Prestressed concrete: Vc=0.6h'f'c+100 (~:)bwd "5. The additional longitudinal reinforcement should be A1= fy cot 8 (A1) Ph (fyt) 2 ---. ve is the nominal . Calculate the required shear reinforcement Av per unit spacing in a transverse section.min - fy _ (A 1) S fyt Ph fy where A/s shall not be less than 25bw/fyr· Maximum allowable spacing of transverse stirrups in the smaller of lph or 12 in.18) or from Equation 5.1..49 3.Vf'cbwd O • h Vud w1t Mu :s1. and bars should have a diameter of at leastrsof the stirrup spacing but not less than a No.... 4. using a maximum yield strength of 60. Acp Al.85A 0h and 8 = 45º for non-prestressed members and 37. such that A1 s Tn 2A 0 fyv cot 8 Unless using A 0 and 8 values obtained from analysis (Ref.307 5. vu is the factored externa! shear force at the critica! section.7/.

9 A parking garage floor for medium-size cars has the prestressed concrete flooring system shown in Figure 5. 5. Obtain the total Aw the area of closed stirrups for torsion and shear.3 cm) c1 = 41.3 x 106 cm4) cb = 33. The floor is subjected to a service superimposed dead load dueto the double-T's of Wsv = 77 psf (3.19 DESIGN OF WEB REINFORCEMENT FOR COMBINED TORSION ANO SHEAR IN PRESTRESSED BEAMS Example 5.687 Pa) anda service live load of WL = 60 psf (2873 Pa).5m) span precast double-T's are supported by typical precast prestressed concrete spandrel L-beams spanning 36 ft (llm) on centers (Figures 5.0 Mu A = 1. (106 cm) .75 • r.. and 54 ft (16.2 in.308 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design shear resistance of the concrete in the web.75 for all lightweight concrete The value of Vn has to be at least equal to the factored Vj<J>. 2 (4.491 cm2) le = 364. 5. 4 (93.85 for sand lightweight concrete = 0. and Vs is the shearing force to be resisted by the stirrups: Vd _u_::. 1.:.8 in. The depth of the L-beam is chosen as 6'-3" so as to provide a parapet wall for the roof on top of the double-Tee beams. (84.5 m) on centers. Design the spandrel beam web reinforcement to resist the combined torsion and shear to which it is subjected.50. where b1 = width of the cross-section containing the closed stirrup resisting torsion. Given data are the following: Beam Properties Ac = 696 in.50(a) and (b)). and design the stirrups such that Avt 2Ar Av s s s -=-+2: 50bw the lesser of----¡_. The spandrel beams are torsionally restrained by their connections to the supporting columns.520 in.0 for normal-weight concrete = 0. bws V f~-¡Jyt Extend the stirrups a distance (b 1 + dp) beyond the point theoretically no longer required. The floor panels are 36 ft x 54 ft (llm x 16.and Av Jyr = 0.

309 5.9..758 MPa) fpe = 155.3 (180..}'"---==-------'----1 46'-0" ~ 1 124" X 24" 6 3 (1..3 (142....862 MPa) Íps = 255.. ª .....19 Design of Web Reinforcement for Combined Torsion and Shear in Prestressed 8eams Connections designed to torsionally restrain beam 4" f 3'-1" ~y 2" topping 1 1 2'-0" .0 " (11.000 psi (1. _ ~ 1==. normal-weight concrete fy =fyr = 60.' '.H-<if--------·8 spacings at 4'-0" = 32'-0" (9...50 Geometrical details of structure in Example 5.__----16'-0"----- t ! 6'-3" (1. 270 K stress-relieved strands fpu =270...990 in." --- }:.069 MPa) ...=-.0 " -------<~>------17'-0"-------i~ .. <t. (b} Partial plan.91 m) .9 m) 8DT24 + 2" 36'-0" 8 1 r-8DT24+2"-j ' J_' ¡.. S' = 8.~. (a) Section A-A.16"1 '· ~ 1 1 ·lt.5 MPa). ...000 psi (418 MPa) for stirrups Prestressing Aps = six Hn..6 kN.m) f~ = 5.094 cm3) W D = 725 plf (10.000 psi (34.::~~._ ---+- ----+--~- .=-=t- (a) (b) 1-. dia.1 7 ' .895 cm3) Sb = 10..8 m)-----__...0 m)----------~ (e) Figure 5.000 psi (1. (e) Section 8-8. ------16'-0"-----..3 6 ' .720 in.000 psi (1.

straight tendon Disregard the effects of winds or earthquake.2(1.388 ft-lb (60.1 kN) = 9979 + 10. and moment diagrams as shown in Figure 5.041 = 44.000 = 142. X 61.4 kN/m) = 1.918 in.316 = 9979 lb/stem (44.6 kN/m) W50 = 77 X 54 X 4 ft 2 = 8316 lb/stem (37.041 ft-lb (82. and the corresponding service-load values at each transverse stem contact point along the span of the L-beam.6 cm) . L-Beam torsional geometrical details (Step 1) Acp = area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross section = 8 x 75 = 600 in.368 = 20. Tsv VsL acting on L-beam (step 1) (a) Service load W 0 = 725 plf (10.368 lb/stem (46. Aps Pe = 6 X 0. (181. and Mu.8 = 29.316 + 6480 = 14.25) = 71. Calculate Tu.352 lb (474 kN) VsL at face of support = ~ (14.796 . 2 = Apsfpe = 0.5 .5 + 0.2 kN-m) 20 347 ! (Pu X no. Vu. 2 (3871 cm2) Pcp = outside perimeter of concrete cross section = 2(8 + 75) = 166 in.310 Chapter 5 Eps Shear and Torsional Strength Design =28 X 106 psi (193 x 103 MPa) dP = 71.5 + 0.2 X 8. of stems 20.6 X 6480 = 10. (190 cm) e = 71.796 Mu at face of support = X 9 + 725 X 34) = 78.918 X 155.290 lb (633 kN) 2.2 X 725 = 870 plf (12. (11.5 kN) Tu at face of support = ~Pu X arm X no.5 in. (422 cm) x 1 = smaller dimension to center of tie = 8 . Mu.TsL at face of support = Vu at face of support = 14.0 kN) Total PsL per stem = 8.4 cm) y 1 = 75 .41.153 = 0. Vu.5 in.25) = 4. Solution: l.7 kN/m) Wsou WLu Total Pu per stem = 1.347 8 X X 9 = 61. (75 cm).2(1.347 X 9 + 870 X 34) = 106. and construct the torsion.0 kN) WL = 60 X 54 X 4 ft 2 = 6480 lb/stem (28.7 kN) (b) Factored loads W Du = 1.907 lb (351 kN) O Similarly.51.7 in.8 kN-m) 2 12 =. shear.796 lb (65. of stems + factored W 0 X span) = ~ (20.5 in. calculate the values of Tu.347 lb (90.

388) 1 1 Tu (ft.11~.-lb) (M51-) 1 1 (e) Figure 5.4) 1 868.347 lb P51. 1 1 34.. (191 cm) bw =web width = 8 in.(1.347 (14.. (b) Shear.796) 1 6782 1 1 (4932) 1 Symmetrical about center of L-beam 1 106...5 x 71.8) 1 Mu X 103 (ft.5 + 0.5 + 0. (2077 cm ) A 0 = gross area enclosed by shear flow path = 0.000 lb= 44.-lb) (TSL) 20.5 kN 10.4 (644..5 + 1.5 in._ (25.001 '"". lb= 13..5+71.7 (609. dP = effective depth = 75 .51 Force and moment diagrams for beams in Example 5.352 (78.796 lb) 1'-0" Beam Wu WSL --~-4'-o"-f.5 = 322 in.9.6 MPa Pu= 20...0) = 71. Bracketed values are for serviceload level.5)=1 52 in.85 x 322 = 274 in.. 2 (1766 cm2) í .19 Design of Web Reinforcement for Combined Torsion and Shear in Prestressed Beams 10. h =total depth = 75 in..174 (7398) 1 (b) 1 820. ~---Faceof 1 support 61.000 ft...311 5.85A 0h = 0. (182 cm) A 0h = area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional ties 2 2 = (x 1)(y 1) = 4.= (14.... (20.--4'-o" -f--4'-0" -+4'-o"---! = 870 plf = (725 plf) ~--------17'-0"---------i.907) 1'0'.. (e) Flexura! moment.041 (44.094) 1 Vu (lb) (VSL) 10. (a) Torsional moment.3 cm) Ph = perimeter of center line of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = 2(x1 +Yi)=2(4.

9 psi say 589 psi (C) (4.990(6 l.953 in.51.2Mcr = 1. Íce =-(pe + Pee)= -(142.290 X 29. 4. 2 166 ) /1 'V + 204.476 ft.3 =37.( dP - ~) = = 15.4 4 V50oO = 150.80.-lb hence.7 X 106 in.953 in.9 MPa) .5) At the centroid of the section.7) Ac Sb = -(204.102 in.-lb as a conservative value of the torsional moment. Rqd.2 X 9.312 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design 0 = angle of compression diagonals in truss analogy for torsion stressed beams.100 kN-m) l. namely at 3 ft from the face of the support. 990 At the extreme fibers of the section.000 = 15. for disregarding torsion Tu ~ <!>V¡.9 > l.990 = 588.290 + 142.1 MPa) fe= -204.5 .73 X 106 in. b = 0.476) = 651. assume equilibrium torsion con- .OVSOOo X + 589 . ª = 0. torsion has to be considered and appropriate torsional reinforcement provided.+ Íce .000 X 106 in. Min.918 X 106 in.-lb (17. Verify whether torsional reinforcement is needed (Step 2) From Equation 5.85f. Cracking moment capacity (Step 1) fd unfactored dead load stress = From Figure 5. Tu = ! (61.930.041 + 47.918 X X (n.73 Apsfps X 106 = 11.5º for pre- 3.-lb X 255.4 696 + 384.75VS00o (600 4vf. 10.2Mcr = 0.7 0.4 psi Mcr = Sb(6~ Y¡.-lb (1. Hence.-lb (1800 kN-m) 11.0 kN-m) Considering section at h/2 from support face in Figure 5.-lb (73 kN-m) X 12 > 150. Thus. (A~P \ j1 + !cr. Pcp}\j = 0.128) = 9. cot 0= 1. (l 75 mm) Mn = APJP.:.-lb The average value was used instead of 47. The garage elements are all precast.Íd) = 10.000 .~ ) 69 255. mínimum flexura! reinforcement is satisfied for flexure.85 X 5000 X 8 = 6·9 m.51 and wv = 725 lb/ft Íd 725(36) 2 MD = S = X 8 b 12 X 10 1 = 128 psi (0.

8316 = = 40. Vd = ! (40. = 651.5.5 + 34. 5.20.725 X 5 .420 ft-lb Hence Mmax at h/2 = = 3 ft from face of support ! (91.6 X 1.. Mu = 3.-lb (Equation 5. ~ bwdp + Vd + V¡ Mer J Mmax 2: l.7VÍ: bwdp :::..706 lb 28.0 V 5000 X 8 X 71.272.uation 5..73 X 10 ] 2.-lb Rqd.-lb (370 kN-m) Ve. = [o.-lb from before hence.765) = 34.706 + 28.102 5. ! (105. 6 .ovf: bwdp Vd Vd at face of support Vd at point A in Figure 5.5)12 X 1000 in. 5. using the total applied factored Tu in.736 lb (154.347 X 9)5 .:.747 lb 49.747 .347 per stem .268 + 34.11 and Vew from Equation 5.15..482 + 81.8316 Vd at 5 ft.569 20. = [ 0.6A.. Vu = Rqd. from Eq..347 X 9) = 91.347 + 870 X 4 per stem = 79.347 X 4 = 376. Ve.738 + 276.400 in.562 + 376.671 = 335.420)12 = 2.655) = 93.51 for section at h/2 = 3 ft from face of support.706 .19 Design of Web Reinforcement for Combined Torsion and Shear in Prestressed Beams 313 dition and no redistribution of moment..562 ft-lb Factored Mu at 5 ft from face = ! (20.73 X 106 in. Check adequacy of section for torsion (a) Determine Ve as the smaller value obtained for Ve.X 93.738 + 79.569 lb (417 kN) = ! (105.765 lb At the required section at h/2 from face of support.725 X 1 ft . e..5 kN) V¡ = factored shear force at section due to externally applied loads occurring simultaneously with Mmax 20.902 9. namely due to live load and superimposed deadload Factored Mu at point A in Figure 5.9 + 439.902 lb Mmax = maximum factored moment at section due to externally applied load.81 X 106 in.81X10 6 = 24.51 = shear at section due to unfactored dead load = ! (8316 = X 9 + 725 X 34) = 49.677 lb .79 is therefore inapplicable ).::::. from support = 40.-lb Mer = 9.51 dueto the live load and SDL = ! (20. From Fig.

16 .4fpu' the ACI allows using a more conservative expression as in Equation 5.4 MPa) From Equation 5.9 MPa) c1>(b:~ + 8Vf:) = o.:. 6. hence ::iuuu Vew = 3.4 MPa) (e) Check section adequacy ve in solution (a) will be used in this check= 310 psi (2. V¡:= l. vp = osince tendons are straight. ve.0 u Ve = .7Vs00o = 120 psi < 587 psi 5A V¡: = 5. hence section is adequate.75(310 + 8VsOOo) = 656 psi (4.77 X (322)2 V26.290) = .5 MPa) available > 564 psi (3.569 ) + (651.5 3 272 400 = 2 4 ' ' ·º Vud use M > l.102 X 152) ( 8 X 71. Ve = ( 0.8 MPa) actual.81 for solid sections.O.6A V f.ve = (0.15.6 bwd > Ve X ' ~ 1.320 lb (788 kN) (b) Alternate method for evaluating Ve If Ípe > 0.= 354 psi. + 700 2A Yt: bwd ::s 5A Vf: bwd 2: Vudp) Mu bwdp 93.759 + 290.1 MPa) 354 psi = 354 psi (2.0VsOOo 354 psi < 587 psi = U se v ci = 354 psi (2.-lb (96 kN-m) .5 'V~ ~ + 0.46 MPa) l.569 X 71.102/0.3 (142.5 = 177. Torsional reinforcement (Step 3) Tn = Tu/e!> = 651.75 = 868.7A. From Equation 5.0 V 5000 + 700 5"\/i: = X 1.1 MPa).814 = 564 psi (3.137 in. (contro1s) 310 psi< Use ve= 310 psi in this solution Ve= vebwd = 310 X 8 X 71.Chapter 5 314 vci = 335.0) = 742 psi (5.667 X 8 715 Shear and Torsional Strength Design = 587 psi (3. = 1. r. 2 2 93.5 1.

5 in..53 in.> 0.= 2 (A')+ Av = 2 s s s X 0. . s Tn 2Aofyt cot 0 2 X 868.0203 + 0./two legs (0.62 .3 2 = 0. > 12 m.000 = l. use No.017 cm2/cm/two legs) Av. finding (A/s) for the tie size chosen and entering the value of (A.000 = 0./two legs (0. /in.137 3 1.000 X 71.20 = 0.5/16 = 0.19 Design of Web Reinforcement for Combined Torsion and Shear in Prestressed Beams 315 From Equation 5. 2/in.757 lb (555 kN) but Vn < Ve Use minimum shear web reinforcement. to 8.40 in.0067 = 0.0022 in. A. 4 bar. or 12 in.046 cm /cm/one leg) Using the PCI method in whict cot 0 is computed. 5 closed stirrups. 7.006 cm2/cm/two legs). 0 cot0=----l. 80 X 60.000 = 0. 4 bars but reduce the computed spacing of 8.7 mm diameter). s = 0.53) = 8. X = 8 9 X 71. s Minimum bar diameter = s/16 or No. Tu/et> 868. Another alternative for the transverse reinforcement is to use No. Av= 0. Av Available .5 \j S = 0.0473 Maximum allowable spacing smax = ph/8 or 12 in.38b.0022./two legs (0. This gives No.0203 in.f or S yt ApsÍpu 80fyt d l[:. controls.62 in. = 13.ls) into the expression. Shear reinforcement (Step 4) Ve= 310 Vn = .50/0.l m.40 = . bw 0.:.5 x (0. 2 0. 0473 .0473 in./one leg (0.5 = 177.Ve).75Vs000 = 53 Av s 53bw fyt 53 X 8 60. 3 bar= 8.7Aoh(AJs)fyt by assuming a value of s.000 2 X 1. 2/in.0473 > 0.110 cm2/cm/two legs) Assuming No.0071 in. Av s 50bw fyt 50 X 8 60. for No. 4 closed ties (12. Av 50bw Min.0203) X 60. O.= lesser of ./two legs (0. in.2/in.K.918 X 270.137 274 X 60.5.0067 in.000 s 80fyt d \j ¡. = 124.= 0. 85 Avi/s 0.75\/i'c = 0.5 in. 2 s = cross-sectional tie area = 0.7(322)(0.0 in.017 cm2/cm/two legs) fd /7Ll Av = ApsÍpu = 0.320 lb (788 kN) ~:~: 9 Vs = (Vn .31x2 = 0.= 152/8 = 19 in. 4 closed stir- . Av= 2 x 0. 2/in.

A 1 = 5.000 . Therefore. For the reinforcing details to be complete. use closed No. c.21 in. 5 at 12 in. A1 - = 0.52. for this design. H •• •• •• •• 6" 6'-3" (191 cm) •• •• •• •• •• •• #4 closed stirrups at 8 in. 2 No. Details of reinforcement and cross-sectional geometry of the L-beam are given in Fig.21 in. In this case s = 6.7 mm dia. center to center instead of No. 8. dia. of bars 5. 6 . 2 fy cot 0 --¡ Ph (fyt) _A. center to center for transverse shear + torsion web reinforcement.52 12 in.85. 7 wire strands (270K) Reinforcement details of beam in Example 5.000 03 60.min - ¡: Jy (A') fy1 Ph ¡: Jy s = 5VsOoQ X 600 _O 02 X 152 X 60. (12.88. a design of the ledge and hanger reinforcement would be required. _ 5Vfi Acp _ A1. 4 closed stirrups at 8 in.5 in.3) 2 = 5. to c. Note that maximum allowable spacing = 12 in. as well as details of the anchorage of the longitudinal reinforcement at the supports. at 200 mm) 28 #4 longitudinal bars (28. Chapter 10 on the design of connections provides these details. . 60.9.000 = 0. O. 2 controls Using No.~ in. Longitudinal reinforcement (Steps 5-6) From Equation 5. 2 (30 cm2 ) From Equation 5. center to center.2 cm2 ).21 0 20 = _ = 26.K. 5.50 in2 (5. c.05 bars Use 12 No.12.7 mm diameter) at 8 in. Adopt the design. 4 bars.7 mm diameter/face) and add another 4 bars for reinforcing the ledge to give a total of 28 No. c. 4 bars on each face equally spaced (12 bars 12.. center to center is more preferable as it is easier to bend them than the No. Using No. to c. 4 stirrups (12.7 mm dia. to c.20 in.) 8" #4 closed stirrups at Prestressing strands Figure 5. 5 bars.0203 X 152 (:~:~~~) (1. 4 longitudinal bars = 0.Chapter 5 316 Shear and Torsional Strength Design rups spaced at 8 in.

(e) dapper-ended beam on column support. the discontinuity caused by abrupt changes in a section. These regions could be the support sections in a beam.ll(a) and (b). where the standard beam theory applies. pile caps cast with column sections. with the assumption of linear strains. Consequently. (b) beam with concentrated load. and others.20 STRUT-AND-TIE MODEL ANALVSIS ANO DESIGN OF CONCRETE ELEMENTS 5. beam daps. (5. and the choice of locations where the corresponding reinforcement is to be placed.20.llc).1) demonstrates the locations of B and D regions. Figure 5. the strut-and-tie model is applied effectively in regions of discontinuity. portal frames. such as brackets. provision of transverse stirrups along the beam span. . where parallel inclined cracks are assumed and expected to form in the regions of high shear. the zones of load application. Strut-and-tie modeling has been introduced in sorne codes including ACI 318-08 Appendix A. The analysis essentially follows the truss analogy approach. Thus.5. structural elements can be divided into segments called B-regions. J B B (a) D B B D D (b) B D B D (e) B Figure 5.53 (adapted from Ref. Simplifying assumptions in design have to be made when applying this approach to different structural systems. hence the "strut-and-tie" expression. which represent the compressive struts and the tension ties intersecting at the "nodal" points. 5. as in Fig. 5. These simplifications are necessitated because of the wide range of alternatives in the selection of the path of forces. results in truss-like action in which the longitudinal steel provides the tension chord of the truss as a tie.1 lntroduction As an alternative to the usual approach for plane sections befare bending remaining plane after bending. and the others as D-regions. acting as diagonal struts. where the plane sections hypothesis is no longer applicable.53 B-regions and D-regions in beams: (a) continuous beam. The concrete between the inclined cracks carries inclined compressive forces such as in Fig.20 Strut-and-Tie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements 317 5.

56. 5. Significant overdesign is. as discussed by the author in Section 4.3.54 T-T-T Node.3. but represents strength-limit states at the critical sections. Appendix A). Typical nodal zones are shown in Figs. A C-C-T nodal zone can be represented as a hydrostatic nodal zone if the tie is assumed to extend through the nade and anchored by a plate on the far end of the node (Ref.5. as it principally deals with high-overload conditions and with load-carrying capacity. termed as the node.27) and that it does not provide a check on serviceability. and for a continuous beam in Fig.20. This approach is more an art than an engineering science in the selection of the models.57 and 5.55. 5. . required and extensive full-scale tests needed for different structural systems. It should be thus emphasized that this approach is a design method that enables analyzing non-flexura[ regions.21 and Ref. 6. including the possible distribution of the steel re- e\ te I \ I \ \ I I r----c { •T 1 I 1 I 1 I e 'e C-C-T Node. it does not provide a check for the serviceability levels inherent in the semi-plastic methods.1). The nades are classified in accordance with the sense of the forces intersecting at the nodal point.2 Strut-and-Tie Mechanism For equilibrium. Classifications of strut-and-tie nodes. T T C-T-T Node.58 (Ref. as in Figure 5. A typical representation of the strut-and-tie model of a simply supported deep beam is shown in Figure 5. therefore. at least three forces have to act ata joint. C-C-C Node. a C-C-T node resists one tensile force and two compressive forces. the idealizations made in the choice of the force paths render this method less accurate for design purposes. Since this load-path modeling method is a plastic method with stress concentration conditions and load concentration. 6. after excessive deformation and cracking. Such extensive tests were conducted in the case of anchor blocks in post-tensioned beams. particularly as affected by shear and torsion. As an example. simplifications of the paths of forces that are chosen to represent the real structure can considerably differ. 5.1.Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design 318 Therefore. 5. with infinite possible configurations for identifying load paths in structural systems (Ref.54. depending on the interpretation of the designer. Figure 5. where C = compression vector and T = tension vector. Thus. particularly because no unique design solutions are possible. 5.

..p Bottle-shaped strut Nodal zo~.... Strut-and-tie model of a simply supported deep beam subjected to concentrated (e) (b) Figure 5. \ ...55 load on top.. \ \ \ I I I / \ \ \ I I '' \ I 1 Nodal zone \ I I 1 Idealizad '' 1 \ 1 1 I I 1 '\ \ \ ' \ '' \ \ '' / . I I I I ... '..56 Typical strut-and-tie model for continuous beams subjected to concentrated loads on top: (a) positiva moment truss. (b) negative moment truss.. ...-" Node T \ ' '. \ \ .../ / 1 / 1 1 I . ' Tie Figure 5......... ...

Compute the stresses. Serviceability limit checks have thereafter to be applied. inforcement through the nodal zones. which act on the boundaries of the D-region.59 demonstrates the simplified truss model for simply supported deep beams loaded on the top fibers. In order to design the critica! D-region. Select a truss model to transfer the resultant forces across the D-region. Note that nodes A and B at the beam support are compressive nodes as seen by the crushing of the concrete in Fig. 5.59) of the forces in the nodal zones. the following steps need to be taken: l. Fig. 5. 5. 3. as is usually done in a truss analysis (see Fig.57 (b ). it becomes necessary to exercise engineering judgment in resolving the system of forces such that . It is important to recognize that the decisions made in steps 2 and 3 are very critica! in arriving at an efficiently representative model and a safe structure. If more than three forces act at a nodal point as shown in Fig.320 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Node (b) (a) R (e) (d) Figure 5. The axes of the struts and ties are selected to coincide with the axes of the compression and tension fields and the forces in the struts and ties computed. (b) two struts AE and CE acting at node.57 Typical nodal zones: (a) three struts acting at node. The vertical and horizontal components equilibrate the forces in the inclined strut. (d) subdivided nodal zone. replacing them with one or more resultant forces on each boundary. Isolate each D-region 2. (e) support nodal zone.39(d). 5.

provided that tbey satisfy equilibrium and compatibility. That is why no unique solution is possible. tie. Figure 5. 5. bearing area.75 for both struts and ties (similar to the strength reduction far shear) .20. not lcss than 25º.5. (b) distributed steel. 5. 5. lb. j__=!::=:::!!!!::!!!!~!!!!t:::::::.88) where. F. only three forces act at the nodal point. 5.19. is a modified more rigorous model far Example 6. namely. or nodal zone.7. as assumptions based on significant idealizations can widely differ (Ref. where <I> =0.60 (Refs. to follow. in order to avoid any incompatibilities that can rcsult because of the lengthening of the ties and the shortening of the struls occurring in the same direction.20 Strut-and-Tie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements 321 e h._. 5.58 Extended nodal zone demonstrating the effect of distribution of forces: (a) one layer of reinforcing bars. The assumed truss model is one alternative. O ther possible alternative models can also be used. Figure 5.3 ACI Design Requirements (1) Nodal Forces (5. Fns= nominal strength of a strut. than the simplified Fig. lb. tie.::::-~~~- e ---?~---+-~ L=t=f:~~=---t-------t- T e Figure 5.22).20). = factored force acting on a strut.59 of the solution. The angle betwecn the axes of struts and ties that intersect through the node should not be too small. or nodal zone.59(c) represents a simplified idealized truss model for the principal compressive and tensile stress trajectories resulting from the applicd distributed load at the top dcep beam fibers..

5. psi Íce = 0. 1: 0=68 l!h = 2: e= 54 ·t (d) (e) Figure 5. (d) cracking pattern.72h 1 2/3h T In t t (b) (a) w/12 wl/2 i Cracks h Crushing In t· l/h'. (b) elastic stress distribution across beam depth. (2) Strength of Struts (5.20). 2 fce = effective compressive strength of the concrete in a strut or nodal zone. taken perpendicular to the axis of the strut.5.59 Truss model and stress distribution in simply supported deep beams: (a) lines of principal stress trajectories for beams loaded on top. 5.Chapter 5 322 Shear and Torsional Strength Design e -0.89) where Fns = nominal strength of strut.19. in.90) . lb Ac = effective cross-sectional area at one end of a strut.85 13sÍ~ (5. (c) idealized truss model (adapted from Refs.

where A 5.= stress in compression reinforcement.0 for struts which have the same cross-sectional area of the midstrut For f: cross-sectioo in case of bubble struts. lb.003.. in." = effective stress after losses in prestressing reinforcement = increase in prestressing stress beyond the service load level (fP" + 11J. used to dimension nodal zone. where A~= a rea of compression reinforcement in a strul. in. in.92) F.. The re- .323 5. is the total area of reinforcement SI at spacing s. As. ¡ .ma~ = maximum effective height of concrete concentric with thc tie. in a layer of reinforcemeot witb bars atan angJe a 1 to the axis of the strut. Aps = O in Equation 5. (3) Longitudinal Reinforcement Fns = Í ce A c + A~ f. where f3s = 1. the effective height of the tie can be taken as the diameter of the bars in the tie plus twice the cover to the surface of the bars.40 for struts in tension members or te nsion flanges = 0.93) where h. 11i (5. ~ 0. rr the bars in the tie are in one layer..60 Strut-and-tie alternative model for Example 5.. = 0. = =compression. 2 (4) Strength ofTies F111 wherc = Asr/y + A ps (/pe + D.91) in.20 Strut-and-Tie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements Figure 5. 2 A s = area of prestressing reinforcement.92. in. 2 l.75 for struts with reinforcement resisting transverse tensile forces = 0.= area of non-prestressed reinforcement in a tie.) should not exceed fw When no prestressing reinforcement is used. 2 (5.60 all other cases not greater than 6000 psi.fps) (5.1 O (truss sol id lines dashed lines tension).. = nominal strength of tie. the strut configuration and the compressive forces in A · the strul can be satisfied if ~ b s~ sin 'Y.

or straight bars. stipulates that unless confining reinforcement is provided within the nodal zone and its effect is supported by analysis and experimentation.96a) (5.0015 bsh 0.6 in nodal zones anchoring two or more ties The following are two examples of the use of the strut-and-tie method for the design of short span/depth ratio concrete elements: (a) deep beams.85 13n J~ where 13n = 1. max1mum sv ::::. 5 12 in.96b) The shear reinforcement required at the critical section must be provided throughout the deep beams. Under such a condition. The height h of the beam is 6 ft (1.94) where Fnn =nominal strength of a face of a nodal zone. all with full development length.20. lb. mechanical anchorages. It can be assumed that the principal stress directions in the struts and ties act parallel to the axes of the struts and ties. (b) corbels. max1mum sh ::::. 5. the design of a deep beam illustrates the application of the discussed principies in the forgoing sections.83 m) and its thickness bis 20 in. and minimum Avh minimum Av = = 0.05 m) is subjected to a uniformly distributed live load of 81.Chapter 5 324 Shear and Torsional Strength Design inforcement in the ties have to be anchored by hooks. f~ = 4000 psi (27. 5 12 in. (6) Confinement in the Nodal Zone The ACI 318-08. the computed compressive stress on a face of a nodal zone due to the strut and tie forces should not exceed the values given by Eq.10: Design of Deep Beam by Strut-and-Tie Method A simply supported deep beam having a clear span In= 10 ft (3.1): Íce = (5.000 lb/ft (1182 kN/m) on the top.0025 bsv (5. d . the stresses on faces perpendicular to these axes are principal stresses. (5) Strength of Nodal Zones (5.6 MPa) fy 60. posttensioning anchors. 5. 5.95) 0.8 in nodal zones anchoring one tie = 0. (7) Orthogonal Shear Reinforcements that Cross the Compression Struts Av= total area of vertical reinforcement spaced at sv in the horizontal direction at both faces of the beam Avh =total area of horizontal reinforcement spaced at sh in the vertical direction at both faces of the beam d . Appendix B.4 Example 5. .0 in nodal zones bounded by struts or bearing stresses = 0.000 psi (414 MPa) = Design the beam reinforcement for this beam by the strut-and-tie method.95 (Ref. 2 An = area of face of a nodal zone ora section through a nodal zone. and not prestressed. in. While deep beams are most likely designed as reinforced concrete members. (508 mm).

2 by Nawy). cot 58. for horizontal shear reinforcement and Av. Compressive forces in each of the compressive struts EC and FD = 876.5. Figure 5. ACI-318 Code requires an area Avh .O" 3 3 ( 7") Length CD= 11' .42 .:.75 = 876.62º. Strut inclination angle 0 in Figure 5. Figure 5. The ensuing truss model can be considered to simulate the stress trajectories of the principal stresses.2 X X 150 = 1500 lb/ft (21.67 -1.000 vn = ~ = ü.20 Strut-and-Tie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements 325 Solution: Check ln!d and evaluate factored shear force Vu (Step 1) Assume that d = 0.59 and detailed in Fig. b. 12 = 1. Assume de = cover to centroid of tensile reinforcement = 7 in. giving a tie force in truss member AB = 534.67 < 2. Idealized equivalent concentrated load is Pu = 2w) = 131. 5.9 kN/m) 1500 + 1..:: 0. ( C-C-C node ).85 <4 Hence treat as a deep beam.400 lb/ft.:. (1651 mm). Eqs. 5. leading to reduced reinforcement areas (see Ref.6l(b) are computed in the usual manner. Vertical distance of node C in Figure 5..06. .000 = 131.000 lb.6l(a) from the centroid of the tensile reinforce2h 2X 6 ment=.0. ( C-C-T node ). giving a strut force in CA= 1. 5.0015 bw S¡.= 4' .000 lb.:: 0. beam self-we1ght total factored load = 20 X 72 144 = 1. . hence a deep beam.0) = 68 .62º Assume supports center line span = 11 ft 5 in.(68 .4.9h = 0.61) Pu 657.0025 bw sh for vertical reinforcement. idealizing the distributed load into four or six equivalent concentrated loads would have reduced the compressive forces in the struts and the tensile forces in the ties.5" . 5.67 X 14 = 58. However.400 lb/ft (1942 kN/m) (1) Truss model selection The uniformly distributed load on the beam top is idealized by two concentrated loads as shown in Fig.5.25 ft. i = 10.61( d) gives the intersecting forces in the D-region of node A.9 x 6 x 12 = 65 in. Evidently.61./strut (see F1g. 5. l/h = 10/6=1.17 = 12 7. in order to control cracking.62º Intensity of total factored distributed load is w u = 131.= . as the vector sine and cosine components of the inclined struts at the assumed 0 = 58.026.2 4' - = 11.293 lb.59(c) is interpolated between 0 = 68º for l/h :s 1 and 0 = 54º for l/h = 2 (Ref.6 X 81. 5.000 lb.61( c) gives the intersecting nodal forces in the D-region of node C.400 2 X 10 . Hence.96 a.54)(1.20). 0 = 68. = 657. (2) Vertical and horizontal components of forces in the truss model The compressive forces in the truss shown in Figure 5.082 lb. (3) Vertical and horizontal reinforcement across depth of beam web Horizontal web requirement is not required as part of the truss.

i ·t /=11'-5" Vu = Wull2 e= 68º for llh :5 1 =54ºfor llh=2 Vu = Wull2 (a) P/2 P/2 (b) 876.Chapter 5 326 Shear and Torsional Strength Design F E n i~ ...7'-3" _ _ _ ____.. 7" ~-------/ n t..000 lb e 534..61 Truss-and-tie model in Example 5. (d) forces on joint A (C-C-T node). T = tension)... ..293 lb 876. = 10'-0" --------..000 lb (e) (d) Figure 5.293 lb A 534..1 O: (a) idealized truss model.. (c) forces on joint C (C-C-C node). (b) truss forces (C= compression..

92. which is within the available area of the deep beam.40 in.003..026. 5. X 60.O . Min Av= 0.854 ~ :±: 6000 psi = ~ As. adopt the reinforcement in item (3). . namely. the minimum reinforcement crossing the struts for As. 10 bars.0025 b~v = 0. = 210 m. From Equation 5.K.75 = 0. O. 2).1. .550 A. Vertical web requirement to control cracking: assume a spacing of 8 in. 60. hence OK. assumed in constructing the truss model dimensions.89.2 in. minimum required strut width = 344/20 = 17. From Eq.62º where sin 'Y 2 = 0. 4 bars at 8 in.001 4 = Hence.293 . 2 As. No.90. 0. sin 'Y. hence.9m. which is available within the beam area. 10 bars in 4 layers of two bars at 3 in. on centers.0015 bw sh = 0.0034 > .7 7.000 = 2.15 in.8. ~ 0. 4 bars at 12 in.5 =7 in. Width of CA. 2 550 :º 2 = 20. 0.00 1~. 2 Fns . . 2 Use No. From Equation 5.93. on centers. f.K.75 X 4..026.402 m. (4) Check of orthogonal shear reinforcement crossing compression strut As given in Sec.s. compressive strength of concrete in a strut or nodal zone is Íee = 0.000 . (5) Strength of struts From Equation 5.082 .293 hc.000/2550 = 344 in.521 = inclination of horizontal reinforcement to the strut = 58.S. O. the maximum height of concrete concentric with the tie for dimensioning the nodal zone is 534. on centers as vertical reinforcement in each of the two faces of the deep beam.082 lb.3. 2 Use No.2. = = 0.082 .fee Ae or 1. cover + 3+1. or 534.0020 + 0. DB = (6) Strength of ties Required strength Fnt = 534. for struts EC and FD. -b sm y.026. on centers.60 X 0.550 psi. Aes = 876. 4 bars at 8 in. Trying No. de= 2.003. . b. 0 Similarly. c/c for vertical reinforcement and No.0015 X 20 X 12 = 0. hence Ae .854 20 X 8 20 X 12 0. n = = From Equation 5..85 J3J~ where 13s = 0.96(b ).max = Fnc/Íee = 2 550 .0025 X 20 X 8 = 0. 4 bars at 12 in. Min Avh = 0.1 in.38º where sin 'Yi = 0.20. .20 Strut-and-Tie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements 327 Assuming a spacing of 12 in.40 X 0. 5.36 in.85 X 0. :S 'Yi 'Y 2 = inclination of vertical reinforcement to the strut = 31..293 lb. on centers as horizontal reinforcement in both faces of the deep beam (= 0. c/c for horizontal reinforcement for both faces of the deep beam.293 =As.40 in.521 + 0.l 5. DB is Fns = 1.0 Use 8 No. Required strength of struts CA.534. 2 .

15 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 2.026.19) in idealizing the stress trajectories ofthe principal stresses in the deep beam.5 Example 5. 5. normal weight concrete fy fyt = = 60. Careful engineeringjudgment has to be exercised in the selection of the path of forces on the basis of the principies outlined in Section 5. Maximum allowable concrete strength in the nodal zone anchoring two or more ties is Ícu = 0.20. using one !ayer of reinforcing bars. since the stress in the concrete in the nodal zone did not exceed the calculated permissible fce = 2.62.59. andan effective depth d = 14 in.20. Surface area of node perpendicular to CA: .000 = 2..85 13n f ~. 20 X 14 14 ) l = 537 m. Such a truss model could have the form shown in Fig. cose From Equation 5. B.58.. Note that the entire corbel is a D-region structure because of the existing statical discontinuities in the geometry of the corbel and the vertical and horizontal loads. Assume the corbel is monolithically cast with the column. (356 mm). An = 20 ( . Assume the corbel to be monolithically cast with the column. 5. the nominal strength of the nodal force is Fn = Íce An = 2. where 13n = 0.040 psi. and the dashed lines denote compression strut action (C). (127 mm) from the face of the column.040 psi. 5.000 lb The following are the truss member forces calculated from statics in Fig.20 Vu = 16.62 denote tension tie action (T). Hence. The nodal points A.62. development the (7) Strength of nodal zones From Equation 5.3.480 lb.000 psi (414 MPa) The supporting column size is 12 X 14 in.5 MPa). below the top extreme corbel fibers. 2.6 or fcu = 0.11 : Design of Corbel by the Strut-and-Tie Method Design the corbel in Example 5.15 = 13. accept. 5. and effective depth d = 14 in. D result from the selected strut-and-tie model. 5. say 14 in. Check length.22).Chapter 5 328 Shear and Torsional Strength Design Actual tie height = 2.6 x 4.040 X 537 = 1. O.082 lb. C.1 to determine whether the resulting reinforcement is excessive or relatively efficient.85 x 0. Confinement of the nodal zone is not required. > 1.60 (Ref. assuming that the center of tie AB is located at a distance of 4 in. adopt the design.000 lb (160 kN) acting at a distance av = 5 in. 10 bars using hooks at bar ends with full development length. 5. The solid lines in Fig.095.) Selecta simple strut-and-tie modelas shown in Fig. Anchor the 8 No. are based on the requirement that the vertical dimension of the corbel outside the bearing area is at least one half the column face width of 14 in. Another truss model simulating the uniformly distributed load on the top of the beam by four concentrated loads instead of two could have reduced the amount of the horizontal reinforcement.K. Solution: l.= 2 5 o. Strut-and-Tie Truss Forces Nue = 0. 5. Also assume that horizontal tie DC lies on a horizontal line passing at the re-entrant comer C of the corbel.. It has a width b = 10 in. (457 mm). a total depth h = 18 in. Principies of equilibrium and compatibility have to be maintained in any chosen model (Ref. and neglect the weight of the corbel in the computations. (254 mm).7 to support a factored vertical load Vu = 80. (column size: 12 X 14 in. The total depth h = 18 in. . Given: f~ = 5000 psi (34.

652 -¡¡--.= 89.s 00 11 .:.872 lb.652 in. I •4 .5.¿ o o o 00 JT / \~ ¿ . \.. 14 e) Compression strut AC: FsA = 80.000 lb. F8 c = 80.20 Strut-and-Tie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements 329 I I ~Resultant "!·.. B +56.11. d) Tension tie AD: ' ¡ FAD = 112.oooV(8)2 + (14) 2 8 = 112. .1-+-1------1~ ".---+-(1-4~)2 = 15.e "O / 60º 15' \ D e D' : <I :· • ··.000 FAc = X 56.000 lb.000 lb A \ / .. Figure 5. .443 lb. . .·. ·.:9 Line Vu =80.000 lb \'á'¿ ~/ \ . . .872 X 14 Y(8) 2 + (14) 2 = 98. .000 = 56.000 X 15. b) Tension tie BA: 7 + 16.: . . 5 in. a) Compression strut BC: Length BC = Y~(7-)2.. ··:<I 4 5! X 5! in.62 Strut-and-Tie Model in Example 5.s :::!: 11 ~~63° 25' /' ~ / ¡.. " 10 in.

O 2'.88 in. node B below the bearing plate and node C in the re-entrant corner to the column.000 lb. 2 as in Example 5.2 __1_6_.40.28 in.75 X 0.0 in.8513s fe'.o_oo 0. 2 > 0. O.66 in.K. f) Tension tie CD: Frn = 56.Chapter 5 330 e) Compression strut CC': Fcc = 80.1.36 m. Use 5 Yz X 5 Yz in.2 m.45 in.63.75 for bearing in strut-and-tie models . 2 to form part of the cage shown in Fig.63. 2:-b-.64 in.ce( 10 - ~s) = 80k(5 hence. These top bars in one layer have to be fully developed along the longitudinal column reinforcement. Tie Reinforcement Design 5. = + 10) + 16k X 18 to give ~s = 1.000 lb Shear and Torsional Strength Design 3. A.75 X 60. 2 80.11) = 0. 75 0 85 . Area of plate is A 1 = 80. Steel Bearing Plate Design Ícu = <1>(0. namely. 2 16. c.000 ( .0045 > 0.000 .s CD = ' Use 2 # 6 tie bars = .000 25 10 · m. 3 # 7 bars = 1. to c.75 X 60.. fits within the available concrete dimension about . 2 Try 3 # 3 closed ties evenly spaced vertically as shown in Fig. 3. conservatively. giving Ah = 3(2 X 0. 0.11) 14 X 3 .000 = 178. Both nodes are CCT nodes and considered unconfined.36 in.000 Hence. Horizontal Reinforcement Ahfor Crack Control of Shear Cracks Where An = reinforcement resisting the frictional force Nue _ _ = 0.50(1.000 + 98.K.32 in. 0. Strut Capacity Evaluation (i) Strut CC' The width ws of nodal zone Chas to satisfy the allowable stress limit on the nodal zones.003 sin 60º15' = 0.. 2(0. 2 56.: 0.sm a. s.000 = 16.75 is used for calculating the effective concrete compressive strength in the struts in the following section.000 = 0.000 0. Ah = 0. 5. the minimum reinforce' ment provided has also to satisfy: Ah/ tie . 5.85f~) where <I> = 0.. plate and selecta thickness to produce a rigid plate. 6.003 O. Fu. strut width ws the strut center line.36) = 0..45 in.000 Use 3 # 6 bars = 1.000 . 4.75 X 60. 2 . 2 . Because 13s = 0. 5.85 X 5000 = n 0.7. -0.80 in. Hence adopt 3 # 3 closed ties at 3. where fcu = 0.25 . or.0. spacing.

11 ).0 in._5! X 5! in .5. of strut A C ll2.----. 5. (ii) Strut BC Nominal strength is limited to Fns = Íeu Aes.28 Available factored Fus.s 00 .20 Strut-and-Tie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements :4 : ! ·.87kip .8 kip > required F8 c = 89.188 X 14 = · m. . 2 <1> Fns.. 11 Il 2 No. Aes at node C = 14 X 3. .85 X 0.4 kip.50 in. 6 framing bars • q • 4. 3 37 0. of all struts fit within the corbel geometry.. :. shows there is a mínimum clear cover of 2.75 X 3.c = = 0. Examination of the corbel and column depth of 12 in. while at node B. the node width can be assumed equal to the steel plate width of 5./ Primary tension steel A~ r JT 9 in.. at node C. q• .92 = 109. OK (iii) Strut A C Required width..188 X 45.. 4 Figure 5. w.. from the outer concrete surface. -·· ..92 in.-+-+---. namely. L . where Íeu = 0. ..-i 1 •4q.188 ksi Aes is the smaller strut cross-sectional area at the two ends of the strut. ws.. 5.75 X = 45.85f3Jc' Íeu = 0.75 X 5000 = 3188 psi = 3.63 Corbel reinforcement details (Ex. =3No.S ..c 3... Adopt the designas shown in Fig..63. 331 Vu q 4 4 4• 1Oin. Hence the widths.

use Mu = 1.4 cm = 696 in2 = 4490 cm 2 e = 26.fc = 1. Cracking moment capacity sb = 180.094 + .000 X 75. = 75. Sb 633. = 66.92 cm2 <ti for shear and torsion = 0.41 MPa 4490 X 102 Pe + = .3 cm A 0 = 0.000 = 1.7 mm diameter = 5. L-Beam torsional geometrical details = x1 = h = Aoh = 0= Acp 3870 cm2 11.-X-102 + 2.5 cm sb = 10.000 MPa Aps fy = 414 MPa = 6 tendons 12.7 in.Chapter 5 332 Shear and Torsional Strength Design 5. Solution: l.290 lb= 633 kN Ac Vud 1.85 1 Pa = N/m2 4.7 cm 191 cm 2077 cm2 37. 3.1 MPa From Example 5.0 e = 29.9. See calculation step 2 in Example 5.3 cot2 0 = 1.51 factored Tu = 73 kN-m factored Vu = 417 kN factored Mu = 370 kN-m 417 X 182 cm 37.= Je fps = 1760 MPa Ac Pe t.4 180.21 SI COMBINED TORSION ANO SHEAR DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED BEAM Example 5.990 in3 = 180.9 using the SI procedure and ACI Shear value obtained from Equation 5.9.9.65 = 4. See calculation step 1 in Example 5.14 MPa .= 141 .5 MPa fpu = 1860 MPa Es= 200.12 Solve Example 5.05 > Pe= 142..ce =Ac = 1.16 in Example 5.0.5º Pcp = 422 cm Ph = 2(x1 + y 1) = 386 cm d = 182cm y 1 = 181.6 cm bw = 20. 2.69 From Figure 5.41 + - Pee .9.06 say 4.2 in.094 cm3 n = 34.85Aoh = 1766 cm2 cot 0 = 1.000 kN-m = 2.094 cm 2 633.

2Mer + Íee .82 370 = 2.N-m = 1800 kN-m 2 X l.-17. torsional reinforcement is required.3 = 17·5 cm Nominal moment strength. The garage elements are all precast. Mu= 385 kN-m. From Equation 5. use 1. allow.9.85f.2 ª= X 900 = 2. = 0. = 5. Vu = 434 kN.85v'34.3 = 900kN-m 1080 kN-m ApsÍps 5. = 0.6 kN-m.05 > 1.(A~p))l + 12 T = u Pep o.5 X 20.3 MPa Ve= Ve = bwd ve= 0.5 2Q + 5 )= 5. Verify whether torsional reinforcement is needed From Equation 5. 5. Check adequacy of section far torsion From Figure 5.0) X 10.51 and the acting torsional moment value from Example 5.6kN-m From Figure 5.81 for solid section.094(~ + 4.0 . Hence.0 (v34.Íd) = 180.21 SI Combined Torsion and Shear Design of Prestressed Beam 333 Íd = unfactored dead load stress = 289 psi = 2. 2 ) / V1 + 3 x 1.4fpu where f ~ is in MPa 417 Max.9. 6.5 ((3870) 12 422 3fe V¡.5 = 18.5. From Equation 5.4v'34. X 1. Tu::.85 X 34.9 cm2 X 1760 0.5 = 2.92 > 1760 ( 182 .80 for fpe > 0.51 at h/2 from face of support and values computed in Example 5.4 MPa controls.14 x 10 _ 3 kN-m \/34.0 MPa Mer = Sb(!~ l.4V¡. X 1.0. ~V¡.2Mcr = 1080 kN-m hence flexura! reinforcement is satisfied for flexure. assume equilibrium torsion condition with no redistribution of torsional moment using the total applied factored Tu= 73 kN-m.06 - = 1.80. Tu= 73 kN-m > 18.5) .

017 = 0.018 mm /mm/two Pegs 2 f182Q 592 X 1860 80 X 414 X 1820 \j 2o3 2 = 0.35bw -. A.35 X 20.017 cm /cm/two legs = =---¡. Maximum allowable s = ph/8 or 30 cm= ph/8 = 386/8 = 48 cm Av Min. - s = 0.75 ( 2.35bw ApsÍpu lesser o f .35bw = 0.7 X 0.051 cm2/cm/one leg 8. and s are in millimeters 0.051 s s s + 0.84b.119 . d.8 MPa Z = 0. ( .8 m.017 cm2/cm/two legs = 1 \/34. to c.0 MPa = 4.3 = 0.006 cm2/cm/two legs controls .= fyt 1 16 Vif ApsÍpe 80fy 1d G..) 0. hence section is adequate. 10 M closed stirrups are used Av = 2 X 100 = 200 mm2 = 2.5 X 1012 N/m2 = 4.06 mm /mm/two legs = 0. Av ----¡- 0.17 mm2/mm/two legs 414 = 0.f . Tn s 2A 0 fy 1 cot0 97 X 10 3 2Xl766X414Xl.17 cm 6.4 + 8\/34.208 = Y1422 X 106 + 15.2 X 1.82 1. Ve= 1796 kN > Vn = 556 kN.or .0 cm2 _ cross-sectional area _ Avi/s s - ~ _ .Shear and Torsional Strength Design Chapter 5 334 3 2 2 3 417 X 10 ) + (73 X 10 X \86) ( 0.75 = 97 kN-m From Equation 5.3 0. c. hence provide only minimum reinforcement for shear. 7.414 2 Avi = 2 (A')+ Av = 2 X 0. Torsional reinforcement Tn = Tu/<!> = 73/0.0 MPa actual.d yt ) f1: dp where bw.9.80fy.35 X 203 = 0.5 16 fd \j hw = (~~·:) = 0.119 cm2/cm/two legs Assuming No.5) ( ve + l8Vi.) 12 <!> bwd available > 4.0. Shear reinforcement From Example 5.

a design of the ledge and hanger reinforcement would be required.¡: 12:!yl s ¡: Jyl 5\134.3 mm). 9. and Commentary to the Building Code Requirements far Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318R-08) American Concrete Institute.85.06.0 = 33.J. Strength in Shear of Beams without Web Reinforcement. 2009.4 5. For the reinforcing details to be complete. N.046 12 X 414 X 386 (414) 414 = 22.17 > 0. Farmington Hills. of bars = 33. 452. Zwoyer. 465 pp. A.M. Upper Saddle River.3cm2 From Equation 5. As= 1. G. H.. A.3 cm2 controls Using No. NJ: Prentice Hall. E.5 ACI Committee 318. Nawy. 6th Ed. _ 5'\/f: Acp _ A (fyv) Ph 1 A/. K.K. Reinforced Concrete-A Fundamental Approach. 10 M bars (11. Note that maximum allowable spacing s = 30 cm 191 . Urbana.3)2 414 = 33. 10 M bars.--¡ Ph = 0. . April 1959.. Engineering Experiment Station. MI: 2008.7 = 5. P. C. Chapter 10 on the design of connections provides these details. 10 M bars on each face of the L-beam equally spaced. Longitudinal reinforcement From Equation 5. "The Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Corbels. 1986. Nawy. O. C.A¡ A. to c.. . Building Code Requirements far Structural Concrete. E. 10 M bar= (18/16) x 10 mm= 11. E.5) In this cases = = 12 cm 0.2(1..3 bars Use 17 No. K. University of Illinois. and Siess.Selected References 335 Available Av= 0.3/1. as well as details of the anchorage of the longitudinal reinforcement at the supports. SELECTED REFERENCE S 5." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete /nstitute 21 (1976): 52-77.: Prentice Hall.17. (ACI 318-08).3 mm= available No.min - = .88. Illinois: Bulletin No. Use No.. Sozen. G. Miminum bar diameter = s/16 or No. 936. and Soogswang. Chen.3 5. O.9 . pp. Upper Saddle River.5 X 3870 _ 0.1 5.2 5. 15 Adopt the design. . M. 10 bars at 18 cm c. Simplified Reinforced Concrete.2cm2 A 1 = 33.0 cm2 No.K.051 (fyt) fy cot X 2 0 386 ( 414) (1.K. Mattock.

Proceedings. M. Schlaich. K.. 1 j l . "Concrete-The Sustainable Infrastructure Material for the 21st Century." Keynote Address Paper. pp.. ASCE. Hsu. Van Nostrand Reinhold." Concrete International Journal. G. Collins." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 13 (1968): 34-44. D.25 5. K. 551-556. 1981. Paris. and Commentary on the Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete.C.pp. W. T. O. 1-24. MI. P." PCI Journal.15 5. 318-63. P..A. 1987. "Shear and Torsion Design of Prestressed and Non-Prestressed Concrete Beams. C. 1978. and Jennewein. T. March 1983. J.Chapter 5 336 5.C. May-June. C. H. 1963. "Detailing of Concrete Structures (in German). Viewpoint Publications. Reprint No. M. 24. Farmington Hill. T. P. "A Variable Angle Space Truss Model For Structural Concrete Members Subjected to Complex Loading. Nawy. T. Prestressed Concrete Institute. D. Weischede. E. 105-115. E. and Bardhan-Roy.." Keynote Address Paper. Comité Euro-International du Béton.26 Shear and Torsional Strength Design ACI Committee 318.17 5. K.21 5. P.. Reineck. pp. Washington. "Prestressed Concrete Members under Torsion." Concrete lnternational Journal (CI). Farmington Hills. Nawy. Hsu. 313. Nawy." Journal of the American Concrete Institute 13 (1976): 26-32. T. of Structural Division." SP 55-22. September 19. 1991.. Tjhin.10 5. New York.14 5.9 5. Prestressed Concrete Institute. D. 2007. 3206-3225.7 5. National Research Council. T. Vol." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 25 (1980): 32-100. E. Transportation Research Board. B. No. P. "Shear Transfer in Concrete and Polymer Modified Concrete Members Subjected to Shear Load. C. Schlaich. 32. CRC Press. and Jirsa. 116 No. Bergmeister. 122-124.24 5. E-C103.. and Hsu. T. G. The First International Conference on Recent Advances in Concrete Technology. 318-63. Hsu. 1990. January 2002. 83-97. New York.23 5.11 5. 1979. Schaeffer. 1983.16 5. J. March 1982. and Zia. D. 1993. K. T. "Concrete-The Sustainable Infrastructure Material for the 2/st Century... and Ukadike. MI. 1994. pp.19 5. 3423. G. Farmington Hills. Crystal City. M. "Shear Flow Zone in Torsion of Reinforced Concrete.. American Concrete Institute. J.. MI: American Concrete Institute. 74-150.12 5.6 5.8 5." Bulletin d'Information 150. McGee. Zurich.. 3d Ed.. American Concrete Institute. No. Unified Theory of Reinforced Concrete. London. "ACI 318-02 Shear Provision on the Design of Deep Beams.. Nawy. Prestressed Concrete Designer's Handbook. pp 1-23.. Design for Torsion and Shear in Prestressed Concrete.. September 2006. Shear and Bending. v. American Concrete Institute. 2002. B. Hsu. Nawy. Manual of Design and Detailing of Precast and Prestressed Connections. T. American Concrete Institute. pp 547-587. Corbel at Column. 1. Chicago. G. pp. 163 pp. Ed. G. D.18 5. Breen." Journal of the American Society for Testing and Materials. Nov. Torsion in Reinforced Concrete. Farmington Hills.. Rabbat.. Zia. M. E. Chicago: Prestressed Concrete Institute. 2003." IABSE Colloquim Stuttgart 1991.20 5. pp.. Abeles. Farmington Hills. T.13 5. G. "Toward a Consistent Design of Structural Concrete. 11.. 2006. E. "Dimensioning of the Nades and Development of Reinforcement. J. Journ. "Discussion of Appendix A of ACI 318-02. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. ACI SP-208 on Strut and Tie Models. C. Washington. and Mitchell. pp. and Collins. C. International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering. E. M. Boca Raton. "Torsion in Structural Concrete-Uniformly Prestressed Members without Web Reinforcement. ASCE Annual Convention. pp. W. Tin. PCI Design Handbook 6th Ed. No. on the Strut and Tie Method. 3. MI. D." Vol. and Kuchma. Prestressed Concrete lnstitute.22 5.

5 MPa).350 in. (81.6 kN/m) and a superimposed service live load WL = 2. Use #3 stirrups in your design.9 m) and is subjected to a service superimposed dead load WSD = 450 plf (6.337 Problems PROBLEMS 5. 2 (3.03 X 10 cm ) r2 = 495 in.3 kN/m) ec = 32 in. lt has a span of 75 ft (22. (63.300 in.3 cm) ee = 2 in.1. 4 (18. and detail the section.1 A post-tensioned bonded prestressed beam has the cross section shown in Figure P5.86 Wd = 910 plf (13.000 psi (44.1.400 in.5 cm) S1 = 17 .500 psi (24. 1 39" (99cm) 7" 5!" 2 M (46cm) Figure P5. = 25 in. (96. The following data are given: Ac = 876 in. Design the web reinforcement necessary to prevent shear cracking (a) by the detailed design method and (b) by the alternative method ata section 15 ft (4.300 plf (33. normal-weight concrete 3.3 (2. r . 3 (1.1 MPa) 48" _ _ J ¡-(122cm) L_ ---¡ ____ l r+ 1 ~3" 3"~ :. The profile of the prestressing tendon is parabolic.2 (5. (5 cm) ¡. = f~.652 cm2 ) 4 6 le = 433.6 kN/m). = 5.6 m) from the face of the support.194 cm 2) e.83 X 105 cm3 ) X 105 cm3) cb = 38 in.5 cm) Sb = 11..

Given data are as follows: ¡.6 m) is situ cast on the precast section of Problem 5. low-relaxation strand fps = 189. Compare the results with those obtained using the PCI coefficient of friction.4. dia (12. If the top surface of the precast section is unroughened. (2.7 mm dia) 7-wire tendons 5.7 MPa) for the topping. (35.000 psi (1.13.7 mm) dia 7-wire strands 8..000 psi (1.8 MPa) fpe six !-in. . (topping) = 3.197 Pa) plus selfweight Wv = 31 psf (1. The values of the section properties are as follows: Figure P5.000 psi (1. normal weight fpu = 270.076 MPa) Stirrupsfy = 60. (precast) f .. Use the ACI coefficient of friction for determining the area and spacing of the shear-friction reinforcement.500 psi (1.2 m) and is subjected to a service dead load Wsv = 25 psf (1. 5.2 Find the shear strengths Ve.8 MPa) fpu = 270.000 psi (41.000 psi (20.1.3 Assume that a 4 in. = = 5.000 psi (1.000 psi. (10 cm) topping of width b = 8 ft 6 in.303 MPa) = 156. The tendon is harped at midspan.484 Pa) anda service live load WL = 45 psf (2.500 psi ¡.4 A 14 in. design the necessary dowel reinforcement to ensure full composite action.4.3 cm) ee = 4.000 psi (41. in the solution. (12.675 MPa) fpe = 157.086 MPa) Aps = twenty-four !-in. Ve. It has a span of 40 ft (12.000 psi.338 Chapter 5 Shear and Torsional Strength Design fyt for stirrups = 60.155 Pa).01 in. lightweight concrete 3. Design the web-shear reinforcement at ~dP from the support and at quarter span by (a) the detailed method and (b) the alternative method. (20. and Vcw for the beam in Problem 5. (11. and use fe= 3.6 cm) standard PCI double-T simply supported beam is shown in Figure P5. 5.862 MPa) low-relaxation strands fps = 243. and plot the variations in their values along the span in a manner similar to the plot in Figure 5. and then compare the two designs.5 cm) Aps ec = = Use dP = 10 in.000 psi.1 at 1/10 span intervals along the entire span.51 in.

687 Ma) anda service live load of 60 psf (2.000 lb/ft (1601. Detail the reinforcing arrangements for the bracket. and that the column surface at the bracket location was not roughened before casting the bracket. Is is subjected to a uniform factored load on the top fibers of intensity w = 120. (355. (101.000 psi (34. 3 31 psf 7. normal-weight concrete fy = fyt = 60.49 in. (3. including its self-weight. Assume that the bracket was cast after the supporting column cured.508 in.7 span l = 11 ft 6 in. 4 12. Given: fe'= 4500 psi (31. Use both the strut-and-tie method and the shear friction approach in your solution.000 lb (556 kN) acting ata lever arma= 4 in. 4 10. 5. 3 1.5 Designa bracket to support a concentrated factored load Vu = 125.873 MPa).9 for combined shear and torsion assuming that the centerline dimensions of the interior floor panels are 30 ft x 56 ft (9.51 in.9 for combined torsion and shear assuming that the L-beam concrete is made of sand-lightweight concrete.7 m).292 in.6 mm) ¡.60in. sb si Wv Untopped Topped 306 in.000 psi (413.5 if the structural system was made from monolithic sand-lightweight concrete in which the corbel or bracket was cast simultaneously with the supporting column.40 in. Given data are: b = 14 in.1 m) andan effective center-to-center simply A 5.1 m).6 mm) from the column face. 2 4.47 MPa).000 lb (177. 429 in.8 Design the transverse and longitudinal reinforcement in Example 5.173 in. The horizontal factored force Nuc = 40. 5. The floor is subjected to a service superimposed dead load due to the double T's of Wsv = 77 psf (3. The total depth of the beam is h = 8 ft 10 in. 3. supported deep beam has a clear span In= 10 ft (3.992 in.9 Design the web reinforcement for the beam in Example 5.7 MPa) 5.8 kN/m).7 MPa) Solve by both the shear-friction approach and the strut-and-tie method. l ¡ .6 Solve Problem 5.3 56 psf 5.000 psi (413. normal-weight concrete fy = Íyt = 60. 3 1.0 MPa). 3. Design the beam for flexure and shear by the strut-and-tie approach.1mx17.9 kN).5 m). 578 in. (2.339 Problems Section properties Ac ( cb e. = 5.

An additiona l advantage of continuity is the elimination of anchorages at intermediate supports through continuous post-tensioning over severa! spans. lighter structures with lighter foundations reduce Lhe cost of roaterials and construction. As a result. continuity is widely uscd in long-span Lincoln Executive Plaza. In addition.INDETERMINATE PRESTRESSED CONCRETESTRUCTURES 6. (Courtesy. the span-to-depth ratio is also improved. lllinois. Consequently. depending on the type of continuous system being considered. thcreby reducing further the cost of materials and labor. the structural stability and resistance to longitudinal and lateral loads are usually improved.1 INTRODUCTION As in reinforced concrete and olher structural materials. Continuous prestressed concrete is widely applied in the United Slates in tbe constructioo of Oat plates for floors and roofs with contiouity in one or both directions and with prestressing in one or both directioos. continuity can be achieved al intermediate supports and knees of portal frames. The reduction of moments and stresses at midspans througb the design of continuous systems rcsults in shallower members that are stiffer than simply supported members of equal span and of comparable loading and are of lesser deflection. while in box girders this ratio can be 25 to 30. a ratio of 40 to 45 is reasonable. ArlingLon J-leights. For continuous flat pJates. Prestressed Concrete fnsliLute. Also.) 340 .

2. and the engineering judgment and ingenuity of the design engineer determine the type of layout and method of framing to be used for achieving continuity. thereby reducing the costs further as compared with the costs of reinforced concrete. are increasingly being used in the United States for very large spans. 2.3 TENDON LAYOUT FOR CONTINUOUS BEAMS The construction system used. there are two categories of continuity in beams: ¡ t t l l. and reshoring can also be avoided in this type of construction. creep temperature variations. . widely used in Europe as segmenta! bridges. and settlement of the supports. where all the tendons are generally continuous throughout all or most of the spans and all tendons are prestressed at the site.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CONTINUITY IN PRESTRESSING There are several disadvantages to having continuously prestressed elements: l. All these factors can be accounted for through appropriate design and construction of the final system. 6. and cable-stayed bridges with prestressed decks are increasingly built as well. Higher frictional losses due to the larger number of bends and longer tendons. 6. This desirable feature has been widely achieved by imposing continuity on the precast elements through placement of situ-cast reinforced concrete at the intermediate supports. Effects of higher secondary stresses due to shrinkage. Nonmonolithic continuity. the length of the adjacent spans. Excessive lateral forces and moments in the supporting columns. Cantilevered box girder bridges. Concurrence of moment and shear at the support sections. The situ-cast concrete tends to resist the superimposed dead load and the live load that act on the spans after the concrete hardens. with the associated high-quality control during fabrication. Possible serious reversa! of moments due to alternate loading of spans. 6. Secondary moments due to induced reactions at the supporting columns caused by the prestressing force (to be subsequently discussed). 5. Monolithic continuity. Basically. particularly if they are rigidly connected to the beams. These forces are caused by the elastic shortening of the long-span beams under prestress. where precast elements are used as simple beams on which continuity is imposed at the support sections through situ-cast reinforced concrete which provides the desired level of continuity to resist the superimposed dead load and live load after the concrete hardens. Moment values at the interior supports that require additional reinforcement at these supports. shoring. The success of prestressed concrete construction is largely due to the economy of using precast elements. including special provisions for bearings at the supporting columns. particularly situ-cast post-tensioned spans. 4.6. which might otherwise not be needed in simply supported beams. 7. 3. Such prestressing is accomplished by post-tensioning. which reduces the moment strength of those sections. Note that forming.3 Tendon Layout for Continuous Beams 341 prestressed concrete bridges.

namely. (a) Beam with constant depth. Continuity achieved through the use of precast pretensioned beams with situ-cast concrete connecting joints can in many cases be easier to erect. The system shown in Figure 6. nonprismatic sections. Figures 6. (c) Prismatic beam with overlapping tendons.l(b) in that the cost of formwork will in general be less because the continuous beam has a constant depth. using variable-depth beams. Figure 6.l(a) has the advantage on that of Figure 6.2(a) and (c) are essentially comparable in the degree of their accuracy in estimating frictional and other losses. (b) Nonprismatic beam with overlapping tendons. and considerable savings may accrue since formwork and shoring at the site are generally not needed.l(a) presents a simple continuity system in which all the spans are situ cast and post-tensioning is accomplished after the concrete hardens. The system shown in Figure 6. Frictional losses in the post-tensioned straight cables are easier to evaluate accurately. .1 Tendon geometry in beams with monolithic continuity. can add to the cost of formwork. Problems are encountered.l(b). although architectural considerations sometimes require nonprismatic continuous sections. however. (a) Cap cable Post-tensioned o (b) Anchorage Post-tensioned (e) Figure 6. Figure 6. Additional costs are incurred dueto the necessity of several anchorages.2 illustrates how continuity is achieved in nonmonolithic construction.1 schematically demonstrates the various systems and combinations of systems to achieve monolithic continuity. in the accurate evaluation of frictional losses dueto the large number of bends.342 Chapter 6 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Figure 6.

(b) Continuity using nonprestressed steel.2(b) is probably the simplest for achieving continuity in prestressed concrete composite construction. In general.2 Continuity using precast pretensioned beams. while the nonprestressed steel at the negative moment regían at the support is designed to resist the additional superimposed dead load and the applied live load moments. are designed to resist their own weight as well as handling and transportation stresses by the strength provided in pretensioning.2(a) and (c). The precast pretensioned elements are designed to carry the prestressing and self-weight moments. If design for continuity due to the total dead load is to be achieved. (a) Post-tensioned continuity using couplers. . precast elements. and no shoring is used in the construction process. the precast beams have to be shored before placing the composite concrete topping. The system illustrated in Figure 6.3 Tendon Layout for Continuous Beams Coupler Post-tensioned tendons Situ-cast concrete joint (a) Nonprestressed continuity steel Situ-cast concrete Precast beam Pretensioned tendons (b) Situ-cast concrete joint Post-tensioned tendons D Pretensioned tendons Precast beam (c) Figure 6.343 6. (e) Continuity in post-tensioning for nonprismatic beams. including those shown in Figures 6. Post-tensioning or the use of nonprestressed steel at the supports provides the strength required to resist the live load and superimposed load stresses.

M1 = Pee 1. However.3(a) shows a two-span continuous prestressed concrete beam. the effects of elastic shortening. the reaction R will be zero. provided that the C-line at the intermediate support is above the cgc line. Also.6 The primary structure bending moment diagram M 1 due to the prestressing force is shown in Figure 6.2 Support Displacement Method Figure 6. continuity also leads to reduced bending moments. including those that are partially prestressed. Deformations due to axial loads are usually ignored except in very stiff members. and to return the beam section at the support to its original position befare prestressing [see Figure 6. the original moments dueto prestressing.4(b). and creep become considerable as compared to those in reinforced concrete continuous structures. Such a convention can help eliminate errors in superposition in the analysis of portal frames and other systems whose vertical members are subjected to moments. as explained in Section 6.4 ELASTIC ANALYSIS FOR PRESTRESS CONTINUITY 6. leading to shallower. the T-line [Figure 6.344 Chapter 6 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 6. will be called primary moments. at the intermediate supports of the continuous structure. As a sign convention. The effect of the secondary moment is to shift the location of the line of thrust. the prestressed elements can be essentially considered homogenous elastic material because of the limited cracking level. the bending moments diagrams are drawn on the tension side of the columns. the bending moments dueto the eccentric prestressing forces cause secondary reactions and secondary bending moments. i. These secondary forces and moments increase or decrease the primary effect of the eccentric prestressing forces. Advantageously. Because prestressed elements. more economical sections.4. have very limited flexura! cracking as compared with reinforced concrete elements.1) .4(a). a resulting moment diagram M 3 = (M1 + M2) [Figure 6. In prestressed concrete. 6. The secondary reaction R causes the camber a to be neutralized and the beam to be held down at the intermediate support by an equal but opposite reaction R. the elastic theory for indeterminate structures can be applied with sufficient accuracy at the limit state of service load. The line of thrust is the center line of compressive force acting along the beam span. namely. with the thrust line (C-line) moving a distance y from the tendon cgs profile. The deviation of the C-line from the cgs line is (6. the bending moments are always smaller than those of comparable statically determínate beams. shrinkage. In part (b).e. Because of the induced secondary force or reaction R at the interna! support caused by the eccentric prestress.. the C-line. If the two lines coincide.4(c)] is generated due to the prestressing force for the condition where the beam lower fibers just touch the intermediate support.3(c)].4. and the moments M 2 caused by the induced reactions will be called secondary moments.4(d)]. If it is superimposed on the secondary moment diagram M 2 in Figure 6. whereas in reinforced concrete it would not be rational to make such an assumption since flexura! cracks start to generate at almost 5 to 10 percent of the failure load. In other words.1 lntroduction Reinforced concrete structures are usually statically indeterminate due to the continuity provided by monolithic construction. and the settlement of the supports is also rarely considered since creep and shrinkage do not cause major stresses. the central support is assumed to have been removed.

(e) Secondary reaction to eliminate uplift or camber. (b) Profile after prestressing if beam is not restrained by central support. (a) Tendon profile prior to prestressing.345 6.3 Secondary moments in continuous prestressed beams. (d) Reaction Ron theoretically simply supported beam. (e) Secondary moment diagram dueto R.4 Elastic Analysis for Prestress Continuity -~ ti-line (a) (b) R R l (d) Secondary ~ (e) Figure 6. .

-e'e2 c r (6. The resulting limit eccentricity of the C-line is e'= e3 M3 Pe =- (6. Note that e' is negative when the thrust line is above the neutral axis.346 Chapter 6 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures (a) (b) (e) C·line V cgs or T·line (d) Figure 6.3a) and cb) pe Íb =--A ( 1 . and the new location of the tendon profile cgs is determined from the net moment M 3 = M 1 + M 2 using the appropriate moment sign. (a) Primary moments M1 • (b) Secondary moments M2 . (e) Superposition of (b) on (a) to give resulting moment M3 . (d) Transformation of the C-line from the T-line. positive (+) above and negative (-) below the base line.4a and b.4 Superposition of secondary moments due only to prestress and transformation of the thrust C-line. The concrete fiber stresses due to prestress only at an intermediate support become.3b) . from Equations l. as is the case for the intermediate support section.2) where Pe is the effective prestressing force after losses. e) P e ( l + _e_t e' f= __ Ac r2 (6.

The deviation of the C-line from the cgs line is then y = M 2/Pe.+ Sb Ac (6. the net moment at the section is M 4 = M 3 . The prestress interior support reaction R is obtained from Figure 6.4 m). .5b) Both Equations 6. The effective prestressing force Pe after losses is 300.4 and 6. midspan sections.6.1.Sa) and M4 Pe Íb = .347 6.4. and the load producing this shear is evaluated as in Figure 6. Calculation of the moment distribution dueto the loading on the continuous beam in Figure 6. assume that the variation in tension force along the beam can be neglected. (86 cm). 6.S(b ). the reaction R is the same as the displacement reaction R in the method described in Section 6.5 Examples lnvolving Continuity The concrete fiber stresses at the support dueto prestressing and the self-weight support moment are (6. It has two equal spans of 90 ft (27. Use both the support displacement method and the equivalent load method.4b) Alternatively. (30 cm) and h = 34 in. Compute the primary and secondary moments due to prestressing.5 should give the same results whether applied to support.1 Effect of Continuity on Transformation of C-Line for Draped Tendons Example 6.4a and b.3 Equivalent Load Method The equivalent load method is based on theoretically replacing the effects of the prestressing force by equivalent loads produced by the prestressing moments profile along the span due to the primary moment M1 in Figure 6.1. or any other sections along the span provided that the appropriate sign convention is maintained. The beam overall dimensions are b = 12 in.M0 .5(c). and the concrete fiber stresses at the support where the tendons are above the neutral axis are evaluated from (6.4. 6.4a) and Íb =_Pe Ac (i _e~ ~t )- r MD Sb (6. and find the concrete fiber stresses at the intermediate support C due to the prestressing force..5 EXAMPLES INVOLVING CONTINUITV 6.4.334 kN). This moment is the same as the net moment M 3 in Section 6. as in the previous method. using the M 3 moment values in Equations 6.5( d) produces the moment diagram of moment M 3 in part (e) of the figure.5(d) in order to determine the secondary moment M2 caused by a load R acting at point e of a simple span AB. If the shear diagram causing moments M 1 is constructed as in Figure 6.1 A bonded post-tensioned prestressed prismatic beam is continuous on three supports.5. so that the resulting limit eccentricity of the cgs line will be e3 = MiPe. and the tendon profile is shown in Figure 6.5(d).000 lb (1.

1 106 X + 1. This camber.7(a) to get the tangential deviation of the elastic curve at A from the horizontal at C as the displacement at C. 2 = 7. ] ~ 90) 90. (e) Shear diagram for moments M1 . M 3 ~ 41f11IlIIIDnnnn (e) Figure 6. can be readily obtained from basic mechanics by the moment area method.0 X _ (2. Ac. (a) Primary structure after prestressing.5 Equivalent load method of C-line transformation. (d) Load-causing moment in (b) and shear in (e). (b) Primary moment M1 dueto prestressing. The primary moment M1 due to prestressing causes upward camber or deflection at the intermediate support C..348 Chapter 6 cgc line lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures -----------e---_ D (a) M 1 Artflililllllllll (b) ~ ~ ¡11111111111111111111111 11111111111111 (e) ! ! !! ! !t t! !tt t!! ¡ t l R (d) 4f!IIl1IIIIl 11111 fIIIJJnlh. taking the moments of areas AEC and ADC about point A in Figure 6.58 X 1011 in 3-!b X 144 X 144 . Solution (a): Support Displacement Method. From the figure. (e) Moment diagram for loads in (d) after moment distributions.05 1~ 6 X X 2 9 9 106) 0. ElAc = [ (3.

.0 X 1a6 in.-r-=:"---..349 6.-------- A 45' ~ •1 45' T C ~-- -----~ 90'-----t"" B (f) Figure 6. "" cgc line 6....975 X 1a6 in.. (b) Primary moment M1 dueto prestress Pe..5" (C-line eccentricitvl r .-lb (229 x 103 N-ml (e) C-line and possible new location of cgs line 13.1 due to continuity...025 X 106 in..--_. (a) Tendon geometry: one possible location.4m) A 45' 45' 45' -45' (27.:. (d) Secondary moment M2 dueto R.. 2....6 Transformation of thrust line in Example 6..1 X 1a6 in..-lb (b) Re = 3610 lb (16 kN) 1 t t (e) 0.4 m) e B (a) 3.0 x 106 in.-lb F 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111' 1 '111 111 M2 1...-lb (di 2.5 Examples lnvolving Continuity D D 90' 90' (27..IP""'nilillll llljl llllilffinnn..-lb 3. 11111~ 11llIDlin1..L -..75" . .. (e) Final moment M3 = M1 + M2 • (f) New location of C-line and possible cgs line.95 X 1a6 in.. (e) Reaction Ron theoretica!ly simple beam.-lb (339 x 103 N-ml ""11lJ]JJlJJ M..

X 90 X 12 = 1. the distance of the C-line above the cgc line.c dueto M1 • (a) Primary moment M1 .95 X 106 = 4.05 X 106 in..95 X 106 m.1 X 106 --------00·----~·~I in.0 X 106 - = 2. (16.e = 7.025 E 3.0 X X 21 X 1..1 X 108 R m.05 X 106 • ee = -p = OO = 13.6(d) and 6.95 X 106 . 2Re 3. the distance through which the C-line has to be transformed upwards at support e is Ye = M1 p = e l. 1 l . i.!. from Figure 6. 90 X 12 = .610 .-lb J06 in.1 X 108 R Then 7 58 1011 R = · X 8 = 3 610 lb. X .5 m. OOO = 6. 3-lb 2 3 Equating the right sides of these equations to each other yields Elt:i.-lb 2 The total moment M 3 at C dueto prestress continuity is M1 = X M 1 + M 2 = 2.7 Camber t:i. From Figure 6.3 cm) e 3 . (b) Deflected shape dueto R. 45R X 12 X 90 90 X 2 .-lb (a) 45R ft. (16 kN) e 2. is M3 4.6(c). (e) Secondary moment M2 dueto R.1 X 10 ' RA = Rs = 1.1 X 106 + 1.5 cm) 300 ' From Equation 6.-lb From Equation 6.e. (34.-lb (e) Figure 6.7(c).58 X 1011 = 2.805 lb t (8 kN) The secondary moment M 2 due to concentrated load Re varies linearly from interior support C to end supports A and B in Figures 6.2.1.-lb R/2 (b) D 2. the eccentricity of the C-line above the cgc line at interior support C.X 144 = 2.95 X 106 106 in.000 The midspan total moment is M3 = 3.7(c).5 m.350 Chapter 6 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Similarly.

000 ( 408 1 + 13. Solution (b ): Equivalent Load Method.6(d).5 ( 0) 2 X 12 9 = 333. the final moment at the interior sup6 port C is M 3 = M 1 + M 2 = 337.= 39 .3(90)2 = 224.978 ft-lb FEM =U= 12 From the moment distribution operation in Figure 6.304.000 X 13.m. So Wb = 8 X 300. .-lb. Since the M 1 diagram is the primary moment diagram as in Figure 6.8. it is only due to prestress. the top concrete fiber stress is f' = _ P. 4 Ie 39. Thereafter.6(b ).3a and b.025 X 106 = 6.5 in. all other steps for calculation of fiber stresses and location of both fiber stresses and the C-line are identical and give the same results as solution (a). the diagram for the secondary moment M 2 can be constructed from M 3 .5 X 17) 96.0 MPa) Although the bottom fiber stress in tension is higher and well beyond the maximum allowable.5 Examples lnvolving Continuity and the C-line eccentricity is • 2.75m. 8Pa Wb=p where a is the eccentricity of the tendon from the cgc line. Once self-weight is considered.M 1 as shown in Figure 6.304 fe r 2 = A = 4Q8 = 96.(17.000 ( 1 _ 13.m. From Equation 1. ev = Concrete Fiber Stresses at Interior Support C due to Prestress Only 34 = 17.lcm) 300000 .05 x 10 in.016 psi (T) (7.33 = -2.33 in.467 ft-lb = 4. ( l A:\ + ec.33 408 + 1. 2 12(34) 3 bh 3 = -12 = -12.487 psi (C) (17. 2 e From Equations 6.) r2 = _ 300. which is the same value as solution (a).5 X 17) 96.16 for load balancing.1 MPa) and the bottom concrete fiber stress is Íb = = _ = ~: ( 1 - e::) 300.3 lb/ft Wb/ 2 333.351 6. = bh = 12 Ac X 34 = 408 in. it diminishes considerably. which is identical to Figure 6. =2 c1 = cb ec = 13.8(b ).

1 assuming that the prestressing tendon is harped at the midspan of both adjacent spans.3 lb/ft (4.-lb (e) 0.·lb A1ílI11TIIIII l_ 1111~ w AT11IílJilJl llll_l 11JIJnnn& 2. Use the support displacement method in your solution.·lb~ ~3. (a) Equivalent load and moment distribution.7 (e).'''' ''''..o.-lb 1111111111111111111F111111111111111 111 .489 +112.-lb 2.c = (3. 1 M.978 o -337.95 X 106 in.05 X 106 in.978 -224.. (e) Primary moment M1 • (d) Secondary moment M2 .05 X 106 in. .1 X 106 in.87 kN/m) ~t t t t t t t t t t A Dist.. (d) Figure 6. Solution: Then Construct the primary and secondary moment diagram shown in Figure 6.o.467 ft-lb (4..978 -112.2 Effect of Continuity on Transformation of C-line for Harped Tendons Example 6.489 +224.025 (229 X 103 N-m) 4.2 Solve Example 6. Elt:i.50 0.0 X 106 + 1.0 X 10' .00 +224.9.-lb (b) >O X 10' M 1 .00 e• • 45' • • t~ s 45' 0.-lb in.467 +337.978 +224. factor FEM (ft-lb) M3 45' Iº • • 45' 1.1 X 106 X 90 2 .-lb) o (a) X 106 in. X 144 - 2. (b) Total moment M3 ..8 Equivalent load method for continuous beam analysis.975 X 106 1. .65 X 10 11 in-3-ib 3 X - From Figure 6. 6..05 X 106)90 X 1 2 X l90 90 X 2 X 144 = 3.50 1.978 -224.352 Chapter 6 Wb lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures i t t t t t t Iºt t t 333.978 -224.5.

.. T e ~----- D B 45'----oo++--4 5·-----------90 ·-------1... (d) Secondary moment M2 dueto R.. (e) Final moment M3 = M1 + M2 .. .--<M--11---45'---+ +--45' ------90'-------1M-o11------90'-------1~ B e A (a) M... (f) Figure 6.353 6.__.... (e) Reaction Ron theoretically simple beam. ..-8..43" -- __ __ _ ------~-¡---..___L _ _ _ _ .. A D --.·lb M2 6 il"]''~"~"~"~'ª"ª"D"D':i:cc==----~--===ccm:11~11n11n11n11n11n11n11]11]11m11m11[11[1tt1~IIII1!Il!fillf (d) 2.9 Transformation of thrust line in Example 6.. (a) Tendon geometry: one possible location..-lb M3~~~ 3.04 X 10S in.~~~ 2..2 due to continuity. (b} Primary moment M1 dueto prestress Pe.13" (C-line eccentricity) cgcline ..53 X 10S in....94 X 10S in...-lb 2..-lb (e) C-line and possible new location of cgs line 10..i.53 X 10S in..5 Examples lnvolving Continuity D 45'----o-++--·45'-. (f) New location of C-line and possible cgs line...·lb (b) R = 17381b 1 (e) 0.1 X 108 in.

(8 cm) 300 e ' From Equation 6.1 X 108 R = e = 1 738 lb t ' The secondary moment ordinate at interior support C is Mz R =2 90 X 12 X 1. 6.94 X 106 . Ae (l + = _ 300. the distance of the C-line above the cgc line.1x106 + 0.13 in.33 -2.7 cm) 300 So the midspan total moment is• ' M3 = 3.) (l _ 10.13 X 17) 96.1 MPa) and the bottom concrete fiber stress is Íb = - ~: ( 1 - = _ 300.0 MPa) Comparing the results of the harped tendon case of this example to the draped parabolic tendon of Example 6.1. From Equation 6. Consequently.1 X 10 Re 1011 3 65 º X 2.13 X 17) 96.6 LINEAR TRANSFORMATION ANO CONCORDANCE OF TENDONS It can be recognized from the discussion in Section 6. (21.13 m.94 x 106 = 3.04 x 106 in.4 cm) 300.04 X 106 .2.0 X 106 - º· 94 .-lb and the C-line eccentricity is ev = 2..94 X 106 in.2 (l + 10.1 reveals that smaller total continuity moments M 3 resulted at the intermediate support since the triangular area of the moment diagram is one-half the product of the span and the moment ordinate while the parabolic area is two-thirds of that same product.33 + 579 psi (T) (4.000 Concrete Fiber Stresses at Interior Support C Due to Prestress Only. Ye = p = OOO = 3. This is to be expected since the C-line ordinates are the moment ordinates resulting from the product of .354 Chapter 6 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures l .4 that the profile of the line of thrust (the C-line) follows the profile of the prestressing tendon (the cgs line).e = 2.-lb (344 x 103 N-m).13 m. the concrete fiber stresses are lower.1 ' 8 EI!J. = 8.53 X 106 .-lb Thus.738 = -2- X 90 X 12 = 0.. the total moment M 3 = 2.43 m.000 408 = ee = 10.000 408 = e. ec1) . the eccentricity of the C-line above the cgc line at interior support C. for the C-line or thrust line. i. So the top concrete fiber stress is f' = _P. ee = p = OOO = 10. 106 = 2.e. the distance through which the C-line has to be transformed upwards at support e is Mz 0. (25. is M3 3.049 psi (C) (14.53 X 106 in.

it is possible to linearly transform the cgs line.6. Examples 6.ll(a) with eccentricities ec = 13. The deflection behavior of any beam is a function of the variation in moment along the span. 6.1. it is possible to linear/y transform the C-line by raising or lowering its position at the interior support while preferably maintaining its original position at the exterior simple supports.J. as illustrated in Chapters 1 and4.1.75 in.. tendon profiles are often draped far distributed loads. the prestressing tendon profile along the beam span.05 x 10 6 in.3 The continuous beam of Example 6.-lb (458 X 103 N-m) Also.05 X 106 in. Consequently. (17.ll(a). Solution (a): The secondary moment is M 2 = 4.3 cm) anden= 6. The . = R 8 = 3. Consequently. Example 6.5 in.6(f) is the same as the C-line in Figures 6.7 kN) t Solution (b): Both M 2 =O and R =O. The total moment at the intermediate support C 6 in both cases is M 3 = 4. i.lO(a). although the cgs line locations along the span are not the same as those in Figures 6. concentrated or distributed.1.-lb. the deviation of the C-line from the cgc line is directly proportional to the secondary moment M 2 • Since the M 2 diagram varies linear/y with the distance from the support.1 cm) that are the same C-line eccentricities as in Example 6.025 x 10 in.4 kN) . and the prestressing tendon is called a concordant tendon.1 Verification of Tendon Linear Transformation Theorem Example6. lt can be seen from both solution (a) in Figure 6.e..2 show that in a continuous beam. Also.6(f).lO(f) and 6.ll(f).11 that the C-line coordinates are the same and close to the values obtained in Example 6.-lb.355 6.1. This means that when the cgs line coincides with C-line. while they are harped far concentrated loads. and note that the C-line in Figure 6. the beam just touches the intermediate support and behaves like a simply supported beam. namely. The profile of the C-line remains the same because of the linearity of the transformation.6(a).6 Linear Transformation and Concordance of Tendons the prestressing force Pe and the tendon eccentricity from the cgc line varying along the span. Such a beam is called a concordant beam.05 X 106 4.1. without changing the profile positions of the C-line. (24.3 cm) at midspan similar to the intermediate support eccentricity in Example 6. as in Example 6.1 has a new tendon profile as shown in (a) Figure 6. note that in solution b. where the tendon profile coincides with the C-line profile. and at midspan D the moment is M 3 = 2.1 and Figure 6. and (b) Figure 6. (24. Verify that the profile and alignment of the C-line in (a) and (b) are the same as the C-line geometry in Example 6. the reaction R =O and the secondary moment M 2 = O. R X 90 X 12 = -f Re = RA 4. This flexibility has major practica! significance in the design of continuous prestressed concrete beams.3 demonstrates such a flexibility.lO(a) with eccentricities ec =O and an eccentricity en= 13. and 6. and the shape of the moment diagram is a function of the type of load. 6. Compare the tendon profile it presents with that of Example 6.10 and solution (b) in Figure 6.05 X 106 X 2 X 90 12 = 7.500 lb (33.1 and 6.5 in.750 lb (16.

..L ..05X10Sin..-. ...111T1'1111m-11m¡1mr-~ 2....___...·lb (e) ____.crrrrrrrm-. l ..3 (alternativa a).025 X 1<>6 in......-lb M. ~~... .025 X 1<>6 4. cg~1~ ... ____L--*""" A D -'..l 356 Chapter 6 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures (a) (b) Re= 7500 lb (33.-lb ..~ (d) t M3 e 2. ..4 kN) l t t RA = 37501b R 8 = 3750 lb (e) 2.05 X 1<>6 in.10 Tendon transformation in Example 6. ---1.-lb ~IDI 1111111 OJnrrn..025 X 108 in.E~5· C-line . ______ C D B i-+-----90'-----------90'------(f) Figure 6. . ..

.-lb (e) C-line C D A D 8 M-----90·-----------90•-----+-1 (f) Figure 6.025 X 106 in.-lb M1 A111TI11IIIllllllll~ 6 X 10 in.-lb 4. . .025 X 106 in..4 m)------<. . (b) R=O J t f (e) (d) 2._ ..357 6..3 (alternative b)......05 X 106 in.-lb _1111111~ 'T '·"' ""' .-lb 2..11 Tendon transformation in Example 6.025 r : 2 5 X 10 in..---45'---o•+l•~--45' A 8 45' ---. (a) 6 ~ 2.3 cm) +~--45' ----<~c.9 0 ' (27.5" (34.6 Linear Transformation and Concordance of Tendons 13.. . . .•+l ~---90' (27.4 m ) .

Any tendon profile can be linearly transformed without affecting the C-line position. = +1. 6. 8. Bending moments and shear diagrams for superposition of transverse loads on continuous beams is shown in Figure 6. It is advisable to start a design assuming concordance in order to eliminate the need for calculating the secondary moment M 2• By trial and adjustment.12. ¡r = -2.2 Concordance Hypotheses The following list summarizes the hypotheses defining the transformation and concordance of tendons in continuous prestressed beams: 1. 7. in such cases the secondary moments M 2 can be disregarded beyond the first cracking load. it is important to consider the secondary moment . 3.7 ULTIMATE STRENGTH ANO LIMIT STATE AT FAILURE OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS 6. one can arrive at the final beam section depth that fulfills the design requirements with the cgs location either concordant or nonconcordant. Theoretically..l MPa) and Íb (7. Total redistribution and full development of plastic hinges at the continuous supports of a fully bonded prestressed beam render the beam statically determinate. viz. 2.016 psi (T) 6. interna! plastic deformation at the critica! regions of maximum or peak moments and plastic redistribution of elastic moments from the negative to the positive moment regions are generated. At this stage of overload and beyond. The eccentricity of any concordant tendon measured from the cgc line produces a moment diagram representing a profile similar in form to the moment profile due to the superimposed load. plastic hinging develops at the most highly stressed regions in the continuous beam. such an assumption can result in an unsafe design unless a concordant tendon is assumed from the beginning and is executed in the final design with no overload conditions permitted. but superposition of concordant and nonconcordant tendons produces a nonconcordant ten don. However. as the final design dictates.358 Chapter 6 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures fiber stresses are also the same. Superposition of several concordant tendons produces a concordant tendon. This limit in tensile stress is based on allowing sorne limited cracking beyond the first cracking load as determined by the modulus of rupture of concrete. Any line of thrust (C-line) is a profile for a concordant ten don. A beam with a concordant tendon is a continuous beam whose C-line coincides with its cgs line. The choice of concordance or nonconcordance is determined by concrete cover and efficiency in beam depth selection.0 MPa). A change in eccentricity at one or both end supports results in a shift of the C-line. 4. but a change in eccentricity at intermediate supports does not affect the position of the C-line.487 psi ( C) (17. up to the limit state at failure.6. 6.1 General Considerations The service-load design of continuous prestressed beams assumes elastic behavior of the material up to the limit of allowable tensile stress in the concrete due to all loads. A concordant tendon induces no reactions on intermediate supports. Otherwise.7. S. as if concordance of tendons were present with zero moments at the supports. As cracking becomes more effective during overload conditions.

'''''''' A wl 'fs • /1' • Rg =0.442wl Amax (0.C::.. concentrated load at center of one span. two equal spans.479/ from A or D) = 0.359 6. two equal spans.L.0059wl" I El (a) wl t:=='.475/ from El= 0. all spans loaded."TTT.0099w1 4 /EI (b) wl wl wl fº'º""" A 111111...C'"'---=i-TTTn-u.550w/ Amax (0.442w/ 0.558wl 0. three equal spans.. (e) Continuous beam...--1•f: =0..550wl RA =0.U. (b} Continuous beam.i..0094w/ 4 /EI Shear Moment (d) Figure 6. (d) Continuous beam. tirst and third spans loaded.. 1 1 .430/ from A) = 0. (f) Continuous beam. R0 = 0.--=:rn.7 Ultimate Strength and Limit State at Failure ot Continuous Beams wl wl Am.450wl Re= 0.598wl 0.10wl R8 =1.400wl Shear Amax (0.0069wi 4 /EI Moment (e) RA F® i! ¡¡ 111 'í'8' 11111 111i! 111 C Y. concentrated load at any point.10wl RA=0.4461 from A or D) = 0. (h} Continuous beam..== --. (a) Continuous beam three equal spans one end span unloaded..400wl f-1--U. three equal spans..400wl ''MPLllo 1---J R =0.380wl 0.12 Bending moments and shear diagrams tor continuous beams.223wl l•f• Re= 0.+Ll. tour equal spans. 0. tour equal spans. tour equal spans.ni 0.450wl i~''""'"===to l . (e) Continuous beam.400wl ·l· 0 0. end spans loaded. 1911111111¡¡1 ¡¡1¡¡ '!'~' 111111 "f--1·l~ 1 Re=1.. all spans loaded.603wl 1--+f RE= 0.380wl wl t'~ 1 11 1 1 1 wl wl A R8 = 1.357wl ®"i E l ·f· R0 = 0. third span unloaded.. (g) Continuous beam.

wl... i•f~ Re= 0._p¡ D...J:c==mm~I!J:i::z.12 Continued 32 .Q15Pl 3/El R 1 = V1 = Pb R2 = V2 + V3 = .·:::. Re= 0. p 16 =-l.¡:====::c:ctj o.a{/+ a)] 1i ..!!! p V2 = Mmex (at point of load) =~PI M 1 (at support R.393wl ·f~ R8 = 1._ 4¡3 ¡4¡2 ......wl.477/ from A)= 0...mox (h) ~P 32 (0...o54w/ 0.!.554w/ 0..572w/ E RE= -0. i[4/ 2 + b(l +a)) Mmex (at point of load) = Pab M 1 (at support R2 ) =.w.143w/ .. .!.393wl D.0357w/2 D. 'f---1 RA = 0..480/ from R 1) 64 32 = O.:'....a(/+ a)] 2/3 b(l +a)) Pab {/+a) 4¡3 4¡3 4¡3 4¡2 ¡4¡2 .464wl 0.~~.')'..518w/ Shear -0.0065w/ 4 /EI (f) Total equivalent uniform load = R1 = V1 =~P R2 = V2 + V3 = R3 (g) = V3 Figure 6.f.054w/ o 054 ¡ 0.!:!.0097wl 4 /EI Moment (e) A wl pouo..446wl ¡:n:i:. . '!~... 1[2/ 2 + R3 = V3 =_ V2 = .l 360 Chapter 6 wl RA = 0..mex (0... l ..wl..max (0.446wl wl R8 = 0..0536w/2 -0..:.572w/ .uooq E ·f· R0 = 1.l = l.ff lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures t9 /-----=t 11111 1 11 ".928w/ '!~....p 32 ...!:!..0536w/2 -0.482w/ • R 0 = 0.9.143w/ 1----f RE= 0..440/ from A and E)= 0.

They replace the maximum reinforcement limits used in code provisions prior to the 2002 ACI-318 Code. Conversely. A tendon that is transformed upwards wilJ have a reverse effect. See Section 4.astic rolation required to obtain a given amount of redislribution. A positive secondary momcnt at the support caused by transforming a tendon downwards from a concordant profile will tberefore reduce tbe negative moments near tbe supports and increase lhe positive momenl in the midspan region. (Courtesy. may still be stated in terms of the reinforcemcnt index. Redistribute as permitted.. Florida Kcys.5 are equally applicable to prestressed concrete sections.7 Ultimate Strength and Limít State al Failure of Contínuous Beams Phote 6. Considering the secondary moments is mandated by the facl that the elastic deformation caused by the nonconcordant tendons changes the amounl of inel.7.24f3 1 for prestressed sections. It should be no ted that the total amount of prestressed and oon-prestressed reinforcement shouJd be adequate to develop a factored load of at least 1. Post-Tensioning Institute. 6.38b.3. The net tensile strain limits for compression.2 Moment Redistribution The ultimate analysis and design of prestressed concrete members folJows the strain limits approacb detailed in Section 4. where the maximum reinforcement index d [wp + d (w .6.12. wP. This provision in ACI 318 .and tension-controlJed sections shown in Figure 4.0.) M2 due to prestressing up to tbe limit slate of tbe faiJ ure load. witb a limir inelastic moment redistribution factor of 1000 e. 3.4 for a detailed discussion. the amount by which the momenl al lhe support may be varied is changed by an amount equaJ to the secondary moment at the support due lo prestressing (Ref. but with a load factor of 1. embodied in Equation 4. Tbe net tensile strain for tension-controUed sections.w')] p not to exceed 0. lhe folJowing sequence of steps is recommended: l .12. 2. Modify by algebraic addition of secondary momeots M2 due to prestressing. 6..2).2 times the cracking load computed on the basis of tbe modulus o f rupture f. Determine the moments due to the dead and live loads at factored load leve!. for a beam with a given elastic rotational capacity.1 361 Seven Mi le Bridge. In order to determine the moments to be used in the design.

6. with only uniformly distributed live load wL = 1. and hence more live load. 2.1 kN/m). due to both design and practica! considerations. since the prestressing force causes axial load stress as well as bending moment stress. These considerations include the magnitude of frictional losses that increase with the decrease in the radius of curvature. Where possible. Consequently. assuming the unshored beam to be continuous over three spans 64 ft (19. Consider the post-tensioned prestressing tendon to be continuous . The tendon profile at the intermediate supports cannot have the same peak configuration as that of the negative bending moment diagram. 3. the total prestressing moment at any section should be sufficient to counteract the average service-load bending moment at that section.4 Design the tendon profile in the beam of Example 4.13. 5.7. Selection of the tendon profile should be based on the following considerations: l. the high level of compressive stress concentration in cases of abrupt changes in the tendon.514 plf (22. A determination has to be made as to whether tension is to be allowed in the design in order to establish the limiting maximum and minimum ordinates of the upper and lower envelopes relative to the top and bottom kerns..8 TENOON PROFILE ENVELOPE ANO MOOIFICATIONS The envelope for limiting tendon eccentricities for continuous beams can be constructed in the same manner as discussed in Section 4. Such modification has to be accounted for by modifying the primary moment M1 diagram and the total moment M 3 diagram. The test for this condition should be based on the resulting stress values rather than moment values.Chapter 6 362 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Code is permitted to be waived for (a) Two-way. 4.3 for simply supported beams. The eccentricity should be as large as possible at the point where the largest bending moment develops at the limit state at failure. it is advisable to modify the tendon profile at the support so as to have a curvilinear transition at the support zone. A tendon profile alternative that produces the least frictional losses should be chosen in the design.9 TENOON ANO C-LINE LOCATION IN CONTINUOUS BEAMS Example6. where the chain-dotted line gives the average bending moments used in the service-load design. 6. It is essential to consider the ultimate-load requirements when selecting the tendon profile. and the additional difficulties that can be encountered in post-tensioning. a tendon chosen only on the basis of linear transformation and concordance is not necessarily satisfactory. Typical tendon alternative profiles with equal upper and lower eccentricities at the peak moment sections are shown in Figure 6. unbonded post-tensioned slabs. as it might neither totally fulfill the service-load stress requirements nor fully satisfy the ultimate-load requirements at both the midspan and interior supports.5 m) each. A decrease in eccentricities at the intermediate supports through additional tendon transformation decreases the service-load compressive stresses and can result in allowing additional live-load moments. provided that the midspan profile eccentricity and moments produce satisfactory concrete stresses.4. and (b) Flexura! members with shear and flexura! strength at least twice the load level causing the first cracking moment Me.

000 psi (1.6 MPa) fpu = 270.862 MPa) fpy = 243. (165 cm) for the compression flange to account for the modular ratio of the topping and precast concrete.5 MPa) is reached at the extreme top fibers of the composite section when the live load acts on the section.200 psi (1.303 MPa) fpe = 0.000 psi (1.9 Tendon and C-Line Location in Continuous Beams 363 Bending moment envelope e A (a) .3/ 0.25/ (b) Figure 6.000 psi (27.000 = 849 psi (5.45f~ = 2.7 MPa).93 MPa) .000 psi (20. (b) Tendon profile alternatives.043 MPa) 'Y= 0. = 3.8 Midspanfi = 12~ = 12V5.5 MPa). and assume that a maximum allowable concrete compressive fiber stress fe= 0..6.000 psi (1. Input data from Example 4. Solution: l. .8(0. throughout the structure and fully grouted. normal-weight concrete = 4.655 MPa) fp.7fpu) = 151. 7 (a) Stress data Precast J: = 5.13 Tendon profile modification. Disregard tension force variation due to frictional losses in the bends. normal-weight concrete Toppingf: J:.000 psi (34. 0.250 psi (15.85 MPa) Supportfi = 6v'i: = 425 psi (2. (a) Bending moment diagram for continuous beam. = 189. Use a modified effective width bm =65 in.

940 X 15 = 7. 3 (top of slab) n = Ec (topping)/ Ec (precast) Precast h = = 0. 2 le.77 45 in. 4 r2.9 20. 2 (21.7 cm2 ) 2.5 cm) (e) Section properties AASHTO Type 111 Property Precast Composite Ac. Sb. (14.3 cm) Transformed b = 65 in.7 mm dia) 7-wire low-relaxation strands Aps = 22 X 0.070 934 297.940 X 9 = 4.86 9.1 kN/m) (obtained from ML = 9. 3 scbS' in. in.6 cm) (d) Prestressing steel Twenty-two ~-in.288 cb.264 kN) while the primary moment at support B is M8 = Pe X e8 = 508.186 5. in. the tangential deviation used for computing tl.58 X 106 in.-lb (862 X 103 N-m) The primary moment at midspan E 1 is M Ei = 508. Assume a tria! tendon profile location as shown in Figure 6. dia (12.14 The prestressing force after losses is Pe = 3. in.300.2 kN/m) for 1~ in. 3 S 1. situ-cast = 1. (165 cm) Situ-cast h¡ = 5.15 yields . in.1 kN/m) for 4 in. Taking moments of areas about A in Figure 6.366 in.940 lb (2.200 = 508.514 plf (22.-lb For simplification.27 24. (114.174 19. c1.153 = 3.390 223.75 in.-lb) WL Span = 64 ft (19.32 13.000 in.lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Chapter 6 364 (b) Load data Wn = 583 plf (8. 3 (bottom of slab) Sw in.045 318.251 15.490 21.63 X 106 in. in.366 X 151. in. in.1 31. 2 560 125.5 kN/m) = (1V12) X 7 ft X 150 slab formwork Wsn Wcsn = (4/12) X 7 ft topping X = 153 plf (2. 8 is based on assuming the tangent to the elastic curve at B as horizontal. precast 150 = 350 plf (5.73 6.

g.¡ l 6.9 Tendon and C-Line Location in Continuous Beams Figure 6.63 X 106 in. EJct:. h-lb Computation of displacement by taking moments of area about . 64R.-lb Also.15 support A 3 c.[ 7. 7.B = EJct:.58 ) 106 2 .63 = X 106 X 2 64 -X 2] 3 X - 64] X 264 X 144 x64-X-2x 144 3 15.63 .0 X 1010 in.c = [(-7.·lb + ~ 1 Figure 6.14 365 Trial profile of the prestressing tendon.+ 4.

2.39 X 106 = -16.87)106 5.52 X 106 in. E 1.-lb (Max.994 = 40. ) (21 0 . are as follows: .39 . cm 3. 3-lb RA = Rn = 15 0 X 101º = 994 lb t (By exact calculation = 798 lb) · 151 X 106 The secondary moment M 2 at support B is RA X 64 X 12 = 994 X 64 X 12 = 0.0.63 + 0.) Finally.3a and b.38)106 = 4.20 X 106 in. the total moment at midspans.994 = 1.87 X 106 = (8.-lb (see Figure 6.-lb Pe = ApsÍpe = 3. calculate M El from the area of the shear diagram) Net R 8 = 1.200 = 508. The fiber stresses due to prestressing and self-weight. hence.048 lb The total support B moment due to prestressing and self-weight is. m. + Mis not at midspan.. Concrete fiber stresses dueto prestress and self-weight (583 plf) Using the moment factors and reaction factors from Figure 6. lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Chapter 6 366 EJc!:!.20 8 25 . then. M4 = M3 = - 2.B = (RA X 64 X 12) (64 ~ 12)(64 X ~2 X 2) = 151 X 106 R 8 in.16) The C-line eccentricity is .76 X 106 in.49 m. 508 940 (The eccentricity e' of the C-line when it is above the neutral axis is considered negative in order to conform to Equations 6. X 106 = + 508.17) X 12 = 2.940 = + . 8.12.10 X 583(64)2 (see Figure 6.940 lb Mn at E 1 = 2.es- . and E 3 dueto prestressing only is Midspan M 3 = (4.87 X 106 in.-lb The total moment at support B due to prestressing only is Support M 3 = (7.76) X 106 = 8.1 Wt .9 cm) .-lb and the C-line eccentricity is . eE1 4.Sa and b.39 X 106 in.12 X 106 in. E 2.58 .1 X 583 X 64 .366 X 151. from Equations 6.-lb (624 X 103 N-m) (i) Support section B ar C The construction process in this stage involves mounting the precast 1-beams and prestressing them. we have Mn at B = M 81 = 0. (41.

6.4kN) 9941b l J t 994 994 (b) 0. '' l lf l!I! 11 l!l O.·lb ll~ll J!lll! 111111! !ll lllJl!"J llll llll l 11111' (e) ~2X1o'i. . (a) 9941b t (4.9 Tendon and C-Line Location in Continuous Beams 367 M..16 Tendon C-line profile in continuous beam of Example 6.-lb M.·lb (d) D (e) Figure 6.4.38 X 1Cl6 in. 76 X 1Cl6 in.

and C-line geometry of the continuous beam in this example.940 ( _ 16.Ac - S".6 MPa).08 x 106 in.245 psi (C) (8.73) + 2. + Sb - _ _ Pe - = _ 908.49 in.91 560 = + 447.5 psi ( C) (3.1. . Total moment M 4 at E 1 = ( 4.8 .1w/ RA = 0.52 X 106 _ M 4 _ _ 508.87 X 10 1 6. = -908. O. We obtain f' 1 =_Pe Ac (l + e.186 560 + A.K.87 X 10 5. the concrete fiber stresses at the support can be computed from Equations 4.49 X 20. 5. Hence.8 - = 2.8 + 410.3 f 1b = -908. O.K.49 X 24.-lb Pe .8 MPa) f' tb =_Pe Ac (l _e.8 .8 MPa) < 2. c1) + Mv r2 51 6 = _ 508.088. O. 2.20 . no tension.5 psi (C).940 ti = -Ae + S' = ------s6() + = -908.1 + 566.rzcb). .4a and b using the C-line eccentricities e' e= -16.0 psi (C) (ii) Outer span midspan E 1 The eccentricity at the midspan is e k1 = +8. fi = - p Ae + M S: e M4 Pe Í1b = .08 X 106 = -1.16 gives the moments.2.Ac .3 -16.la and b or Equations 6. 0.52 X 106 M4 Pe .186 223.K.9 560 = -2.Mv Sb 6 = _ 508. M4 508.40wl Figure 6. .4 MPa). eccentricities.08 X 106 5 010 ' -498.6 psi (C) (13.463.250 psi.9 = -16.12)106 = 2.lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Chapter 6 368 1 ~ ' R8 =1.564.1 6 86 Figure 6.940 6.8 + 892.998 psi (C)(13. Alternatively.S = ------s6{) 5 070 = f lb -1997.940 (l + 16.940 5.070 223.17 Moment diagram dueto externa! load. 508.9 .25 in. Ít = .K.1 = -1.27) _ 2.

resulting in full composite action for supporting the total service live load.05 X 106 in.8 - f 2b = -908. The support moment due to superimposed load is M 82 = 0.47 - X 106 ) in.3 - 8. and compression at the bottom fibers of the support section.68 X 106 21 714 ' =-1. 0. the section moduli for the precast beam become s~ = 21.1167WL/ 2 = 0.05 X 106 .-1.329 psi (9.7 MPa) < 2.68 X 106 in.111 psi (C) (7.250 psi. = -415.4 + 8.-lb = 3.514 plf (22.714 in.1 X 503(64) 2 X 12 = -2.lw/ 2 = 0.05 X 106 _ . < 2.9 Tendon and C-Line Location in Continuous Beams 369 4. Effect of adding the superimposed dead loads on support sections B and C At this stage of the construction process the U in.-lb Hence. The resulting total fiber stresses in the precast section at the support due to all loads become f' T = f' + 2 Ms3 S~ and ÍbT = Í2b - Ms3 S cb Hence. thick precast slabs (W5v) are erected.490 in. . Wsv = 153 + 350 = 503 plf (7.6. O. f 21 _ - -908. ÍbT = -414. -1. followed by placing the 4 in.4 psi (C) 5 070 ' 3.3 The loading combination which causes the highest stress condition is when the load acts on only two adjacent spans AB and BC.-lb Also.68 X 106 .-1.47 X 106 in. 3 and scb = 9.K.8 psi (C) 6186 ' 5. Pe f2b Ms =-A+ sb e M 5 = (M4 2.-lb The live-load moment causes tension at the top. the support moments due to live load on two adjacent spans is M 83 = 0. We have WL = 1.510.2 MPa) . Effects of adding the superimposed live load on support sections B and C After the concrete cures.250 psi.12. 9 490 = .1167 X 1.3 kN/m). . thick !ayer of wet concrete (Wsv)· Thus.8 + 3.514(64)2 X 12 = -8.510. 1 _ ÍT .K.1 kN/m) including W csv· From Figure 6.

-lb and ML = -8. O.-:J r e MD +St MSD .914.9 .87 + 2.2 MPa) < 2. assumed zero here.where Set IS.070 + X 106 + 8.6 = -1.19a and b t - ect) Pe ( ÍT .39 x 106/508.K.111+347 = -764 psi.2 + 399. are MD = -2. the C-line eccentricity is e~= M 3/Pe = -8. +347 psi (T) (2. at top of the precast section.--A 1 ..47) 5.87 + 2. From befare.68 X 106 21.77 = 06 X 0.8 ~ 3 06 ·~~.77 +437 psi (T) (3 MPa) = = 425 psi.5~ X 0. Also.-lb (including McSD) Hence.49 in.91 560 (2.560 + 1. at th~ top of 1 se the precast section McsD + ML MD + MSD ecb) Pe ( + ---+ lbT = .111 psi at the extreme top fibers of the precast section can result in a net compressive stress at the bottom of the slab = -1.9 cm)... (41.863. The fiber stress at the extreme lower fibers of the precast section at support B or C is 1 .K.49) X 24.4 MPa) < 425 psi.-lb MSD = -2.49) X 20. the maximum fiber stresses at the top and bottom fibers on the composite slab at the support section are evaluated using section moduli 1 S cs and SbCS' where ML X modular ratio n = 0.714 = -2.1 + Scb Sb Ac r where e= e~= MiP.250 psi.330 psi( C) (9.940 = -16. Stresses at top and bottom fibers ol the situ-cast 4 in.McSD + ML .91 l 560 lbT (2.186 8.20a and b.940 [ + (-16.27] 223. Superposition of the tensile stress at the bottom fibers of the slab and the compressive stress of -1.053. 1 __ ÍT - 508.X n Sbcs Hence.77 lbs = +-S 1 es ML lbcS = + .47) X 106 6.111 psi (C) __ 508.73] 1 223. slab From Equations 4.lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Chapter 6 370 Alternative one-step solution using Equations 4.940 [ _ (-16.87 X 106 in.2 . O..7 = -1. O.68 X 106 in. using the appropriate signs.47 X 106 in.490 = +447. the support moments. lbs = 8 lbcS = + ·~~.K. and McsD is the additional superimposed dead load at service after erection.68 X 106 9.

80 = 0..O 4 X 0.0054 .0062 w') = 0.5 X 5.5 in.68 X 106 9.76 in. Consequently.49 from bottom fibers = 36. = w 2 X 0.5 = cb + eB = 20.24~ 1 = 0.5 5.6 cm) Since the width of the compression flange at support b = 22 in.2 60.2062 at the support = 0.75 in.= = 020 P bdp 22 X 36. (9.0. Limit state at f ailure (a) Degree of ductility far moment redistribution h = 45 d Support dP = + 5.000 O. Note that the concrete fiber stresses are considerably below the maximum allowable stresses at service load for the same live load and spans as the simply supported beam of Example 4.20 + 0.0090 . We obtain A.7. 6.005 so that the actual strain for total w is = +437 -1111 psi Slabtopl 1 Slab bottom ~ 1f---T +347 Beam top 45" 1 -1329psi Figure 6.75 = 50.75 .(1. since the superimposed live load is the same in both cases and the section is the same for the span lengths used.2 MPa ) The final distribution of stress is shown in Figure 6. + 0.00 90 Aps Íps 3. &_ = bd f ~ .000 = 045 22 X 48.w wP d +d (w - = 0.18.24 ~ 1 is comparable to E1 X 0.3 - 8.9 Tendon and C-Line Location in Continuous Beams ÍbT 371 = -414.0062 = 0. the selected continuous tendon profile is not the most efficient in this example.19 < 0.0045) = 0.2062 p 0.366 X 240.27 0. 0.5 ( 35. J: ~1 d ( ') dp w .80 for 5.20 X 60.000 w = 22 X 48.18 Stress distribution in the concrete at service load.5 demonstrates preferable modifications.000 w = -.24 0.27 + 16. try two #4 bars as compression steel and four #4 bars at tension steel.6. Example 6. (89.25) = 48.490 = -1.329 psi.000 = 0.5 for stirrup + 0.76 X 5.000 psi concrete = 48. 50.000 .

000 + 0. AvailableMn = ApsÍps(dP - = 3.-wide web section at support is 7 + 7.366 X X 60. the required nominal moment strength Mn = M)<j> = 19.54 x 106 in.80 ~) + AJy(d.5 .25 240. the beam is in the tensile zone of Fig. It could be reduced in size by either changing the tendon eccentricities or enlarging the span or allowing a higher live load with new tendon eccentricities.0. the factored elastic secondary moment induced by reactions due to prestress.-lb and ML = 8. = 21.3 .3) z 60.76 x 106 in.9) + 0. and the total factored moment Mu= (20.76 - X + 0.-lb (e) Nominal moment strength The support section factored Mu is 1. A test using the 1000 et percent code provision for redistribution factor. cld1 = a/¡3 1dt = 8.-lb (3. From Equation 4.68 X 106 in.0.0075.9/(0.20 kN-m).000 X 22 = 8. using a load factor of 1.6 106 X 8.36 x 0.71 X 106 in.-lb (2.68 X 106 = 20. 1! . would have allowed moment redistribution in this case.80 x 48. yielded.34 X + 1.000 ( 48. however. (22. precluding application of moment redistribution.-lb. and the section behaves like a rectangular section. fy = ¡. > 8.44.fy a=-------- 0.0 as stipulated in the ACI code. 0.4 0.8 in.1 X 103 kN-m) > 21.90 for determining the design moment Mu.-lb The factored moment is at least 1. Figure 6. strain et is less than 0.54 x 106/0. For maximum allowable wT.375.366 = 28. width b at bottom = 22 in.K.19 shows the load and moment distributions.2062.46 kN-m). allowing <1> = 0.8.000 . 4.lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Chapter 6 372 Hence.000 (36.-lb From step 2.5/2 = 10. is M 2 = 0.36¡3 1 = 0. Hence.000 (8. Alternatively by the ACI Code.90.90 in.45 > 0.71 x 106 in.80 = 0.3 X 106 in.34 X 106 in. Also.2 X 5.000 psi.85nb 240.fy(~ - X X 8 d') ·~º) z . and thus OK for the chosen reinforcement. Hence.232 < 0.47)106 = 5.000 The depth of the flange up to the 7-in. If A.76) x 106 in.90 in. Since no redistribution is used here. O.9 106 in. So ApsÍps + AJy . the elastic moments at support are Mv + Msv = (2. the section is safe. but not efficient. The neutral axis is inside the flange.45 and did not exceed the maximum permissible reinforcement.~) + A.40 X 60.2 Mcr as the code requires.6 cm) 3.85 X 5.-lb (2. = 60.87 + 2.5)=0.8 X 60.-lb = 19.A. (b) Flexura! moments modifications It is advisable to apply the redistribution modifications separately to the dead and live loads since alternate span loading for live load has to be considered for worst loading conditions while dead load acts simultaneously on ali spans.

the midspan eccentricity eE1 = 8. (27.74 x 106 in.-lb (0. redistribution occurred redistribution occurred 11 ~ 11~11a1n11n11m11rr1rr11D11]11[1rr11D11]11rr1rr11D11]11[1rr11D11]11[1rr11n11~11cr1a11n 11~11~1m•aD11:rc:a:a--~M2~--.5 .25 + 5 = 13.0 X 1010 .85 . 2 X 144 = 75. the primary midspan E 1 moment M 1 = 508.11.5 = 5 in.8 m) spans can be increased by at least 50 percent.+ 6.6kN/ml 64'~ /l.5 Linearly transform the prestressing tendon in the continuous prestressed beam in Example 6..cz:cc:cm11~11a10 0.25 in.4 such that the superimposed live load WL on the 64 ft (19. (34 cm).5 in.-ib Figure 6. Therefore. Solution: l.76 X 106 in.940 x 13.-lb Loading and factored moment in Example 6. In order to allow the beam to carry more live load.63x103 kN-m).-lb (0.7WL: 2574 pJf (37. assume that the tendon is linearly transformed throughout all the spans such that e8 =ec=11. (10 cm). X X z64 ~06 X X 144 64] X 64.9 cm). and the primary support B moment M 1 = 508.25 = 6. Then the transformation vertical distance = 16. and 1.20.. Transformation of tendon The tendon eccentricity at support B in Example 6.85 Also.111 psi at the top.73 ) 106 X -64 -X 2] 2 3 .75 x 103 kN-m).10 Tendon Transformation to Utiliza Advantages of Continuity 373 1. and we have EJc !:i. 6..4. as shown in Figure 6.5 = 5. the beam can sustain more load if the concrete compressive stress capacity is to be utilized. Accordingly. more compressive stress at the midspan bottom fibers due to prestress needs to be developed through an increase in the tendon eccentricity. 8 = [(-5. Also. Mubefore \~ redistribution if .19 0.85 x 106 in.4 produces compressive fiber stress at the support precast section due to all loads of 1.76 X 106 in.329 psi at the bottom fibers.6.[ 5. These are lower than the maximum allowable fe= -2.250 psi.940 x 11.10 TENDON TRANSFORMATION TO UTILIZE ADVANTAGES OF CONTINUITY Example 6.

.. 32' 32' cgc fine 64' . / -. ~ 3.20 Tendon transformation in continuous beam of Example 6..ca:i:a:ain11~'1~1!~~cm:aft1p91Il11n11n11]1!]1!]!!m11[11[1![!Illlilllilll]!l]l!]ll~!IR~l[~[IIIIDI!ID!IDllD!l::C:C==..81 X 106 in. 4967 lb. (22. 1 kN) 1 t 1 t 49741b (e) 4974 lb.·lb ~ r ~ 3...Chapter 6 374 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 1l 1 ! (a) (b) R 8 = 4967 lb.-lb M2~-....81 X 106 in.5.~ (d) (e) _____ - ' .------32' 32' (f) Figure 6.....

87 x 106 = (9.79 x 106 in.186 = - - .0 X 1010 _ X 15 1 107 RA = Rs = M2 = RA X 64 X 12 = 4. (i) Support section B or C .Ac M4 _ - 6. (47.71X106 6.K. Concrete fiber stresses dueto prestress and self-weight (583 plf) From step 3 of the solution to Example 6.¡ 6.2 MPa) = -908 8 fíb .8 + 2.0 cm) . = . 2. O.2.2.81) 106 = 4.8 + 1098 + 189 psi (T). = 5 070 Íb = -908.8 .2248 psi (C) (15.87) 106 = 6.2 MPa).)- r2 Mn + Msn + ML S~ _ Mcsn S' (i) Support section (at B or C) From Figure 6.83 - 2.186 = -908 .X 12 2 3 15. So calculate the final C-line eccentricities = M 3/Pe as shown in Figure 6. (ii) Outer span midspan section E 1 From Example 6.1 X 107 RA in.-lb From Example 6. 1347 psi (C) (9.070 508.12)106 = 2. O. O.20(e).66 .12 x 106 in.12x106 = (4.81) X 106 = 9.71X106 . and f' = -908.79 X 106 5.20) Midspan M 3 = ( 6.66 X 106 in.K.10 Tendon Transformation to Utiliza Advantages of Continuity 375 Eclc iic = [ 64RA X 12 X = 64 X 12 ] 64 X 2 .4 x 103 kN-m).66 x 106 in. 3.K. no tension. Determination of live-load intensity for new tendon profile for unshored construction 1 __ Ír - Pe ( _ Ac l e8 e.-lb 75. e8 = 9.7 MPa).87 x 106 in.1339 < 2.19 m.66 X 106 .-lb (0. O.4.-lb Hence.4.71x106 in.8 - 2.83 X 106 in. the moment dueto self-weight is 2. M 3 = -9.2.4. = .-lb.81 X 106 in.-----s6{) - = -908.-lb so the total moment M 4 = M 3 .44 X 103 kN-m) Support M 3 = (5.940 lb.K.-lb (0. Pe= 508.20(f). 508 940 .940 St . Mn = 2.85 + 3. = 106 6 79 X + · 6.-lb (see Figure 6.74 - ~ X 3._ Pe f .250 psi. So the net moment M 4 = M 3 .974 X 64 X 12 = 4967 lb = 3.. 347 psi (C) (2.-lb.

736WL in. A vailable nominal moment strength Aps = 3.95 X 106 3613WL +--9. 1 _ + ÍT - __ 508. 4.2 Support dP = 11.-lb ML = 0.092 plf.000 1.8 .ll67WL (64) 2 (12) = -5.47)106 = .(2.5.-lb.ll67WL 12 = -0.736WL + 21.91 5.366 in.44 = 1.940 _ 560 ÍbT .27 = 31.186 3613W L . Then As = 4 X 0. Mv + Msv = . including Mcsv The maximum allowable tensile stress f. Also.34 X 106 5. 2 w = 22 60.490 6. to be verified by checking the ultimate moment strength available.070 3613WL 21.12 + 1.638. from Figure 6.77 in. = +425 psi at support.5 X 20.5 X 5.73) 223.27) 223.4. Assume that As at supports B and C is increased to four #6 bars in order to facilitate an increased live load.020 .-lb 1 _ _ _ 2 250 ' ÍT - _ 508.95 X 106 5.95 X 106 in.0735WL(64) 2 X 12 = 3613WL in.714 3613W .849 - + (l + 9.Chapter 6 376 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures From Example 6.91 560 3.-lb.76 X 48.5 X 24.940 ( _ 9.250 21 714 WL = 9109plf _ _ 508.73) 1 223.12.940 425 - 560 (l _(- 19) X 24.779 + 2.5 WL = 4995 plf Hence. (ii) Midspan section (at E 1) Since WD = 583 plf. = + 849 psi at midspan and f.070 + giving WL = 8.83)106 = +3.34 x 106 in. the live-load moment for a three-span beam with one span unloaded is ML = -0.87 + 2. by proportioning we obtain Mv + Msv = +(2. L = 44. 9 490 = 849 + 1691 . WL = 4995 plf controls for service load levels.76 in.5 + 20.714 5.000 = 0.91 3.

A test using the 1000 e.~) + A. percent code provision for redistribution factor.34 X 106 = + l.-wide web section.-lb .A. fy 0.78ML .5 0.78ML Hence. Now. and the percent increase in live load is (2312 .d') AvailableMn = Apsfps(dp = 3.76 .0075.6ML 6 + 1. however. Hence.24~¡ = 0.2. yielded fy ª= Aps fps + + AJy = 2.000 ( 9 ·~l 106 in. would have allowed moment redistribution in this case.1.000 psi.1167WL(64) 2 X 12 So WL = 2312 plf < WL = 4995 plf from the service-load analysis.26 X 106 m. precluding application of moment redistribution.= 2.6ML . we have ~) + AJy(d .77 = p > = 0. (24 º 2 cm) which is less than the flange depth up to the 7-in.514) l.59 X 106 + 1.19 Hence.000 ( 48. 6 .6ML Next. 1.1 O Tendon Transformation to Utilize Advantages of Continuity wP 377 d + -d (w .1167WLl 2. O.49 X 9 9 1 ~ ) + 1.89) X 106 .2. Thus.590.88 X 10 1.K. Accordingly. .85 X 5. ML = (26.77 - 60.255 0.366 X = X 240.X9 10 a= If A.fyG.0045) 31 .82 X 106 2.6. b =f.85/.¡. the increase in WL would have been 70%.-lb 78 If ML = 0.89 X - 3) 106 + 1. is less than 0.26 X 106 = 0.0.0. the elastic M 2 = 3.000 + (1. strain e. = 13. the neutral axis is inside the flange. from before.7% 514 =50%. 9·51 m.2 X 5.000 X 22 X = . Note that if the mild steel is changed from 4 #6 to 4 #8. and the section behaves like a rectangular section. = 60.000 0.2312 + (0. then 13.w') 48.Mz or Mu = 1. X 100 = 52.-lb and we have Mu = 1. we can adopt the new profile of the tendon with four #6 bars at the support top fibers in the situ-cast slab and two #4 bars at the bottom precast section fibers. WL = 2312 plf controls.49 . then 3.5 - 26.366 240. Hence.3.2(Mn + Msn) + 1.76 ·~l) + 0.000(31. Reqmred Mn Mu =---.6ML .40 X 60.40)60.82 x 106 in.02 .

5. Assume As= 9.-lb.005. redistribution percentage = 1000e.40 in. Sketch the prestressing tendon and other reinforcement details if the maximum allowable concrete compressive fiber stress at service load is fe= 2. at bottom b.90 is to be used since E 1> 0. (25.(1. Thus. 2 and w' = 0.75 .6 x 13.000 = 0. we have f: = 5. = 48. hence.89 m. consider wP = O for calculating the moment redistribution factor. with midspan eccentricity ec = 16. d = 48.87](0.4 kN/m).25/35. cover + 0.Chapter 6 378 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 6.3 cm) and end eccentricity ee = 10. = 84 in.= ~- 1).4.2 x 2. redistribution is possible. d a ) = 9.290 plf (33.03 x 106 = 23. .0 w = 22 X 48.0092.000 9. .7 MPa) Design the continuity to resist the superimposed dead and live loads only. 5 m.2%. = 9. (41. normal weight fy = 60.0 in. Solution: l.27 in.250 psi (15.. 2 60.000 psi (34.000 psi compressive strength. at top (modified bm = 65 in.5 8 = 0.5 in. and not the self-weight: d = 50. reducing the negative moment by this amount.4 . < 0.4 cm). for half-bar dia) = 48. the required moment strength dueto (Wsv + WL) at support Bis Mu = 1.) 2. namely.0045) = 0.5 in.0961 X 0. for stirrup + 0.0. hence.25 X 5. (123 cm) bb = 22 in. the tensile strain at the extreme tensile steel reinforcement is e.11 DESIGN FOR CONTINUITY USING NONPRESTRESSED STEEL AT SUPPORT Example6. .51 _ = 11.81 x 106 in.7 is made continuous through the use of nonprestressed mild steel reinforcement to carry the superimposed service dead load W5v = 503 plf and service live load WL = 2. wP + [d/dp] (w .om(i~~:9 .24[3 1 = 0.1012 . 1l . 131 0 80 o.5 such that the section and tendon profile of the AASHTO type-III bridge beam used in Example 4.5 MPa). = two #4 = 0. dP = 35..0045 Then from Example 6.6 Design the beam in Example 6. and increasing the positive midspan moment by the same magnitude..003 ( e = ( e. based on elastic moment analysis giving Mu= 23. The bonded prestressed steel does not extend through the supports. Hence.25 in.5 MPa).87 in.-lb. Assume that the tendon profile in the precast simply supported section is the same as the one in Example 4.47 x 106 + 1.1) = 0.1300.w') = O + [48.81x106 in. Using the ACI Code redistribution test. = 0. it is suggested that the topping concrete also be off~= 5.5 in.0 in. Nominal moment strength From Example 6.25 in.10l 2 A.7. A <1> factor of 0.000 psi (413. Use 9% redistribution. Data far strength design at support Because continuity is obtained in this case through the use of reinforced concrete at the supports.192.

25 so that we have Total As = 20 X 0.-width flange is 84 .26 in.26/12 Thus. The degree of indeterminacy depends upon the .8010.-lb (2.2/12 in. use #6 bars at 4 in.07 X 106 60. = . 0.000(48.25 . stirrup design for web shear. Therefore.a/2) 24. Beam geometry schematic details Figure 6.K.5-in..a/2 24.07 9 Mn = Asfy(d = 6 10 = As X X 106 in.44 in. adopt the design for flexure. 1.514 plf to 2. Rqd.25) _ 24. and the section behaves like a rectangular section.5.. As per bar= 0. = 24.12 INDETERMINATE FRAMES ANO PORTAL$ 6.. Note that the complete design would involve dowel design for composite action. ª = 0.12 lndeterminate Frames and Portals 379 So use a distribution factor of 0. 2 (2.000 X 22 = 5·93 m. (55 cm) Since the assumed As= 9.¡.0.24 X 60. As = fy (d ..9d.-.07 X 106 _ . The depth of the flange to the web is 5.329 plf.85 X 5. As/12 m.85f~b = 0.2.8 cm)..9( 48.1 mm dia. The total number of bars over the 84-in. Note also that continuity on three spans in this example using mild steel only at the supports allowed a 50% increase in the live-load intensity from 1..1 General Properties Concrete frames are indeterminate structures consisting of horizontal. Using #6 bars.9 X 48.12. 3.-lb ~) Assume for the first tria! that d .000 X 0.67 X =0. end block design.25 .. or inclined members joined in such a manner that the connection can withstand the stresses and bending moments that act on it. 2 is very close to 8.000 .19in.0 in. > 5.' 6. center to center over the 84-in.44 = 8..86 in.000 X 0.512 for the AASHTO type-3 section = 15 in. Mu = (1 . Note how the normal-weight concrete and mild steel provide continuity at the supports for the superimposed dead and live loads.= 0. 2 . As per ft width = (8.75 + 7 + 4. width (19. The area As is to be distributed over the total actual flange width of 84 in.9' 24 m.21 gives the reinforcing and tendon profile details of the continuous beam of this example.9 = 6. (58 cm ) Asfy 9.81 X 106 .+ 1 = 20 4. Accordingly. vertical. Mu 21. and the spacing is s= Bar As 0.60. bars at 10.86/84) x 12 = 1.(2 X 1. the moment distribution factor is satisfactory..44 . 6.09: Rqd..80 in.93/2) • = 2 2 8 86 · m.0 X 106 kN-m) .09) X 23.67 X 106 Usmg Mn = ---. and design for serviceability requirements in deflection and crack control as detailed in earlier examples. X 106 m. cover) .= 4.82 cm2 ). 2 2 As . Then 60. The neutral axis is inside the flange.44 in.07 = 21.

> O) o A r (al '"''''- 20 #6 al 4' e/e 20 #6 at 4f' e/e LA ~64' .21 Schematic geometry details of continuous beam in Example 6.6 (see also Example 4. 64' (19. (e) Support section B-8.. 45• (11 4 cm) cgc T10• st l' ~ (b) ' - • • ( 20 #6 at 4" e/e 1 • . .- • • 11 • • • t--r- •. .7). tt .·¡•v• t· (e) Figure 6. {b) Midspan section A-A. (a) Longitudinal section of bridge beam (not to scale). ¡. Ei .5m) 94• 1· 5~· 4 ·1 #4 slab steel ~f .c.

b the number of members. the highest values of positive and negative bending moments ha ve to be considered in the design. the degree of indeterminancy is determined from the following inequalities: + s > 3b + r 3n + s = 3b + r 3n + s < 3b + r 3n (unstable) (6. the degree of indeterminancy of the frame in Figure 6. As an example.22 Typical structure trames. the following conditions have to be satisfied: 1.9) where 3n equations of static equilibrium are always available and the total number of unknowns is 3b + r.7c) The degree of indeterminacy is s = 3b + r . and s the number of indeterminacies. the number of vertical members.22(a) is s=3X3+2X2 -3X4=1 and for the frame in part (g) of the same figure it is s=3X10+2X3 -3X9=9 Note that in order for a frame to perform satisfactorily. r the number of reactions.6. If moment reversa! is possible dueto reversa! of live-load direction.7a) (statically determina te) (6.3n (6.12 lndeterminate Frames and Portals 381 nn (a) (b) (e) (d) (e) (f) O C) (g) (h) Figure 6.7b) (statically indeterminate) (6. . If n is the number of joints. The design must be based on the most unfavorable moment and shear combinations. Typical frame configurations are shown in Figure 6. and the type of end reactions. number of spans.22.

(d) Deformation of trame in (b). (e) Bending moment (fixed-base frame). an expensive construction procedure. Proper faundation support far horizontal thrust has to be provided. 6. as well as the clapeyron three. such as virtual work.9a) w w fff ff ff f ffffff f ff ffffffffffffffff+ (a) 1 1 (b) (e) 1 T 1 1 T T T1 T T T T T (d) T (e) Figure 6. an actual hinge system has to be provided.23 Right-angled portal frame loaded with gravity load intensity w ( T indicates tension fibers). Consequently. (b) Bending moment (hinged-base frame). .1 Uniform Gravity Loading on Single-Bay Portal.12. so that only the minimum guidelines and simplifications are presented. 6. (e) Deformation of frame in (e).24 will be used in the design of indeterminate prestressed concrete frames. and flexibility matrix procedures. the bending moment diagrams shown in Figures 6. The usual methods of analyses of indeterminate structures including frames. as was done in the case of a continuous beam at service-load and slight-overload conditions. well befare the development of plastic hinges.12.23 and 6.2 Forces and Moments in Portal Frames The behavior of concrete frames befare cracking can be considered reasonably elastic. (a) Load intensity. If the frame is designed as hinged.25(a) are not equal.Chapter 6 382 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 2. The following values of the moments and thrusts can be inferred: End Shear in Beam 1 V 8 =Ve= -wl 2 (6. are assumed familiar in this text. Suppose that the moments of inertia le of the vertical columns and lb of the horizontal beam of the portal in Figure 6.or faur-moment equations. stiffness matrix. 1 .2.

6.x)w . (b) Bending moment (fixed-base trame).9f) where the points of contraflexure from either comer of the portal are X1 = ~ (1 - Vl - 8C1) l = C2l (6.C1) wl 2 (6. (e) Deformation of trame in (a).e1 wl 2 (6.Hh -- Mmax - (1S .9e) Bending Moments at Any Point x M X = -12 X (l . Horizontal Thrust (6.12 lndeterminate Frames and Portals 383 (a) (b) (e) (d) Figure 6.9g) .9c) Maximum Negative Moment at Comer Ms =Me= -Hh = -C1 wl 2 (6.24 Right-angled portal trame loaded with wind load intensity p (T indicates tension fibers).9d) Maximum Positive Moment at Midspan -1 S wl 2 . (d) Deformation of trame in (b). (a) Bending moment (hinged-base trame).9b) where (6.

ph2 2-.2 Concentrated Gravity Loading on Single-Bay Portal. (a) Uniform gravity loading.lüa) Horizontal Thrust (6.25(b ). (b) Concentrated gravity loading. From Figure 6.9h) 6. l_ _ _D H H H wl 2 wl 2 (b) (al p H 1 = ph .12.H . and (6. Since the concentrated load P does not have to act at midspan. nonsymmetry of shears results. (e) Uniform horizontal pressure.25 Bending moment ordinates in single-bay trame.Chapter 6 384 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures p Loading ¡w1 h A________ H x. 2 _ 1. the end shear are and (6.(e) Figure 6.lüb) .2.

12 lndeterminate Frames and Portals where (6.. MX = ~l [1 . ] (6.385 6.lüe) l C}) Pl Far x >a.lüi) 6.~ -(1 .Hh =(1 .lüf) } Pl l =a Pl . (6.25( e). we have the following: From Figure 6.~)l (6.lüd) For x < a..3 Uniform Horizontal Pressure on Single-Bay Portal.lüc) Bending Moments at Comers Ms =Me =-Hh =-C37(1 --T)Pl Bending Moments at Any Point along BC.lüg) ªz) + .~)l Pl (6.2.12.~)Je l Maximum Positive Moment at x M max =~l (1 .~ l l (6.lª1) + 1 C3 [ P 1 l H = h P 2 ¡ª2 ( 1 - l or (6. (1 .lüh) 3 Horizontal Thrust for Severa/ Concentrated Gravity Loads ª1 (1 . For windward hinge A.lla) Horizontal Reactions.C ) ~l (1 .llb) . MX = (6.~) (~ . Vertical Reactions at Supports and (6.

are 1 My =HAY .26. 6.10.lle) Maximum Moment at Windward Column (6.llg) Bending Moments in Comers of Portal hh --+2 _ 1 2 _ 3 le l Ms .1 l 386 Chapter 6 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures where (6. C2 .9.lli) The constants C1. with y being measured from the bottom. A concordant tendon is assumed far the horizontal beam far symmetrical i . C3 .llh) 2 (6.lld) The bending moments at any point y along the column height due to horizontal pressure. and 6. (6. 6.8 lb h ph 2 2--+3 le l = (C4 - 0. a tendon profile has to be assumed at the start in arder to determine the secondary bending moments M 2 far the portal frame horizontal beam and vertical legs.12.11 can be graphically represented as shown in Figure 6.5)ph 2 Me= -Hvh = -(1 .llc) For leeward hinge D.2PY2 (6.C4 )ph (6.llf) Point of Maximum Bending Moment above Support A (6. Canned computer programs far the analysis of indeterminate beams and frames render the use of charts such as this unnecessary except far a quick check of numerical values. and C4 in Equations 6.HAh .2ph .3 Application to Prestressed Concrete Frames As with continuous beams.

Consequently.12) .26 2.5 3 3.!!. Frame with Two Hinges at Supports (6.387 6.5 1.40 0.1 O.5 2 Stiffness ratio k Figure 6. . The incremental force L\P can be evaluated by means of the following expressions.70 0. Longitudinal shortening of the horizontal beam caused by the prestressing force results in tensile stresses at the outside face of the frame columns. The prestressing vertical tendon should be designed to resist these stresses as well as others.11.35 o 0. gravity loading.45 0.50 0. a force P + L\P has to be applied to the frame. in order to obtain a prestressing force Pin the longitudinal member. and the vertical columns or legs are proportioned to resist the horizontal pressure and the extra moment caused by the shortening of the beam.9. 6.12 lndeterminate Frames and Portals 0.. The longitudinal shortening also results in horizontal reactions at the column's supports. Ir: I Constants C1 through C4 in Equations 6.5 4 = !!!. and 6.

27. and the horizontal member becomes very flexible. The subscripts B and C denote the member extremities of the frame in Figures 6. The effects of the horizontal reactions on ~~ ~~/ P+l:. and shrinkage.14) Frame with Fixed Supports (6.13) Figure 6.28.25 and 6. The reason for the drastic change in moment values MB and MA is that as k approaches zero. as shown in Figure 6. Frame with Fixed Supports MB .MA = ÁP = h 3(2k k(k EJc(_3_ h k +2 + k +3 ) k(k + 2) + 1) Ele + 2) h2 (6.27 shows the axial deformation due to the strain EBc = ál/l caused by shortening.15) as k ~O.27 Longitudinal deformation of beam BC due to elastic shortening.1 2h J_: e 1 1 P+l:.P ~/ -i ~¡ 8 8= h Af. the stiffness of the vertical members relative to the horizontal member approaches infinity.P A __ t:. creep.27 are as follows. creep. 1. and shrinkage. Frame with Two Hinges at Supports M B - 6 2k +3 EchfJ 3 EJc ----e [ .2k + 3 h BC (6. 2h 8 = 1:. The tributary moments MA and MB dueto the longitudinal shortening of member BC in Figure 6.5E)c MB ~--h.388 Chapter 6 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 1l l where k = (Ib!IJ(hll) and EBc is the total strain due to elastic shortening and movement due to shrinkage and creep.EBc and MA ~ oo.P D Figure 6. ÁP approaches infinity.P 1 1 1 1:. . In such a case.

Design the frame.95 kN/m) at the windward side anda suction of intensity PL = 40 plf (0. as shown in Figure 6. .. (a) Hinged-base trame.P Figure 6..31.. and the location of the prestressing tendons for service-load and ultimate load conditions given the following data: fpu = 270...30..29 Horizontal reaction effect on prestressing force.5 kN/m) anda uniform horizontal wind pressure of intensity Pw = 65 plf (0.620 MPa) A i(l.. -:::. A typical prestressing tendon profile for a frame is shown in Figure 6. the profile. 6. .P + AP Effect ot tributary moments due to elastic shortening.12.4 m) and is subjected to a uniform gravity live-load intensity WL = 240 plf (3.29 for both hinged-base and fixed-base frames.t..44 m).28 P (small) ------=--------..58 kN/m) at the leeward side. (b) Fixed-base trame. The units are 8-ft.000 psi (1.4-- AP AP (horizontal reaction) ~ - (horizontal reaction) MA (a) (b) Figure 6. The frame has a clear span of 80 ft (24... the prestressing force are schematically shown in Figure 6.12 lndeterminate Frames and Portals - P (small) P+AP---. .4 Design of Prestressed Concrete Bonded Frame Example6.000 psi (1.. . Continuity at the comer of the frames has to be accomplished in the construction process. The prestressing force P 1 is assumed to be less than P2 in arder to allow for the frictional losses in prestress.862 MPa) for low-relaxation tendons fps = 235. .. wide (2. Note that the discussion here and in the previous section applies equally to continuously cast and precast prestressed composite frames. ....7 A warehouse structure is made of a prestressed single-bay hinged-base portal frame made of standard double-T-sections for both the horizontal beam and the two vertical columns.389 6..

1 MPa) Íci = 0. Ci..870 psi (1.250 psi (15..000 psi (34..7. = 5. ID CQ o~ 36' 11 11 (11..082 MPa) fpe (final) = (1 .5 MPa) n¡ 2" 0.303 MPa) Total losses = 21 % .. = 2.¡ (midspan) Íti (support) Ít = 3~ = 177 psi = 6 ~ = 355 psi = 6vflto 12vfl = 425 to 849 psi (5..0.5 MPa) fe = 0. .17)189..029 MPa) ¡.0. losses after one month of prestressing = 17 % fpe = ( one month) = (1 ... = 3.31 Portal trame in Example 6.45f."' J_ D A Figure 6.21)189.100 psi (14.000 = 149.¡ = 2.5 MPa) f.500 psi (24.85 MPa) WL =240plf e 8 80' (24..6f.70J. Ci.390 Chapter 6 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Concordant tendon cgc Figure 6.4m) .l o.310 psi (1.0m) o. 189. l .000 = 156.30 fpi = Tendon profile in a prestressed trame.000 psi (1.

5.0. and a waterproofing width of the segment = 8 ft.9c.12 lndeterminate Frames and Portals Solution: Frame Horizontal Beam BC Preliminary Analysis. X 106 m. assume 2 in.8 kN/m).876 X 106 + 1.100) X X 106 _ ..0 = 36 = 0.4b.760 . where lb is the moment of inertia of the beam BC and le is the moment of inertia of the column AB or DC. the minimum section modulus at the bottom fibers for an efficient section is given by (1 .9e.-lb X 106 in. Then from where lb h k=-lc l Assume at this stage that lb =le. if WD =600 plf. concrete topping (Ref.-lb Assume ft = O.760 sb - 106 + 0.064. it is to behave as a simply supported beam for self-weight W D· But it would be considered continuous for the superimposed dead load WSD and live load WL as part of the rigid portal frame. The C-line would then coincide with the cgs line dueto concordance. the stiffness coefficient is = 600 plf (8.79(-2. The closest section is PCI 8DT32 + 2 Double-T type 168-Dl with 2 in.000 psi lightweight). it follows that "Y= 0. C1 = 0.79)5. Then k = h l X 1. then from Equation 6.45 80 From the chart for C1 in Figure 6.15). Now.124 o .S M 50 = ML = 600(80) 2 8 _ - GG- _ X 12 . 6. 3 .064) 187(80)2 X 12 = 0. Assume that self-weight WD Equation 6. the midspan moment is so that _ w/ 2 MD . i.e.391 6.064) 240(80) 2 X 12 = 1.124 x 106 in. . So given total losses = 21 %.::. Accordingly.y)MD + MSD + ML sb . 5 psf insulation.876 0. Then from Equation 4. of concrete topping (f ~ = 3.-lb 0.1•935 m.79.YÍci or _ (1 .26.0. Then WSD C 2 2 X 110 + 5) 8 ft = = 187 plf Beam BC is to be designed as a concordant cable. -------!t .

K. O.153 = 2.886 94.740 psi (C) < Íci = 2.392 Chapter 6 lndetermlnate Prestressed Concrete St<Uctures 1 ~ j Properties of Preliminary Section 1 Property Untopped Topped Ac (in. .45 X 189.673 X 10 97. O.79 5. no tension. Íh P. from Equation 4.K.8 cm2 ) Analysis of Section at Transfer (a) Midspan Section (ec = 17.5.9 psi ( C).7 23.45 in.615 591 759 71.464 97.952 3. 2 (15.140 X = -347 psi (C). = 2.34 6.O 1 567 97.8 2.673 X 106 567 97.) f 1= _ 463.8 21.21 X 10.5.3) sb (in.21 in.46 X 21.3 cm) sixteen ~-in. = Aps/p.) c1 (in.21 in.4) 567 55.760 X 106 X 591 -. 8.140 2. (b) Support Section (e.100 psi.lb.7-mm dia) 270-K low relaxation strands Aps = 16 X 0.050 lb ¡t = _ 463.79) _ 5. no tension.050 (l + 17. dia (12.46 567 6 10.la.66 10.76.) Mv -.46 in. 2 ) Je (in.46 in.673 600 X 106 in.8 5.3) WD (plf) e. ( 1 + -ecb) Mv 2 + Ac r Sb = -- = _ 463. 2) ch (in.050 (l _ 17. Provide nonprestressed steel at the top fibers at midspan to account far any possible tensile stresses.038 738 r2 = Ic/Ac (in. Then.9 cm) = ec = 17. (20.000 = 463.) si (in. 0.-lb where 591 = 567 X 12 12 X 150 plf From Equation 4. P.8 = .050 ( _ 8.= 8. (44.21 10.K.615 = -1.21) + 5.79).

debond four strands overa length = 0.004 ( + 8. lower the magnitude of the prestressing force by debonding sorne strands over a length of 15% of span from the support face. e Frame Moments and Reactions at Service-Load Leve/ Horizontal Portal Beam BC Free Support W D Stage. that lb= IC' choose also 8DT32.-1.-lb.100 psi.340 _ .7 MPa) > Íci = 2.06 _ _ P. O.21 X 21. If the former technique is employed.543 kN) __ 347. In such a case it is preferable to spread the tendon across the section.7) 2/8]x12=5.100 psi. as shown in Figure 6. From before. Choose a double-T as walls for the frame and suppose that eb and Sb refer to the outer face and that e1 and S1 refer to the inner face of the vertical T-section.020 psi (C) _ .000 = 578. We obtain = (16 . The bending moments are caused by wind load and moments from the frame horizontal beam BC. unsatisfactory Hence.06 in.491x106 in. = 20 X 0.8 = -1702 psi o < 2.21) + 1 Íb 567 97. X 106 = 0. This vertical member will act as a compression member subject to large axial load and bending. and design the distribution of the strands according to Try using twenty Hn. or change the eccentricity of the tendon.393 6. Composite Topping Wsv Stage.876 x 106 in.7/2 = 23. 2 = ApJp.876 8 Redistribution of Moments.15 x 80 ft = 12 ft (366 m) from the support. < Íci .153 = 1. O.876 X 106 187(80)2 X 12 .-lb and the reaction at the column-wall bracket support is Rv = 591x78.-lb The maximum distribution percentage is . Frame Vertical Column Analysis. the midspan moment is Msv = 0. Assume that the length of precast beams is 80 . hinged at the base.4)0.12 lndeterminate Frames and Portals Íb = 463.2. = 3.Íb .100 psi. Since it was assumed.7 ft.32 comparing the beam section and the column section. ± O .-A X 189.K.0. The support moment is then Ma =Me= = wl2 S - 0.21) ~ 1+ 97.8 + o = -2.21 X 21. releasing the anchorage of the four grouted strands.271 psi (C) (15. in calculating the stiffness coefficient k in the previous section. dia 270-K low-relaxation strands: Aps P.836 in.050 ( 8.340 lb _ 578. 2 Aps P. = 1.1.836 X 189.004 lb (1.000 = 347.-~ .153 = 3.919 X 106 in. Then the midspan moment ME= wl 2/8=[591(78. Assume that the center of gravity of the prestressing strands coincides with the cgc line. f 1 .3 = 78.K.256 lb.

8 x 32 = 25.4 - ~" di a. dia..5 = 31.000 5.42 in..32 Details of beam and wall double-T's in Example 6.± + 20. (b) Vertical wall section 8DT32 with twenty !-in. + + + 1 + 1 + 4'-0" .22 in.21 = 29. 2 9.5 1. strands with ec = ee = o. 7 wire strands debonded 12 ft from supports (a) Ft-+----8'o"-~ 2'-0" . or dP = 0.7.5 in.42 in.. = w' 4 X 0. 2'-0" -+ + ++ ++ + -+ ++ ±.5 X 60.~· dia.75 = 9.+ $$ + -t 30" 1 1 1 + +-+++ $ ++ 12 . and assume two #5 bars per rib at the compression side and two #7 bars per rib at the tension side of both the horizontal roof beams and the vertical wall beams.000 = 0..22 X 31.2..50 in.305 = 1.8h = 0.~" dia. Use dP = 29.6 in.. whichever is larger. 7 wire bonded strands (b) Figure 6. We obtain A. (a) Horizontal beam standard PCI section 8DT32 + 2 (168-01).0489 .21 + 8.394 Chapter 6 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 2" topping ++ 2" 34" 32" ++ -+. X 4. dP = cb + ee = 21. d = 32 compression side b =2 + 2 . 7 wire bonded strands -$-.

259 x 106 in. Live-load WL Stage.0.-lb 400. Also.0506.000 _ . Hence.26.60 X 60. and the superimposed dead-load reaction Rsv at the support = (187 x 80)/2 = 7.0. Because of the possible large rotations at the composite joint of this frame.5 X 31. _ AJy ª .73 .463 in.85 X 5000 X 9.-lb.w') =O+ (31.0181 4 6 1000 e.124 x 106 x1.0489) = 0. d.0506.5 .0%2 Use wP = (Aps /bdp)(fps /f ~) = O since the prestressing steel is not continuous over corners of the portal frame.C4 )ph 2 From befare.5 = 0. _ 3. and the adjusted midspan ML = 1.961 in.73)40(36) X 12 232.0.b e. O. MB = (C4 .12) x 1.llh and i.0. use a moment distribution factor of 0.45 far lb = le e From the chart far C4 in Figure 6.K.-lb The adjusted elastic moment =Me= (1 .12 = 0.57 _ .0.038 x 106 in.-lb.5)65(36) 2 MB2 Total M 8 = (1 = X 2 12 = 232. the adjusted midspan moment ME= 0. Then the adjusted MB =Me= (1. Wind Pressure Stage.1 % 20% allowable limit.124x106 in. _ 4 X 0.961 = = 167..502 + 167.000 w = bd Í: = 9.0075.-lb . From Equations 6.124 X 106 106 in.12=1. .-lb . e .180 x 106 = 1. rigid connecting steel plates should be used at the portal upper joints and be so designed to provide a moment connection capable of transferring at least 12% of the support moment to the midspan.3 ·57 m. 2 As fy 2.809x106 in.919 x 106 =0.0962.80 = 0.4 ·46 m.73.480 lb. .0.003 ( ~ .1) = 0. k = hh l l = 0. Then wP + (d/dp)(w .192 > 0.42) x (0.12 lndeterminate Frames and Portals As = 4 X 0.24J3 1 = 0.-lb.0181 = 18.1) = 0.5/29.0.395 6.-lb.12 far transferring 12% of the moment from the frame corners B and C to midspan BC. use a reduced redistribution percentage of 12 percent in the horizontal member of the frame.80 .-lb.5 X 5. . From befare. the midspan is ML = 1.85f.5)ph 2 Me = -(1 .0.40 60. The live-load reaction at the vertical support is 240 R¿ = 2X 80 = 9 600 lb . Accordingly. e.24 x 0.502 in.12)0.60 = 2.981x106 in. Windward side moment M B MBl = (0. So the support moment is 240(80) 2 M B = Me = = 12 X 8 1.180 X .0. is larger than 0.000 = 0.40 in.876 x 106 x 1. Also.4 . C4 = 0.= 1000 X < 0. 0.003 (31.1.

99 in.364 X X 106 in.310 = 0.952 156.018 lb Support Pe = (16 .46 . where four strands were debonded.73 .0.153 X 156.153 X 156.-lb MF = 4.705 X 106 X 0.870 = 384. The service load after all losses have occurred is as follows: fpe = 149.33( d).938 in.-lb.-lb Mc2 = -(0.017 X 106 in. the vertical reactions at A and D dueto wind are 1 h RwA = -2phl = (65 + 40)(36) 2 X =-851 lb 2 80 h Rwv = +!ph ¡ = +851 lb Loads and Moments Dueto Long-Term Effects Moments to Restrain End Rotations at B and C Due to Long-Term Prestress Losses.870 ME= 6.33 shows the moment distributions on horizontal member BC.8.220 X 106 in.-lb Slopes at B and C at Beam Erection One Month After Prestressing 1 Slope 0 = .-lb.-lb The eccentricity at section F.-lb 0.870 = 288.870 psi Midspan Pe = 16 X 0. and (ii) add half of Figure 6.952 = 6.396 Chapter 6 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Leeward side moment Me Mc1 = -(1 .-lb Total Me = -272.73)65(36) 2 X 12 = -272.-lb 106 in.99 = 3.705 Support moment M 8 = 288. since wind can blow from either the left or the right.016 in.0. is eF = (17.99 = 4.013 lb Midspan monent ME = 384. From Equation 6.46 = 6.013 M 8 =Me= 2.-lb 106 X 0.251 X 106 in.018 X 10.383 X 106 in.016 in.21 = 10. (i) add half of Figure 6.952 = 4.220 X 106 X 0.4) X 0.952 = 2.078 = -416. Figure 6.-lb The controlling wind moment Mw= 416.33(b) to half of Figure 6.364 X 106 MF1 = 3.952 = 3.078 in.013 X 8.165 x 106 in.013 x 10.21) !~ + 8. One month after prestressing we have: fpel = 156.310 psi fpe/fpel = 149.33( d).018 X 17.165 X X X 106 in.33(c) to half of Figure 6.21 = 2.[ Ml] Ech To find the areas of the moment diagrams for half the span dueto symmetry. Then subtract (ii) from (i) to get the rotation of the beam at B or .938 .-lb The reduced M F due to debonding is 288.lla.5)40(36) 2 X 12 = -143.143. and the moment at section F is MF = 384.

.383 X 106 in. (b) Prestressing moments one month after initial prestress.-lb (c) '4lUlllUllllllillllllllllllllill@~ Mo 5.·lb 4.165 X 10ª in.'-•T4--I • _.2.cgsi$ .251 X 106 .-lb IM.i (a) 3.165 X 10ª in.165 ..l 6.46" (44.705 X 106 in.·lb _Lnn1111111 11111111111111111111111111•m11111111111111rnm®11rrn T 2. Debonding zone -----------ao'(24.33 Bending moment diagrams for primary and self-weight moments for beam BC. We have: (i) 6Ec h X 10.__----40'-----il-4------40' -----_..·lb (MFll M¡ 4. 2.99" (27.364 X 106 in. (e) Effective prestressing moment after all losses.491 X 106 in.3 cm) r---~F~----JE~~::::::.2 S ' .-lb (b) m1ix 1os in. (d} Beam BC selfweight moments.. (a) Tendon profile.397 6.. C 12 l• o . Debonding zone t"'-• 17.·lb _i_~lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllJ~lllllllllllllíllffñID11rrn T .: t : .705 .220} z1 1 12 z 12 X 12 X X 28 X X .364) 28 X 12 X + (6..·lb (0.364 X 12 X 12 + 4.in.12 lndeterminate Frames and Portals 10.9 cm) T.013 X100¡o.72' 10' tN-mJ 3.4...6 = M(i¡l at beam erection = 2.4m)---------. C that would have to be restrained by a welded connection to develop continuity at the portal frame corners B and C.-lb W.i 28 .76 x 103 kN-m)' 3.t ____.·lb (0.220 X + (3.220 X 106 in.62 x 103 kN-ml (d) Figure 6..017 6.

/in.369.14. (b) Shrinkage From Equation 3.233. at erection = 384.6 = M(ii)/ = 2.757.25 2 = 417 X 10.3480 X 6.45.6 in. VIS= 1.RH) S Now.251 at service load 12 X X 12 + (3.4 The rotational angle 0 at B or C caused by the reduction in the prestressing force due to long-term losses is 1 .3 X Ech If M. from Table 3. EcR 1 [(P.013 . X 480 = -.251) +4.491 X 40 X 12 2 X } 12 X X 28 X X 12 12 X X z1 z1 = 2. and Pe.017) -5.383 .12 = 476.000 1 4.) ] = Ac Ec --2. Thus. Slope 0 M.1.6. + P.21 .= --EJb Eclb Equating the right sides of the preceding equations yields 107.12 = 369.5.757.126.49 - X 1.7 .06 V)(100 .224 M r = 107. and if we assume that RH = 75%.3 X 106 EJb 480M.018 ) X 2.03 X 106 567 X = 4. --EJb X 106 = 0. -lb Moments Resulting from Creep and Shrinkage Long-Term Losses (a) Creep P.03 X 106 psi (463. then.0. = 463.018 lb lt is reasonable to take the creep force as the average of P.4)106 Ech = 106 7 l0 .491 X lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 40 12 X 32 = 2. 10 m.l/2 M. the shrinkage strain from the time of erection (30 days after prestressing) to one year later is EsH -_ 8.017 X 28 X 12 + (6. we have l 1 .398 Chapter 6 . is the resisting moment at the connection weld to restrain the member against this rotation.000Vfl = 57.2 X 10 _ 6 KsH ( 1 .050 + 384.79.25: Ec = ECR = 57.Cu Use the creep coefficient Cu= 2. which states that after 30 days to within one year KSH= 0.-(476.7 (ii) 6Ec lb X 10.050 lb P.4.000vS.2.

3 X 10.46 X 10.310 = 365.-lb (0.79)(100 .259 X 106 in.854 psi ( C) Support Section (e.-lb P. O.45 + 3) = 198.03 x 106 psi.981 + 1.663 X 106 6.140 = .199) = 2.12 lndeterminate Frames and Portals EsH = 8. after all losses = 2.14.06 X 1.810 ( 17. ( 1 + -eccb) + -Mv + -MT Ac r2 Sb Sbc = -- 365.3 X 10- 6 106 in.244 + 0.79).810 567 (l _ 17.45 X 149.464 36 X 12 4. f'=-p'(l.724 in.-lb ML = 1.8 5.-lb These moments dueto long-term effects will produce tensile stresses at the inside face of the vertical member and bottom face of the horizontal member. = 8.ecc.250 psi. From Equation 6. + McR+sH = (0. the stiffness coefficient k in. Ec/c 3 Ms =Me= (2k From before.) Mv = 5. precast ( =55. Elastic shortening should also be considered often for accuracy.46 in.0. = 0.-lb M.981 X 106 in.491 X 106 in.2 X 10. and Ec =4.5.62 X 103 kN-m) Msv = 0.199 X 106 in.3)10-6 = 499.21) 5.)_ Mv _ MT Ac r2 S' S~ = _ 365.K.663 X 106 =----1+ + +---567 97.45. Final Moments and Stresses in the Horiwntal Beam BC Midspan Section (ec = 17.45(1 .75) = 82.199 X X 499.259 + 0. Also. O.399 6.6 in.3 x 10-<i in.46 X 21.464 3 0.) Mv =O Msv = 0.8 2. < fe = 2.03 X X 0.224 X 106 in.809 X 106 in.615 3.fin.-lb McR+sH = 0.-lb P. So the total deformation strain due to creep and shrinkage is (417 + 82. no tension./in.21 in.038 = -112 psi (C).-lb _ 2. 4 Consequently.-lb + 3 )-h-Esc = 106 X 55.663 Íb X X 106 106 in.6 X 0.952 .491 X 106 2.810 lb The total superimposed moments are MT = Msv + ML + M.K.491 X 106 97. Ms = Me = (2 X =0.

Then 106 = As _ 60.416)106 = 2.-lb 1. the total negative moments at supports B or C are = (0.-lb = Not including the relief moments due to rotation. 12.60.6(1.81 cm) < h¡ = 4 in. Pe for 12 strands at either support after all losses = 274.35 in.. Mu = = 0.5 cm) 2 6 _ 3.m. M n = Mu Mn = 3.29 .8 < ft = = +280 psi (T) + 2.. 106 in.0(0.038 + 0.187 lb (183 kN) Assuming 15 in eccentricity.35 _ . and f 1 = _ 6 247. 2( 2 60.26 X 106 3.5 .133 ( _ 8.3ld.809 + 1. Then As - As = 4 X 0.617 X . (79.99 X 60.000 X 31. creep.256 + 7. and shrinkage.038 = .000 0.= 31. which cause compressive stresses.416 X 106) 106.1.35 .39 X 106) + 1. Hence.000 X 3.-lb ..lb ~) AJy(d - Assume a moment arm d .038 3.1.99 m (12.a/2 X X =0.¡.21 X 10. 2 2 As . __ 274.416 X 106 in.K. 4.0 cm ) AJy a=---= 0.133 ( + 8.8 o _ 2.21)1 Íb 567 97.39 X X 6 10 28.088 psi (C) < fe = 2.8 m. the moment Mv becomes Mv = 41.85f:b 1. O. O.- R qd .600 + 851 = 41.05 X 106 in.60 = 2.79) + 1 567 97. treat as a rectangular section: 2a = d - 0. 31.038 X lü6 in.000 X 28. O. From Eq.2.000 X 96 = 0.250 psi. 0 90 3.400 ChaptO' 6 lndetenninate Prestressed Concrete Slructures ! ML = 1.133 lb. load on the column is Rv + Rsv + RL + Rw The direct = 23.85 X 5. Also.-lb The sections at supports B and C are virtually reinforced concrete.40 in.K.26 -Mr X 106 in.39 X 10 _ l .9d = 0.480 + 9.81 in.187 X 15 = 0.-lb Mw l 0.3 39 .952 12V¡: = 849 psi. Final Moments and Stresses in the Vertical Column Walls AB and DC.5 =28. (0.K.26 X 10 o 6.. 2.05 _X 106 . 2 > 1.809 X 106 + 1.9 x 31.2 X -.29 in.21 X 21. 3 .3 cm) Use two #7 bars (22-mm dia) in each rib.3 m. Provide nonprestressed steel to accommodate ali the tensile stress.

With the development of an additional hinge.6. as full redistribution of moments would have taken place throughout it.140 = -1.06 P Ac X 149.310 = 456. for all practica! purposes. MT S' 456.038 + 0. the structure becomes determinate. dia 7-wire 270-K low-relaxation strands with four strands debonded 12 ft (3.880 X 106 =-------+---567 567 2. adopt the double-T section 8DT32 for the walls with twenty!-in.439 psi (C) (9. the structure becomes a mechanism tending toward collapse. Figure 6. O.880 X 106 in.9 MPa) < fe = 2.416)106 = = 2.33 X 103 kN-m) For 20 strands in the wall units. rotating plastic hinges have developed.250 psi (15.13 LIMIT DESIGN (ANALYSIS) OF INDETERMINATE BEAMS ANO FRAMES The discussions presented so far <leal with proportioning the controlling sections in the design process. flexura! strength.187 2.-lb (0.K. with redistribution factors p D for continuity empirically provided by the code.887 41. P.887 lb (2. . Such a procedure <loes not necessarily give the most efficient solution to a statically indeterminate continuous beam or frame. Íb (outer face) = ApsÍpe pe = -. Also. since full redistribution at ultimate load is not considered.615 = Ít (innerface) = +223 psi (T) Pe p :S 849 psi.5 MPa) Consequently.13 Limit Design (Analysis) of lndeterminate Beams and Frames MSD = 0.887 41. As the applied load is gradually increased until the structure as a whole reaches its limit capacity.32. and the rotation becomes so large that.Dl) for the horizontal top beam BC with sixteen !-in. and serviceability checks as well as detailing the welded connections between the horizontal beam and the supporting wall columns. shear strength.187 2.416 X 106 The total moment is MT (0.809 401 X 106 ML = 1.66 m) from the face of the supports.- Ac = - 3.34 gives a schematic of the configuration details of the prestressed concrete portal frame. the critica! sections.038 X 106 Mw = 0.880 X 106 -------567 567 5. develop severe cracking. adopt the double-T section 8DT32 + 2(168 . such as the midspan and support sections. such as the supports or corners of frames.617 + 0. If the number of plastic hinges that develop equals the number of indeterminacies. The continuity factors assume that adequate longitudinal reinforcement is provided at the critica! continuity zones to properly control the cracking levels of those zones. 6.809 + 1.032 kN) MT + Sb 456. The total design would involve designing the vertical wall brackets. dia 7-wire 270-K low-relaxation strands arranged as shown in Figure 6.

402 Chapter 6 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Figure 6.35(e). 6. only one hinge develops. numbered in the order in which they are expected to form. it is possible Cor the designer to impose the desirable locations of the plastic hinges by making the concrete member fail or makiog it adequately stroog at any section by decreasing or increasing the reinforcement percentage without appreciably altering the stiffness of the member. where the resulting locations of the plastic hinges are obtained from mechanisms determined by upper and lower bound solutions. 6. one plainly sees that the maximum elastic moment occurs at comer C. By superposing part (a) on part (b). The structure in Figure 6. Analysis of the structure at full moment redistribution is lermed as plastic or limit analysis. Because the structure is indeterminate to the first degree. These locations occur at the intermediate supports of continuous beams and beam-column corners of frames. nine plastic hinges are formed.6.1 Method of lmposed Rotations The imposed locations of the plastic hinges coincide with the locations of the maximum elastic moments for combined gravity loads and horizontal wind loads.34 Sectional elevation and connection details of trame in Example 6.35.13. resulting in a basic frarne ABC. Note that no plastic hinges are permitted to form at midspan of the horizontal members. . hence.7. as seen in the portal frarne of Figure 6. the natural location for the development of a plastic hinge is at that comer. 6. Details of Baker's theory of imposed rotations are presented in Refs. This flexibility in proportioning is oot available in the plastic design of steel structures.35(e) has nine indeterminacies.5. Since concrete cracks severely al high overloads. A tenth hinge reduces the structure to a mechanism resulting in collapse.7. and 6. Since plastic moments are a magnification of the elastic moments. which is the fundamental Crame for the imposed hinges seen in Figure 6.

••• . The coefficients 8. Xn and are assumed to remain constant throughout the progressive deformation of the structure. (b) Wind-load intensity moments.k is assumed to represent the relative rotation of the ith hinge due to a unit moment at the kth hinge. (6.35 lmposed plastic hinges in concrete trames. From the principle of virtual work.. . Hence. two-level trame. 8U -=-0· 8X.d D (a) i A D (b) 8 e e A (e) (d) 2 t5 •• 6 3 4•6 4 ' '8 - 1 ' 9 7 •> () (e) Figure 6. because they represent the displacement or rotation at a particular section due to a unit moment at another section. The plastic moments resulting in hinges 1.6..k are called influence coefficients.e. X 2 . (e) Succession of plastic hinges in two-span..13 Limit Design (Analysis) of lndeterminate Beams and Frames 403 ( Gravity load HfHtHfffH A w.n are denoted X 1. X 3 . i.. at any hinge i is set equal to the plastic rotation at the hinge. . the derivative of the total strain energy U with respect to the assumed plastic moments X. (c) Hinge 1 at C reducing trame tostatically determinate. ' (6. i.k = -0.17) ..e. 8.2.3. 8.. (a) Gravity-load elastic moment.k = 8ki from Maxwell's reciproca! theorem.16) If 8. (d) Basic plastic trame.

is the area under the primary M. en that give ful! redistribution of moments throughout the structure. .18 represents the integration of the products of the areas of the M. 1 L l o MMk -'-ds EJ =-e. 6. . .k far Mi<> we obtain k=n 8. (6. diagram (Ref.0 and 8.kXk = -e. (6..o + L 8. the plastic moments at the beam supports and column ends are obtained far the plastic design of the concrete structure. Substituting 8.k in Equations 6. Xn in the solution of Equations 6.20 is (6. + 82nXn 8no + 8n1X1 + 8n2X2 + ··· + 8nnXn =-en = (6.36 the influence coefficient 801 is obtained by superposing the moment diagram M 0 of the primary structure on the diagram X 1 of the redundant structure created by the development of hinge l.5). resulting in 801 =- ~I(~1a)(~) = 3 ~1 lac 811 is obtained by superposing the redundant structure X 1 on itself: 1 A= -la l 2 2 TJ =-e 3 .19) k=l This is a structure having n plastic hinges to reduce it to statically determinate: -e1 = -ez 8 10 + 811X 1 + 812X 2 + ··· + 81nXn 820 + 821X1 + 822X2 + . We have 2 A= -la l 3 and TJ under the centroid of the M 0 diagram = c/2. X 2. Xn are chosen to result in plastic rotations e1. . The arbitrary plastic moment values X 1.. . .20) The number of equations is equal to the number of redundancies or indeterminacies. By trial and adjustment of the redundant plastic moments X 1. in Figure 6. . ••• . Asan example. . It can be proven that the influence coefficient 8. bending moment diagram and TJ is the ordinate of the Mk moment diagram under the centroid of the M.20 far controlled maximum allowable rotation of the largest rotating hinge e1.18) ' The left-hand side of Equation 6.l l 404 Chapter 6 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Consequently. e2. diagrams and the ordinates of Mk diagrams at their centroids along the horizontal distance s along the span.21) where A.

Assume the maximum ordinate e of the redundant moment at hinge location to be unity. Solution: The structure is statically indeterminate to the third degree.1 gives the values f M.37. (b) Redundant structure moment. 8. from Table 6. lt can aid the designer in easily forming and solving sets of Equations 6.405 6.13 Limit Design (Analysis) of lndeterminate Beams and Frames f f f f f f f f f f f t (a) (b) Figure 6.38.1 and Figure 6.20 for any indeterminate structural system. X1.13. The beam is subjected to simple-span plastic moment M 0 so that the midspan moment is equal to the support moment = ! M 0 before full rotation of the hinges and full moment redistribution take place.19. Mk ds for evaluating the influence coefficient values for various combinations of primary and redundant moment diagrams.8 Determine the required plastic hinge rotation in the four-span beam of Figure 6. E/8 10 = 811 = From Equation 6.k 6. (a) Table 6.36 lnfluence coefficient determination from superposing M0 and Primary structure moment. 2 -3 M 0 l 2 3l .2 Determination of Plastic Hinge Rotations in Continuous Beams Example6. so that three hinges will develop at the plastic limit. Then.

8.c:JTÍ e T (a) (bl (e) Figure 6.1 o Product Integral Values f M1 Mk ds for Various Moment Combinations El 1k ~ DI I~ DI lac ~lac ~lac ~lac ~lac ~I (a+ ble ~lac ~lac ¡1ac ~lac ¡1ae ¡112a +ble ~lac ¡1ac ~lac ~lae ¡1ac ¡1 (a+ 2ble ~/ac 31ac 31ac *tac -¡\ /ac 31 la +ble ~lac ¡1ac ¡1ac fitac ~lac ¡Ha+ ble ~la (e+ di ¡1a (2e +di ¡1a (e+ 2dl !la (e +di ¡la (e+ di {I (a(2c +di + b(2d +el) k Parabolic l--1--l ¿jI LJI DI TL:JlT a .406 Chapter 6 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 1! j Table 6. b f--1--l I~ L::JI LJTj_ Parabolic DI 1.t..37 Primary moments and plastic hinge rotations in Example 6. .

38 Primary and redundant moments in Example 6. again from Table 6.) = +!_ 2 3 6 21 Elo 22 = Elo 23 From Equation 6. Figure 6. x. Therefore. is 01 = M 0l/4EI.~.8. and the controlling one in the design.5M (l) 6 +O =-4 0 Also.19.38.5M0 (21) Mol 3 + 0. . . the first hinge to develop.1 and Figure 6. 2 -E/0 1 =-3M0 l + 0. 1 2 3 4_1_ ~~ . 2 l (--21) + -M 2 l (--1)2 = --M 2l 3° 3° EJ'ó 2 = -M EI021 = (-D(-~) = º3º +i 2(-i)2 (-_?_)3 = + 3 = (-!_) (-.13 Limit Design (Analysis) of lndeterminate Beams and Frames o .!. 03 = 01.407 6. the required plastic hinge rotations at the support are M 0l 01 = 4EI = 03 and Since 02 < 01.02 = 020 + o21 X 1 + o22 X 2 + o23 X 3 From symmetry.

2 = 0. for example. it is important to maintain the correct sign convention by drawing all moments at the tension side of the member. the concrete section at the first hinge has to be made ductile enough through section core confinement to be able to sustain the necessary rotation. it is important to limit the magnitude of lP through the use of closely spaced ties or closed stirrups. 6. can rotate without rupture until the nth hinge develops. as noted earlier. Corley (Ref. and 6.39 shows. The sections are reinforced in such a manner that the ultimate moment strengths for each span are equal to or greater than the product of the maximum ultimate moment M 0 in the span when the ends are free to rotate and a moment coefficient k1 for various boundary conditions as listed in Table 6. Nawy (Ref. 6. Also. for the plasticity length [P and the concrete strain Ec (Ref. see. This is equally applicable to both tension and compression hinges.8 can be used in the limit design of any continuous beam or multistory frame.5d + 0. and Furlong (Ref.5Z (6.17). including Nawy (Refs.22) Beam Moment Coefficients for Assigned Moments Boundary condition Momenttype Span with ends restrained Negative Positive Negative Positive Span with one end restrained Beam loaded by one concentrated load at midspan Ali other beams 0.408 Chapter 6 lndeterm. Sawyer (Ref. In order that the first hinge that develops in the structure.18).42 0. In this manner. 6. Baker (Ref. It can also be described as the angle of discontinuity between the plastic parts of the member on either side of the plastic hinge.33 0.20). Sawyer's method is based on the simultaneous requirements of limit equilibrium and rotational compatibility.75 0. The preceding discussion gives the basic imposed rotations approach embodied in Baker's theory.19). Furlong's method is based on assigning ultimate moments for various loading patterns on the continuous spans that would satisfy serviceability and limit equilibrium for the worst case. 6. Cohn's method is based on the requirements of limit equilibrium and serviceability.5). A typical plot showing increase in rotation through increase in confining reinforcement is shown in Figure 6. 6. 1 Note that the procedure used in Example 6.37 0.50 0. 6.nate Prestressed Concrete Structures .11).14). 6. 6. 6.56 0.20). 6. Several empirical expressions have been developed. As Figure 6. 6. are lP Table 6. with a subsequent check of rotational compatibility.50 0.18). Sawyer (Ref.46 . Therefore. where confinement of the concrete core is obtained through concentration of closed stirrups at the supports and column ends. 6. Two of them.13.14). The plasticity length lP determines the extent of severe cracking and the magnitude of rotation of the hinge.40 (Ref. the strain capacity of the concrete at the confined section can be significantly increased. with a subsequent check of serviceability.12. there are two types of hinges-tensile and compressive.13.14). as experimentally demonstrated by several investigators. 6.2.3 Rotational Capacity of Plastic Hinges Rotation is the total change in slope along the short plasticity length concentrated at the hinge zone. usually the critica! hinge. Other modified approaches have been proposed by Cohn (Ref. and Mattock (Ref.

~ l.003 b + 0.. Plasticity zones IP in plastic hinges. U -.o Photo 6.11. Potyondy).2p5 (6..t. l'2.2 Preteusioned T-beam wilh rectangular confining reinforcemcnt at failure (Nawy.23) where d = effective depth of the beam (in.02 Z + 0..) Z = distance from the critica) section to the point of contraflexur e Ps =ratio of volume of confining binder steel (including the compression steel) to the volume of the concrete core IP =halfthe plastícity lengtb oo each side of the centerline of plastic hioge.P ~~·l • :.6. and e. ~AM.22 can be more conservative for high values of Pr Confining binders Confining binders (a) (b) Figure 6.13 Limit Design (Analysis) of lndeterminate Beams and Frames 409 . (b) Compres- .39 sive hinge. Equation 6. (a) Tensile hinge.. = 0..\.

Chapter 6 410 lndetermlnate Prestressed Concrete Structures 0.kd (6.. As the prestrcssed concrete section is cracked and decompression in tbe prestressing steel has taken place. T he discussion in this entire section (6.001 in. 10 o o e Base o • Newy.40 Comparison of plastic rotation with results of other authors. & •¡. As the load reaches the limit state at failure.0% for confine d concrete is recomme nded in determining the maximum alJowable plastic rotation 0P' aJtbough strains of confined concrete as high as 13% could be obtained. as is sometimes the case in prestressed beams. Once tbe concrete strain ec is detemlioed. Lhe structural system gradua lly starts to behave similarly to a reinforced concrete systcm... Tf concrete crushcs first.fin..20 .Danes! A Nawy-Salek o e Newy . or higher. . the angle of rotation of tbe plastic hinge is readily determined from the expression ap whcre €e €ce) tp = (.13) is equally applicable to reinforced and prestressed concrete indeterminate structures at the plastic loading range wbere full redistribution of moments has taken place. depending on whether the tension steel yields before the concrete crushes at the extreme compression fibers in cases of overreinforced beams.Potyondy 5 Confining reinforcement p" (%) Figure 6.: :? o a: 0. as shown in Ref.001 in. lhe value of Eu will have to be higher than 0. 6. The strain e ce can usually be taken at the load leve! when the strain in Lbe tension reinforcement reaches tbe yield strain ey = J/ Er It can be taken to be approximately 0.14.24) e =neutral axis depth at the Limil state at fail ure ec~ = strain in lhe concrete at the extreme compression fibers wheo the yield cur- vature is reached kd = ne utral axis depth corresponding to Eu ec =concrete compressive strain al the end of the inelastic range or at the limit sta le at failure. A limit of allowable ec = 1. .fin. tbe flexura! behavior of the prestressed concrete e lements is expected to closely reseroble that of reinforced concrete e le me nts.: • !.

/in. at end of the elastic range = 0.125 d$ 0 018 · or l d - $ l d - $ 20.5d The total plasticity length on both sides of the hinge centerline is 2 x 0. = 5.8 far both confined and unconfined concrete. d 1. From Equation 6. Unconfined Section.05Z = 0. = 0. d . + 0.01 in. .3 Confined Sections Max.004 0. Ava1lable 0P = ( -0. .004 in..01d 0 .01 in.000bd in. 0.001 in.¡ra ian . M 01 800bd2 l 1 l Required 01 = 03 = . at end of the inelastic range far unconfined sections Max./in../in.28 0.375d Ece Ec = 0.1.24.5d + 0.001 ) .0-0-0b_d_3 From Equation 6.9 Determine the required and available rotational capacities of the critica! plastic hinges in the continuous prestressed concrete beam in Example 6.001 ) .55d 0 . = -6E-I = -6-X-15-0-.22.kd lP = (0.000bd3 Required 82 Mol 800bd2 1 l d' 1125 -. allowable Ec = 0./ in.5d = 0.775d = 1. calculate the maximum allowable span-to-depth ratio lid far the beam if full redistribution of moments is to occur at the limit state at failure.55d = 0.5 ¡. allow Ec = 0. 1 l 750 d$ 0 018 · and 13.5 and 1 1 1.05 X 5. (Ec Ece) Ava1lable 0P = ~ .4 Calculation of Available Rotational Capacity Example 6.13. Solution: M 0 = 2 X 400bd2 = 800bd2 From Example 6.55d.775d lP = 0..3-!b z d = 5.= = -d radian 4EJc 750 4 X 150.375d . far confined sections 3 EJc = 150..28d kd = 0.0.6. Given data are as fallows: Mu = ~ Mo = 400bd2 e= 0.8.51 radian .000 psi fy = 60.13 Limit Design (Analysis) of lndeterminate Beams and Frames 411 6.018 radian 28 375 For full moment redistribution.000 psi far the mild steel Also.

/in.375d l.02 %+ 0.01 in.02 X 1 + 0.003 + 0.2ps = 0.0.1. The maximum allowable to be utilized is Ec = 0.5 Hence. .046 radian .13.125 .001 ) 0. one sees that confinement of the concrete at the plastic hinging zone permits more slender sections for full plasticity and. 1 l 750 d ~ 0.058 radian Rqd.051 1 l 1 125 d ' and ~ 0·051 or l d - ~ 38.25d. verify whether the continuous beam satisfies the rotation serviceability criteria given that b = !d. for ing available plastic rotation: 0. 02 .4 and Comparing the results of the unconfined sections in the first case to the confined sections in the second case.01. resulting in full utilization of the strength of the prestressed system.fin.003 + 0. Solution: z d = 5.058 radian> required 0 = 0. 01 R = 1 l d 750 = 35 750 = 0. 1 radian Available 0P = 0. Thus. Also. 0p = ( 0. A vailable Ec = 0. the correspond- . So use.25d ..10 If closed-stirrup binders are used in Example 6.2 X 0. 6.046 radian. hence. The foregoing discussion far the limit design of reinforced and prestressed concrete indeterminate beams and trames permits the design engineer to provide ductile connections at beam-column supports and generate full moment redistribution throughout the structure.~ .9 with binder ratio Ps = 0.025 and lid= 35 with e at failure = 0._l_ _!_ .3 l d = 57.025 11 = 0.01 in. continuity in both pretensioned and post-tensioned systems to withstand seismic loading can be effectively utilized through the appropriate confinement of the connecting zones by means of the procedures presented in this section.01 Ec = 0.1. a more economical indeterminate structural system.O03 qd. the beam satisfies the serviceability criteria for plastic rotation. . say 0. 1 11 b z Also.lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures Chapter 6 412 Por full moment redistribution.0098.5 Check for Plastic Rotation Serviceability Example 6.55d = 0.125 d .

in. 2.25) fyh or Ag Ps ~ 0.). whichever is smaller (IBC requires 4 in. and the ACI Code on seismic design require design and detailing of closed ties at the beam-column connection zones and in shear walls to be governed by the following (See Chapter 15 of Ref. The Uniform Building Code.13. Ash . The aim is to produce adequate rotational capacity within the plastic hinges that may develop as a result of the seismic forces. Ach = cross-sectional area of structural member. fyt = specified yield of transverse reinforcement. in. the International Building Code (IBC2000).. Ach = core area of section measured to the outside of the transverse reinforcement (sq. smax = i of the smallest cross-sectional dimension of the member or 4 in.12f~ p >-s - (6.). For column rectangular hoops. the total cross-sectional area within spacing s is (6.27) or (6.45 ( _ Ach - 1 )f' ____<:__ fy1 (6.8 by the author and Chapter 13 to follow): l.6 Transverse Confining Reinforcement for Seismic Design Transverse reinforcement in the form of closely spaced hoops (ties) or spirals has to be adequately provided for concrete frame structural elements in seismic regions. measured out-to-out of transverse reinforcement.6. Ag = gross area of the column section. where Ps =ratio of volume of spiral reinforcement to the core volume measured out to out.26) whichever is greater.13 Limit Design (Analysis) of lndeterminate Beams and Frames 413 6. s = spacing of transverse reinforcement measured along the longitudinal axis of the member. where = total cross-sectional area of transverse reinforcement (including cross ties) within spacing s and perpendicular to dimension he. 6. the minimum volumetric ratio of the spiral hoops needed for the concrete core confinement is 0. he = cross-sectional dimension of column core measured center to center of confining reinforcement. psi. in.28) whichever is greater. For column spirals.

(610 mm) (b) ~ x clear span = (24 x 12)/6 = 48 in.3shc (:g . (b) 8 x diameter of longitudinal bars. (e) 24 x diameter of the hoop. = 4.5) = 20 in. For beam confinement.27 and 6.11 Design the confining reinforcement in the column at the beam-column joint of Figure 6.09 X 3. 6. 6 )( 4. Ash 2: f~ 0. b/4 = 0.0.000 . center to center.1 X 11 20 6 .28.1) f ~ ch Fy1 he= column core dimension = 24 . The confining transverse reinforcement in columns should be placed on both sides of a potential hinge over a distance 10 • The largest of the following three conditions govern: (a) depth of member at joint face (b) ~ of the clear span (e) 18 in. Place the confining hoops in the column on both sides of potential hinge over a distance 10 being the largest of (a) depth of member = 24 in. (450 mm) .5 X 20 ( .000 psi (414 MPa) = clear cover = 1~ in.Chapter 6 414 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 3. normal weight fy 1 60. - Ash - Ash 0. are allowed by the ACI Code if a joint is confined on allfour faces by adjoining beams with each beam wide enough to cover three quarters of the adjoining face. Given: column size = 15 X 24 in. (1220 mm) (e) 18 in. (38 mm) Solution: From Equations 6. (300 mm).41. 4. maximum allowance s = ! smallest column dimension or 4 in. Reduction in confinement at joints: A 50% reduction in confinement and an increase in the minimum tie spacing to 6 in. 4 crossties at 3! in.89 m Trying s = 3! in.8 gives a typical detailing example of confining reinforcement at a joint to resist seismic forces.3 X 3. Use No. 2 controls = 0.41 from Reference 6.7 Selection of Confining Reinforcement Example 6..000) 15 X 24 0. 5.5 X 20 = 0. the confining transverse reinforcement at beam ends should be placed over a length equal to twice the member depth h from the face of the joint on either side or of any other location where plastic hinges can develop. whichever is greater.000 psi (27.000 ) 0.13. The maximum hoop spacing should be the smallest of the following four conditions: (a) :l effective depth d.25 x 15 =3.000 . (d) 12 in.09shc - 1yt or Ash 2: 0.42 m. Figure 6. 4 hoops plus two No.. 2 ( 4.5 + 0. (380 X 610 mm) ¡.6 MPa).2(1.75 in.

9 / / :.6... SELECTED REFERENCES 6.. Farmington Hills.. r--_ Figure 6....9 = 18 sp./' V <> / 4No. MI: American Concrete Institute.41. bars at 89 mm center to center) as shown in Figure 6. . pp.. 465. he= 20" •I 24* 415 1Il·· V #4@ai*c-< / T..41 No.5 in..1 ACI Committee 318..11 ). Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318 R-08). 2008.13 Limit Design (Analysis) of lndeterminate Beams and Frames 14 ¡. 4 hoops and crossties at 3. spacing the No. No 4@3*c-< 4No. (1220 mm).7-mm dia.. . . @> 3* 54* ~ 9!* 2 g!w 2 2* ~-. Use /0 = 48 in. . center to center over this distance (12.4@ 3~* e-< Confining reinforcement for seismic resistance (Example 6. r ¡-..

John Wiley & Sons. W. G.23 Nawy. Miami. John Wiley & Sons. E. E. BOCA. W. 936." Journal of the American Concrete lnstitute. California. 6. Viewpoint Publications.4 Abeles. Limit State Design of Reinforced Concrete. 1947. December 1968. Boca Raton. Uniform Building Code (UBC). California.. Fundamentals of High Performance Concrete.. 2000. Y. K.. vol. R. Prestressed Concrete Designer's Handbook.22 International Code Council. pp. "Discussion of Rotational Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams by W.416 Chapter 6 lndeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures 6.8 Nawy.6 Baker. Danesi. 6. International Building Code 2000 (IBC). H. and Grosco. The Ultimate Load Theory Applied to the Design of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Frames. and Smulski.10 Nilson. J. 1 1 .9 Lin. 1970. pp. 1001-1010.: Bureau of Engineering Research.. ASCEACI. F. G. pp. Cracking and Deflection of Spirally Bound Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Beams. 1975.17 Cohn. "Rectangular Spiral Binders Effect on the Rotation Capacity of Plastic Hinges in Reinforced Concrete Beams. 2nd ed. F. New York. New York: John Wiley & Sons." Journal of the Structural Division. 6. 6. 359-382." Engineering Research Bulletin No.21 International Conference of Building Officials. 1964. ASCE 93.11 Corley. 6. "Rotational Compatibility in the Limit Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams. MI. and Bardhan-Roy. "Secondary Moments and Moment Redistribution in Continuous Prestressed Concrete Beams. Concrete Publications Ltd. 51.2007. Vol. Design of Prestressed Concrete. PCJ Design Handbook. A. 6.. A. 6. Concrete Construction Engineering Handbook.. 452 pp. pp. 1981. January-February 1972. Farmington Hills.14 Nawy." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute. Miami.13 Nawy. 2. 8-20.. G. E.24 Nawy. R. 6.. Thompson. 6.. 341-353. K. SBCCI. and Paulay.16 Park. A.5 Baker. 5th ed. 1977.. G.. "Design of Concrete Frames for Two Failure Stages. H. 1967. "Moment-Rotation Relationships of Non-Bonded Prestressed Flanged Sections Confined with Rectangular Spirals. G. August 1968.. Prentice Hall. 1970.12 Nawy. Whittier. FL. V. "Moment Rotation. B. 6. pp. E. and Arthur. Boca Raton. 6. 1956. 1987. A. E.." Proceedings of the lnternational Symposium on the Flexura! Mechanics of Reinforced Concrete. ICBO. London: Wheeler. "Rotational Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams.. and Potyondy. ASCE 92 (1966): 121-146. 405-431. N. 40-55. John Wiley and Sons. 6. Chicago: Prestressed Concrete Institute. Nov. M.7 Ramakrishnan. London: Cement and Concrete Association. Joint UBC. 2001. L. J.. A. L. Ultimate Strength Design of Structural Concrete. Upper Saddle River. W. MI. London." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute. FL. Reinforced Concrete-A Fundamental Approach. Concrete Plain and Reinforced. P. and Thornton. NY. London.15 Prestressed Concrete Institute. S. R. C. E. NJ. Construction of Prestressed Concrete Structures. H. 6. 6. 2009. Corley. Farmington Hills. G. 2.19 Furlong. New York. L. 6. 1-97. P. 1997. 3rd ed. 6th ed.J. 6. 1250 pp. E." Journal of the Structural Division. 6. 6. ASCE-ACI. E.18 Sawyer. 6. 1999. Nov. G. 6... Z. 6. and Salek. D. Reinforced Concrete Structures. B. Rutgers University. 1998. 1970. pp.2 Gerwick. G. Whittier. 3d ed. pp. "Design of Concrete Frames by Assigned Limit Moments." Journal of the American Concrete Institute 67. New York. T. 1964. CRC Press." Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Flexura! Mechanics of Reinforced Concrete.3 Taylor. J. W. New Brunswick.20 Mattock.. 519-522. L. CRC Press. 6. G.

7.000 psi (41.7 m) -c..7 using the same loading conditions if the span of the horizontal beam is 90 ft (27..1 A two-span continuous beam has a parabolic tendon profile shown in Figure P6..000 lb (2.4 MPa). Compare the results with those of Problem 6. The beam has a rectangular section 15-in.002 kN). PROBLEMS 6. the frame in Example 6.-----80'------.6 Design.7 Design the portal frame of an aircraft hangar having the dimensions and the loading shown in Figure P6. Detail the connections and the configuration of the prestressing tendons of the horizontal member... 6..4 m) (24.~ -.5 Solve Problem 6. -~ _l " _<i:' ~ Figure P6. (a) Find the final profile of the thrust C-line and the beam reactions at all supports.7. (") _s.4 if the beam is continuous over four equal spans of 64 ft (19..4 Develop the tendon profile for the continuous beam in Example 6.. 240 plf --- 100' (30. (e) Determine the shape of the concordant tendon. lt> . 11 Q.4 m) Figure P6.1. (b) Design the beam depth such that the concrete fiber stresses due only to prestressing do not exceed the maximum allowable for normal-weight concrete having cylinder strength f ~ = 6. 6. but having the same eccentricities.. The prestressing force Pe after all losses is 450.1. Use the same allowable stresses as in Example 6.Problems 417 40'------40'--.6 m). -- .1.3 Solve Problem 6.€ z -~ _.---40 '--++--40' .5m) c..1 for a tendon profile which has eccentricities eA = e8 = 3 in. and draw a beam elevation of the tendon profile.4 m) and the height of the portal is 25 ft (7.4 m). 6. 45' (13.if-4------80'------(24.1 cm) wide. 6..6 cm) at the exterior supports above the cgc line. (7.1 for a tendon profile harped at midspan points D. 6.4 if the beam is continuous over two equal spans of 64 ft (19.. (38.7.4 m). 6.2 Solve Problem 6.. for service loading.

and their behavior more affected by ílexural cracking. to uncomfortable ride characteristics in bridges and aqueducts. 418 . Prestressed concrete members are continuously subjected Lo sustained eccentric compression dueto the prestressing force.e. which can produce convex surfaces detrimental lo proper drainage of roofs of buildings. which seriously affects their tong-term creep deformation performance. and crack widlh are determined to be withio allowable serviceability values.1 INTROOUCTION Scrviceability of prestressed concrete members in Lhcir deOection and cracking behavior is at least as important a criterion in design as serviceability of reinforced concrete elements. makes it more critica! to control their defleclion and cracking. ANO CRACK CONTROL 7. California. The fact that prestressed concrete elemenls are more slender than their counterparts in reinforced concrete. i. and to cracking of partitions in apartrnent buildings. camber (reverse dcflection). San Francisco. camber. DEFLECTION. Transamcrica Pyramid. Thc primary design involves proportioning the structural member for the limit statc of ílexural stresses at service load and for limit states of faiJure in flcxurc. including anchorage devclopment strength. including misalignment of windows and doors. and torsion.CAMBER.. Failure to predict and control such deformalions can lead to high reverse detlection. shcar. Such a design can only become complete if the magnitudes of long-Lcrm dcílection.

2 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS IN DEFLECTION CALCULATIONS Deflection calculations can be made either from the moment diagrams of the prestressing force and the externa! transverse loading. Calculation of the moment-curvature relationships at the majar incremental stages of loading up to the limit state at failure would also assist in giving a more accurate evaluation of the stress-related load deflection of the structural element. The presented discussion of the state of the art emphasizes the extensive work of the author on cracking in pretensioned and post-tensioned prestressed beams. corrosion due to cracking can become detrimental to the service life of the structure. and proper crack width evaluation procedures used.2 Basic Assumptions in Deflection Calculations 419 The difficulty of predicting very accurately the total long-term prestress losses makes it more difficult to give a precise estimate of the magnitude of expected camber. (b) Class T: (7. Accuracy is even more difficult in partially prestressed concrete systems. 2. (c) Class C: Ít > 12Vf'c (7. and fs =stress in the mild reinforcement when mild steel reinforcement is also used. 5 ~. where limited cracking is allowed through the use of additional nonprestressed reinforcement. No skin reinforcement needs to be used in the vertical faces. limitations on the magnitudes of crack widths and their spacing have to be placed. Because of the high stress levels in the prestressing steel. . where !J.la) In this class. or from the moment-curvature relationships. Hence. the gross section is used.7. For stress computations at service loads. the gross section is used for section properties when both stress computations at service loads. shrinkage. the following basic assumptions have to be made: 1. Prestressed two-way slab systems are to be designed as Class U. No skin reinforcement needs to be used in the vertical faces. Therefore. and stress relaxation. where the value off~ corresponds to the cylinder compressive strength of concrete at the age at which Ec is to be evaluated. as it causes a negative increase in curvature which is usually more dominant than the decrease produced by the decrease in prestress losses due to creep.fps or fs far crack control is necessary. The cracking aspect of serviceability behavior in prestressed concrete is also critical. (a) Class U: Ít ~ 7. Allowance for limited cracking in "partial prestressing" through the additional use of nonprestressed steel is prevalent. In either case. and a correct choice of the modulus Ec of the concrete.lc) This class denotes cracked sections. Creep strain in the concrete increases camber. 7. A best estimate of camber increase should be based on accumulated experience. and deflection computations are made. span-to-death ratio code limitations. The principie of superposition applies in calculating deflections due to transverse load and camber due to prestressing.SVf'c (7. a cracked section analysis has to be made for evaluation of the stress level at service. The modulus of concrete Ec = 33wl.fps =stress increase beyond the decompression state. and for deflection.lb) This class is a transition between uncracked and cracked sections. The cracked bi-linear section is used in the deflection computations. The concrete gross cross-sectional area is accurate enough to compute the moment of inertia except when refined computations are necessary. Computation of !J. 3. Prestressed concrete flexural members are classified into three classes in the new ACI 318 Code.

1 Beam load-deflection relationship. region 11.Chapter 7 420 Cambar. Deflection. 7. Sections can be treated as total/y elastic up to thc decompression load. postserviceabilíty stage..1 Load-Deflection Relationship Short-term deilections in prestressed concrete members are calculated on the assumption that the sections are bornogeneous. isotropic. and Crack Control Photo 7. particularly that lhc modulus E. Region 1. Deflections due to shear deformations are disregardcd.I 1 +-+.. S. California. where the strands are treated as a single tendon.3 SHORT-TERM (INSTANTANEOUS) DEFLECTION OF UNCRACKED ANO CRACKED MEMBERS 7. of concrete varíes Load 1 f--.---ll-+++--lll~ 1 1 1Post-cracking : Post·serviceabllity ~.. Thereafter... region 111. precracking stage. 4. . San Francisco..1 Supporting base of the Transamcrica Pyramid.3. 6. and clastic. the cracked moment of inertia Ter can give a more accurate dctermination of deflection and camber. Ali computations of deflection can be bascd on lhe ccnter of gravity of the pre- stressing strands (cgs).-~ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Camber 1 1 1 o Deflection 6 Figure 7 .. postcracking stage.. Such an assumption is an approximation of actual behavior.

as shown in Figure 7. The load-deflection behavior significantly depends on the stress-strain relationship of the concrete. viz. A typical stress-strain diagram of concrete is shown in Figure 7. Postcracking stage. Postserviceability cracking stage. Ee = 33wl... = 7. then X.1. The precracking segment of the load-deflection curve is essentially a straight line defining full elastic behavior. = 1. Similarly to the direct tensile splitting strength. Precracking stage. of concrete. Region Il.7.e.1 Precracking stage: region l. where the structural member develops acceptable controlled cracking in both distribution and width.85.75. i.1.3.2a) or Ec = 57.2b) where X. If all-lightweight concrete is used. and if sand-lightweight concrete is used.. Figure 7. .1.3 Short-Term (lnstantaneous) Deflection of Uncracked and Cracked Members 421 with the age of the concrete and the moment of inertia varies with the stage of loading. Region JI!. Ideally. where the stress in the tensile reinforcement reaches the limit state of yielding.2 fe Stress-strain diagram of concrete.. For design purposes. it is less than the modulus of rupture f. The three regions prior to rupture are: Region l. The maximum tensile stress in the beam in this region is less than its tensile strength in flexure. as in Figure 7. 7. the value of the modulus of rupture for concrete may be taken as f. i. (7. whether the section is uncracked or cracked. the load-deflection relationship is trilinear.e. Strain. The value of Ec can be estimated using the ACI empirical expression given in Chapter 2.= 0.000~ for normal-weight concrete The precracking region stops at the initiation of the first flexural crack.= 0. The flexura! stiffness El of the beam can be estimated using Young's modulus Ec of concrete and the moment of inertia of the uncracked concrete cross section. the modulus of rupture of concrete is proportional to the square root of its compressive strength. where a structural member is crack free. X.2. when the concrete stress reaches its modulus of rupture strength f.0 for normal-weight concrete.5Wf'e (7.5A Vi.

(305 mm) and a total depth h = 24 in.422 Chapter 7 Camber.878 cm3).3a can be transformed to the PCI format (Ref. (610 mm). (decompression moment).6 MPa). from Equation 5.-lb (302. A factor 7.5AYJ: + :: (1 Mcr = - Mcr = r Y1 Ac or where Sb = section modulus at the bottom fibers.400 cm4 ).)] = 1. Ig = bh 3/l2 = 12(24)3/12 = 13. to the stress produced by the cracking moment Me.0 for deflection purposes for beams.1. 7. Equation 7.:.QOO = 474 psi (3.9 kN-m) .3a) where subscript b stands for the bottom fibers at midspan of a simply supported beam.4a) where fce = compressive stress at the center of gravity of concrete section due to effective prestress only after losses when tensile stress is caused by applied externa! load fd = concrete stress at extreme tensile fibers due to unfactored dead load when tensile stresses and cracking are caused by the externa! load.2 Calculation of cracking moment Mcr Example 7.3b) +e::)] (7. Also.824 in 4 (575. = 7..824/12 = 1.850 psi (12.8 MPa) in compression. given that f~ = 4. Deflection.68 X 106 in. Solution: The modulus of rupture f. then Íh = Ír = - ~: ( 1 + e::) + ~:r (7.3. If the distance of the extreme tension fibers of concrete from the center of gravity of the concrete section is yl' then the cracking moment is given by . the cracking moment due to that portion of the applied live load that causes cracking is (7.152 in 3 (18.5AVj: + ~: ( 1 + e. = modulus of rupture ÍL = service live load of concrete stress in the member. More conservatively.12. r.000 psi (27. Use a modulus of rupture value of 7.[ 7. and Crack Control If one equates the modulus of rupture f.3c) ( 1 + -ecb) lg[Pe 2 - + 7.152[474 + 1850] 2.1 Compute the cracking moment Mcr for a prestressed rectangular beam section having a width b = 12 in. (305 mm) to the tension fibers. Mcr = = s.5v4. y 1 = 24/2 = 12 in.4b) where Mª = maximum service unfactored live load moment ft 1 = final calculated total service load concrete stress in the member f. and Sb = l/y 1 = 13.5 can also be used instead of 6. The concrete stress Íb due to eccentric prestressing is 1.5 YJ:.27 MPa).] (7.5Vj: = 7.5A V 1: sb[ 7. 7.Ír) ÍL (7.7) giving identical results: Mcr Ma = l _ (Ítl .

and employ the elastic weight method by converting the moment diagram ordinates to elastic weights Mil(EJJ on a beam span l. and the neutral axis continues to rise toward the outer compression fibers. The use of the moment of inertia of the gross section rather than the transformed section does not appreciably affect the accuracy sought in the calculations. Then the moment of the weight intensity (Pe)IEJc of the half-span AC in Figure 7.S) Notice that the deflection diagram in Figure 7. making the load-deflection curve less steep in this region than in the precracking stage segment.4. As the magnitude of cracking increases. The beam is considered at this stage to have structurally failed by initial yielding of the tension steel. the moment would be Me.1. a secondary compression failure develops.3(d) is drawn above the base line. Similar computations can be performed for any tendon profile and any type of transverse loading regardless of whether the tendon geometry or loading is symmetrical or not.3. The final camber or deflection is the superposition of the deflections due to prestressing on the deflections due to externa! loads. reaching a lower bound value corresponding to the reduced moment of inertia of the cracked section. A beam undergoes varying degrees of cracking along the span corresponding to the stress and deflection levels at each section. Most beams lie in this region at service loads. 7. Suppose a beam is prestressed with a constant eccentricity tendon as shown in Figure 7.2 Strain and curvature evaluation.1 is considerably flatter in region III than in the preceding regions.4 Postserviceability cracking stage and limit state of deflection behavior at failure: region 111. 7. As the load continues to increase.3(c) about the midspan point C gives S = e (!_) _ Pe (!_ !_) EJc 2 Pel 2EJc 2 X 4 = Pet2 8EJc (7 . leading to total crushing of the concrete in the maximum moment region followed by rupture. the cracks continue to open. This is due to substantial loss in stiffness of the section because of extensive cracking and considerable widening of the stabilized cracks throughout the span.7.3.3. 7. the strain Es in the steel at the tension side continues to increase beyond the yield strain Ey with no additional stress.3. as the beam cambers upwards due to prestressing.2 Uncracked Sections 7.7 kN-m). The moment of inertia fer of the cracked section can be calculated from the basic principles of mechanics.1. Use the sign convention of plotting the primary moment diagram on the tension side of the beam. as is shown in Figure 7.-lb (61. minor cracks develop near the supports in a simple beam. It continues to deflect without additional loading. When flexura! cracking develops. The load-deflection diagram of Figure 7. stiffness continues to decrease. Hence.3. 7. the contribution of the concrete in the tension area diminishes substantially. Finally.3. The distribution of strain across the depth of the section at the controlling stages of loading is linear.1 Deflection calculations. whereas only narrow. Hence.2.546 x 106 in.1.3 Short-Term (lnstantaneous) Deflection of Uncracked and Cracked Members 423 If the beam were not prestressed. the flexura! rigidity of the section is reduced. Deflection calculations for uncracked prestressed sections tend to be more accurate than those for cracked sections since the assumptions of elastic behavior are more applicable. with .824/12 = 0.2.3 Postcracking service-load stage: region 11. cracks are wider and deeper at midspan.= fl/y 1 = 474 x 13. The precracking region ends at the initiation of the first crack and moves into region II of the load-deflection diagram of Figure 7.

the curvature at the various stages of loading can be expressed as follows: (1) Initial prestress: (7.3 Calculation of deflection by elastic weight or moment-area method. (c) Elastic weight We = M!Eclc. (b) Primary moment M1 . (a) Prestressing force.6b) (3) Service load: (7.6a) (2) Effective prestress after losses: (7. the angle of curvature dependent on the top and bottom concrete extreme fiber strains Ecr and Ecb· From the strain distributions. Deflection. (d) Deflection. ·+ 1_J_ "' 2Eclc t!!tt11tfttf1!1!!!!!1!!!!1 ! (e) (d) Figure 7.6c) . and Crack Control ~1~---------11 p z z (a) ~llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll~I (b) w.Chapter 7 424 p Camber.

(e) Service load.EC11)/h. (a) lnitial prestress.¡ T h / J_ // // // // L'-L--- ~f•Ol-4 (a) (b) (e) (d) Figure 7. The effective curvature <!>.. relaxation . a cast-in-place prcstressed concrete structure. <!>1 = (Ecbl . using the appropriate sigo.6d) Use a plus sjgn for !ensile strain and a minus sign for compressive strain.3 Short-Term (lnstantaneous) Deflectíon of Uncracked and Cracked Members 425 -1 r--f..4(b) after losses is the sum. (b) Effectíve prestress after losses.7.e. ll has to be modified to show tensile stress at tbe bouom fibers if the section is cracked..) . (Courtesy. in Figure 7. and lhe change in curvature d<!>2 duc to creep of concrete under sustaincd prestressing force.7) Photo 7:1.4c denotes the stress distribution for uncracked section. el>= (Ee1 . and sbrinkage. lhe changc in curvature dcj> 1 due to loss of prestrcss from creep. (4) Failure: (7. Jnc. <l>e = (Ee1ie . i.Ecblh). Washington. (7. Figure 7. Priest Point Park Bridge in Olympia. (d) Failure. Arvid Grant and Associates.Ee1Jlh. of lhe initial curvature <!>. <f>u = E)C.4 Strain distribution and curvature at controlling stages..

The span of the beam is l ft. (b) Elastic weight M!Ecfc. 7. and Crack Control where. Deflection.5 Deflection of beam in Example 7.5 prestressed by a parabolic tendon with maximum eccentricity e at midspan and effective prestressing force Pe.8a) For the primary moment.8b) with constant- beams (7. from the basic mechanics of materials.(<J>e .Chapter 7 426 Camber.4 gives ª2 ¡2 (7. (b) A~!··C~B Bh ~ (e) Figure 7.9b) O = <l>c S . so that Pee EJc simply supported <1>=Substituting into Equation 7.2.3 lmmediate deflection of simply supported beam prestressed with parabolic tendon Example7.9a) The general expression for deflection in terms of curvature as proposed by Tadros in Ref. . P.<l>c) 6 where <l>c = curvature at midspan <Pe = curvature at the support a = length parameter as a function of the tendon profile.3.2.5 eccentricity tendons yields for (7.2 Find the immediate midspan deflection of the beam shown in Figure 7. M <l> = E Je (7. Use both the elastic weight method and the equivalent weight method. (e) Deflection. (a) w. M 1 =Pee. and its stiffness is EJc P. 7. (a) Tendon profile.

From Figure 7. 7. Figure 7. (a) 48 EJc e From Chapter 1. However. 1 (Peel R. lg (7.lüa) Equation 7. lg (7.S(b ). the cracked moment of inertia le. an effective moment of inertia le can be used as an average value along the span of a simply supported bonded tendon beam. Equation (c) is identical to Equation (a) for the midspan deflection of the beam. = 2 EJc X 2) Peel 3 = 3EJc The moment due to the elastic weight We about the midspan point C is M e = 8 = e R'(!_). According to this method.lüb) The ratio (Me/Ma) from Equation 7. the equivalent balancing load intensity W resulting from the pressure of the parabolic tendon on the concrete is W = 8Pee ¡2 Also. or in the case of partial prestressing where limited controlled cracking is allowed.7. complementing the shear and moment expressions for continuous beams given earlier in Figure 6.3 Cracked Sections 7.3.12.lüa can also be written in the form Me. Ma (lg (Me. such refinement in the numerical summation of the deflection increases along the beam span is sometimes unwarranted because of the accuracy difficulty of deflection evaluation.) le = ( Ma lg + 3 (Me. a method developed by Branson in Refs.6 shows typical midspan deflection expressions for simply supported beams.) 3 le = ler + lcr) :::.5 and 7.3. Theoretically.3 Short-Term (lnstantaneous) Deflection of Uncracked and Cracked Members 427 Solution: Elastic Weight Method. Consequently. should be used for the section across which the cracks develop while the gross moment of inertia lg should be used for the beam sections between the cracks.[Peel e 2 EJc X~(~ x !__)] 6 8 2 = _1_ (Peef _ 3Peef2) = 5Peef2 EJc 6 48EJc 48 Then 5 Peef 8 =--- Equivalent Weight Method. the use of the gross moment of inertia lg underestimates the camber or deflection of the prestressed beam. the midspan deflection of a uniformly loaded simply supported beam is (b) Substituting for the load intensity W from the previous equation in to this one yields 5 Peel 2 8 = --e 48 EJc (c) As expected.) Ma 3 [ 1- ] ler :::.6.1 Effective-moment-of-inertia computation method. As the prestressed element is overloaded. 7.3.4b can be substituted into Equations 7. from the basic mechanics of materials.lüa and b to get the effective moment of inertia .

.. p 1..-ª~ I• 6= e ¡2 cgc l__ ~ -e)] (3/2 . . Subscript e indicates midspan._ -_.Chapter 7 428 Camber.</Je) 48 e.6 Short-term deflection in prestressed beams. wb 24EI cgs _.._Je_:- f f ·I I· ~ Figure 7. w/3 6 = 4BEI =</Je 12 [e +É(e 6=-!f.f-~g.4b 2 24 =<Pe P-+-..4b2) 31 2 .. subscript e indicates support. 8Efe6e 12 ¡2 =</Je S + (c/>e .-P ~. and Crack Control Prestress camber Load deflection cgc w ! 4 p e... Deflection...=_____ w f --~g-_s---+""~ P .

70/m = fe2) (7..3 Short-Term (lnstantaneous) Deflection of Uncracked and Cracked Members =l Mer Ma 429 _ (Ítt .7 Moment-deflection relationship..3. + li. The ACI code requires that computation of deflection in the cracked zone in the bonded tendon beams be based on the transformed section whenever the tensile stress ft in the concrete exceeds 6~.7.'' Equation 7. li.3. The cracking moment of inertia can be calculated by the PCI approach (Ref.15(/ei + 0. the bilinear momentdeflection relationship follows stages I and II described in Section 7. oer in Figure 7.13 can be modified to give / li8 = deflection using 19 li.lüa and b thus depends on the maximum moment Mª along the span in relation to the cracking moment capacity Mcr of the section. from Equation 7.13a) where nP = Ep/ Ec. in "partial prestressing. fe = 0.7 is evaluated using the transformed fer utilizing the contribution of the reinforcement in the bilinear method of deflection computation.7.11) Note that both Mer and Mª are the unfactored moments dueto live load only such that Mer is taken as that portion of the live load moment which causes cracking. 7. Branson's effective le gives the average total immediate deflection 0101 = Be+ oc. namely. In the case of uncracked continuous beams with both ends continuous.85/m + 0.Ír) ÍL where fer= moment of inertia of the cracked section. . In graphical form.12b) where Im is the midspan section moment of inertia and le1 and I 2 are the end-section moments of inertia. described in the previous section.2 Bilinear computation method. = average moment of interia for litot. / 1 1 / / 1/''-¡• i /1 / / / 1 1 1 • 1. The effective moment of inertia le in Equations 7..13 to follow Ig = gross moment of inertia (7. le + 0. = li. If nonprestressed reinforcement is used to carry tensile stresses.1 in accordance with ACI code. The idealized diagram for the /g and fer zones is shown in Figure 7. Avg. enct) (7. Avg. / / l.---+-J 1 1 Deflection li Figure 7.15(/cont. Hence. = deflection using l..12a) and for continuous uncracked beams with one end continuous. 7.8) for fully prestressed members by means of the equation (7.3.

A flowchart for instantaneous deflection calculation and construction of the moment-curvature diagram in step-by-step increments is given in Figure 7. d = effective depth to center of mild steel or nonprestressed strand steel.)~2 P1e. S'. (7. 1•. e'. WL Read material properties Calculate stress fibers at midspan and support section at transfer f' = _ P1 e Ac Mo (i _e.3. about the centroid cgc of the section under consideration. . The cracked moment of inertia can be calculated more accurately from the moment-curvature relationship along the beam span and from the stress and. and Crack Control (7. Deflection. 7. strain distribution across the depth of the critica! sections.14 can be rewritten to give I Me = Me = f EcEcr cr (7.15) where f is the concrete stress at the extreme compressive fibers of the section.e.. at first cracking.4(d) for strain Ec.e')St r2 Camber due to prestress: (Harped) 61 t = P1 (e. ( START l Read properties of section A. r 2 . Equation 7. As shown in Figure 7.8 Flowchart for immediate moment-curvature camber and deflection. W50 . ~2 + SEIe SEJe Deflection due to self-weight: 5Wo~4 60 += 384EIe ! Figure 7.8.3 Incremental moment-curvature method.. .Chapter 7 430 Camber. Sb.3.13b) where ns= E/ Ec for the nonprestressed steel. e. cb.14) where Ecr is the strain at the extreme concrete compression fibers and M is the total moment. e•• RH. including the prestressing primary moment M 1. VIS Read load data: W0 . consequently.

. .5~ use 19 instead of l. t where: fb = - P.A.8 Continued .(Mcr)3)l <1 e = Ma where Ma g cr - g (~:) = [1-('n~ ' )] fn= final stress dueto all loads fL = service live load concrete stress = (nPAP. l (Mcr)31 + (1 ./i/. method 431 1ncremental moment-cu rvatu re method Bilinear method END (a) Subroutine foT l.p) lcr + 1> 0 i + l>so+L i Note: if bottom stress at working load fb is less than 7.1.7. Ac (1 + ebcb) .6 v'npp + n. = -1>.3 Short-Term (lnstantaneous) Deflection of Uncracked and Cracked Members Effective l.2 + Mr Sb STOP (b) Subroutine for bilinear method START Check bottom stress at midsection for working load Figure 7. method START Calculate l.d2 ) (1 . in previous equation of l>so+L I> net inst.d. + n.

5X Yes .. + 80 + 850 + 8L 5WL 2 _e4 5WL 1 _e4 8L= .. = -8 1 + 80 + 850 + f..Jf: ) ... =5W50 .8 t:.WL1 850 5Wso+L_e4 = 384Elc -8 net inst.P (1 .6. = (fL WL .. Deflection. and Crack Control Chapter 7 432 l j ! ~ No f net = fcb .ecc') .384Elcr 384El9 where Icr is defined in the I.. method subroutine 8 net inst.L r \.2 Ac t.Camber.P Obtain stress change due to prestress loss Midspan: t:. 1 STOP (c) Subroutine for incremental moment-curvature method START Obtain the loss in the prestressing force.P Ac (1 + eecb) .2 Support: t:.f = b Figure 7.e4/(384E fer> = -8.6. .f' = .P (1 .f' = ..'n•t) X fL where fL is tensile stress caused by the live load alone at bottom fibers 8SD+L WL2= WL .+ .Jf: Portion of live load not causing cracking WL1 : wL.7.2 Continued ) .f = .2 Ac t.t:.ecc') .6.5X fbe :5 7..P b Ac (1 + eccb) .

2 2 Aps = 16 x 0. Data (a) Geometrical Properties (Fig.77 in.3 cm ) P.02 in.46 kN/m) WL = 1.Afcb)/Ec e!= (f:.448 in.f:JIEc ebe = (fbe .019 plf.072 in.433 7.340 in. cb = 25. if>cl Q2 24 Q2 48 STOP Figure 7.05 kN/m) ec = 22. self-weight Wsv = 100 plf (1.€:)/h Singly-harped tendon: Q2 Camber after loss I>. The effective prestress Pe= 379. 2 (6.1 kN/m) and superimposed dead load of 100 plf (1.if>cl .59 x 106 cm4 ) Sb = 3.9) Ac = 978 in.4 Short-Term Deflection at Service Load Obtain remaining strains after loss AP subtracted from stresses at transfer €: = ( t¿ .70fpu resulting in the initial prestress P..Afbe)IEc Midspan curvature if>c = (ebc . The beam carries a superimposed service live load of 1.4 SHORT-TERM DEFLECTION AT SERVICE LOAD 7. = if>c B + (if>e - Draped tendon: I>. diameter 7-wire 270-ksi (fpu = 270 ksi = 1. (b) incremental momentcurvature method.e:)/h Support curvature r/>e = (eb• . 3 Wn = 1. = r/>c + (if>e .1 Example 7.448 in.862 MPa) stress-relieved strands = 2.39 in RH=10% . C1 = 8.058 kN) at transfer Pe= 379.77 in.458 in.3 Non-Composite Uncracked Double T-Beam Deflection Evaluate the total short-term (immediate) elastic deflection of the 12 DT 34 beam in Example 4. with Aps = sixteen !-in.t:.3 (5.100 plf (16.3911 lb (1.391 lb occurs at the first load application 30 days after erection and does not include ali the time-dependent losses.!::i.5 kN/m). (15.688 kN) (b) Material Properties V/ S=2.672 (2. = 462. Assume that strands are jacked to 0. = 462.4. It is bonded pretensioned.100 plf (16.1 using (a) applicable moment of inertia Ig or Je method. ee = 12.672 lb.47 X 104 cm3) S1 =10.8 Continued 7. 4 (3.t¿)!Ec ebc = lfcb .310 cm 2) ( = 86. 2 Disregard the contribution of the nonprestressed steel in calculating the moment of inertia in this example.23 in.153 = 2. 7.

067 MPa) fpy = 230.1m) :1 60'-0" (18.- 12.980 psi (1.77" 1: 38" .05 kN/m) W50 = 100 plf (1.862 MPa) fp.2 m) Elevation 12'-0" 6'-0" ' 34" 1 ' 1 3" Chamfer ' 1 __¡ 11 Figure 7..000 psi 6 Eps = 28.250 psi fa= 184 psi (midspan) Ít = 849 psi (midspan) Solution: (a) l. Deflection. calculated fiber stresses are From Equation 4.502.. and Crack Control WL = 1100 plf (16.1.23" t f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f t--'-. = 189...46 kN/m) 8..600 m. 30'-0" (9. = 3.000 psi f ~.la.. Midspan Section Stresses ec = 22.000 psi (1.1 m) 30'-0" (9.019(60)2 8 X 12 (a) At transfer.-.5 x 10 psi (196 GPa) (e) Allowable Stresses fci = 2..1..250 psi fe = 2. (559 mm) Maximum self-weight moment Mv = 1.000 psi (1. ..434 Chapter 7 Camber. = 5..-lb .750 psi fpu = 270..-cgc. f ~ =5.303 MPa) fpe = 154..9 43/4" Beam geometry of Example 4..02 in.

K.340 = -2. In such a case.600 __ 379.458 88. =- 22. If compared with the = 7 .672 +--1+ 3. = +184 psi(T).5 and allowed as the 7.Mr .1.0 978 = +501 .7sü = 367 psi f. ¡i = _ P.02 X ---+11.3b. 0.-lb (672 kN-m) 5.000 in.0 978 - f = +411 .340 88.600 462.000 10.502.600 10. = 12 "\/Í: = 12 V5.-lb (61 kN-m) 8 1. the effective moment of inertia 1.600 + 6.2 si _ 22.23) _ 11. Support Section Stresses From Example 4.877 psi (C) < -2. 379. = 6~ = 6V3.K.502.600 3.982. Vi 2. 100(60)212 = 540.391 ( 978 =---.000 m.672 l _ 22.340 Total Moment Mr = Mv + Msv + ML (1. O.77 in.4 Short-Term Deflection at Service Load = _ 462.02 X 8.5 Vs00o = 530 psi. = 7.02 X 25.354 kN-m). From Equation 4.458 5.502.).K.587 = +698 psi (T) < 849 psi. Allow using the gross moment of inertia lg for deflection calculations.524 + 1.250 psi.73) _ 5.982. = 12. J.000 = 1.526 = -25 psi (C) < f.000 = 11. From Equation 4.1146 = -735 psi < fe = -2.0oO = 849 psi e.689 + 3.K.600 in-lb ec. O.77) 5..3a.435 7. minor cracking is expected modules of rupture f.02 X 8. Ac (l _ = -568 psi (C) = 5.0 + 22.0 978 = -3.647 = -1.940.1 25.100(60)212 8 Live-loadf t = Live-loadfb = = 5.982.940. .5 factor is conservative.778 psi (T) 3. can be taken as lg.940.77) 88.391 1 10.250 psi.480. O. (b) At service load Msv = ML = .458 88.

.702 X 462.J.. Ec ( l.242 o o +75 -1. 8D = 5 X 84.. only At transfer and Wd Live load WL only At service load tt +501 -25 -568 -735 Support fb ft fb -3. Deflection due to superimposed dead load= 0. = --0.89 t +0.K.31 = -1.0.000v3.08 m. .90 in.000 = 4. with the moment M = O in the above steps.03 x 106 psi 1 100 ) (3.99 = -0. Deflection. the camber at midspan dueto a single harp or depression of the prestressing tendon is 8t = PeJ 2 + P( ee .99 inJ Thus.000vS. and the deflection caused by self-weight is BD ..000~ = 57.49 X 106 psi (24. A check of support section stresses at transfer gave stresses below the allowable.778 +698 +92 +92 -2.= t = 462. (25 mm) .49)( 100 ) .Ol 9 = 0.9 (60 X 12)4/384 X 3.08 in.J.6.. (2. = 57. t (25 mm).99 .895 kPa) 3.03 l.000~ = 57..X 10 X 86. (2 mm) .49 X 2 12) 2 + .93 m..03 X 106 psi (27. ¡112 A summary of the short-term cambers and deflections at service load is as follows: Camber due to initial prestress = 1.99 in.89 + 0.8 MPa) B.0 mm). for a= l/2. using Ec = 4.22.03 X 106 X 86.6.89 in.672 8 P' X 22.77 ..X 384 X 4.90 in. Net deflection at transfer = -1.072 = -2.99 4.877 +l. 4. (48 mm) i Deflections due to self-weight = 0.02 X (60 X 12) 3. i .839 (1psi=6.672 X (12.ec)l 2 8EI 24EI So Ec.019/12 = 84. (48 mm) t This upward deflection (camber) is dueto prestress only.072 _!__ _ . = 5wl 4 /384EI.436 Chapter 7 Camber. Deflection dueto live load= 0.¡- (b) Live load deflection BL 5wl 4 =--- 384EJc 4 5(1100)(60 X 12) ---------. .9 lb/in. Summary of Fiber Stresses (psi) Midspan Prestress P. The self-weight per inch is 1. the net camber at transfer is -1.93 in.J.49 X 106 X 86.Ol 9 = 0.524 -1.20 + 0. and Crack Control Follow the same steps as in the midspan section. Defiection and Camber Calculation at Transfer From basic mechanics or from Figure 7.1 MPa) Ec = 57..99 Ec.7si) = 3..J.. BSD = 0.072 = 0..242 -2.02)(60 24 X 3. (23 mm) .49 X 106 X 86. hence O. Total lmmediate Defiection at Service Load of Uncracked Beam (a) Superimposed dead load deflection.89 in.J.

/in.524psi e' = e Ecb +501 = + 144 3.391) 462 672 .23) 88. X 10./m. So 30 days' prestress loss tiP = P. = 1.379. . reduced camber is (462.391 lb. .02 x 8. Eci = 3.1./in.Pe = 462.77) = + 634 psi (T) 88./in.6 in. 10.281 ( ec.437 7.672 .281 lb./in.6 in.6 in.895 KPa) (ii) Due to prestressing force and self-weight (P.49 X 106 psi (i) Due to prestressing force (P.02 X 25.6 in.8 Ecb 10.672 = 0.89 ( 462.010 X X 10. m.877 psi X = -537.281 lb (370 kN) Strains at Transfer Due to Prestressing Eci at 7 days = 3.6 in.0 = -90 psi (C) tie~ = -90 3.4 Short-Term Deflection at Service Load If deflection due to prestress loss from the transfer stage to erection at 30 days is considered. = _ (-tiP\ _ f Ac l = + 83.672 .6 psi Midspan Section ti .281) Solution: (b) Altemate Solution by Incremental Moment Curvature Method Pe at 30 days after transfer is 379.2 = -25 psi Íb = -1.379. Eeb = -642 X 10.0 . (1 psi = 6. = + 83.6 in.49 X 10.) 978 l r 2 _ 22.tiP = 83.) Midspan: f' = +501 psi Íb =-3.49 X 106 = -1.281 978 (l + 22. Support: f' = +92 psi Íb = -2. Support: same as in (i) Strain change due to prestress loss ./in.49 X 106 lifi = _ (-tiP) b Ac = -26 X (l ecb) ?+ 10 -6.34 m.242 psi e~ = 26 X 10./in. 39 ' . + W D) Midspan: f' <= -7. -!83.391 = 83.

4 +404 X = + 3 9 106 X 10- m. Support curvature <l>e = -526 .5 -6• ¡· X 10 m.5 psi (C) -16./m. and Crack Control l 634 -6· . Deflection. as shown in Figure 7.23) + 978 l 88. Superimposing the strain at transfer on the strain due to prestress loss gives the strain distributions at service load after prestress due to prestress only.82 X 10.6 +182 -828 (a) Midspan section strains Ei: x 10-6 in.281 + 978 (l + 12. .49 X 106 l Support Section 1= _ (-AP) ( Ac ec1) = _ Af r2 l 83.10 Midspan curvature <l>c = -828 .+ 182 X 10 m. 3.6 rad/in.77 X 8.77) 88.118 34 X 10.5 = .49 X 106 <.iEe Al = Al'- = _ (-AP) ~b Ac (l ecb) = + r2 83. +116 -526 (b) Support section strains Ee x 10-6 in. 3./in. Figure 7.1 O Strain distribution across section depth at prestress transfer in Example 7.6 = -27. m. From Figure 7.10.281 ( _ 12.0" 1 X 10. . 6.77 X 25.09 -26 T -1010 X 10.438 Chapter 7 - Aecb - Camber./in.0 = -16.6 rad/in.0 = 404 psi (T) Aebe = 116 .21 34 +144 = -16. ¡·m. +118 = + 34.4. +26 -5 -642 +21 = + .

+1 (20 mm) (a) Bilinear Method Icr = npApsd.e. Note that the computed deflection values can differ by 20 to 40 percent from the actual values because of the several parameters which affect the modulus of concrete.6 X 10...100 plf.55 in.5 Short-Term Deflection of Cracked Prestressed Beams From Figure 7.778 psi.25 in.5. i after losses in the previous solution. i. > 0.5 (60 X (60 X 8 12)2 24 12)2 + (-16.1.(l ...55 in.1 Short-Term Deflection of the Beam in Example 7.5 X 106 = 7.8h = 27.95 in.= 384 X 4. = 7.= 22. all computational values in the various steps of the solution can be rounded to three significant figures without appreciably affecting the final results.<l>c) ~: = -27.5~ = 530 psi for crack formation. the portion of the load that would not result in tensile stress at the bottom fibers is W¡ = (1.5 SHORT-TERM DEFLECTION OF CRACKED PRESTRESSED BEAMS 7.p.) n = Eps = 28.3 lf Cracked Example 7.4 Solve Example 7.25 = -1.03 X 106 Ec P dp = ec + e.448 in. 778 X 1. (b) the effective moment of inertia method for a condition of tensile stress Íb = 750 psi at midspan bottom fibers at service load.3.2 in.89 + 0. the beam camber after losses due only to Pe is lle t = <l>c(f) +(<!>e . 7.3 by (a) the bilinear method.23 = 30. since WL = 1.02 + 8. = 750.34) = -1.f. From Example 7.. U sed dP = 30. 2 Then .220) ) (l. the tensile stress exceeds the modulus of rupture f.778 . + 0 .25 in.530 = +220 psi (T).072 0.03 X 106 X 86.439 7. Solution: The net tensile stress beyond the first cracking load at the modulus of rupture is Ínet =Íb . and Aps = 2.82 X 10. The deflection determined by the uncracked Ig is l) = g 5w 14 1 384EJg 5 X 80(60 X 12) 4 --------. Assume that the net beam camber due to prestress and self-weight is l\ = 0. the tensile stress caused by the live load alone at the bottom fibers is +1.09 + 27.100 = 964 plf 964 = 12 = 80 lb/in . Hence. Now. t (39 mm) (camber) which is identical to (-1.82) = -180 .07 4. The deflections dueto self-weight W D• superimposed dead load WSD and live load W L are the same as in the previous solution.6v.8 in.6 for a= l/2.

6.072 + (1 .07 X 0.49 in.0. 5 X 11. Deflection.49 in. Deflection due to live load 3L = 5 X 92(60 X 12)4 384 X 4.67 = 0.350 = 1.3 lb/m. Choose 3L = +1. in Solution (a). the total deflection due to live load = 0.100/12 = 92 lb/in.3 for the following incremental strain steps: .28 in. -l-(38 mm) 3L (b) Effective Moment of lnertia Method le Method: From Equation 7.6 CONSTRUCTION OF MOMENT-CURVATURE DIAGRAM Example7.000 6 7.3(60 X 12)4 384 X 4. From Equation 7. 4 (5.350 in.187 0.100 .440 Chapter 7 Aps Pp fer= = bdp = Camber. = 11.6Y7.448 (30.lOb. = 384EJcr .0006) = 14.S Construct the moment-curvature diagram for the midspan section of the bonded double-T beam in Example 7.964 X 12 = l.80 + 0. = modulus of rupture = 530 psi from before ÍL = live load stress = 1778 psi = (Mcr) Mª (~~J = le 1.778 = 1 . 4 Total live-load intensity = 1.25)2(1 .49in.69 = +l.876 0.448 144 X 30. -l-(33 mm) as compared to 1.lOO 5w 2l 4 í\.0.l.11.67 X 86.( 750 530 ) 1.(17 mm) = Thus. l Use this value for the final net long-term deflection after losses as tabulated in Example 7.) fa= final total stress = +750 psi (T) f.07 X 2. -l.25 = 0.124 = 0.187 = 62.67)14.03 X 106 X 62. 7. (::) = 1 -(ítlt~ f.9 x 105 cm4 ) Balance of the total load that results in cracking of the section is w2 1. and Crack Control 2.03 X 106 X 14.69 in.187 in.

1.000 psi due to P. P.600 = . strain Ec1 at top = 0. 2.3./in.X t06 = . = 379.1010 . 2. E~= 3.3.6 Construction of Moment-Curvature Diagram Photo 7.3. strain Ec1 al top = 0. Cracked section.6 in . only.49 X 106 ' Ec1> 3524 .+ 144 X 10.6 = .502.980 psi prior to gravily loads. S.1'010 = 3.02 + 5.-lb. = 379.94 X 10.524 psi + 50l . = (E <I> h " 1 ) -e = X · ¡· io-6 m. Solution: 1. the midspan stresses duc only lo prestress P1 are as follows: f = + 501 psi / 1> = .fin.4. Strain al fpr = 154.).3 Deflection of contiouous beam (Nawy el al. =189. (.6 rad/ in. Cracked sectíon. P. H ence. l. Modulus of rupture leve!.672 = 0·82 Tbe stresses and strains at midspan al lransfer prestress P1 are .001 in. m.144) 34 x 10.33. the correspondíng moments duelo P1 + M0 are M1 = .003 in. Strain al transfer fp.462.69 X 106 Ín.672 x 22. 4. From Example 4.391 462. 3. Prestress Stage a/ter Losses ln Lbe subsequent decompression stage a moment value M11 due to gravíty loads has to be found which would reduce Lhe stress in tbe preslressing steel to zero.391 lb. Decompression al tendon cgs levcl. P. Prestress Transfer Stage From the data for Example 7. From Example 7.441 7. 6./in .49 cj>.

010 X 10.5 X to& ~si 100 500 ~ 1 (189. Reduce the strains up to the Pe stage as follows: E~ Ecb = 0.82 X 10 6 rad/m. 4i2 = (ecb .002 Strain (in.48 MPa) 5 Eo o 0.005 0.001 0.6) = + 118 X 10. . 0.003 Ec Stress-strain diagram for fe= 5. f~ = +50lpsi 3.7 mm) dia prestressing tendons./in.6 x 103 MPal 50 100 o 0.fin.000 psi concrete.030 Strain (in.e~) (-828 .11 Stress-strain diagram for!in. Deflection..6 in. 20 ~ .2 Ult.6 _ .442 Chapter 7 Camber.....13.118)10.: [ ~: .000 Figure 7./in.fin. = -1.6) X = -828 10.~ en 10 t.000 0. strength = 41300 lbs.) Figure 7.03-X 1oB psi 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ~ 40 E E .524 psi fcb = - e~ = Ecb + 144 X 10.6 in. ~ 81 r !.. EP• = 27.( 5000 1 1 1 1 1 4000 ·¡¡.010 e. (12. 34 '· = .153 in..6 in.. as shown in Figure 7./in. 10.../ in.82(+ 144 X = 0.2 set method 200 1700 1300 Ñ E X ·¡¡¡ ~ E . J Ec 3000 cñ 2000 1000 30 Ñ =4.82(-1010 10. and Crack Control '· ' 250 ~ Yield strength by 0. =5000 psi (34.12 0..) 0. X The strain distribution becomes.. h = = -27.6 in.. 150 900 81 ~ Area = 0.

4.296 ( -~ = -3.12 for the concrete to determine the actual stresses through strain compatibility. . X Íctecomp.153 X 16 = 433. ¡· .296 ( = +469 psi (T) _ Adjustedf' = -~ 1 88 0 . 154.300 psi (C) . -6.75 -. we have Adjusted Pe= 177. m.24" T 26. Total Epe = 5.02 X 25.11 for the prestressing steel and that of Figure 7.6 m. Consequently.359 X 10.77) = _ 88 0 -819 X 10 Mctecomp.13 The corresponding gravity-load moment Mg =O. the decompression strain at the cgs level is ·º 26 1 .116 X 10 m. -6.01 + 3.75" -828 X 10-6 Strain distribution due only to prestress P0 • Figure 7. - and fpe Epe = - = Eps . 3. Thus.300 4.000 X 0.fin.13 due to the prestressing force Pe.884 psi . From the stress-strain diagram in Figure 7.11.6 in. Use the stressstrain diagram of Figure 7. Note the strain distribution in Figure 7.296 22.6 X 10. increasing the tensile strain in the tendon in arder to reduce the compressive stress in the concrete at the cgs level to zero.03 X 106 ./m. E'= e Adjusted fb = Ecb 433./m.5./in.000 psi.01" 34" _L 3.636 + 723 X 10. X -6.3. 1 + Je Y = 22.5 X 106 Compatibility of strain requires that the prestressing tendons in the bonded beam undergo the same change in strain as the surrounding concrete. = 2.6 X 26.6 Construction of Moment-Curvature Diagram +118 X 10-6 in. 22.03 X 106 Mdecomp.23) 433./m.6 = 6.980 _ m. .02 X 8.02 86 ' 072 .11 the corresponding stress fpe = 177 .-828 X 10.443 7. Ectecomp. Decompression Stage with Zero Concrete Stress at Tendon cgs From Figure 7. +469 4.723 X 10. m.636 X 10 27.

OOO = 530 psi sb[ 7. the second part of the above expression for moment gives a stress of 3. (T) sb 3.+ 18.6 in. 4.f Jb 6 = 11. (e) Final stress. 4 03 106 _ <l>ctecomp. Corresponding M = 11.27 X 106 .4 X 10-5 3. ¡·m.+4.27 X 106 m.-lb Figure 7. = Mcr = 7.99 X 10 6 rad/m. (d) Unit strain.16 MPa) 609 e'e = 4. - Mctecomp.078 psi (C) 458 ' Net stressf' = -1. (a) Loading stress.340 Net stressfb = +3. Therefore Mcr = 3.300 psi.300) = 12.-lb (1.11.4 X 10 -6.300 = +74 psi (T) Ecb = . 10 = -1.75" (a) (b) (e) Figure 7.340(530 + 3. 4.6 in •/in • • 6 .m. v'jj = 7.24" lli-~ lY-~ -3300 psi -1078 -609 psi -151.3.5A.078 + 469 = -609 psi (C) (4.6. (b) Decompression stress.27 X 10 = 11. (C) f ' = 12. +74 X -. f 1= S' = 11.27 X 10 N-m) 22 02 Mctecomp.14 gives the stress and strain distributions in this beam at the decompression state.444 Chapter 7 Camber.27 X 10 = + 3'374 psi.2. .-lb Net bottom concrete stress= modulus of rupture f.4 - + 151.5VS. Modulus of Rupture Stage ¡.X 106 - - 1511 X 10. and Crack Control _ 2. (d) .5"'11. v'fl + ~: ( 1 + e::) J From before. X 10--11 + +3374./in. for this stage = +530 psi (T) Ecb = 530 + =+132X10.072 _ • 6 .27x106 in.14 Stress distribution at decompression in Example 7. - (ecb - h e~) _ (18.8 10.1) 34 _ _ _ _ • .03 X 106 X 106 = -1224 .psi +74 psi +18.03.8 X 106 in.10 6 .374 .884 X 86. Deflection.458 ' psi 4.

480 lb.1.45" ! Ec = 0.000 x 2. Cracked Section Stage.4 5 and Total Eps = 0.45)3000 = 624. in Example 7.fin. From Figure 7.400 lb= TP.fin.001 in. Hence. "'6 / "' r/icr / / _L_~/_.25 .16 in.1.fps '= 255. . • _6 (132 + 187) X 10 34 +9. Moment Mn rl = 624. So the total E ps = 0.0199 + 0.0064 in.0064 = 0.. 5./m.480 lb. Then ÁEps = ./in.445 7. the tensile force TP = 260. X 0. t / / / t-.0192 + 0. assume a neutral axis depth e = 1./m.80 c = 1.6 Construction of Moment-Curvature Diagram r- e= 1.12.5. ÁEps = (30.m.fin.-lb .11.45 in.755 psi ( C) é= 4.0192 m. TP = 255. O. and Ce= (12 x 12 x 1.15.24\30.6 in/in . Ee = 0. N.dEP.12. 2 Thus._.6 rad.240 lb.448 = 636.fin.000 psi and Aps = 16 X 0. the corresponding stress is fps = 260.fin.001 in.001 in.5)3000 = 648. The compressive force is then Ce= (12 X 12 X 1.K. assumed e= 1.A.. Net stress ¡t = -1. (30. fe= 3.__~~ l-- f---. Hence.45) X 0. By trial and adjustment.448 in.0199 m. below the top fibers of the flange.0064 = 0.001 in. ~TotalEpr~ Figure 7.0256 in. From before.224 + 469 = . Then ÁEps is the additional strain in bonded prestressing strands due to Ee = 0. .fin.5 in.fin. Second Tria! Assume ce= 1. a = 0. 5 .448 = 624.000 > T = 636. and from similar triangles in Figure 7.25 .0263 in.16) 2 = 18. From Figure 7. Epe = 6./in. at the top fibers.001 = 0. l.153 = 2. the neutral axis depth should be reduced.15 Strain distribution at E0 = 0.000 psi.5) l..000 psi corresponds to Ee = 0.. From the stress-diagram of the prestressing steel in Figure 7.-1.001 = 0.---j 0.38 X 10.fin.001 in.9 X 106.359 x 10-6 = 0.0064 in.45 in.25 .03 e 755 X 106 - (Eeb - = <j>4 = <) h = - 187x10.000 x 2.

7.25 .2-.fps =fpu = 270. (Ultimate Load) ec = 0.0628 + 0.12. Eps = 30.5 d.1 .= 0. From Figure 7.rad/m · 6. Deflection./in..1 in.448 X 263.003 "' = -Eue = .. <!> 0. ec = 0.143 {l X .001 M9 =18. So use Mn = APJP. m..94 Figure 7.003 in.446 Chapter 7 t/¡= Camber.003 Mn = 19.38 m.e . The loaddeflection diagram has the same form and can be inferred from the moment-curvature diagram. .= 2' 143 1.16 Moment-curvature diagram of Example 7. Then a ÁpsÍps = --.38 1.000(30.85 X 5. and from Equation 7./in.16.6. Assume fps = 263.9 = "'Ee: f~ "'= 2. = 0..000 psi.000 X 144 a e 1. = 0.-lb Use e= 1. X 0. Fully Cracked Section Stage. = 1.4 '+'u X 6 ¡· 10.= 690 1. giving l~l) = 19.448 X 270.4 in.000 psi. is the maximum unit strain allowed by the ACI Code at ultimate load.1. From the stress diagram in Figure 7.15.001 = -Eue = .003 38 Total Eps = 0.fin.6 ecr = . X 10-6 ) t/i¡ = -33.85f ~b 2.0692 in.1 PCI Multipliers Method The ACI Code provides the following equation far estimating the time-dependent factor far deflection of nonprestressed concrete members: 1 1 .80 = 1.45 u 6 · X 10.003 in.rad m · A schematic plot of the moment-curvature diagram is shown in Figure 7.7 LONG-TERM EFFECTS ON DEFLECTION ANO CAMBER 7.25 - a= 1.> C 0.0064 ¡· . 0.000 0. and Crack Control 690 e= 0. = ~ = 0.. ·-~ - e> Curvature (rad.0628 m. .6 X 106 in.7.1 m.( dP - ~) = 2.fin.

a reduced multiplier C2 can be used given by (7.40 2. C1 differs from X. 7. The camber and deflection effect during erection.1 C1 Multipliers for Long-Term Camber and Deflection At erection: (1) Deflection (downward) component-apply to the elastic deflection due to the member weight at release of prestress (2) Camber (upward) component-apply to the elastic camber due to prestress at the time of release of prestress Final: (3) Deflection (downward) component-apply to the elastic deflection due to the member weight at release of prestress (4) Camber (upward) component-apply to the elastic camber due to prestress at the time of release of prestress (5) Deflection (downward)-apply to the elastic deflection due to the superimposed dead load only (6) Deflection (downward)-apply to the elastic deflection caused by the composite topping Without composite topping With composite topping 1.00 2. in Ref.8 and 7. = multiplier for additional long-term deflection In a similar manner. Table 7.45 2.85 1. because the determination of long-term cambers and deflections in prestressed members is more complex due to the following factors: l.70 2. based on Refs. Equation 7. in Equation 7.85 1. the PCI multipliers method provides a multiplier C1 which takes account of long-term effects in prestressed concrete members. In that case.30 . Shaikh and Branson.80 2.= where ~ (7. 7.447 7. The increase in strength of the concrete after release of prestress due to losses.16 cannot be readily used.20 3.16. 3.7 Long-Term Effects on Deflection and Camber A.9.17) Table 7. can provide reasonable multipliers of immediate deflection and camber provided that the upward and downward components of the initial calculated camber are separated in arder to take into account the effects of loss of prestress. Because of these factors. 2. which only apply to the upward component.00 3.7. The long-term effect of the prestressing force and the prestress losses.1. propase that substantial reduction can be achieved in long-term camber by the addition of nonprestressed steel.80 1.16) 1 + 50p' ~ = time-dependent factor for sustained load p' = compressive reinforcement ratio X.

These caicuJations should be made for a sufficient nurnber of points along the span.. where the erec- . such as unit strain levels ecJ = 0. 7.. The strain distributions.2 Incremental Time-Steps Method The incremental time-steps method is based on combining lhe computations of deflections with those of prestress losses due to time-depeoden t crecp.4 ) :? /$1 '" J . IA f Prestressed 1-beam al the limit state of failure load (Nawy el al.fin.448 Chapter 7 wherc Camber. The general expression for the total rotation at the end of a time interval can be expressed as (7.. and ultima te allowable strain Ec = 0.).1 A s= area of nonprestressed reinforcement A ps =area of prestressed strands.1 =beginning of a particular time step Subscript n =end of tbe aforementioned time step cn-1.fin. en= creep coefficieots at beginning and end. shrinkage. Obviously. and prestressing forces are calculaled for each interval together with the incremental shrinkage. respectively.003 in. Deflection. andan integration or summation of the incremental steps is made to give the total time-depeoden l deílcction at the particular section along the span. and relaxation strain losses during the particular lime interval. such as midspan and quarter-span points. curvatures.Pn-t =prestress loss ata particular time interval (rom ali causes. to be able to determine with sufficient accuracy the form of the moment-curvature diagram. The procedure is repeated for ali subsequent incremental intervals.001 and 0. and Crack Control C 1 = multiplier from Table 7. = initial prestress before losses ex= eccentricity of tendon at any section along the span Subscript n .. and relaxation. T he design life of the structure is divided into severa! time intervals selected on the basis of specific concrete strain limits. of a particuJar time step Pn . .K( 7 A Photo 7.18a) wbere P.002 in. this elaborate procedure is justified ooJy in thc evaluation of deflection and camber of very large-span bridge systems such as segmenta] bridges.7. creep.

12.!in.7 to give a curvature increment A<t>.13).. Ecb = -1010 x 10-6 in'.20 as (7. E~=+ 144 x 10. the incremental creep and shrinkage strains and relaxation loss in prestress are computed as shown in Example 7. as given in Equation 7.fin'.g.17. the incremental time-step procedure is lengthy and. e. A<t>n AE~R net = ' - h AEcRb net ' (7.19a) for the top fibers and (7. The selection of the time intervals depends on the refinement level desired in the computation of cambers. (Figure 7. adding the curvature increment A<Pn to the total curvature <Pn-l at the beginning of the desired intervals. 7. Asan example. The incremental rotation is. suppose that the following strains from subsequent Example 7. The total camber ( i ) or deflection ( i ) due to the prestressing force can be obtained from Equation 7. hence. and curvature are obtained at the end of the time interval.7 Long-Term Effects on Deflection and Camber tion and assembly of the segments require a relatively accurate estimate of deflections.19c) and the total rotation becomes (7. for a parabolic tendon. Thereafter..in.n = strain reduction due to prestress loss caused by creep force AP.20) AEcRb.11.19) Eb n-l = gross strain due only to prestress at the bottom fibers.20) E~_ 1 = Then the net incremental creep strain that will result in incremental rotation <Pn is AEh. Several investigators have proposed different formats for estimating the additional time-dependent deflection Al) from the moment-curvature relationship <P modified for creep. the total deflection ata particular section is 2 (7.g. while Naaman expresses the long-term deflection in terms of midspan and support curvatures ata time interval t (Refs. (Figure 7. as seen from Figure 7..18b) í)x = 4>1kl Now.7 are used to illustrate calculation of incremental and total rotations: 6 gross strain due only to prestress at the top fibers. justified only in evaluation and assembly of segments requiring relatively accurate estimates of deformations. then.19b) for the bottom fibers.21) where k is a function of the span and geometry of the section and the prestressing tendon.fin. AE ~Re = +127 x 10in. e.n . AEcRcb = -895 x 10-6 in.1 to time step n is shown in Figure 7.. e.fin.net = (AE~R.fin.19) 6 AE ~R n = gross creep incremental strain at the top fibers.20) AEps.. Clearly.g.449 7.n) (7. .18a. new values of stress. e. From Equation 7. Naaman's expression gives.AE~s. n (such as 169 x 10-6 in.20) A schematic of the changes in strains and rotations from time step n . 7. Both Tadros and Dilger recommend integrating the modified curvature along the beam span. 7.n = gross creep incremental strain at the bottom fibers. (Figure 7. (Figure 7.g. strain. For each time step.18.

3 Approximate Time-Steps Method The approximate time-steps method is based on a simplified form of summation of constituent deflections due to the various time-dependent factors. Deflection. and Crack Control 1 ¡ ¡ Time step beginning Time Time step end Figure 7.17 where <1> 1(t) <l> 2 (t) Strain changes and rotations at step n. 7.450 Chapter 7 Camber. If Cu is the long-term creep coefficient.7. = midspan curvature at time t = support curvature at time t in which M <l>(t) = Ece (t)I e where Ece(t) =time adjusted modulus 1 + KCc(t) in which Ec(t1) = modulus of concrete at start of interval Cc(t) = creep coefficient at end of time interval.22) . the curvature at effective prestress Pe can be defined as (7.

23b) Adding the deflection dueto self-weight f>v and superimposed dead load 85 v.) when A)Aps « 1. in Refs.26) where TJ = P/P. For noncomposite beams. = For the final deflection increment.24a) and the final total net deflection including live-load deflection is (7. = 1/(1 + A)Ap.(k. proposed the following expression for predicting the time-dependent increase in deflection Lif> of Equation 7.24a: (7.5 to 7. 7.25) in which t0·6º/(10 + t0 ·60 ) is the creep ratio a.LiP/2P0 in which P0 = prestress force at transfer after elastic loss = P.7.60 e= t 10 + t0. which are affected by creep gives the final time-dependent increase in deflection due to prestressing and sustained loads as (7. less elastic loss. the total deflection 8Tr becomes (Ref.24b) Intermediate deflections are found by substituting Ct for Cu in Equations 7.. For composite beams. et = creep coefficient at time t Kª =factor corresponding to age of concrete at superimposed load application = l.0 1 for all practica! purposes.9) f>r.24a and b.lls for moist-cured concrete = l. in days.Ct] + f>sv[l + Kak. Branson et al.C + f>L where f>P = deflection due to prestressing LiP = total loss of prestress excluding initial elastic loss X. Cu is used in place of Ct in Equation 7.Ct)] + f>v[l + k. the total deflection is 1] (7.t = -f>P{ 1 - ~ + X.27) .60 eu (7. where t0.23a) or (7.451 7. 7. at loading k.26.13r0 ·095 for steam-cured concrete t = age.7 Long-Term Effects on Deflection and Camber The final deflection under Pe is (7.25t--O. = 1 .

The material properties input to any computer program should becarefully scrutinized based on laboratory tests if large span structures are involved.28) + Odf + OL where.~ + Kªk. They lend themselves handily for such more refined methods as the time-step method in Section 7.--le 1comp.Cu 'l\] + ov[l + Kªk. however.P . and 7.5 Deflection of Composite Beams Computing deflections for composite prestressed beams is similar to that for noncomposite sections. J O (7. 7. Keep in mind.60/(10 + tº·6º). particularly long-term deflection.b.Cu('l\ . that the deflection under short and longterm loading is governed by a variety of possible conditions too numerous to be covered by a single set of rules for calculating deflections. Engineering judgment has to be exercised in determining a reasonable accurate concrete modulus Ec value at the various loading stages and in achieving values of creep coefficients that are neither under. deflection calculation procedures and methods should be viewed within a ±40 percent variability. 7.3.P j2P0 ) b. it is important to recognize that the degree of spread can be very large. 'l\' = 1 . if not more. and Crack Control oP{ 1 .7.7.1. 7. comparing the relative rigor involved in applying the three methods of Sections 7. excluding initial elastic loss /comp.a'l\). use the appropriate factor in the denominator) Yes= distance from centroid of composite section to centroid of slab topping F = force resulting from differential shrinkage and creep Ecc = modulus of composite section a = creep strain at time t divided by ultimate creep strain = t0. The process becomes more rigorous if the incremental time-steps method is used. the difference in the shrinkage characteristics and time-step increments due to the difference in shrinkage values of the precast section and the added concrete topping increase the rigor .7. These conditions are related to all properties of the concrete constituent materials which affect deflection. = moment of inertia of composite section odf = deflection due to differential shrinkage and creep between precast section and composite topping slab = FyJ2!8EcJcomp. Hence.452 Chapter 7 ºr = - Camber.Cu] + op. [ 1- b.Pc = loss of prestress at time composite topping slab is cast. Deflection.7.2.7. The additional steps at the various construction stages of the precast element and the situ-cast top slab require consideration of the changes in the moments of inertia from the precast to the composite values at the appropriate stages. for simply supported beams (for continuous beams. Moreover.(b.7.2. In sum.Pe p + k.nor overestimated. except in cases of very large span bridges such as cable-stayed bridges.4 Computer Methods for Deflection Evaluation Several computer approaches and canned programs are available for deflection calculations.

including the concrete modulus E. construction tolerances. sum of long-term deflection due to ali sustained loads ( dead load plus any sustained portion of live load) and immediate deflection due to any additional live loadb 480c 240 ªLimit not intended to safeguard against ponding. Use the equations Table 7.453 7. and reliability of provisions for drainage. as well as subsequent strains and rotations. camber. This reduction is made on the basis of accepted engineering data relating to time-deflection characteristics of members similar to those being considered. AASHTO permissible deflection requirements. Ponding should be checked by suitably calculating deflection. Following is a step-by-step procedure for computing deflection: l.8 Permissible Limits of Calculated Deflection of the computational process. are more rigorous because of the dynamic impact of moving loads on bridge spans. Compute the initial strains Eci at the top and bottom fibers and the corresponding rotations. Determine the properties of the concrete. 'Ratio limit may be lower if adequate measures are taken to prevent damage to supported or attached elements. the use of computer programs facilitates speedy evaluation of camber and deflection in composite elements. . including added deflections due to ponded water.2..3. and considering long-term effects of ali sustained Joads. shown in Table 7.8 PERMISSIBLE LIMITS OF CALCULATED DEFLECTION The ACI Code requires that the calculated deflection has to satisfy the serviceability requirement of maximum permissible deflection for the various structural conditions listed in Table 7. concrete creep. Choose the time increments to be used in the deflection calculations. Fortunately. 2. and the shrinkage and prestress relationship at the various loading stages. Compute the concrete fiber stresses at the top and bottom extreme fibers due to all loads. bLong-term deflection has to be determined. 4. 3. 7. Note that long-term effects cause measurable increases in deflection and camber with time and result in excessive overstress in the concrete and the reinforcement. requiring computation of deflection and camber. but may be reduced by the amount of deflection calculated to occur before attachment of nonstructural elements.2 ACI Minimum Permissible Ratios of Span (/)to Deflection (o) (/ = Longer Span) Type of member Flat roofs not supporting and not attached to nonstructural elements likely to be damaged by large deflections Floors not supporting and not attached to nonstructural elements likely to be damaged by large deflections Roof or floor construction supporting or attached to nonstructural elements likely to be damaged by large deflections Roof or floor construction supporting or attached to nonstructural elements not likely to be damaged by large deflections Deflection oto be considered (//o)m1n Immediate deflection due to live load L 180ª Immediate deflection due to live load L 360 That part of total deflection occurring after attachment of nonstructural elements. but should not be lower than tolerance of nonstructural elements.

03 x 106 psi for ali loads in the solution.Ecb <!> = . evaluate the long-term camber and deflection of the bonded double T-beam in Example 7. Deflecfloo. 9. i . would be equal to 189. and verify whether the deflection values satisfy the ACI permissible limits. Ecbi - <i =--h-- E~ . Repeat the same procedure for all time intervals. assume that fp.9 LONG-TERM CAMBER ANO DEFLECTION CALCULATION BY THE PCI MULTIPLIERS METHOD Example7.- h S. compute the strains at the cgs line and compute the relaxation of the strands during the first time interval.454 Chaple' 7 Table 7. Then compute the concrete fiber stresses at the cgs level due to F. lf the beam were to be post-tensioned. Figure 7. shrinkage.3 Cambe.18 presents a flowchart for computation of deflection by the approximate time-step method. 7. If not.. and add the effect of superimposed dead loads.3 by the PCI multipliers method. 7. Compute the total change of stress in the prestressing steel due to creep. change the section. Also. . aod C<ack Cootrol l AASHTO Maximum Permissible Deflection (/= Longer Span) Maximum permissible deflection Type of member Simple or continuous spans Deflection considered Vehicular traffic only Vehicular and pedestrian traffic lnstantaneous due to service live load plus impact 800 1000 300 375 Cantilever arms <!>. and relaxation acting as a force F at the cgs. = 189. Also. assume that the nonstructural elements attached to the structure will not be damaged by deflections and that live load is transient. Add the deflections due to live load to get the total deflection f>p Verify whether the computed f>y is within the permissible limits. 8.000 psi. Use Ec = 4..000 psi after anchorage losses and after eliminating frictional losses by jacking from both beam ends and then rejacking so as to maintain the net fp. 6. Add the result of step 5 to the result of step 3.6 Given fp. = 189.000 psi prior to erection.

e') P. fpu.18 Flowchart for computation of deflection. f.: 1 +-2r e e. Compute time-dependent factors for each time interval rº·60 Cu 10 + to.6v'npPp + n. e'. Po. :\._ = _ 384Ec1e ~ 6. .+ k 2 BEC. f. Compute 1.. = (nPAP 1 dg + n..095 for steam-cured concrete c ' = ! Figure 7.Mo St r2 f' = ..h l 3.. Eci• E. Cu Time intervals t.pl ' 5Wso2" 5.e. 1g where(~. Input section properties: A.P.:) 19 + [1 .ei = (feb . Compute 650 = .e.)= [1-('n~'')} I. eb.(-.le...fil Ec. WL Input material properties f.h e.384Ec1• Ó L 24 5W _L_.19 5W 0 2" Self-weight deflection ó0 i = .: n 1.: 1+-2r e (1 .455 7. P..e' ) .25 r-o. VIS Input load data W0 .b=--¡. F.Ac 1 . Compute P. r 2.P. + 60 where k 1.e.. Yes i 2. fe..1.. s for moist-cured concrete = 1. . fci• f. W50 . ( fi=. 19 .lg BE.. S'.A.eb) P.9 Long-Term Camber and Deflection Calculation by the PCI Multipliers Method e ) START l 1.¡.. RH. Sb.. t = k 1 . k.7 q.::.2 2 Prestress camber óp. ( f. e...ci = Mo +5 b (fcb .d 2 1 (1 .fil Ec.1 l 3 4.. Ac e q..122 P.384Ec.13r-o. ónet = -ó. = (-. k 2: a function for tendon as in Table 7.60 11 K8 = 1. e. prestress loss l!i. ( fcb=--¡. fPY' fPi' fP•' EP•' AP•' P¡.. Calculate fiber stresses at midspan and support section at transfer eceb) P.

= 0.019 plf = 84.l . the section did not crack (See Example 7. Is there another time interval? Yes Go to step 6 END Figure 7.C.08 m. t = -lip¡ [1 - ~ + ::l-(k.k. Bv = Wsv Bsv swr s x 84. Compute total deflection at time step t for noncomposite section lir.1:] + li 0 / [ IJ.¡. (2.J (X .072 in.3(60 X 12)4 384 X 4. 6 384 X 3.C.99 in.7 lb/in.r = -liP1 [1 - ~: + K.3) .Pc 2P.072 = 0.¡.c.!.P-1:!. Deflection. = 5 X 8.456 Chapter 7 Camber.l . 8."" (14 mm) = 100 plf = 8.49 X 10 X 86.C. .0 mm) .18 Continued Solution: lg = 86.100 plf = 91.3 lb/in.P + liP1 ~ 1e Po comp where ::1-' = 1 - + k.072 WL = 1.9 (60 x 384EcJg 12)4 .03 X 106 X 86.9 lb/in.Cu (1 + K. + liL . Total long-term net deflection for composite section lir. No 9. and Crack Control l j 1 No Yes Section noncomposite? 7.aX'l J IJ.1] t + lio (1 + k..c.¡.k. 4 Wv = 1.k. + liSD (1 + K.

! l.072 = 0.7. .85 3. 1.45 2.4 Long-Term Cambar and Deflection Values in Example 7.70 3. Bl - = 384 < f.. the effective /.! 0.57in..96 in.J.72 in.) Load Transfer BP (1) (2) WD l.5 Typical deflcction prior lo limil slate al failure (Nawy et al. i 0.93 in.1 NetB 0. / comp has to be uscd in calculating BL and B.40 in. i 0.Q8 in. the following are Lhe labulated values of longterm defleelion and camber obtained using the applicable PCI mulliplicrs from Table 7.2~ in• .1. i 0.63 in.03 X lO6 X 86.79 in. i l.4 (max. i 2. lf the section is compositc after erection. Prestress Multiplier (noncomposite) Multlplier t WsD Net& l. 4: 1. 1. +1 (24 mm) U the section were cracked. i !. t Q. Using thc PCI multipüers method for calculating deílection at construction erection time (30 days) and at the final service-load deflection (5 years). 4: 1. (in.J.). i Final Bnel (In. was also used in this prestressed beam.6 by PCI Multipliers Method Erectlon B. the reduced multiplier would be used.m if !he beam is shored during placemeot of concrete topping.93 in.9 Long-Term Camber and Oeflection Calculation by the PCI Multipliers Method 457 Photo 7.) (3) 2.7(60X 12)4 X 4.22 in .83 jn. The C muJtiplier is re1 duced by the factor C2 where Table 7. i WL Final B 0.49 in.67 in.89in..49 in. lf mild steel reinforccment A . = 530 psi 5 X91.90 in.00 4. i . would have had to be used instead of /~.90 in.072 in.80 1. = 18 = 86.

7sü = 3. the value of the original camber becomes 3.3 and Figure 7.10 LONG-TERM CAMBER ANO DEFLECTION CALCULATION BY THE INCREMENTAL TIME-STEPS METHOD Example 7. i (20 mm). the live-load deflection = 0. where f:.524 psi (24. the initial fiber stresses (psi) and strains (in.750 psi. Note that unless otherwise stated. and 5 years.45 multiplier. . the modulus Ec of concrete should be calculated for the time change at each incremental time stop.9.6 by the incremental time-steps method assuming that fp. Assume the beam to be post-tensioned. 30 days after transfer (completion of erection and application of the superimposed dead load). As an example.242 psi (15. From Table 7. Similar adjustment for all deflection components can be made applying the relevant correction factor. 7.63 in. 6 = -642 X 10. Midspan: f' = + 501 psi (3. Support: f' = +92 psi (0. 90 days.7 MPa) fb = -2.0 in. = 3. (24 mm).Chapter 7 458 Camber.000 psi for the prestressing steel used in the beam.49 in.oooV3. = -1.6 in./in. and Deflections Eci = 57. Solution: Instantaneous Stresses. i instead of 4. camber if the live load is assumed all transient in this case.7 Solve Example 7. Use Eps = 27.79 in.3 MPa) 501 + 3.5 MPa) E~= Eeb +26 X 10.6 in.31 giving C2 = 2./in. i shown in the table as a multiplier value of 2./in.4 the camber after erection and installation of the superimposed dead load at 30 days = 1.l.80 in.in. the final net camber after 5 years = 0. Strains.03 x 106 for al! incremental steps in this solution.93 in .010 X 10. assume three No. Plot the camber-time and deflection-time relationships for the beam.5X106 psi.) for the beam at transfer due to prestress force P. hence enhancing stiffness.fin.1 MPa) Íb = E'= e Ecb -3.79 in. Assume that the ultimate creep coefficient Cu = 2. Continuing. i (38 mm)./in.43 = 2142 .000 psi and that prestress losses are incrementally evaluated at prestressing (7 days after casting). Deflection.49 x 106 psi From Example 7.01 = 0.49 X 106 = +144 X 10. and P. and the allowable deflection = l/240 = (60 x 12)/ 240 = 3.35 for the concrete and fpy = 230. + W D are as follows: Prestress Force P. As -A ps 3 X 0. Also.6 in. As an example of the adjustment of values previously tabulated. and Crack Control due to the mild steel reinforcement controlling propagation or widening of the flexural cracks at long-term loading. (76 mm) > 0. except at transfer. using Ec = 4. we have . 5 bars were also used in the prestressed beam. which is satisfactory.01 is used instead of the previous 2. = 189.

6 rad/in.6 = -19.!. O¡ t = <l>c(~) + (<J>e - O¡ t = -33. at 30 days after transfer EcR¡ = EcR( t0.30 = 30 30 + 35 X 800 X 10.= -0.144 34 X -642 .19./in.65 + 33.6 (-33.94 X 459 10.6 in. the creep coefficient at any time.35 / 4.94 X X 10.583 x 10-6 in.65 X 10. EsH.6 2 X ~: <J>c) (60 X 12)2 + (-19. per unit stress Creep strains at other time intervals are similarly computed. . t EsH.89 in. Note that creep strain has to be calculated at the centroid of the reinforcement in order to calculate the creep loss in prestress. (b) Shrinkage of Concrete.9b. Self-wt.26 34 10. in days.94 = (60 12) X 24 X 10.6 = -33. X From Figure 7. From Equation 3. Hence.60060) lO+t· 10+30· = 0.fin. t (23 mm) Time Dependent Factors (a) Creep.99 .t = t + 35 EsH where E SH = 800 x 10-6 in.7. 10.6. for moist-cured concrete Thirty days after transfer. &0 = 5 5wl 4 + E 1 384 c'g = 384 Net camber at transfer 1019 )(60 X 12)4 12 3.10.6 = 369 X 10.583 X 10-6( 300. the shrinkage time t = 30 days if the beam is post-tensioned and t = 30 + 7 = 37 days if it is pretensioned.fin. where fes = concrete stress at cgs leve! Ecs = concrete strain at cgs leve! EcR = unit creep strain per unit stress at ultimate creep = C/Ec = 2./in. From Equation 3. . per unit stress.60 Cu As an example. Finally. +0.254 X 10.15a for moist-cured concrete. t (48 mm) Notice that this value is the same as that obtained by the moment expression in Example 7.10 Long-Term Camber and Deflection Calculation by the Incremental Time-Steps Method Midspan <l>ci = Support <l>ei = -1010 .(25 mm) = -1.6 in.89 t + 0.03 x 106 = 0. is t0.072 X ( X = .49 X 106 X 86.!.60060) = 0.60 C= t 10 + t0.99 m .6 X (60 X 12)2 24 2 .94) 8 10.65) = -1.90 in.6 rad/in. From Equation 3.3.

0165 0.7 Table 7.55. and fpR is the remaining stress in the steel after relaxation for 30 days = 720 hr after prestressing.1 _ tpR _ f. (1ºg 120O .095 0. and 5 years after prestressing. and 6 give cumulative values. .078 1 pl 230 . Transfer to Erection (Step end = 30 days) (a) Concrete Fiber Stresses at the cgs Leve! for Calculation of Creep The tendon eccentricities are ec = 22.1261 0.0190 PIS (7 <lay) 30 90 365 5 yrs D.02 in. is to the base 10. From the figure.349 0.254 0.0776 0.log 10 ) 0. + 26 X 10-6 in.6. . t f1EcR EsH.0906 0. 90. in hours. _ (log lz . Figure 7. _ f.452 0. Deflection. EsH Camber. - f1 xfp.0130 0.5.55 ) -. and ee = 12.5 Creep x 10-5 Time Shrinkage X 1o.000 we must find the R values for ali time-steps using t1 = Oas a base.5 gives the incremental time-dependent parameters for prestress loss factors in this example for time steps 7.19 gives the instantaneous stresses and the corresponding gross strains before losses due to prestress.1 f. and Crack Control may be calculated for ali other steps tabulated in Table 7. If the relaxation loss ratio is fpR _ . = Incremental increase.103 0. (e) Relaxation of Strands. fp/fpy exceeds 0. and 365 days.fin.~ _ R .. 4.19 Stress and strain at transfer due only to prestress befo re losses in Example 7.55 n where log t.460 Chapter 7 In a similar manner.ooo _ 0.0776 0.0.073 133 369 576 730 785 133 236 207 154 55 o 0. Columns 2. From Equation 3.t f1ESH R !1R (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) o 0.254 0. -3524 -1010X 10-6 -2242 -642 X 10~ Stress Strain Stress Strain (a) (b) Figure 7 . (a) Midspan section.6 Relaxation Days EcR.7. Time-Dependent Incremental Prestress Loss Factors in Example 7.525 0.77 in. Table 7. (b) Support section.1071 0.ºX189. 30.

_f" = _ é:.0 MPa) Total Steel Stress Loss dfT = (dEcR Midspan é:.6 (-3./in.03 X 106 335 - X = 10 .. So X Midspan dEcR = dEcR X Íbcc = 0.6 X 27.0 psi X 2 -683 ./m.625 X 2.ft = _ 89.77) = _ 683 .fn 0 = (782 + 236) X Support dfn 0 = (343 + 236) X + dEsH)Eps + é:.02 2 978 l X 8.350 psi C 9.03 X 106 -2.l 7.666 = 42.. dEsH Relaxation Stress Loss dfR3o = 0. use an average MT3o =! (42. .5 10.666 = 30.23) 88.03 X 106 .589) = 36.666 psi (101.fR 10.f' = _ dP30 Ac (l _ecr 1) Prestress force loss = _ 89.0 = +97 psi (T) t +97 dEc = t:.080 .0776 X 189. (C) r 978 88. m. (C ) (21. (T) psi -6· . .6 in. 12..6 in.242 Íbec = X X 10 -6. m. - 4.6 X 27.. _ = -435 psi (C) 88 0 .254 X 10.661 psi 106 + 14./m.895 é:.589 psi Hence.080) = -782 x 10.000 = 14.5 X X 106 + 14.( )( -1.254 dEéR = 10.6 (-1.658 (l + 22. Support dEcR = dEéR X Íbec = 0. m.+24 X 10 -6.0X 8.23) +18 dE~ = 4.+4 dfb = 89. Creep Incremental Strain stress f at cgs dEcR = dEéR X From Table 7. m.77 X 25.661+30.77) .658 ( _ 22.-764 4./in.03 X 106 Ac = .2 MPa ) 26 02 3 75 -3.02 25.254 X 10.658 lb.658 978 (l _12.080 psi./in.5 0.658 ( -978 1+ X 10 = + 18 . (l + ecb) = _ 89.7788. per unit stress.350) = -343 X 10. 19.6 in. (ii) Support Section t:. . Shrinkage Incremental Strain = -236 X 10.448 = 89./m. + 13.350 - = 461 ./in./m.625 psi (253 MPa)./m. m.3 MPa) -6.10 Long-Term Camber and Deflection Calculation by the Incremental Time-Steps Method ¡: Jbcc = -3..524 X Ebcc = Ebec _26.6 in.66 . (399 kN) x 10-3 MPa) (i) Midspan Section (1psi=6.-169 4. (b) Corresponding Change in Concrete Fiber Stresses and Strains dP30 = MnoÁps = 36.P30 ~b dEcb 4.00 19 66 -1.02 + _ = -3.03 X 106 X 10 -6.

462 Chapter 7 IÍEeb = -435 4.h X 10-6 :tt 108 X 10-6 ~net €• -569 X 10-5 (a) Figure 7.net = IÍE~Re IÍEcRe.6 in.6 in.:if in part (b) of the solution. we have the following: Midspan IÍE~Rc.4)10./in. = -726 X 10.6 in.6 IÍE~Rc net . From Figure 7.20 (b) Creep incremental strains at 30 days in Example 7.) .6 in.524 X 0. = + 103 X 10.:ieéR = -3.6 in.24)10.:iehc IÍEcRcb = /¿ X .:ieP. Midspan IÍ<j>c30 = IÍEcRcb net - • h (-726 .6 = -895 X 10.254 X 10. Net strains (in.6 Support IÍE~Reb.) (i) Fiber gross strain Midspan .6 = -569 X 10. = -461 X 10.6 - IÍEcRcb - IÍEpscb = (-895 + 169)10. .20. Deflection.fin.6 in./in. 34 +23 X 10-s -:¡ i.net = IÍE~Rc IÍEc Rcb .6 = +23 X 10. = Í?b X .) 1Ínet EcR = IÍEcR - IÍEps where ./in. IÍEcReb = -2.6 = (-569 + 108)10.7. and Camber Net creep strain (in./in. and Crack Control X 10./in./in.6 in.5 (ii) Curvatures (radlin.6 in.254 X 10. in other words the curvature increment for this step.254 X 10.net = IÍE~sc = (+ 127 . Resulting Curvatures. Support IÍE~Re = +92 X 0./in.103)10.:i<j> 30 is the added curvature due to losses at the end of 30 days after transfer based on the adjusted net strains.net = - IÍEcReb - IÍE~se = (+23 ./ in. (e) Net Strains.254 X 10.03 X 106 = -108 Camber.242 X 0.fin. is the strain loss due to prestress loss .6 = + 127 X 10.:ieéR = + 501 X 0./ in.6 in. = +19 IÍEpseb X 10.

9 lb/in.99(1 + 1.6 rad/in.6. We have WD = 1019 plf = 84.14.14-l.96 X 463 10.00 in.30 X 10. -l.6 rad/mm) Support ~cl>e30 ~ECReb. (0.60 Cu = 10 + 300.6 rad/in..(4 mm) oL = O (building occupied at 90 days) Total gravity load deflections = 2.(51 mm) osD3o = 0. Assume Ec = 4.02 (e.32)10.38 X 10. and curvature at 30 days after transfer is <l>T cl>e.020 5X = + 0. = 10 + t0..6 34 ~Ehe.00 + 0.net h = = -14..12) X 10. 030(camb) _ (60 X 12)2 (-58. So the total =el>.03 x 10-6 psi as a reasonable value for the modulus of concrete for the rest of the example.35 = 1. c!>ci = -33.94 x 10-6 rad/in..14 in. -l.24 in.94 . (0.6 = -33.19)10.6 rad/mm) From Figure 7.08(1 + 0.-6.. = -58.38) X 10.60 300. Self-weight deflection oD = 5 4 Wl = +0. the camber due to prestress at the end of 30 days for singly harped tendon beam is OP3o i ¡2) = c!>Tc3o( S + (<l>Te3o = -58.65 x 10-6 rad/in.6 rad/in..15 days = 0.54 X 10. -l.+ ~<1>30 Midspan c!>Tc3o = (-33.77 X 10.6 - c!>Tc3o) ¡2 24 2 (60 X 12) (60 X 12)2 + (-33.58.14 +O= +2.77) _ X 10 6 = ..60 X 2.03 X 10 X 169..80) = +0.3.6 rad/mm) Support cl>Te3o = (-19.32 X 10.= -1.32 24 l - X 2 + 33.7. for WSD at .. i (82 mm) (d) Long-term Deflections Dueto Gravity Loads at 30 Days after Transfer.6 rad/mm) (iii) Total Curvature (radlin. -l.6 X 8 24 namely.net - (-461 .60 C. i (28 mm) (camber) .24 i + 2. -l..02) = +2.08 in.6(2.32 X 10..) and camber From before.33 X 10.10 in.(25 mm) from before 384EJg WSD = lOOplf o SD - ºº 1 (60 X 12)4 1 2 .80) oD30 = 0.1 O Long-Term Camber and Deflection Calculation by the Incremental Time-Steps Method = -24.384 X 4.99 in.14 in.5 mm) t0.6(1.77 .(31 mm) Onei3o = -3.65 .12 X 10. Also. = -19.24..(1.

6 in. From Figure 7.!74 psi 1.02 .242 + 435 e~= Eeb = -1. = -448 X 10./in.483 psi 26./in.7.6 in.34" .6 (-1. (a) Midspan section.6 (-2./in. = -2.095X10.6 in./in. f' - Ebec = -270 X 10.6 in.t <O <O ai ~ L1= 3.21. rr-~.6 in.66 ·+ 13.088) = -103 X 10.75" -2841 Stress (a) -705 -1807 -448 Strain Stress Strain (b) Figure 7.in.18 = +74psi fb = .2.03 X 106 .l' l 464 Chapter 7 Camber. +100 x 10-6 in.97 = + 404 psi fb = -3. = + 100 X 10. Ecb (ii) Support f' = +92 .-1 '088 ps i Creep Incremental Strain tleéR = 0.02 + 3. .fin. per unit stress (Table 7./m.21 Adjusted stress and strain at 30 days dueto prestress only in Example 7.807 psi 6 +18 x 10.Pe (i) Midspan r = + 501.095 X 10.5) MidspantleCR = tle'CRfbcc = 0./in.6 m.483) =-236 X 10./in. {b) Support section. Jbec - - 19 66 1./in. and Crack Control Service-Load Step-90 Days a/ter Transfer (a) New Reduced Concrete Fiber Stresses and Strains Due to Prestress Losses in the Previ- ous Stage Prestressing force change = tl./in.095 X 10. .807 X 19. ' 34" ! +18 X 10-6 1-.6 in.841 psi e' = e +404 4.841 X Ebcc = -616 X 10.524 + 683 = -2.75 Íbcc = -2. Support tlecR = tle'CR Íbec = 0.0 -. = -705 X 10.6 in. 26. Deflection.

) Fiber gross strain Midspan AE~Rc =no X AEcR = +404 X 0.625) = 1.6 .6 Support AE~Re. (ii) Support Section l!f' = +6 psi l!fb = -147 psi AE~ = +2 X 10.164 psi Support AfT9o = (103 + 207) X 10.5 X 106 + 1. Relaxation Stress Loss AfR = 0.AEpscb = (-270 + 57) X 10.164+10.6 =-172 X 10.6 in.6 AEcReb.6 = +30 X 10.6 in. Prestress force loss AP90 = AfT9f/!ps = 12.448 = 30.5 X 106 + 1.6 in.506) = 12./in.6 in.6 in. AecRcb = f 3ob x AeéR = -2. AEcb = -57 X 10./in. and Camber (i) Net creep strain (in.6 in.335 X 2.335 psi (b) Correspnding Change in Concrete Fiber Stresses and Strains.AE~sc = (+38 .2) X 10.000 .981 = 10.net = AEcRcb . AEeb = -36 X 10.fin. use an average AfT9o =! (14.36./in.8) X 10.6 = -270 x 10.fin.6 = -136 X 10./in.AE~se = (+7 .095 X 10.841 X 0.6 X 27. Net strains (in.981 = 14.6 in.6 in.196 lb (134 kN) (i) Midspan Section (1psi=6./in.506 psi Hence.7./in.net = AEcReb = Aepseb = (-172 + 36) X 10.10 Long-Term Camber and Deflection Calculation by the Incremental Time-Steps Method 465 Shrinkage Incremental Strain AesH = -207 X 10.895 x 10-3 MPa) Aj'= +97 X 30.6 = +5 X 10.net = AE~Rc .6 in. (e) Net Strains.6 = +7 X 10.0130(189. Support AE~Re = +74 X 0.6 AEcRcb.095 x 10.981 psi Total Steel Stress Loss AjT = (AECR + AESH)Eps + AfR Midspan l!fT9o = (236 + 207) X 10./in.196 .807 X 0. Resulting Curvatures.6 = -213 X 10.) Midspan AE~Rc.095 X 10- 6 = +38 X 10./in.095 X 10. AEcReb =-1. = +33 psi 89 658 l!fb = -230 psi Ae~ = +8 X 10.net = AE~Re ./in.6 X 27.

The deflection-time relationship becomes almost asymptotic.32 x 10-{) rad/in.6 (1. which is much less than the maximum allowable deflection or camber.60 Ct = 10 + to.72 rad/mm) Support<l>Te 9o = (-33.5)10.6 X 24 8 (-65. and <l>eJO = -33.47 X 10.5 .87 in.) and camber From before.77 x 10-6 • So the total curvature is <!>T = Ó.65 t +3.6 and 7.60 Cu = 10 + 90060 X 2. (51 mm) ºsD90 = 0.<J>c90 = Ó.41) = +2.50 in.6 = -3.7.51 in. From Table 7.<J>e90 = - Lle~ Re.6 =-37. the final net deflection (camber) at five years is 0.15 X 10.99(1 + 1.4. t(4 mm) (camber) Service-Load Deflection at 5 Years The same steps as the previous give the results tabulated in Tables 7.) Midspan ó.466 Chapter 7 Camber.35 = 1.65 in.15 X 10.Ec Reb. h (-213 .92) X 10.i.(l + C1) = 0.18 + 0. .2. (iii) Total Curvature (radlin. (89 mm) and the net deflection is Net onet.7.6) = +0.e~Rcb net ' .27 for t = 60 days) oD9o = o.15) X 10.rad/in.41 (C1 = 1.i. Support Ó. 9o = -3.Ó.08(1 + 1.Ecrc net .6 = (60 X 12)2 24 <l>Tc90) ¡2 24 (60 X 12)2 (60 X 12) 2 + (-37.39 + 0.32 .net 6. = -0. From Table 7.93 = +3.6 (1.60 t0. So the total deflection at 90 days due to gravity loads is og = +2..30) X 10.92 + 65. . <l>cJa = -58. t (93 mm) (d) Long-term Deflections Dueto Gravity Loads at 90 Days after Transfer t = 90 days 900. Deflection.27) = +0.6 34 = -7.77 .6 = -65.7.22.47) X 10.¡. while a plot of the cambers and deflections as a function of time is shown in Figure 7.47 X 2 + 37.net (-136 .<J>30 + Ll<J>90 and we also have the following: Midspan <l>Tc9o = (-58. J.6 h 34 6 = -4.39 in.93 in.15) X 10. oT = l/240=60x12 / .92X10.47 X 10.04rad/mm) oP90 (camber) t = <l>Tc90 ¡2) (S + (<l>Te90 - = -65.17 inJ oL (from Example 7.6 rad/in. and Crack Control (ii) Curvature (radlin.

986 +19 -130 +4 -83 +5 -32 +1 -21 PIS* 30 'PIS .¡ = step at transfer of prestress at 7 days after concrete is cast.Table 7. Q) .fin..t Concrete stress change due to losses psi Midspan Mt / Concrete strain change due to losses x 10-5 in.625 +97 -683 +18 -435 +24 -169 -108 90 +404 -2841 +74 -1807 -236 -103 207 1. 1.fin.¡::...311 11.000 psi = 6.194 +30 -209 +6 -133 +7 -52 +2 -33 5 yr +341 -2402 +62 -1527 -153 -67 55 2.335 +33 -230 +6 -147 +8 -57 +2 -36 365 +371 -2611 +68 -1660 -235 -103 154 2. Midspan End End 7 Mt 7 f1Etc 7 f1Ete Mb / Mb / f1Ecb / f1Eeb (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) o o o 133 +501 -3524 +92 -2242 -782 -343 236 14. +4 .7 Gross fiber stress in concrete at start of time increment Midspan End 7 Days / (1) (2) / / 7 fb (3) Creep strain increment X 10-6 in.981 12. psi psi 11EcRe (4) f1EsH (5) MR f1fT.666 36.895 MPa.448 6..6 Time at step end Long-Term Stress and Strain Changes in Example 7. per unit stress 7 11EcRc / Shrinkage strain Total steel Steel increment relaxation stress loss X 10-5 increment increment inJin.

4 mm.= 25.07 -38.93 -0.fin.14 -l.76 -78. I<!>c I<!>e 3p.22 -3.36 -42. (3) o o -33.<!>c 6.24 +2.15 -4.65 -33. Net creep strain increment X 10-6 in.net 6.6 rad/in.eCRb.16i 365 +31 -217 +5 -138 -7. Midspan 6.7 Long-Term Curvatures and Deflections in Example 7.e'cR.50 -0.65 -1.26 -0. 3net.29 -4.99 -0. --~~ y ¡¡r1féii . 1 in.t 6.79 -2.net (1) Midspan Total cumulative curvature x 1o.07 -3.09i P/S* *p/s = step at transfer of prestress at 7 days after concrete is cast.43 -4.90i 30 +103 -726 +19 -461 -24.e'cR.92 -34.eCRbc.16i 5 yr +20 -143 +4 -90 -4.94 -19.7 Deflection Time at step end Days Curvature increment x 10-6 rad/in.65 +3.94 -19.38 -14.21 -73. Gravity loads Wo+ Wso+ WL in.14i 90 +38 -270 +7 -172 -7.12 -58.""'enCICI Table 7.89 +0.09 +3.<!>e (4) Midspan End Prestress camber force P in.15 45.t f>g (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) Net in.19 -4.15 -66.ne~ End 6.35 +4.ny (2) End 6.

Potyondy).09 in.22 Prestressed camber and load deflections vs. Note that long-term creep losses can be considerabiy reduced by the addition of nonprestressed reinforcement to the section at the compression side. Hence.11 LONG-TERM CAMBER ANO DEFLECTION CALCULATION BY THE APPROXIMATE TIME-STEPS METHOD Example7. 7. +2.7. » 0.7. Compare this solution with those of Examples 7.2.0 All loads deflection o Figure 7.0 ~ 1 1 1 .6 and 7.2 ~.8 Soive Example 7.7.4. Photo 7. the beam satisfics the serviceability requirements for timedependent deílection. .11 Long-Term Camber and Deflection Calculation by the Approximate Time-Steps Method 469 Prestress camber ..0 1 1 l 3ss 1 1 Ji E ~ o Time {days) ~ e: .09 in.6 by the approximate time-steps method using Lhe samc allowabie steel and concrete stresses. 240 =3.6 Deflection at failure of prestressed T-beam with confining reinforcement (Nawy. time in Example 7.

02 C190 = 1.-!.12 Use the same C1 value for &sn as for &n.93 in.Chapter 7 470 Camber. the total net deflection due to loads is &T = ~+ -&P[ 1 - X. From Equation 7.(k. = 1 k. the incremental time-step net deflection is &Pis the deflection (camber) dueto prestressing = &i(P¡) and TI= Pe!P¡.672 1 Kª = 1.-!.C1J-!.PIP¡ = 83. Deflection.281 lb. and consider it accurate enough.0 under normal conditions Use k.672 379.391 lb Aps = 2.89 in. 365.08 in. = 2.J-!. From Example 7.82 C15 y. = 1 .C.02 1l .41 c.0·118 = 0.= i.P = P¡ .P/2P"' and &P and TI are as before.91 2 X 462. From Equation 7.365 = 1. From Example 7.26. 2 Cu= 2.P.)] t + &n[l + k.448 in. = 379. Then Ka = l.672 = 0. So X.7.391=83.281/462. &i(D) &i(SD) t = instanteous dead-load deflection = +0.25t. = Transfer to Erection (30 days). = 462. where !:l.0·118 for moist-cured concrete t = age at Joading.25(30).672 lb P. + f>sn[l + Kak. lnstantaneous Camber and Deflections. := 1 as accurate enough for practica! purposes.27.281 = 0.) is the total loss of prestress excluding any initial elastic loss.35 C. X. in days = 30.P = (P0 .84 e. + &L-!.99 in. Assume P 0 P¡.!:l.C.P. = 83.18. 5 yr k = r 1 1 + A 5/Aps where A/Aps << 1.3. j P¡ = 462. &i(P.) = &pi = instanteous intital prestress camber = -1.30 = 1. 90. since usually A/Aps <<l. = instantaneous superimposed dead-load deflection = +0.-!. and Crack Control Solution: Datafor This Altemative Solution. and !:l. &L = live-load deflection = +0. Then !:l.

89 .0.89(1 .89 +4.30 -3.8 Camber and Deflection Comparisons (8 lnch) Time at step end.16 -0.8.48 .79 -1.!-4.0.35 +0.25(365).= -1.99 +2. Table 7.93 in.89(1 .08(1 + 0.= = 0.15 -0.11 Long-Term Camber and Deflection Calculation by the Approximate Time-Steps Method 471 -1.15 -0.14 +3. i (29 mm) Service-Load Deflection (90 days).08(1 + 0.825).97 i + 3.08(1 + 0.15 +3.41) t +0.25(90).62 X 1.93 .90 -1.93 .15 .08(1 + 0.91 -0.= -0.41 8L = +0.18 + 0.84 -0.19 .52 X 2.41) Í' +0. i (12 mm) Service-Load Deflection at 365 days Ka = 1.12) .24 -3.3. The minus sign (-) indicates upward camber i. So Ka = 1.82) .!- 87365 = + 0.89(1 .= -1.74 e.19 -0.49 -4.99 +2.90 -1.79 -1. i (20 mm) = Service-Load Deflections at 5 Years Ka 1.!- = .6.74 X 1.!.49 in.0·118 e.99 +1.20 +o. i (26 mm) Comparison of Deflection Calculations by the Three Methods.0. days Camber 8g 8net Camber 8g 8net Camber 8g 8net (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) 7 30 90 365 5 yrs -1.!.84 X 1.7.49 -0.0.91 X 1.97 -4.99(1 + 1. we have The total interval from transfer is t = 90 days.5.0·118 = e.18 + 0.= = 0.!- = -3.89 -3.!.68 i + 3.99(1 + 1.02) .20 i + 4.93 .91 X 1.15 in.99(1 + 2.68 -5.12) .89(1 .82) Í' +0.!.26 -0.8 gives the calculated values of camber and deflection using the three methods in Examples 7.30 i + 2.25(1.99(1 + 1.= -0.!.18 + 0.48 +3.+0.+ 0.12) Í' +0.65 -4.50 +3. t 8790 = -1.79 in.12 8rsyr = -1.62 1.02) t +O = .!- + 0.01 in.01 Methods PCI multipliers Incremental time-step Approximate time-step .+0.93 +4.!- 8730 = + 0.= 1.09 -1.89 -3.!. and the plus sign (+) indicates downward Table 7.89 -3.82 -1.02) Í' +0.82) .10 -0.09 -4.!.91 X 2.90 -1. 7. and 7.41) .63 +3.40 +0.81 + 0.7.91 X 1.52 2.0·118 = 0.

7. and use of computers is necessary to justify its use.). Calculate the short-term (immediate) camber and deflection of this beam by (a) the 1.7 Typical cracking propagation in prestressed concrete beams (Nawy et al. Comparison of the net deflections shows lhat the muJtipliers method and the approximate time-stcps method give essentially comparable results. Deflection.08 kN/m). method. A large number of incremental time steps nccd to be investigated in large-span major structures such as segmental or cable-stayed bridges where accuracy of deflection and computations of camber are of a major concern. Thc camber is the upward deílection due to the prestress force less the reduction in dcflcction due to self-weight.9 m) span simply supported roof normal weigbt concrete double-T-beam {Figure 7.65 kN/m) and a service live load WL =280 plf (4. (b) the bilinear method as well as the time-dependent . whilc the incremental time-steps method givcs sligbtly lower camber values (approximately f-in. deílection t.Chapter 7 472 Camber. difference).23) is subjected to a superimposed topping load Wso = 250 plf (3. and Crack Control Photo 7.12 LONG-TERM DEFLECTION OF COMPOSITE DOUBLE-T CRACKED BEAM Example7. This variation is expccted beca use incremental prcstress losses are determined at each step rather than as a single lump-sum loss taken at tbe final stage.9 A 72-ft (21. The incremental time step method is time-consuming.

3 Wd.000 psi (1.4 r2.2 in.5 x 104 cm3 ) 5.000 psi (1.54 (623 mm) 9.9 x 105 cm4 ) 97 (625 cm2) 21.05 J_ 1 473 m) _ _ _ __.73 in. in.000 = 347. Noncomposite Composite 615 (3.9.12 Long-Term Deflection of Composite Double-T Cracked Beam •1------10·-o· (3.1x105 cm4 ) 90 (580 cm2) 24.23 (12801) Double-T composite beam in Example 7.1x104 cm 3) 8.152 (13. Given prestress losses 18%.750 psi (25.516 cm2) 77. in.7 MPa) f. in.0 kN/m) VIS= 615/364 = 1. using the PCI multipliers method.4 x 104 cm 3) 891 (13. low relaxation fp. Ac. (476 mm) ee = 12.000 psi at Jacking fp.~. assumed = 0. dia low-relaxation prestressing steel depressed at midspan only fpu = 270.8 x 104 cm3 ) 641 (9.02 (255 mm) 2.004 lbs (1.153 X 189.303 MPa) fp¡ = 200. at bottom fibers = 12~ = 849 psi (5. = 5.862 MPa).717 (4. e. = 3. 2 le. in.720 (24.5 MPa) J.5 x 10 psi (19. = 189.98 (558 mm) 10.540 kN) . in.65 x 10 MPa) Solution by the I. Midspan Section Stresses fp¡ = 200.7. = 3. (475 mm) P.34 kN/m) 855 (5.000 psi (34. (325 mm) ¡. Method l. in..142 (5.118 (32..69 in.81 in.000 psi at transfer ec = 18.960 (9.945fp¡ = 189.9 MPa) toppingJ. 1ª-· 4 Torgr:::"==~~======~~=~=~h 2 2" l'CIM"'" 32" ~ 10LDT32 + 2 ------*~ Figure 7.000 psi (1..968 cm2) 59. = 12 X 0. deflections after 2-in.000 psi (20. Sb.3 S'.46 (240 mm) 3.793 MPa) 4 6 Eps = 28.9 MPa) Aps = twelve !-in. plf cb.000 psi (1.380 MPa) fpy = 260.73 in. (43 mm) RH=75% ec = 18. topping is cast (30 days) and the final deflection (5 years).

960 97 615 = +432.944.717 97 615 . and Crack Control Chapter 7 474 Self-Weight Moment Mv 641(72) 2 8 = .0 MPa) < 0. say 1.004 (l + 18.416 2. eccb) P.1 MPa) < 0.125 psi (C) < -2.K. (b) After Slab Is Cast At this load level assume 18 percent prestress loss 189.1. slab.73 X 10. From Equation 4. From Equation 4.836. Wsv = 2 12 Msv = 250(72) 2 8 X 10 ft X 150 = 250 plf (3.004 (l _ 18.60f/¡ = 0.73 X 10.5 = -730 psi (5.42 psi (C).958. = 0.416 m.416 5.95 + 1.984.-lb Mv + Msv = 4.980 psi fpe = 0.73 X 21.-lb 12 (a) At Transfer From Equation 4.4.416 5.928. say 310 psi (C) (2. Deflection.750) = 2.+Mv 1+ fb=-Sb Ac = _ r1 347.98) + 4.416 in. O.543 lb X 0.717 97 615 = -2.960 97 615 = +527.250 psi. f ' =_Pe Ac = _ (l _ecc')r 2 Mv + Msv S1 284.18a.984.250 psi.6 kN/m) • X 12 = 1.000 m. O.98) + 6.984. P.543 (l _ 18. ( 1 _ f --A e l 1 ecC ) M D -Si -7 = _ 347.834.la.87 psi (C).000 = 154.K.44 .+Mv fb=-Ac r1 Sb = _ 284.02).153 X For the 2-in.000 = 6. Msv +eccb) Pe ( l + -.124.944.02).18b.45f: = -2.Camber. ( .928.162.lb.6. X = 4.82fp.416 + 1.82 X Pe = 12 154.31 = -308. O.416 2.984.K.53 = -1.250 psi.-lb (783 kN-m) From Equation 4.928.73 X 21.543 (l + 18.5 .60(3.980 = 284.

from data.K.142 = +816. 3 scb for 2-in.8 X 104 MPa) Situ-cast slab concrete modulus is Ec = 57.337 in.03 X 106 psi (2.46 .77 X 2.550.5 MPa) (C).1 MPa) (C) 337 = = -207 psi (1.177.1 8 52 = -0.7 + . slab bottom fibers = 10.33 + 2. O.7 + 693.03 X X 106 = 0.12 Long-Term Deflection of Composite Double-T Cracked Beam = 475 -2.7. = 849 psi.0oü = 4. (d) Composite Slab Stresses Precast double-T concrete modulus is Ec = 57.-lb (246 kN-m) from Equation 4. .. = -162 psi (1.000v5.ecct)? MD + MSD .81 in.3 from before for top of precast section.177.000~ = 57.19b.19a.2_8_8 10.730 .177. slab top fibers = 8.12 X 106 psi (2. = + 123.77 X 2.77 106 S: for 2-in.7._1_77_.4 MPa) (C) Stress fcsb at bottom slab fibers 2. 3 .02 + 123.288 .7 (0. ec = 12. !' = - Pe Ac (1 .426.210 = -940 psi (6.337 = -730 .152 in.288 in.12 4.00o = 3.4 MPa) < f. say 817 psi (T) (5.0 . from Equation 4. = This is a very low tensile stress when the unshored slab is cast and before the service load is applied. 2177 288 Íb = + 123. O. Support Section Stresses Check is made at the support face (a slightly less conservative check can be made at 50db from end).McSD + ML S S~ McsD = superimposed dead load = Oin this case !' . = 849 psi. O._2.000\/3.2 X 104 MPa) Modular ratio n = P 3.K.2 ' 280(72)2 = 12 X 8 = 2.85 MPa). (e) At Service Load for the Precast Section Section modulus for composite section at the top of the precast section is S' = e ML 77 118 ' = 10 337 in 3 9. «12 V"!. ML Stress f ~s at top slab fibers = n S b -0.K. say 124 psi (T).288 l0.

720 -2.004) (12.98) +o + 12. hence.02). and Crack Control Chapter 7 476 (a) At Transfer f' = _ 347. (66 mm) t Self-weight intensity w = 641/12 = 53.004 ( 1 615 = --- b << - 2.163 -730 -210 -940 -2.6 in.74 in.49 X 106)59.O 97 = + 182.6 + 1.Camber.81 X 10.42(72 X 12)4 384(3. (-347. X 21.90 + 0.2 MPa) < 0. 5 4 wl for uncracked section 384EcJg Self-weight 80 = 5 = X 53..49 X 106 psi (2.2 X 104 MPa) From befare.720 Thus the net camber at transfer = -2.720 (-347. Summary of Midspan Stresses (psi) Transfer Pe only W v at transfer Net at transfer Externa! load (WL) Net total at service ft fb +433 -1.30 = X 10 )59.004 615 (l _ 12. Deflection.73) (72 X 12)2 8(3.K.49 X 106 )59. (47 mm)+ -0. (19 mm) t .K.42 lb/in.250 psi. O.ec)l 2 8EcJg 24EcJg o=--+---. O.(ee .6 P. from Figure 7.81 .202 psi (C) (15. 0.73) (72 X 12)2 ----+-------6 24(3.426 +2. = -2.86 in.K.03 X 106 psi (2.26 MPa) fí 347. the support section stresses both at top and bottom extreme fibers were found to be below the allowable.86 = 1 = 1.57o = 3.81 97 = -2. psi (T) (1.8 X 104 MPa) Dueto initial prestress only. (b) After slab is cast and at service load.250 psi. 28 days Ec = 4.18.004) (18.550 +124 +693 +817 3.49 = -2.eJ 2 P.60f.000V3. Camber and Deflection Calculation At Transfer Initial Eci = 57.

7.2(77.5 = 530 psi. nP = 28.13 gives lcr = 11.bdP - From Equation 7. dP = 18.0.312 in4 = 20. ÍL 693 (~: )3 = (0. 280 = 23. = 7.288 in.83 lb/in.20 Hence. is the maximum service unfactored live load.550) = 1.2.(Mc.11. Hence. use.03 X 106 = 7 to be used in Equation 7.13 Equation 7. From Equation 7.19(a) or (b) should be used.4 MPa) in tension (from before).-lb 1.12 Long-Term Deflection of Composite Double-T Cracked Beam 477 4.110 + 8.75 in.153) _ _4 120 X 30.5 X 106/4.118) = 15. from Equation 7. . M.13. lg + [1 . 4 (4. and the stress values previously tabulated. 586 M.Ír = l _ (817 .Íd) 3.530) = 0.-lb M. 3.652 2 177 288 ' ' = 0 586 · where Mcr is the moment due to that portion of the live load that causes cracking and M.5\/5. Vf'c Moment Mcr due to that portion of live load that causes cracking is Mcr = Sb(7.0oO = 530 psi Íb at service load= 817 psi (5.275.33 lb/in.177 .2)11.63x105 cm4).641) 12 l~ ] = 24.3a and the stress fpe and fd values already calculated for the bottom fibers at midspan with fr = 7 .652 in.lüb.02 + 2 (topping) _ Aps _ 30. the section is cracked and the effective le from Eqs.75 .110 in.. unfactored maximum live load moment = 2. Mcr = l _ Ítt . (Mª)3 3 le = le = 0.5\if: = 7.73 + 10.275.) M.5Vf'c = + Íce .426 .142(530 + 2.424 Wsv = WL = X lcr ~ lg + (1 .) from Equation 7.586) 3 = 0. Using the preferable PCI expression of (Mc/M. lmmediate Service Load Deflection (a) Effective le Method Modulus of Rupture f.888 1 (891 .4·93 X 10 Pp . (780 mm) = 12(0.

4 8 SD 5 X 20.Camber.720 in.586 = X 693 . (280 .118 .63 in.164.720 = +0.1) = 9.89 = 1.33(72 X 12) 4 5w[ 4 8 .03 X 10 )24.Ínet) ÍL = 0. the resulting topping deflection with Ig = 59.83(72 X 12)4 384( 4. 5 X 9.110 Total live-load deflection prior to prestress losses = BLI + Bcr = 0.57 versus 1.57 in. obtained by the le method.¡.--..32 in. (45 mm).!.287 X 280 plf 693 280 = 164. + 1. 8L 2 dueto cracked Icr llcr = 5wL2l4 T 384Ec'cr = 1. the following are the tabulated deflection values: .03 = +0.720 X Solution by Bilinear Method = Ícb Ínet . 8.384EJe .73 in. topping is placed on the precast section. Deflection.5'A vJi = 817 - 530 + 287 psi ( T) causing cracking = ÍL = tensile stress caused by live load alone = +693 psi (T) w LI = Portion of live load not causing cracking WL = (fL .74 + 1.720 in. and Crack Control Chapter 7 478 5 X 23. (16 mm) Using PCI multipliers at slab topping completion stage (30 days) and at the final service load (5 years).7. Long-term Deflection (Camber) by PCI Multipliers When the 2-in.15 inJ 5.73 in.¡.63 in.384(4.32 = 1. = -0.89 in. = WL - WLI 5 X 13. +1 106)59.. 4 is llsv = 5 X 20.74 i Net short-term deflection prior to prestress loss is 8Total = -0. Bu dueto uncracked Ig 8 LI WLz 5wul 4 = 384Ee I g = 0.. From before.03 X 106)11.66(72 X 12)4 384(4.03 1 = 12 X X 12)4 106)77.¡. the resulting topping deflection with Ig = 59.03 X 106 )59. (asan average value) When the concrete 2-in.312 = +l.!.66 lb/m.68(72 384(4..1 plf = 13.83(72 X 12)4 = 384( 4.-------6 L . concrete topping is placed on the precast section. .68 lb/in.

7. +2. -1. The maximum possible crack spacing under this stabilized condition is twice the minimum and is termed the stabilized maximum crack spacing.45 .30 1 span/180 = 72 X 12 180 = .13. 7. However..74 i Hence.o is the sum of the reinforcing elements' circum- Vf'c. Consequently..20 2.13.2 Mathematical Model Formulation for Serviceability Evaluation Crack Spacing.63 . Serviceability behavior under service and overload conditions can be controlled by the design engineer through the application of the criteria presented in this section.29) where 'Y is a factor reflecting the distribution of bond stress. final deflection"' 2. +1. 479 PCI Multipliers 3 30 (1) Prestress -2.13 Cracking Behavior and Crack Control in Prestressed Beams Load Transfer SP in. is becoming prevalent due to practicality and economy.1 in. .[.1 lntroduction The increased use of partial prestressing.. (53 mm) = 3Final in. et al. 0.7. As loading is increased.17). Hence. Primary cracks form in the region of maximum bending moment when the external load reaches the cracking load. -5.1 in.[.85 -0. Allowable deflection PCI Multiplier (Composite) (2) WsD Final 3 in. the stabilized mean crack spacing aes is the mean value of the two extremes..60 +1. W¿ .86 -0.13 CRACKING BEHAVIOR ANO CRACK CONTROL IN PRESTRESSED BEAMS 7..8 m. allowing limited tensile stresses in the concrete under service-load and overload conditions while allowing nonprestressed steel to carry the tensile stresses..46 .[. 4.[. Nawy. +1.68 +3. > 2.44 ---1.40 2.89 .[.K.24 i +0. 7.. 2. have undertaken extensive research since the 1960s on the cracking behavior of prestressed pretensioned and post-tensioned beams and slabs because of the great vulnerability of the highly stressed prestressing steel to corrosion and other environmental effects and the resulting premature loss of prestress (Refs. (3) -4.. This condition essentially produces the absolute minimum crack spacing that can occur at high steel stresses.74 i 1. The total tensile force T transferred from the steel to the concrete over the stabilized mean crack spacing can be defined as (7.[. +1. an evaluation of the flexura! crack widths and spacing and control of their development become essential.80 1. Work in this area is relatively limited because of the various factors affecting crack width development in prestressed concrete. additional cracks will form and the number of cracks will be stabilized when the stress in the concrete no longer exceeds its tensile strength at further locations regardless of load increase.28 .71 i +4.13-7. µ is the maximum bond stress which is a function of and I..89 .[.25 i +1. here termed stabilized minimum crack spacing. experimental investigations support the hypothesis that the major controlling parameter is the reinforcement stress change beyond the decompression stage.09 .

{b) For noneven distribution of reinforcement in concrete.2 for pretensioned.31) From extensive tests (see Refs. and elastic shortening./~ is found to have an average value of 1. then for the prestressed tendon (7. 7.Chapter 7 480 Camber. The unit strain Es = 11[/Es. cf.24 Effective concrete area in tension. Deflection. and Crack Control ferences. shrinkage.13.. the maximum crack width can be defined as (7. 7.13. and 7. (a) For even distribution of reinforcement in concrete. Crack Width.34 is rewritten in terms of !1fs so that the following expression at the reinforcement level is obtained based on large numbers of tests: Wmax = I· T L 1. 1 ~b'~ (a) (b) Figure 7.14. where e is a constant to be developed from the tests: Arf~ e 2.33) or Wmax = (7.000 psi) where Ínt is the stress in the prestressing steel at any load level beyond the decompression load and fd is the stress in the prestressing steel corresponding to the decompression load.31 11-0•r----b---. 7.4 b-·I X (7.30.35) 10-s aes (/1fs)l. . The resistance R of the concrete area in tension.29 and 7.30) R =Af' t t By equating Equations 7.o~ aes = (7.34) k' lles (f1fs)ª where k and a are constants to be established by tests... Because it is logical to disregard as insignificant the unit strains in the concrete dueto the effects of temperature.15). the following expression for aes is obtained.3 Expressions for Pretensioned Beams Equation 7.Íd ksi (= 1.24) as (7. Ar can be defined (see Figure 7.32) 11fs = Ínt .54 for post-tensioned prestressed beams. If /1fs is the net stress in the prestressed tendon or the magnitude of the tensile stress in the normal steel at any crack width load level in which the decompression load (decompression here means fe= O at the level of the reinforcing steel) is taken as the reference point. and 1.

85 X 10-5 Wmax = / A :Eo / r 16 ·~ / / 12 .f / • / • / •/ / / .36a) (l!:.4 Expressions for Post-Tensioned Beams The expression developed for the crack width in post-tensioned bonded beams which contain mild steel reinforcement is Wmax - 6.85 A 10.f.51 10 X Ai -5 ~O (l!:._. t:. _....13 Cracking Behavior and Crack Control in Prestressed Beams A 40-percent band of scatter envelops all the data for the expression in Equation 7./ / • / / 8 / • / • ...5 R..fs) (7. ~~ (l!:...¡ ::¡: 0.. ~-40% 0.....!..... ...36b) where R... _..35 for l!:. • / _.fs) X (7.fs = 20 to 80 ksi. "C / / -~ . ...... X 103 lb/in. ..) at the tensile face of the concrete of wi'nax = 5..- ..2 / / / / / / / / o o 200 100 300 A _.85 Wmax = 10 X -5 Ai ~O (7.. A plot of the data and the best-fit expression for Equation 7.481 7. 0 )M8 .fs) of maximum crack width at the reinforcing steel level../ ..13..25 beams... Linearizing Equation 7. which is reasonable in view of the randomness of crack development and the linearization of the original expression (Equation 7.- .t:. / • • • +40%"''x.35 for easier use by the design engineer leads to the simplified expression 5...36a is given in Figure 7.. is the ratio of distance from neutral axis to tension face to the distance from neutral axis to centroid of reinforcement.. pretensioned ..- • / / / / .!.. . anda maximum crack width (in...25 with a 40-percent spread.37a) (kN/mm) 50 30 10 / 5. Linearized maximum crack width versus (A 1/2..... 7.35).•• / / / 4 / /• / / ¿...4 / / ..//: ""'u ti E ::1 E ·.6.y / • • . :Eo Figure 7.

. thc expression is Wmax wbere A.37b becomes 6.. = 6. Recen! work by Nawy et al.38b) = 2. LO (6. = . Deflection.- ' (o. cm 2.000 psi.27... so that the expression for the maximum crack width at the reinforcement level (inch) becomes Wmnx 10 -s A.39a) For post-tensioned beams. LO (6.fs) (7.fS' MPa. this factor reduces to 2.0 is 1 >-o =-----= 0.o6vt) v1f (7.fs of 30.75 + o.000 psi (60 to 100 MPa).8 Flexura! cracking propagation in pretensioned prestresscd T-beam (Nawy et al.51 X 10 -s Ar R. cm.0 X 10 s A.37a and 7.. The crack spacing stabilizes itself beyond an incremental stress 6.000 psi to 35. Figure 7..26 gives a regression plot of Equatio n 7.06 v1f (7. For concrete strengths in the range of 9..482 Chapter 7 Cambar. 6. as shown in Figure 7.fs) (7. For more refined values in cases where the concrete cylinder compressive strength ranges between 6.37b) at the tensile face of the concrete lower fibers.75. Io. depending on the total reinforcement pcrccnt Pr of both the prestrcsscd and the nonprestressed stcel.75 X ln SI units.85 in Equation 7. and Crack Control Pboto 7.83.. a modifying factor for particu lar ¡. which is not unexpected in flexural cracking behavior. tbe reduction multiplier >.39b) ..36a is consíderably reduced. for tbe width at the reinforcement level closest to the tensile face. LO (6.000 psi and 12. both pretensioned and post-tensioned has shown that lhe factor 5. on thc cracking performance of high strengtb prestressed concrete beams. For nonbonded beams.51 in Equations 7. and w:ru.000 to 14.).-.38a) = 4.000 psi or higher. values can be obtained Crorn tbe following exprcssions: 2 >.fs) (7.75 + 0. the factor 6.37a that shows a scattcr band of ±40 percent.

.483 7...... 0... 12 .... . .!:!..-~~.= -"' "E "E :i ..._____ 4 o ..f.-/~~~~~~~---...... .60% ___..f. / / / 24 Wmax -~ .. X 103 lb/in.f5 .51 X 10-5 :.2 _.1.--~:>-----~---- 10 OL-~~-'-~~--'-~~~. .- / ./ .. on the assumption of the desirability of a "seamless transition" between serviceability requirements for non-prestressed members 16 40 p = 0...24% i.. and the reinforcement stress are in ksi.....5 ACI New Code Provisions The provisions used for crack control in reinforced concrete through bar spacing is extended to prestressed concrete bonded beams./ / / ~-40% 0.. :Eo t./ . <"""" / o --~~---'~~~--'-~~~-'-~~~-'-~~~-'-~~~..<: = 6.. . 7...f¡ 0 )t:i. 20 p =0. p = 1..13.~~~~.-~~--'0 400 300 200 100 A.1.. / / 18 :!2 0..~~_..-~~~~~~~~. Linearized maximum crack width versus (A.5 30 e... post-tensioned where ¡... ::!: 6 / ..4 ...25% .-~~~--..~~~"--~~-'-~~ 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 Steel stress X 103 (psi) Figure 7.. E ·¡:¡ ..._~~~. Figure 7. ••·::-.6 / t.-~~~-.13 Cracking Behavior and Crack Control in Prestressed Beams (kN/mm) 30 10 50 x10-3 .....i.26 beams....27 Reinforcement percentage effect on the relationship between crack spacing and incremental reinforcement stress.

is arbitrary and not substantiated by test results.18). They require additional mild steel reinforcement to control the crack width. particularly in terms of corrosion of the reinforcement and appearance. 7.13.15. or linear. The mechanism of crack generation differs in the prestressed beam from that in reinforced concrete due to initially imposed precompression.:i. the expression becomes S = 250 ( 280) fy - 2. Deflection. 7. Also.fs = difference between the stress computed in the prestressing tendon at service load based on cracked section analysis. in.6 Long-Term Effects on Crack-Width Development Limited studies on crack-width development and increase with time show that both sustained and cyclic loadings increase the amount of microcracking in the concrete. 7. ce= clear cover from the nearest surface in tension to the flexura! tension reinforcement.9 from ACI 224 Report (Refs.484 Chapter 7 Camber. In SI units. since actual spacing of the tendons in almost all practica! cases is less than the code equation limits. 7. should be used for safe mitigation of cracking in prestressed concrete members.13.40 and correspondingly in Eq.:i.41 for maximum tolerable spacing.fs). lt should be emphasized that beams have finite web widths.5 Ce (7.:i. Macroscopic cracks.26).5 Ce (7. and no check needed if iifs is less than 20 ksi. . 7.fs is in MPa and ce is in mm units .13. Therefore. hence almost all beams satisfy the code.3. the expressions presented in Sections 7. however. Also. Hence. and Crack Control and fully prestressed members. liquid containment vessels and other prestressed concrete structures in severe environment or subject to overload. though cracking levels may be detrimental in bridge decks. 7. 7. such as in tanks.:if. effects of environmental conditions are considerably more serious in the case of prestressed concrete elements due to the corrosion risks to the tendons. While the code follows the author's definition of . The code permits using the effective prestress fpe in lieu of Íde• ksi. microcracks formed at service-load levels in partially prestressed beams do not seem to have a recognizable effect on the strength or serviceability of the concrete element.41 still lack the practicability of use as a crack control measure and the 2/3 factor used to change the multiplier 15 to 10 in Eq.fs given in Section 7.4 in conjunction with Table 7.41) but not to exceed 200(280/. Information obtained from sustained load tests of up to two years and fatigue tests of up to one million cycles indicates that a doubling of crack width with time can be expected. 7. Therefore.17. .40 and 7. Such spacing provisions as presented in the Code are essentially unworkable. where .18.40) but not to exceed 8(40.000/. an increase of crack width due to sustained loading significantly affects the durability of the prestressed member regardless of whether prestressing is circular. These provisions stipulate that the spacing of the bonded tendons should not exceed 2/3 of the maximum spacing permitted for non-prestressed reinforcement.2 (Refs. 7.3 and 7.000) = 10 ( --¡:--- S 2. do have a detrimental effect. such as in beams. and the decompression stress Íde in the prestressing tendon. A limit Llfs = 36 ksi.). engineering judgment has to be exercised as regards the extent of tolerable crack width under long-term loading conditions. The expression for prestressed members becomes 40.13. Equations 7.:i.

41 0.75" t 14" Figure 7.5" 1 +++ +++ -~ c. Table 7.36" 1 -11 ___ N.000 psi. f~ = 5.15--!s" </l 7-wire strand i J 1.016 0.000'\/i.012 0.18 0. mm 0.A. j_ . Find the mean stabilized crack spacing and the crack widths at the steel level as well as at the tensile face of the beam at !lfs = 30 x 103 psi.28 Beam cross section in Example 7.10.9 from the ACI Committee 224 report on cracking serves as a reasonable guide on the acceptable crack widths in concrete structures under the various environmental conditions encountered. Solution: !lfs = 30.485 7.-rr lH :~.15 0.13.14 Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation in Pretensioned T-Beam Without Mild Steel Table 7.g.007 0. moist air. dia 7-wire strand 270-K grade.30 0._j_ 3. Ec = 57.7 Tolerable Crack Widths The maximum crack width that a structural element should tolerate depends on the particular function of the element and the environmental conditions to which the structure is liable to be subjected.10 7. It is prestressed with fifteen is-in. The locations of the neutral axis and center of gravity of steel are shown in the figure.004 0. 7.14 CRACK WIOTH ANO SPACING EVALUATION IN PRETENSIONEO T-BEAM WITHOUT MILO STEEL Example 7.000 psi = 30 ksi t 10.s.10 A pretensioned prestressed concrete beam has a T-section as shown in Figure 7. soil De-icing chemicals Seawater and seawater spray.9 Maximum Tolerable Flexura! Crack Widths Crackwidth Exposure condition Dry air or protective membrane Humidity. and Es = 28 x 106 psi. . Assume that no failure in shear or bond takes place. wetting and drying Water-retaining structures (excluding nonpressure pipes) in.28.006 0..

Florida (sce Photo 1. and a main span of 612 feet in botJ1 dircction.7 . Toledo.36 . Ohio nighl rendering. Deflection.10.011 in.10. The design includes a unique single pylon ciad wilh glass emitling LED arrays al night.15 CRACK WIDTH ANO SPACING EVALUATION IN PRETENSlONED T-BEAM CONTAINING NONPRESTRESSED STEEL Example 7. ( A.= 7 X 14 = 98sq in. (0.9 Ncw Maumee River Cable-Stayed Bridge. the Figg Engineering Group ofTallahassee. single plane of stays.85 LO X 10 -s(2098_62) 30 = 834.36 = 25 .Jl The beam in Example 7.31 = 0.2 = 15"TT C 1 6) = 20. = l. LO= 15"TTD a. = 0. (0. 3 t Wmax R.28 mm) R.000 psi = 30 ksi (207 MPa) .0083 in.2 (2098_62 ) = 5.f. Find lhe crack spacing and width for an incremental steel stress t:.62 in.10 also contains three #6 nonprcstrcssed mild steel bars as shown in Figure 7. Counesy of the designer.l X 10 .. =30. ( 145 mm) LO M aximum Crack Width at S teel L eve/ wmax = 5.486 Chapter 7 Camber.3.) = 1.5 in.21 mm) Maximum Crack Width at Te11sile Pace of B eam 25 . = 5.29.85 X 10 s(A')tlf.0083 X 1. and Crack Control Pboto 7.== 0. w' max = 7.m.18 also) Mean Stabi/ized Crack Spacing A.5 = L.

000 psi (138 MPa).2.15 mm) Maximum Crack Width at Tensile Face of Beam 25 .84 = 95.75" 14" 3#6 Figure 7.16 CRACK WIOTH ANO SPACING EVALUATION IN PRETENSIONEO 1-BEAM CONTAINING NONPRESTRESSEO MILO STEEL Example 7.6 .) LO 11fs = = 606.000 psi= 20 ksi (138 MPa) . 2 27.16 Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation in Pretensioned 1-Beam Containing Nonprestressed Mild Steel ' 10.8) .30.8 in.8) . = 14(3 X 1. and check whether the crack widths that develop satisfy the crack control criteria for deicing chemicals.6 R.29 487 Beam cross section in Example 7. Solution: Mean Stabilized Crack Spacing A.70 in.0061 in. (0.36 aes X X (A.6" 1 -¡' ' --~~-i t J i:!ihti .15 m. Solution: 11fs = 20. = 4.2 LO = 1. .11. 24 w:Uax = WmaxR.85 X 10 _5 (A.9 X 10. 27 7 Maximum Crack Width at Steel Level Wmax = 5.75 +! LO= 20.5 5.75" 1.000 psi.0061 X 1. Find the mean stabilized crack spacing and the crack widths at the steel level as well as at the tensile face of the beam at incremental steel stress 11fs = 20. Assume that no failure in shear or bond takes place.85 X 10 _ 5 (95.18 mm) 7. lt is prestressed with twenty is-in. (105 mm) = 1.2 (95. 30 27 7 = 0. = 0. (0.62 + 3 2.-·-·-~-·-*-+ '- i 15-~"<I> 7-wire strand iC- 2.24 = 0. = 25 .75 = 1.12 A pretensioned prestressed concrete 1-beam has the geometry shown in Figure 7.7.10.007 in.10. dia 7-wire 270-K grade low-relaxation strands and four #7 mild steel bars having yield strengthfy = 60.) Í6 + = l~) = 14 X 6.

It is prestressed with twelve is-in. Wmax From Table 7..4 38 9 = ft +4 X 2. the maximum tol- = 0.75 + ~ X :¿o = aes = WrrD +4 (A. and Crack Control t J 19.8 m. Hence.2. dia 7-wire strands of 270-K grade and additionally reinforced with four #6 nonprestressed steel bars.30 Beam cross section in Example 7. (0.23" 5.23 .A.5 = 0.488 Chapter 7 Camber.06 in. Deflection. . (0.0 X 10.2 (122..9.49 in.17 CRACK WIDTH ANO SPACING EVALUATION FOR POST-TENSIONED T-BEAM CONTAINING NONPRESTRESSED STEEL Example 7. (0.007 > 0.06) = 5.2 = 0. ------- 4#7 Figure 7. The locations of the neutral axis and center of gravity .19. mm) Maximum Crack Width at Steel Leve/ w max A 1 ) fiF = 5 85 X 10. erable crack width for deicing is quirement is satisfied.2 :¿o ft + lfg) = 122.19.20 ~s .0037 X 1. = 36 .49 = 371. serviceability re- 7.23 R.004 in. = Wmax R¡ = 0.75 = 38.1 mm) Maximum Allowable Crack Width for Deicing.004 in.79 = 1.85 X 10.5 (122. 38.31. Mean Stabilized Crack Spacing A 1 = 18 X (3 X 1.12.06) .5 ( -:¿O ..) 1..75 = Wrr X = 1. (97 3. 2 X 2. 2 w:.1 mm).0037 in.1 mm) Maximum Crack Width at Tensile Pace of Beam 36 .5" N.13 A post-tensioned prestressed concrete beam has a T-section as shown in Figure 7.

Assume that f~ = 5.9. Find the mean stabilized crack spacing and the crack widths at the steel level as well as at the tensile face of the beam at !::i.. + 4 12 X Ai aes = 1.31 .9.0072 in.000 psi.93 in.93 X -.46 = 0.7. assuming there is no failure in shear or bond. (145 mm) Maximum Crack Width at Steel Leve/ _ Wmax - 6.. (0.51 X 10 _5 Ai ( ~ ""º )_ /::i.6.46 = 1. (0.26 mm) Maximum Tolerable Crack Widthfor Humidity.9 cm) 12-io"<b 7-wire strand 4 #6 bars Beam cross section in Example 7. the maximum tolerable crack width for the stated humidity conditions is 0..000~ psi.fs = 30. = 5.012 in.( 7 6 2 mm) -¡- -·~ 5" 1 (12.36 96 .007 X 1. Ec = 57.000 psi.fs = 30. Solution: !::i.54 X X 2. Then determine whether the beam satisfies the serviceability criteria for crack control for humidity and moist air.17 Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation for Post-Tensioned T-Beam Containing Nonprestressed Steel 489 30" 1 . 2 TI X lr.0102 in. .7 cm) 1 9.X 30 = 0. . which is satisfactory. Figure 7.26 mm). w:Uax = 22 .31 of steel are shown in the figure. and Es = 28.000 ksi..fs . 25 93 = 25.65 cm) ------.70 m.51 X 10 _5 96 25.13. (0. .0102 in. From Table 7. (0..4 = WmasRi = 0. ---~---L 22" (55.3 mm) > 0.18 mm) Maximum Crack Width at Tensile Face of Beam R.9.000 psi 30 ksi = Mean Stabilized Crack Spacing A1 = 8 X LO = 12 = 96 in. 31" (23.54 LO = 1.31 22 .

.13b) (7.7 m. allowable = 40. 2 5 MPa For normal-weight concrete. 12.(l .6~) lcr = (npApsd.K.3 m.5 2. From this solution.1 490 Chapter 7 Camber.000) 8 ( 0.40. It is rare that prestressed or mild steel reinforcement would ever be spaced within a flange that can violate the code spacing requirements. + nsAsd 2 )(l X. and Crack Control 7.62Vf'c le=(~:)\+ [1 -(~:YJ/cr ( ~:) = [ 1_ (7.500 Kg/m 3 3 • For f~ > 35 MPa. 7.895 MPa Ír = (7.5 in.5 = 10. MPa aw X 10..l. Deflection.2b) 0. 0.18 CRACK CONTROL BY ACI CODE PROVISIONS Example 7. < . cm.37 on crack control A Wmax = where Al' cm 2. and probably rarely would they be effective for crack control even in two-way prestressed concrete plates. 3 Max.32Vf'c )1" 0 + 6.043 Vf'c MPa (7.16) l . s = 10 ( 0.2 X 1.895 ( .= . 40.~ (ílfs).11) lcr = npApsd.1. or environmental conditions.o. Ce= From Eq.6Ynppp (7. Hence the code provisions are not effective.500 to 2. Ec = 3. 10..10 by the ACI 318 code provisions for crack control.000 . it is evident that every prestressed concrete beam would satisfy the ACI code requirements for crack control regardless of the loading conditions and/or overloading. ílfs.2a) where f~ is in MPa units and w e is in Kg/m ranging between 1. <80 MPa Ec = 3.000) .19 SI DEFLECTION ANO CRACKING EXPRESSIONS Ec = w~ 5 0. Solution: !1fs = 30 ksi 1.36 and 7.13a) +n ~ 1 + 50p' Equations 7.0 m.32'\!Íl + 6.14 Solve Example 7.000 3 = .lOb) (hl ~ Ír)] (7. millimeters 5 p (7. !. 7.

at bottom fibers = Vf'c = 5.491 7. allowable befare unshored slab cast = 1.9 MPa Íci = 0.006895 = MPa (lb/ft) 14.5 MPa toppingf~ = 20.45f~ = 15.34 topping t = 5 cm Ac.5 32.8 25.44 X 10.4X104 13.300 MPa ÍPJ = 1.9 for short-term deflection using the SI procedure.20 SI DEFLECTION CONTROL Example 7.968 24.48 X 10.0 flange width b = 3.7 MPa f.2X105 581 62.kN/m l=2l.5 MPa f ~¡ = 25.5 47.15 Solve Example 7.cm3 WD. cm ee.5 4.09 kN/m Composite 5. cm Sb.0 5.20 SI Deflection Control 8.9X105 626 55.516 32.7 X 104 MPa .7-mm diameter.113 = N-m > 70 MPa 7.99 mm2/tendon) Ípu = 1. low-relaxation (0.380 MPa fpy = 1. Data (a) Section Geometry Noncomposite 3.593 = N/m (in.05 m (b) Material properties VIS= 615/364 = 0.860 MPa.9 MPa at service load f.43 cm RH=75% f ~ = 34. low-relaxation fpi = 1..3 24.2X104 13.790 MPa Eps = 19.6 x 25.4 MPa (t Vf'c) Aps = twelve tendons..0 X 10.-lb) 0. normal weight (2. cm2 cb.5X104 9.8X104 9.cm2 le.5 for post-tensioned aw = = 4. 12.5 for concretes withf~ MPa = N/mm2 (psi) 0. cm3 S'. cm4 r2.5 MPa.cm e. cm e.5 for pretensioned = 9.9 = 15..95m WL = 4.370 kg/m 3) fe= 0.

266 kN For the 5 cm topping.8) 626 -7.8 MPa (C) = 562. from Equation 4.) For unshored case. fpe = 0.82 X 1.5 cm P. Midspan section stresses fp 1 = 1.5 X 25. Mv + Msv = 782 kN-m since 2 in.96 From Equation 4.5 X 25. = 0. concrete weight = 2. = 1.968 X 100 626 9.la. O.82fp.800 N-m 562.15.300 MPa at transfer ec = 47.500 4. l j Solution: l.18b. f' = - Pe Ac (l - ecc').6 kN/m Msv Mv + Msv = = 3.3 kN/m3 For 5 cm slab. = - 5.54 X 106 N 9.8 X 104 = 3.-4 < allow.540.5 MPa.000 3. After unshored slab is cast At this load level. Wsv = 0.492 Chapter 7 Camber.5 X 210 + .300 MPa self-weight moment Mv = = 1.5.5 MPa.066 MPa Pe = 12 X 99 X 1.18a.968 X 100 -20.500 N-m 8 From Equation 4.95) = 1.540 kN 2 = 562.945fp1 = 1.9.5 1+ 47.81 N/m3 X = 23.968 X 100 626 9.000 N-m (In Example 7.1 MPa (C) == 1.3 = 3.5) _ 780. O.800 = 780.K. 2.Mv + Msv r2 S' 1.500 3.540.000 (l _ 47.7.96 .0 MPa (C) < allow.340(21.266.8 X 104 = + 2.K. .7 = -2.562.000 (l _ 47.000 3.5).600(21. = 12 X 99 X 1.05 x 23. Deflection.370 9.3 + 12.. topping is slightly more than 5 cm.066 = 1. assume 18% prestress losses.95)2 8 = 216..6 . and Crack Control .500 + 216.380 MPa fp. assumed = 0.5 X 55. fe = 15.300 = 1.370 kg/m = 2.05 x 3.

043\/34. 15. = +5.5 = 2. 5 X 0.64 + _ = +5. ee = 32.7 X 104 cm3 from before for top of precast section. = 1.64 MPa (T) < allow.K.320 .-6.-5.4 X 104 246.7 X 104 From Equation 4.1.0 = 4.91 X 104 MPa Situ-cast slab concrete modulus Ec = 2.95) 2 8 15.0 . 3. Support section stresses Check is made at the support face (a slightly less conserva ti ve check can be made at 50db from end).25 P X 10 2.320 = 1.090(21. 77 S~ for 5 cm slab top fiber = 13.2 MPa (C) 15 7 104 S.9 MPa.:.000 ( 47.3701.493 7. O. 4.320 N-m From Equation 4.20 SI Deflection Control 1.57 MPa (C).61 + 17.37015 X 0.91 X 104 = 0. J.f' T~' Ec = 2. 246.34 = 0.043 V2Q. Stress ns at top slab fiber = ML n.77 X Stressfcsb at bottom slab fibers = -0.77 X 246..-4 3.4 MPa.4 MPa (C) 13.25 X 104 MPa Modular ratio 4 n = 2.4 X 104 cm3 Scb for 5 cm slab bottom fiber = 15.5.MD + MSD _ McsD + ML _Pe ( 1 _ Ac r2 S~ S' MSD = superimposed dead load= O in this case f t -- -5.38 MPa (T) = allow.8) 780.74 5 2 104 Íb = +0.57 .7 = 2.266.000 1+ + . f' = ecc'). 5e = -0.19a.5 cm . O. 370 Kg/m3 E e = wl.1.5 X 55.J.968 X 100 626 4.e 5 O·043'Vr.K.7 X 104 cm3 = 246 .5 X 10 = -16.320 X = +0.74 + 4. At service load for precast section Section modulus at top of precast section is S~ = ML = 32.K. O.0 - 246. Composite slab stresses Precast double-T concrete modulus w e = 2 .5 .19b.2 X 105 25.320 _ X .

494 Chapter 7 Camber.00 -1.9 = 2.52 X 104 MPa from befare. O.9 X 105 ) 3[-1.52 X 104 )(24.5 MPa.95) 4 X 105 ------''-------' ---.000(32.5)626 O = -1.043 \/25.2 MPa (C) < allow. Summary of Midspan Stresses (MPa) Load Stage ¡t fb Transfer Pe only wD at transfer Net at transfer Externa! load wL Net total at service +2.968 X 100 l + 626 +O = -15.370) 15 X 0.57 -6.¡. Deflection.5)(21. and Crack Control At transfer f t = 1.47.5 . After the unshored slab was cast and at service load.95) ] 8(2.9 X 105 ) Thus.52 X 104 )(24.48 6.fc = 15.74 +4.1 384(2.95) 2 ] 24(2.8) 3.9 say 65 mm t Self-weight oD = 5w 14 .5 MPa.K.13. t.K.9 X 105 ) + 10 = -70.60 +17.340(21.2 + 7.540. 28 days Ec = 2.540.3 = -62.5(21.96 -5. hence O.52 X 104 )(24.74 +5.968 X 100 (l _ 32.00 X 47.540.5 X 55.45) = -20 mm (b) Immediate service load deflection From Equation 7.6. the support section stresses both at top and bottom extreme fibers were found to be below the allowable.540. Short-term (immediate) deflection (a) Deflection at transfer Initial E. deflection due to initial prestress only.= w e15 O· 043Wf'e el = (2.34 +0.80 x 104 MPa From Figure 7.5 X 25. .= 45 mm. net camber at transfer = -(65 . = 2 103 [-1.K.57 -16. O.96 -7.26 MPa (C) < allow. Íb = 1.000 3.000 ( 32. fe = 15.. 384 Cl1 g 5 X 9.

95) X 10 384(2. 6 ( M.0047 Eps Ee = 19.74 (~:Y= 0. 5 cm topping Load 85v = 15 mm -L.495 7. fr = 0. When the concrete 5 cm topping is placed on the precast section.91 X 104)(24.5 + 25.88 cm2 = 0.8 X 4.600(21.090 N/m = 4 5wLl 384EJe = 4 5 5(4.1.216)(4.91 X 305 X 78 4 10 104 = 6_8 6.94 X 10. Wsv =3.160 X 105 = 8.5 + 5 = AP = 12 = Pp = n P X 99 = 78cm = 1.+ 5 cm (topping) 47. = 65 mm t Dead Load 8v = 45 mm -L.216 from Equation 7.74 (T) Mer) = l _ (5.188 mm2 AP bdP = 11.62 X Ítt = +5.0.7 X 2.95)4 X 105 384(2.64 MPa ÍL = +4.20 SI Deflection Control fer = npApsd~(l .378 WL 8 L X 105 + 3.03 X 105) = 5.1.91 X 104)(8. 8 SD = 5 X 3.54 X 105 cm4 = 4.48 MPa (T) Vi4s = 3.62v1jl = 0.Ír) ÍL M.48 .090)(21.3.600 N/m. Mer = l _ (Ítt .8 X 11.88(78)2(1 . 4.11.64) = 0. the resulting topping deflection with lg = 24.6Y6.4) fer = 4..54 X 105 ) = + 50 mm _J.9 X 105) = +15mm"'1 (e) Summary of short-term deflections Prestress Camber 8.(Mer) Ma ] fer ~ fg = 0.6~ dP = ee + e. Live Load 8L = 50 mm -L.03 = X 105 cm4 From Equation 7.9 X 105 ) + (1 .216(24. 3 fe = ( Mcr) Ma 18 + [ 1 .9 x 105. .lüb.

Martin. M. D.24 X 0. D." Paper presented at CIP Seminar on Advanced Design Concepts in Precast Prestressed Concrete. 1977.1 ACI Committee 318. 65. pp. "Expedient Service Load Analysis of Cracked Prestressed Concrete Sections.15 Solve Example 7. 2001. Branson.11 7." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 22. Prestressed Concrete lnstitute. Farmington Hills..2 ACI Committee 435. 1972. MI. Shaikh.8 7. Farmington Hills.48 X 10 -s(A') LO D. ACI Special Publication SP-43. 6th ed. pp. 2008. H. and Branson. E..5 ( -618) 207 = 0. Farmington Hills. MI.3 7. Design of Prestressed Concrete. Chairman. MI. "Effect ofNon-Prestressed Steel on Prestress Loss and Deflection.fs = 207 MPa A. "A Rational Method of Estimating Camber and Deflections of Precast. MI.77.24 from Example 7.4 cm (a) Steel leve! Wmax -_ 8.= 618 cm2 LO= 70.496 Chapter 7 Camber. "The Deformation of Non-Composite and Composite Prestressed Concrete Members. 465. 1970.15 mm 70." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 22 (1977): 100-108. E. K. 1995. Ghali. 50-63. M.6 7.4 7. Committee Report ACI 224R-99. . October 1979. A F. Branson. Control of Deflection in Concrete Structures. 1974.7 7. John Wiley & Sons. = 1. American Concrete Institute.19 say 0. and Dilger. E.10 7. Farmington Hills. Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 15. E. 1977. Nawy. 2006. p. Deformation of Concrete Structures.11 using SI procedure Data D. Prestressed Concrete Institute. L. Dallas. 86-111. K. Chicago. McGraw Hill." In Deflection of Concrete Structures. New York.2 mm SELECTED REFERENCES 7. Deflection. PCI Design Handbook.9 7. G.fs = 8. pp. Control of Cracking in Concrete Strectures. New York. D.21 SI CRACK CONTROL Example 7. American Concrete Institute.5 7. American Concrete Institute.11 Wmax = 1. D. Tadros.48 X 10. Tadros. Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 27. A. 2000.15 = 0. M. 1982. 1987. 83-127. 7. "Non-Tensioned Steel in Prestressed Concrete Beams. Prestressed Concrete Institute Convention. Nilson. Building Code Requirements for Structured Concrete (ACI 318-08 and Com- mentary 318R-08). American Concrete Institute. Prestressed Concrete Members. W. A. and Crack Control 7. Committee Report ACI 7. K. ACI Committee 224.12 435R-95. "Designing for Deflection. 28 (1983): 137-158. 14-36. H. Tadros. also Discussions and Author's Closure.4 (b) Tensile beam face R.

23 7. John Wiley and Sons. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. High Performance Concrete. Dordrecht-Boston: Martinus Nijhoff. 2008. T.. Z.2 A 68-ft (20. "Crack and Deflection Control of Pretensioned Prestressed Beams. 2. 18th ed. 1996. and Chiang. 405. in Cooperation with NATO Scientific Affairs Division. PROBLEMS 7. E. and Huang. pp. 2009. Van Nostrand Reinhold. 4th ed. Addison Wesley Longman. and 365 days. E. 7. 30-47. R.15 Nawy.13 Naaman. 890-900. New York. 440 p. editor-in-chief. CRC Press. UK.. vol. Libby. Are the deflections within the AASHTO permissible limits on deflection? Givenf~ = 6. Vol. Boca Raton. G.18 7. and (c) the approximate time-steps method. Dordrecht. G. G..20 7. Neville. "Flexura! Cracking Behavior of Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete 1.. Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. December 1985. 1986. E. P.. 1977.65 kN/m) and a service live load WL = 300 plf (4. 425. E. "Partially Prestressed Concrete: Review and Recommendations.7-m) span simply supported lightweight concrete double-T-beam is subjected to a superimposed topping load Wsv = 250 plf (3. "Partial Prestressing From Theory to Practice.." NATO-AS! Applied Science Series. 2001. Nawy. MI. 1971. April 1972. 30-71. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 11. 1984.25 7." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 22. 1986. 30.19 7. "Serviceability Behavior of Post-Tensioned Beams. G. E.24 7. 7. Chicago. MI. Farmington Hills. pp.and T-Beams. MI. Nawy. pp.. D. 335-360.22 7. 1985. and Potyondy. 74-95.000 psi.. Concrete Construction Engineering Handbook. p.2 for 7. Bazant." Proceedings of the NATO-NSF Advanced Research Workshop.497 Problems 7. M. New York. Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 30. G. "Prediction of Creep Effects Using Age Adjusted Effective Modulus Method. 1980... AASHTO." Journal of the American Concrete lnstitute. Nawy. Pub!.C. and 5 years by (a) the PCI multipliers method. 212-217. J. Farmington Hills. (b) the incremental time-steps method.M. Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute. Y. Properties of Concrete. E. Nawy. 7.14 Nawy.. Vol. "Flexura! Cracking Behavior and Crack Control of Pretensioned and Post-Tensioned Prestressed Beams. p. J." Journal of the American Concrete Institute.6'-0" -------~~~: ----1 =1 +1 34" 3" Chamfer Figure P7. Then tabulate and compare the results.21 7. 137-156. Farmington Hills. Washington. FL. PCI. G. 7." Journal of the Prestressed Concrete Institute 25. Modern Prestressed Concrete. 7. 2nd Ed.2 .38 F 12'-0" 3'-0" . P. London. 1.17 Cohn. E. E.16 Nawy. I and 11." Journal of the American Concrete lnstitute 65. 180. A..26 Vols. 2nd ed. "Flexura! Cracking Behavior of Pretensioned and Post-Tensioned Beams: The State ofthe Art. 1560 pp.. G. Z. J. and 2009. 7.1 Calculate the instantaneous and long-term cambers and deflections of the AASHTO beam of Ex- ample 4. A. 1998. G. Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Handbook.

261 9. 5. (476 mm) ee = 12.000 psi (1. and Crack Control kN/m).69 in. = 184 psi . 7.723 97 25.793 MPa) 28. (325 mm) ¡.000 psi (1.4 A simply supported bonded double-T beam has a 50-ft span and is subjected to a uniform live load of 1.250 psi f . Use Figure P7.3 S.750 psi (25.960 (9.750 psi f.. Noncomposite Ae.000 psi (1. Also.720 (24.98 (558 mm) 10.303 MPa) fpy = Eps = 260. Calculate the immediate camber and deflection of this beam by the bilinear method and the time-dependent deflections at intervals of 7.5 MPa) (lightweight) f . = 1.02 (255 mm) 2.000 psi (103 MPa) beyond the decompression state. in..81 in.142 in 3) S 1 = 5.118 in4 ) 2. 4 in. Its geometrical properties and maximum allowable stresses are as follows: Ac = 615 in..2 for an incremental stress of 15. 90.717(4. 4 (77. = 3. Sb.69 in.720 in. in.000 psi (normal weight) = fe = 2.3 cm) ee = 18. in.498 Chapter 7 Camber. 2 le sb = = 59.5X104) 5. cb.9 x 105 cm4) 97 21. in. in.5 X 106 psi (196 GPa) 7. dia low-relaxation Aps fpu = steel depressed at midspan only 270.250 plf and a superimposed dead load of 200 plf.587 741 = 1. plf Composite 615 (3.6 MPa) = twelve !-in.8 X 104) 491 (7.000 psi (34. at bottom fibers = 12v1l = 849 psi (5. = 5.968 cm2) 59.3 (3.15 kN/m) V/S = 615/346 RH = 75% 855 82. c1.3 Wd. and 365 days using the PCI multipliers method and verify whether they are within the permissible ACI limits on deflection for the conditions where nonstructural elements are not likely to be damaged by large deflections. = 189. determine whether the maximum crack width obtained satisfies the serviceability requirement for crack control for a humid and moist environment.3 Determine the crack width and stabilized mean crack spacing in the double-T beam of Problem 7.2 and the following data.862 MPa) fp. Deflection.63 3. (4.37 8. = 3. le. 30.150 in3 ) W0 = 641 plf(491 plf) V/S ¡.960 in.3 (8.2 2 r.7 MPa) f.73 in. in.717 in.

= 849 psi fpe = 150. . dia 7-wire low-relaxation strands Bracketed values are for the composite section due to 2-in.000 psi Aps = sixteen !-in. (a) Find the eccentricities ec and ee that would result in a tensile stress ft = 750 psi at the lower fiber at midspan at service load.54 in. (24. Use the moment-curvature approach to determine the initial camber at transfer. assuming that the ultimate creep coefficient Cu = 2.000 psi fp.) c1 = 10.000 psi fy = 60. Use nonprestressed reinforcement where necessary. (9.499 Problems fpu = 270.000 psi 28 X 106 psi cb = 21. Are the values within the allowable ACI limits? (e) Calculate the flexura! crack width at service load for a stress increment ilfs = 15. and tensile stresses within the allowable limits at the support section both at initial prestress and at service load. (b) Find the long-term camber and deflection of the beam by the approximate time-step procedure for t =7 days and t = 180 days.98 in.250 psi f.) Eps = RH= 70% Íci = 2.5 Find the long-term camber and deflection in Example 7. Calculate the flexura! crack width at service load for a stress increment ilfs = 15.000 psi beyond the decompression stress. 7.35.46 in.000 psi beyond the decompression stress.9 by the incremental time-steps method.02 in. topping. = 195. assuming that twelve !-in. dia 7-wire 270 K stress-relieved strands are used for prestressing the beam section.000 psi fpy = 235.

since external loads are rarely concentric. the bending tendency of the concrete at mid1ength is neutralized by the strecching effect of the axially embedded prestressing strands. lf the applíed load is concen- The George Moscone Convention Center. The intemal axial preslressing force in the bonded tendon produces no column action.) 500 . Cracking develops. As such. As a result. and design of prestressed compression members are similar to those of reinforced concrete members. no buckling can resultas long as the prestressing steel and the surrounding concrete are in direct contact along the total length of tbe element. (Co11rtesy.PRESTRESSED COMPRESSION ANO TENSION MEMBERS 8. hence. California. analysis. Yel another use is in pretensioned and post-tensioned prestressed piles and masts. Columns are normally subjected to bending in addition to axial load. Lin lnternational. San Francisco.1 INTRODUCTION AJtbough prestressing is predominantly used in ílexural members such as beams and slabs. but it can be prevented lhrough the use of prestress in che columns. Post-Tensioning Institute. lhe concrete section is subjected to tension at the side farthest from the line of action of the longitudinal load.Y. The theory. it is also used in axially loaded members such as long columns (compression members) and ties for arches and truss elements (tension members). design by T.

Figure 8. restraining ties for arch bridges.8. A plot of the relationship between Pn and Mn is shown in the interaction diagram of Figure 8. Tension members can also be circular or parabolic in shape. (b) Path OBC for buckling failure of slender column. In the slender column. railroad ties. (a) Path OA for material failure in nonslender column. . as for example. The fundamental function of the pure tension members is to prevent their cracking at service load and to enable them to sustain all the necessary deformation needed to develop full resistance to the external service loads and overloads. and foundation anchorages for earthwork retaining structures. the reinforcement segment in the development zone is considered nonpresstressed and the section at the end zone is treated as a reinforced concrete eccentrically loaded section. which intersects the interaction diagram at C. as the compressive stress on the concrete section is needlessly increased.2 Prestressed Compression Members: Load-Moment lnteraction in Columns and Piles 501 trie. and the concrete arches at the compression side. A compression member can be considered fully prestressed throughout its length if no loss in development of prestressing occurs at its ends. tension members in trusses. Tension members are normally subjected to direct tension only. These elements are mostly linear. A quantitative definition of slender and nonslender columns is given later.1 Basic interaction diagram for columns. If partial loss occurs. failure occurs as the load reaches the value A along path OA. the maximum load is reached at B along the path OBC. 8. Instability occurs once the critica! load is reached. prestressing is inconsequential if not altogether disadvantageous. Being crack-free would fully protect the reinforcement from corrosion and other environmental conditions. as witness prestressed circular containers or catenary-shaped bridge elements. In the nonslender column.1) where e¡ is the eccentricity of the load at the various load-moment combinations.2 PRESTRESSED COMPRESSION MEMBERS: LOAD-MOMENT INTERACTION IN COLUMNS ANO PILES In order to evaluate the nominal strength of a column at various eccentric load levels. it is necessary to evaluate all possible combinations of ultimate nominal loads Pn and ultimate nominal moments Mn given by (8.1 for both nonslender columns (material failure) and slender columns (stability failure).

. England.------.. . 1 ' 1 ¡__. • ¡ 112· .. similar to those made in regard to reinforced concrete columns. 2.· 1 l. are as follows: l..... prestrcsscd concrete footbridge....502 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members The basic assumptions rnade in regard to prestrcssed concrete....i 10'....J_ Cross section (e) Photo 8.. 1 1 --r 2' "---'--~---.....-.2" Elevation (a) b -s··. The strain distributioo in the concrete varíes linearly with depth.1 Eel Pie lsland. Tbe stress distribution in the compression zone is parabolic and is replaced in analysis and design by an equivalent rectangular block._ . Twickenham.-------84'.__34'----·-..

It should be noted that if Pn = 0. Figure 8. and the average crushing strain at mid-depth of a concrete section subjected mainly to axial load is E0 = 0.fin.2 shows the strain and stress distribution for these three cases..lin. or E0 = 0. This failure mode is the reverse of the preceding one. The three major controlling points on the interaction diagram are: l. and (c) ofFigure 8. 5. 3. whereas other codes use a higher value of 0.0020 in.3 for the critical section at the limit state of ultimate load by material failure.fin.004 as a mínimum value for beams in the transition zone.002 in. (b).8.002 in. The steel at the far side yields prior to the crushing of the concrete at the loaded side. This mode defines the condition of maximum moment value Mnb on the interaction curve corresponding to a maximum tensile strain in the tension layers equal to a strain increment Íl. large eccentricity.003 in. where the block depth a = 131e.fin. Note that Ec = 0.Eps = 0.003 in.0038. at failure due to the concentric load Pu.2. The remaining points on the interaction diagram are for cases that lie between stages (a). the cross-section of the member is shown in part (b) of the figure. The eccentricity e of the axial load is smaller than the balanced eccentricity eb. 4.fin.003 in.003 in. while the strain in the prestressing steel at the far side is below the yield strain. the column essentially behaves as a flex- ura! beam because of the low level of axial force. at the extreme compression fibers. 3. from concentric loading to pure bending. In the case of columns. The typical case of a compression member lies between stages (b) and (c) of Figure 8. The eccentricity e of the axial load is larger than the balanced eccentricity eb. balanced eccentricity. The parabolic distribution of stress for cases (b) and (c) is replaced by the equivalent rectangular block. Initial tension failure. assuming a depth e and then testing the assumption. Initial compression failure.fin. 2. Mu= O.002 in.fin.fin. namely. The modes of failure are also similar to those of reinforced concrete columns: l. The stress-strain diagrams of the concrete and the prestressing steel are known. stresses. Balanced state of strain. re- . The neutral axis position is at the extreme tension fibers. pure bending defines the state where the ratio of the factored axial load Pu to the factored flexura! moment Mu is negligible. The crushing strain of the concrete in combined bending and axial load at the extreme fibers is Ec = 0. e1 = 0. resulting in a large eccentricity and a strain valve greater than 0. No tension at the extreme concrete tensile fibers and Ecu = 0.0035 or 0.0012 to 0. This failure mode develops when the strain in the concrete at the loaded side reaches Ecu = 0. Pu= O and Ecu = 0. The neutral axis position is at infinity. and the strain and stress at failure in parts (c) and (d).002 in. The strains. at mid-depth. Cutting the free-body diagram at the column midheight above section 1-1. Compatibility of strain is postulated between the concrete and the prestressing steel. The section is considered to have failed when the strain in the concrete at the extreme compression fibers reaches Ec = 0. at the extreme concrete compression fibers.fin. 6.2. The eccentricity of the axial load is defined as the balanced eccentricity eb.003 is the value used in the ACI Code.fin.10 fe' Ag or less. and forces for such a case are shown in Figure 8. The neutral axis is inside the section and is determined by trial and adjustment.. beyond the service load level. 2.003 in.2 Prestressed Compression Members: Load-Moment lnteraction in Columns and Piles 503 3. corresponding to Eo = 0. as is done in the case of flexura! beams. small eccentricity.

003 in. and relaxation losses given respectively by (8.2a) (8. shrinkage. j r--N. 1 at infinity a = h) (e =oc. rN.504 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members 1 j ! d' Elevation cgc r-.2 Strain and stress distribution alternatives across concrete section depth.ast. and zero tension at the extreme tensile fibers. ~ 0. (b) Ec = 0. the corresponding strain in the tendons prior to the application of the externa! load is Epe = fpe Eps = Pe (Aps + A.A.fin. at the extreme compressive fibers. The strain Ece is the uniform strain in the concrete under effective prestress after creep. AEI~l [AE.3) If the effective prestressing force after all losses is Pe.fin.2c) Equilibrium of forces then gives (8.85t. Strain 1111111111111111110.2b) and (8.fin.003 in. 1 o.N.4a) . (a) Mu= O.002 in.fin. T. Stress 0.A.A.~ (a) (b) (e) Figure 8.003 in.fin.003 in. (c) Pu= O and Ec = 0.. JC:L ~ 0. spectively.s)Eps (8.

3 Stresses and forces in typical eccentrically loaded nonslender column.+ . J_ ' (b) 1 b • :~ "" 1 1 i1 'cgc~1 1 112 1 1 1 pn 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (d) ~ ' T. (b) Cross section.4c) (8. (c) Strain distribution. pn ·'~ r.4d) . (a) Elevation.2 Prestressed Compression Members: Load-Moment lnteraction in Columns and Piles 505 h---1 el .~ ccn 1 pn Figure 8.4b) (8.. 1 T. (d) Stresses and forces.A. The change in strain in the prestressing steel area A~s as the compression member passes from the effective prestressing stage to the ultimate load can be defined as AE~s = Ecu d') e( --C- - Ece (8.n (a) ' V.8.

Figg Engineering Group Tallahassee. .Chapter 8 506 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members Photo 8. (Courtesy.4 Load-moment interaction diagram controlling eccentricities. FL. Tampa.2 Cable-stayed Sunshine Skyway Bridge. Florida.) P1r (axial load) Pnr (pure tension) Figure 8.

the factored values Pu and Mu. as in Equations 4.d')r.90 for pure flexure in the strain limits approach. 8. When the axial load vanishes.002)(2!º)] ::5 0.3 Strength Reduction Factor <!> 507 or (8. and 8. Hence.n(~ . The load-moment interaction diagram for the controlling eccentricities is shown in Figure 8. but not less than.T.4. = Ccn (~ - ~)~ .8. and the strength reduction factor <P becomes 0. the nominal strengths Pn and Mn for severa! eccentricities e¡ can be evaluated in order to construct the P-M interaction diagram for any section or develop nondimensional series of P-M interaction diagrams for various concrete strength levels. The design strengths are evaluated from the nominal strength values as and Design Mu = <J>Mn = <J>Pne where <Pis the strength reduction factor for compression members. failure is initiated by yielding of the tension reinforcement and takes place in an increasingly ductile manner.002) to the limit strain state in tension (E1 = 0.002 in. can be increased from 0. The value <P Pn = O.7) From Equations 8.. for small axial loads it is reasonable to permit an increase in the <P factor from that required for pure compression members. can be made from the following expressions: (a) <P as afunction of strain.65 + (E 1 - 0.6) Taking moments about the geometric centroid cgc of the section gives Mn = Pnr. Tied Sections: 0.+ Tsn( d .~)~ (8.6.5) Similarly.5.lOJ.90 (8. within the limitations of the transition zone of Figure 4.2a. 8.005).60 for compression members.Ag can be considered as a design axial load below which the <P factor can safely be increased for most compression members. or Tsn = ApsEps[ Epe +Ecu( d ~ e)+ Ece] (8.70 for spirally reinforced columns to 0. cp.45 shows the transition zone in which the strength reduction factor.35 (b). or a neutral axis depth ratio c!d1 = 0.7. To recapitulate.3 STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTOR<!> For members subject to flexure and relatively small axial loads. 8. the member is subjected to pure flexure.65 ::5 [ cp = 0. The balanced limit strain for the compression-controlled state is denoted by limiting strain E1 = 0. Note that the design Pu and Mu have to have a value close to.fin. interpolation of the <P values for the transition zone from the limit strain state in compression (E1 = 0.35 (a) and 4.90.65 for tied columns and 0. Figure 4.8a) .45.

90 (8. beyond the service load level and computing the stress block depth "a" of the concrete section accordingly. 3. it becomes possible to refine the maximum moment ordinate value for the balanced strain limit state in compression represented by the neutral axis depth cb if needed.75 + 0. and then proceed to compute the balanced limit strain axial load Pnb and the corresponding moment Mnb at limit strain E1 = 0.. 6.75 + (E1 - 0. a value áps = 0..8b) (b) <!>as a function of the neutral axis depth ratio.4 OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE FOR THE DESIGN OF NONSLENDER PRESTRESSED COMPRESSION MEMBERS The following steps can be carried out for the design of nonslender (short) columns where the behavior is controlled by material failure: l.0020 in.9a) 1 Spirally-reinforced sections: 0.65 :S ( <!> = 0. including the construction of an interaction diagram. 5.002 adjusted after the interaction diagram is plotted. 2. A void fractional quantities in selecting sectional dimensions. 4. 4. i.5 presents a flowchart of the trial-and-adjustment sequences of the design or analysis procedure.9b) Note that the balanced strain condition in prestressed concrete compression members is highly indeterminate.25 [ c. This step also enables one to verify the value of the strength reduction factor. tied or spiral.90 (8. If the section cannot support the factored loador is oversized and hence uneconomical.75 :S [ <j> = 0.%]) :S 0. and the nominal moment for the limit stain condition E 1 = 0. namely. A reasonable approximation can be made by assuming. revise the cross section and the reinforcement through trial and adjustment by repeating steps 4 and 5 as necessary. 8. from Eqs. Figure 8.75 :S ( Spiral: <!> = 0. Assume a cross section and type of lateral reinforcement to be used. whether <l>Pn > the factored Pu and <!> Mn > the factored Mu.fin.0012 to 0. 1 .002{ 2~º)] :S 0. in trial and adjustment.d - %]) :S 0. and find the corresponding Pn and Mn.di . Evaluate the factored externa! axial load Pu and the factored moment Mu. The moment Mnb results from an Eps strain value which gives a maximum moment in the interaction diagram. This assumption has to be verified. 508 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members Spirally-reinforced sections: 0. Design the lateral reinforcement.90 (8. Assume a neutral axis depth e.36(a) and (b ). Assume that the strain in the extreme tensile fibers is equal to an assumed strain Eps of the prestressing steel. Tied sections: 0.15 [e.002. Compute the applied eccentricity e= MJPu. Assume the number and size of strands. In this manner.65 + 0.e. Then check for the adequacy of the assumed section.

. t.5 CONSTRUCTION OF NOMINAL LOAD-MOMENT <Pn-Mn) ANO DESIGN (Pu -Mu) INTERACTION DIAGRAMS Example 8. fpe• fPY' EPS' fy.. Es.Cb) (Eps .._.7 mm) dia 7-wire stress-relieved 270-K strands...Epe . assume </> Compute required Pn =Puf</>. M 0 . •. e= Muf Pu. Mu.. Compute Pu. deep.-----. Additionally.. (12.000 psi (1.655 MPa) . < 0.. Assume b. and type of lateral reinforcement Balanced condition: Assume strain in !ensile strands A. where (d .5 Flowchart for design or analysis of prestressed concrete nonslender compression members....1 Construct the nominal load-moment interaction diagram for a prestressed concrete compression member 14-in. normal-weight concrete Eps = 29 X 106 psi (200 X 103 MPa) fps = 240.. h. Consider the strands fully developed throughout the length of the member..5 MPa).. Mn. PL..7. fP.------_. Ecu' Ece• ePY' d' 0 . The member is reinforced with eight Hn.. 0 A~.000 psi (1.002 Tension failure: 0. half on each side of the two faces parallel to the neutral axis as shown in Figure 8. Given data are as follows: ¡... e = MJPn Check compression failure: •. The stress-strain diagram for the strands is shown in Figure 8.. 8.Ece) Compute limit strain a= 13. 0. 0 ..c Pn.5 Construction of Nominal Load-Moment (P n-Mn ) and Design (Pu-Mu) lnteraction Diagrams 509 START 8 ..-----.002.. Mu f. d.8.= . The effective prestress after all losses is fpe = 150.000 psi (47.--------'--. Input: P0 .• diagram if steel yields Compute cb from strain compatability Cb Ecu --.034 MPa). draw the design interaction diagram using the appropriate strength reduction factor values.. (356 mm) wide and 14-in.6. or from the u . Mn = Mu/<f>.005 Figure 8.___ _____. to equal to •.--------'--.. = 6..

.. \.. [e.~A. (Courtesy.---~--.n - T.[e.+e.. = Ccnlh/2 - e a/21 .::.. San Francisco.u M..c) +e••] T. Lin Internalional.fcu (e : d') + e...d') + T..) Check ~ and design lateral reinforcement ENO Figure 8..' 0 = r. Y. California. design by T.510 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members CD~~~~-'--~~~~ Assume e and a = /3 1 e Compute Pn = Ccn where T. Use tria! and adjustment to No ~P... E.n(d - h/21 e= Mn/P0 Assume new value of c..3 Interior of the George Moscone Convention Center.) . ] (d.85f~ba A~..'0 (h/2 . .E.0 c•• 0. obtain new P0 including i----< revising section and/or steel Go to g externa! factored pu? Yes fa\ .. Post-Tensioning lnstitute.5 Continued Photo 8..T.

.153 in. when Pe acts on the section = ~ AcEc ePY (i + e:) I = strand yield strain = 0. from Figure 8.005 0..0005 in./in.003 since perfect axial compression is impossible. Axial Compression: Mu= O. ~ Ñ 'O 150 ..030 e. (12.6 Ecu Ece ~e~ Section geometry.010 0./in...7 mm) dia 270-K prestressing ten- . :I'1 2" Aps =8 - ~" dia.fin. = 0.E E X 900 !l! .e en Area = 0.9 Assume a reasonable value of eP and adjust as necessary.5 Construction of Nominal Load-Moment (Pn-Mn) and Design (Pu-Mu) lnteraction Diagrams 511 14" (356mm)- 2" o T f 14" .) Figure 8. Stress-strain diagram for Hn..2 Ultimate strength = 41300 lbs 100 ~ . strands Figure 8../in. Strain (in. Solution: Nominal Strength Pn-Mn Diagram l.) '· 250 Yield strength by 0.. at failure = 0.003 in.012 in. e= oo (Use ecu = 0.7 don.8.~ en 500 50 100 0.2 set method 200 ' 1700 1300 ·¡¡.

5 = 749.2 = 12 in. d . ~¡ = 0.512 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members The compressive block depth a = 14 in. . Thus.fin.335 kN) T. = 0.0005 J = 0.557 .020 kN) From Equation 8.526 .700 .Ecu(C ~ d') + Ece] T.47.003 + 0.75 X 14 = 10.fin. and Ecu = 0.0052 + 0.47 920 (14 -2 .5.000) 1 000 = 0.05(!.T. (267 mm) Ccn = 0. and the effective depth d = 14 .0.n .920 = 903. Zero Tension at Tension Face.85 X 6.2.0005) = 47.Tsn = 999.47. Epe = 0.920 lb (213 kN) From Equation 8.0.85 X 6000 X 14 X 14 = 999.0005] 47.- + 47 .612 x 29 x 106 [ 0.95 cm 2) 106 psi (200 X r.-14) 2 =O Mn =O pn e1 = - 2.6.0052 - 103 MPa).sn (h2 )("" + sn ( h)"" 2 ("" M n = Cen . Pn = Ccn .55.557 lb (416 kN) = Ccn - T~n . (h ª)"" .600 .920 ( 12 .d' T = 999 600 ( -14 .n = 0.612 X 29 X 106 [ 0. for Eps = 29 0.446 kN). (356 mm). So we have Ccn = 0. X X 0.2) .Tm = 749.0052 in.2 2 T' .0052 .003 ( 12 : oo) + 0.n = A~s = 4 From Figure 8.760 lb (4.003( 00 C: 2 ) + 0. Tm = ApsEps[ Epe + Ecu ( d ~ e) + Ece] = 0. A~sEps[ Epe .5 in.4.600 lb (4.2 (3.85 - a= ~1c 0.0052 .003 = Pn (1 2 ~ 14 ) + 0...000 X 14 X 10.920 .7.93.153 = 0.700 lb (3. e= 14 in.0052 + 0.003 (1 4 1~ 2 ) + 0.7.-14) .612 X 29 X 106(0.75 .526 lb (247 kN) Tsn = 0.612 in.n = 0.0005] 93.612 X 29 X 106 [ 0. From Equation 8.0005] = 55. 2 2 .612 X 29 X 106 [ 0.003 in.85/~ ba = 0. (305 mm).920 lb (213 kN) = From Equation 8.

Mn.06 = 2. 2 ) Strain distribution. 600 617 2)~ + 93 '557 (12 - 14 ) """"\ 2 . (207 mm).75 Mn = ApsÍps( d - ~) = 0.10 X 14 = 435.8.000 ( 12 - 2 6 ·~ ) = 1. 14 = 2 ·06 m.003 0.l0.0005] .672 kN) 14 14 M = 749 700 ( .e) LiEP 0.937 kN) T.75 X 8.5)""""1 .0052 .15 in.612 X A.0014 Hence e= 8.11 in.-lb 1.50 m. b = 0.0. (63.75 m.0014 to be modified by tria! and adjustment.000 X 6. + 0. and from Figure 8. we have 240.130 . Taking a value LiEP 0.85/.8. Limit Strain Condition: Pn.540 lb (1.612 X 240. So a = ~1c = 0.-lb (170 kN-m) = 1.274 in.611.8 ( 8 ·~ 1. 0.15 = 6. e Assume the strain in the tensile strands Aps to be equal to the incremental strain LiEP beyond the service-load leve! P.85 X 6. 2.130 in.003 Figure 8...000 x e . (69. Pure Bending: Pu = O Neglecting the effect of the compression steel Apsfps 0. similar triangles give = C Ecu (d .612 X 29 X 106 [ 0.5 Construction of Nominal Load-Moment (Pn-Mn) and Design (Pu-Mu) lnteraction Diagrams = 600.85 x 6.000 .n = 0..502. (523 mm) ª = 0.55 526 ( n '2 2 '2 e2 513 = 1. (155 mm) Ccn = 0.9 mm ) = -2.611.502.274 o =oo 4.617 lb (2.5 mm) = 3.

502.5 537. ande for the c-values assumed.5 5.9 X 103 X 0.514 Chapter 8 Prestressed Compression and Tension Members = 61.) Diagram.047.5 7.1 2.126. Pnx 103 lb Mn X 103 in. = 25.9 1.-lb = 1. From the diagram. as c/d1 = 6. it is seen that the maximum moment ordinate seems to have a value close to Mn = 2.1 Point cin. assuming additional values of the neutral axis depth e and computing Pn.612 X 29 X 106 [ 0.= o.4 1303.5 6. additional points between the coordinates of the second and third cases have to be determined.611. is verified.047.0005 ] 8 = 126.6 600.8 976.25 (__!___ - o.5 8.2x103 X 0.-lb (272 kN-m) Mn = 435. Also. Table 8.9 o o 252.0 X 103 in. 1 5 2 6 4 7 3 18 14 10 8.65 0. 3 Hence.15 in.15 6 2.0052 + 0.73 0.047.1 903.5 2.450.13) + 0.047.-lb. Pu= 101. From Section 8.61.838 in. in order to develop an accurate diagram to cover the entire loading range.0/12.65 0.838 in.509 ( 12 - ~4 ) "1 2.5 2.50 < 0. 1 c/d1 <P = 0.540 .005. 1.3 19.25 [-. .018 ( .65 0.-lb ei