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Running head: TERRORISM EXAM

Terrorism and Communication: Exam


Nicole Paul
COMM 45091/COMM 55095
November 11, 2015
Haridakis/Smith

Running head: TERRORISM EXAM

Table of Contents
Essay 1: ......Page 3

Essay 2: .....Page 6

Essay 3: .....Page 9

Essay 4: ........................................................................................Page 13

Running head: TERRORISM EXAM

Anarchy Movement and ISIS


In the late 1800s there were many antiestablishment groups gaining popularity. The rise
of Socialism and Anarchism started to grow having many people fear the movement. According
to Fun & Wagnalls Encyclopedia (2015) anarchism is, political theory that is opposed to all
forms of government. Anarchist believe that the highest attainment of humanity is the freedom of
individuals to express themselves, unhindered by any form of repression or control from
without.
When researching various anarchist groups and the anarchist movement to modern day
terrorist organizations there are many similarities and differences between the two. One of the
most talked about terrorist organizations currently is the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS).
Although the anarchist movement and ISIS have many differences on what they stand for and
what they want to achieve are different they have many similarities when it comes to violent acts
of terrorism. In class literature we talked about the awful events that happened during the
anarchist movement. During the late 1800s anarchist groups were engaged in assassinations and
many public bombings. While the innocent civilians were not the target intended they were
collateral damage to try and assassinate political figure heads. The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria
(ISIS) is also no stranger to bombings and potential assassinations. Over the past year ISIS has
set off bombs in many public places killing many innocent people. ISIS has also had plans of
assignation of political figures. In August 2015 ISIS sent out a message that they were going to
try and assassinate the Queen of England. According to Jess McHugh (2015) a journalist for
International Business Times states, Supporters of the Islamic State group, also known as ISIS
or ISIL, said over the weekend they were planning an attack on the queen at the ceremony.

Running head: TERRORISM EXAM


Although the threat never went through ISIS is targeting figure heads and scaring innocent
people.
The main difference between the anarchist movement and the Islamic State of Iraq and
Syria is their goals of their organization. The goals of the anarchist movement were rejection of
state and rejection of government. Anarchist fought to try and have a free country with no rules
where individuals were free to do as they pleased, and there were no religious practices to the
group. ISIS on the other hand is extremely religious and their goal is based on their religion. An
article on Bustle website by Chris Tognotti (2014) states, the stated mission goal of ISIS, as
they voiced publicly back in June, is to establish a new Islamic caliphate across the Middle
East. Both the anarchist movement and ISIS have very different objectives, but use violent to
try and obtain their goal.
The radicalization and mobilization of both anarchist and ISIS is shown through both
groups history. Through the anarchist movement their were any groups with members that were
radicalized and mobilized to commit assassinations and public bombings. Although their were
many lone wolfs, the majority of anarchist were radicalized and mobile in groups. The
radicalization and mobilization of individuals joining ISIS is happening very rapidly. I believe
that although the anarchist movement had many people helping out and being mobile nothing
compares to the strength ISIS has over the people. Individuals are leaving life in America,
London and other safe and comfortable countries to go join ISIS in their fight for one caliphate.
The radicalization and mobilization of ISIS members including Jihadi John show how quickly
and aggressively people are transformed into their vicious spell of brutality. The anarchist
movement and ISIS have many similarities and differences. Their end goal differs, but their
methods of fear and brutality are equally and disturbing.

Running head: TERRORISM EXAM


References
Anarchism. (2015). Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia, 1p. 1.
McHugh, J. (2015, August 13). ISIS Queen Assassination Plot: Royal Family Ignores Death
Threats Ahead Of VJ Day Celebrations. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
Tognotti, C. (2014, September 2). What Does ISIS Want, Exactly? The Terrorists' Stated Goal
Has Been Made Clear. Retrieved November 10, 2015.

Running head: TERRORISM EXAM

Zacarias Moussaoui (imprisoned 9/11 conspirator)


The New York Police Department four-stage radicalization model gives a step-by-step
look into what steps potential terrorist take in order to become radicalized to extreme ideas and
actions. Zacarias Moussaoui, imprisoned 9/11 conspirator, fits the New York Police Department
four-stage model of being a radicalized individual. By examining Moussaouis early childhood to
events that led to his conviction it is clear that Moussaoui was radicalized and took part in
planning attacks against the United States. Stage one, pre-radicalization looks into life situations
prior to jihadi ideology exposure. Moussaoui had a rough start to life. Moussaoui mother was 14
when she married and 19 when she had Zacarias. Zacarias and his four siblings grew up
witnessing their mother being abused by their father Omar. After years of abuse Aicha el-Wafi,
Zacarias mother, moved on and decided to take on single parenting while working long hours as
a seamstress. With Zacarias mother always working their was no religious education in the
childrens upbringing.
Stage two, Self-identification looks into internal and external triggers that lead
individuals to jihadi ideology, association with like-minded individuals, and gradual shedding of
old identity to new. Moussaoui, a French-born Moroccan, faced racism throughout his life.
Michelle Shephard (2011) newspaper on Zacarias mother stated, She didnt realize her son had
grown bitter as a teenager as he was called a dirty Arab, or that there was a void in his life that
radical Islamist had filled. With years of torment as a teenager, Moussaoui took to his studies.
Moussaoui received a masters degree in International Business. After obtaining his degree he
went to the Brixton Mosque where he was later expelled for trying to gather information on how
to join the jihad. With his beliefs starting to shift he started to argue with his mother about her
religious beliefs and her role as a woman. Shephards (2011) article discussed how her son

Running head: TERRORISM EXAM

chastised her for not covering her head stating, If youd rather have a head scarf than a mother,
Im sorry. Shortly after Moussaoui left his family and traveled to the United States to start flight
training.
Stage three, indoctrination the individual intensifies their new beliefs. With theories that
spreading through international headquarters about Moussaoui, Moussaoui moved to the United
States to begin flight training in Oklahoma and Minneapolis. In an article by Shenon (2011)
talked about Moussaoui fascination with learning how to fly airplanes and the odd impression he
was giving his flight instructors. The main airplane Moussaoui wanted to learn to fly was a 747400. Shenon (2011) stated, Moussaoui had paid more than $8,000 in cash that summer to sit in a
cockpit simulator. Ideas were starting to come together that Moussaoui was not the rich
business man he said he was, but a radicalized individual planning a horrific event. The final step
of radicalization is Jihadization. Jihadization has the individual associated with like-minded
others, and begin operational planning of attacks. After the second plane hit the World Trade
Center a search warrant was filed against Moussaoui belongs. Upon searching Moussaoui
belongs, a notebook with a phone number for Al Qaeda member Ramzi bin al-Shibh was
discovered. Bin al-Shibh was later discovered to be the funding source for Moussaoui flight
training and also Mohammed Atta who flew Flight 11 into the World Trade Center.
After researching Zacarias Moussaoui I believe that he fits the New York Police
Department 4-stage radicalization model. From his early childhood, flight training courses, and
connection to Ramzi bin al-Shibh, Moussaoui transformed from a French-born Moraccon with
no religious upbringing to help planning one of the most tragic events against the United States.

Running head: TERRORISM EXAM


References
Michelle Shephard Toronto, S. (n.d). Mother regrets losing son to extremism. Toronto Star
(Canada).
Shenon, P. (2011). The Terrible Missed Chance. Newsweek, 158(11), 15-17.

Running head: TERRORISM EXAM

Aafia Siddiqui (Lady al-Qaida)


The topic of radicalization of women is one that is being seen more and more in the
media currently. Women are leaving their comfortable lives, and becoming radicalized and even
mobilized in helping terrorist fight their enemies. One of the main theories/explanations we
discussed in class was Zainab Salbis theory of two general types. The two general types
investigated in the theory are those of youth and older women. As discussed in class lecture,
youth in the two general types theory are given a sense of purpose, grew up believing that
Muslims are special people who once lived in a golden era, and follow the Islamic State of Iraq
and Syrias messaging on wanting to go back to one caliphate. The older women side of the
theory differs from the youth side. The older women believe they are an extension of their
relationship to men, and that the man is the provider for the women and children in the family.
The roles shift between both age groups with the young girls believing they have a worth and can
do something in the world, while the older women believe that they are an extension to their
husbands and men in the family and they must please their needs before their own.
Aafia Siddiqui (Lady al-Qaida), a Pakistani neuroscientist, is a radicalized and mobilized
fighter for al-Qaida. Based on the New York Police Departments 4-stage radicalization model
Lady al-Qaida meets every requirement of becoming a radicalized individual. Lady alQaida
was born in Karachi, Pakistan. Siddiqui grew up in an upper middle-class family. Siddiqui father
was a neurosurgeon, Islamic teacher, and involved in many charities. Siddiqui mother worked in
politics and was a member of parliament. In 1995 her parents set her up in an arranged marriage
to an anesthesiologist from Karachi.
Shortly after her marriage she would divorce and remarry again. Siddiqui would leave her
three children in Pakistan with her mother for jihad. An article by Daniel Bates (2014) states,

Running head: TERRORISM EXAM

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she wanted to do something to help our Muslim brothers and sisters even if it meant breaking
the law. The turning point in Siddiqui life where she went from an intelligent MIT student, very
sweet, hijab wearing girl was the start of the Bosnian War where her radicalization began.
An article by Declan Walsh (2009) states, Siddiqui was also an impassioned Muslim
activist. In Boston she campaigned for Afghanistan, Bosnia and Chechnya; she was particularly
affected by graphic videos of pregnant Bosnian women being killed. After the Bosnian war and
attacks on 9/11 Siddiqui returned to Pakistan where she became extremely committed to jihad.
Nine years after the attacks on 9/11 Aafia Siddiqui was found guilty of attempting to murder U.S
citizens.
After further research on Aafia Siddiqui (Lady al-Qaida) and Zainab Salbi two general
types theory I believe that she fits only half of the theory of radicalization and mobilization. I
believe that she fits the youth aspect over the older women portion. As a child she had a purpose
of an education and worked hard to get into MIT school for cognitive neuroscience, she grew up
in a religious home where her father taught Islam, and believed that Muslims once lived in a
golden era. Once Siddiqui got older I think she moved away from Salbi theory of two general
types. Siddiqui is seen as an independent woman who did not rely on a man for security. The
theory looks to the idea that a woman is an extension of a man and that a man is the only
provider for a woman. I believe that Siddiqui proved the second half of the theory wrong because
she was independent in her actions and became a symbol to be celebrated in Pakistan.
Now Lady al-Qaida is being used as a bartering tool between the United States of
America and ISIS. Lady al-Qaida is such a powerful international symbol for ISIS they were
willing to let go of James Foley in return for Lady al-Qaida. The United States did not follow

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through because with her record of radicalization and mobilization it would be a terrible idea to
release her back into society with everything she has tried to do to American citizens.

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Running head: TERRORISM EXAM


References
Bates, D. (2014, December 28). The radicalizing of the woman who became 'Lady Al Qaeda':
How Aafia Siddiqui arrived in Boston as a biology major at MIT and left as an active jihadi.
Retrieved November 9, 2015.
Walsh, D. (2009, November 23). The mystery of Dr Aafia Siddiqui. Retrieved November 9,
2015.

Running head: TERRORISM EXAM

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First Amendment Rights

The protection of homeland/national security and individual liberties of United States


citizens during wartime has been scrutinize in the media as of recent years. Many people believe
that is a violation of their First Amendment rights. Funk & Wagnalls Encyclopedia (2015) states,
Concepts of civil liberties encompass guarantees of freedom of speech, press, or religion; due
process of law; and other limitations on the power of the state to restrain or dictate the actions of
individuals. The two concepts of equality and liberty are overlapping and interacting; equality
implies the ordering of liberty within society so that the freedom of one person does not infringe
on the rights of others. When taking about homeland/national security during wartime
boundaries tend to become hazy. Many people will argue that during the Bush administration and
after September 11th the government did many unconstitutional things electronically that
infringed on Americans First Amendment rights.
I do not believe that during wartime electronic capturing and potential surveillance of
Internet connection in the United States and an executive order permitting closure to the press
and public of a trial of the leader of an alleged terrorist group violates the First Amendment
rights. I believe that during wartime when every decision is a life or death the government should
be able to be in control and if potential threat is happening they should be able to overthrow
citizens rights. I believe that if you break the law that your rights as a citizen should change. I
think that the government should be able to look into questionable people in the United States
where questions may arise in order to protect the homeland and national security.
The government has been working to keep the United States safe and in November 2001
the president authorized the military to allow parts of alleged terrorist trials be private from the

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public to help keep homeland and national security safe. Paul Haridakis states (2009), The
presidents order, and rules promulgated by the Department of Defense to govern the tribunals,
provide that the trials, or portions of them, can be closed at the discretion of the government to
protect national security.
Many people see when the government does not share all the information that they are
withholding information from United States citizens because they are doing things
unconstitutional. During wartime I believe that proceedings with leaders of an alleged terrorist
group should be kept in private. By sharing information that could potentially be threating to
United States citizens I think that it is best to keep it private because how the media can take the
information, run with it, and twist it into things it is not.
United States citizens have the constitution to protect their rights and freedoms as citizens
of the United States of America. During wartime I think that those rights and individual liberties
can be altered in order to help protect homeland and national security. I believe that during
wartime electronic capturing and surveillance of Internet communication in the United States,
and also executive orders permitting closure to the press when meeting with leaders of alleged
terrorist groups does not violate the First Amendment rights. United States citizens should be
protected by their rights and freedoms outlines in the constitution, but during wartime citizens
should be able to have rights revoked if they are raising security questions, and national security
is put at risk. I personally feel that I would rather have the Government step in and observe
Americans information if they are breaking the law or a potential threat to homeland and national
security than have them sitting back because of the constitution and something catastrophic
happens on American soil.

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Running head: TERRORISM EXAM


References
Civil Rights and Civil Liberties. (2015). Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia, 1p. 1.

Haridakis, P. (2004). Homeland security and democracy in the United States during the war on
terrorism. In N. Ammar (Ed.), Democracy and homeland security: Strategies, controversies, and
impact. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press.