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Shooter's Bible Publication


The Complete Guide to Muzzle- Loading Rifles,
Pistols and Shotguns -Flintlock and Percussion.
How to Load, Fire, Repair and Care for Them!

Shooter's Bible





^Ute Quh4. £»ld OKci (lepaMed
Phone 222-3905
1051 Broadway-Denver, Colo.



Shooter's Bible GUIDE by Major George Nonte (U. South Hackensack. Ret. ORDC. New Jersey .A.) Distributed by Stoeger Arms Corporation 55 Ruta Court.S.

S. Ret. Inc.A. New Jersey and simultaneously in Canada by the Ryerson Press.S.S.A. 55 Ruta Court.) All Rights Reserved Published in the U. Toronto. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 79-82028 .Copyright © 1969 by Major George Nonte (U. South Hackensack. by Shooter's Bible. Printed in the U.

No one writes a book all by himself. so it is that I feel about Sharon the pert and delightful redhead who runs my office. Nonte. Maj. George C. of others — . The work is often even more important in the end than that of the man who puts it all on paper between shiny covers. Jr. I'm sure. Without her assistance and criticism. And. these pages are dedicated to Sharon. and would have liked it less. In gratitude without measure. you'd not have seen this volume for quite a while.


Table of Contents Page FOREWORD 9 SECTION CHAPTER one: The History of Black Powder CHAPTER two: General & 17 Ignition Systems 91 Accessories 33 & Maintenance 45 five: Shooting The Caplock Rifled Musket CHAPTER Sights CHAPTER twelve: 94 CHAPTER thirteen: Selection. Ball. Pamphlets & Periodicals 203 . Repair CHAPTER CHAPTER eleven: 13 Catalog CHAPTER three: Lock Types & CHAPTER four: I 55 So You Want To Build Your Own 101 CHAPTER fourteen: Build a Caplock Pistol 117 CHAPTER fifteen: Cleaning & Preservation 132 six: Shooting The Caplock Round Ball CHAPTER seven: Shooting The Caplock Revolver CHAPTER eight: Shooting The Slug Gun chapter nine: Shooting The Scattergun chapter ten: Bullets & Bullet Making Rifle 62 CHAPTER sixteen: Competition 148 79 CHAPTER eighteen: Cannon 155 CHAPTER nineteen: Restoration 81 APPENDIX one: 165 APPENDIX two: Directory of The Arms Trade APPENDIX three: Bore. and Bullet Dimensions APPENDIX four: Powder Charge Data 134 73 SECTION Glossary of Muzzle Loading Terms & Games CHAPTER seventeen: Early Black Powder Breech Loaders and Cartridge Guns 66 175 & Refinishing 159 II APPENDIX five: Black Powder Velocities APPENDIX six: Miscellaneous Information 191 195 APPENDIX seven: 185 Tables 199 APPENDIX eight: 187 Books.


but archer and fortunes Some become vehemently deny who at all deeply it claims his interest — it. Maj. and. eventually) succumbed to the urge to shoot with black powder. reliable Accustomed as we guns and ammunition that shoot are to totally faster. This has all been put together in this volume for those of you who have (or will. What may have been an exasperating chore for great great grandfather as he struggled to get a second shot off. We've gone through their writings and skimmed off what appears to be useful in shooting today's muzzle loaders. we've tried to put together virtually all the information one needs to at least begin to follow any one of several branches of a most fascinating game —Black Powder Shooting. The individual who. Nonte. Here. Some of them put their experiences in writing. farther. of the past. all others to things out involved in the tournament only in the bow's ^like lies —with present in is never really give in to virtually devote their lives past. seeks to emulate his ancestors' use But. but most took their knowledge with them to Valhalla. of firearms in sport and war. for whatever reason. Some give vent to it by collecting items from the past. —anything items dating before our time the and that he has absolutely no interest in that the longbow was for centuries the most challenge. behind the facade reared by many.Foreword The urge common to do something Some people of us. . it can be a pleasant change to work out with a twin of the muzzle loader some vague ancestor carried at the battle of Vera Cruz or the Fetterman Massacre. the atavistic urge lurks in far more of us than will admit it. caps. The old timers who could tell us how they really loaded and handled a prize "Kentucky" squirrel rifle or Enfield Minie rifle are dead and gone. and all the other romantic paraphernaha. in this volume. Jr. we've added the shared knowledge developed by the ever burgeoning groups that have been shooting the old guns since before most of us were born. the fact respected weapon of the civilized world. This book is for the user. takes on the aspect of pleasant recreation for his descendants. George C. others by using the same things. and harder than ever before.


Shooter's Bible GUIDE .


Their knowledge of this compound and its properties was probably obtained from Latin translations of various Arabic works. made of manure or urine to supply the organic nitrogen. while those of 1225 or Saltpetre does not exist as a natural mineral prod- Modern production compounds and explosive burning. The origins of gunpowder are. "Book of Fires" gives recipes both for incendiary compositions (which were known long before gunpowder) and for basic gunpowder in its most rudimentary form. and come into use until the latter half of the 19th Century. Obviously. Other Arabic works of the early 14th Century describe gunpowder in detail. 13 . A Latin work called the "Book of The term "Black Powder" is relatively new. University of London. Micro-organisms bring about this oxidation and it is carried out in nitre-beds. states that this work is a translation not from Greek. of salpetre for propulsion. but is produced by the slow oxidation of organic matter containing nitrogen by atmospheric oxygen in the presence of basic substances. and available in quantity. half-truth. Students of the subject will give you an assortment of answers on the question of just when. This. and vague claims and statements. too. how. Bacon was nitrate. and by whom gunpowder was invented. time. in spite of the name. and any calcium nitrate in it must be converted into potassium nitrate. It is probable that Bacon and Magnus would have had knowledge of it. — — Fires" (Liber Ignium) alleged to have been written by Marcus Graecus (Mark the Greek) describes both and gunpowder. One Berthold Schwartz (sometimes referred to as "Black Berthold") has frequently been credited with the invention of gunpowder in the middle 14th Century. Consequently. It produces much less smoke than black powder. as in a gun. but still smokes. It also distinguishes between the burning saltpetre of various — — uct. if not lost. but from an Arabic work dating around the middle of the 13th Century. certainly shrouded in legend. Then. where. The raw product must then be carefully purified. Partington. the cannon could not exist without gunpowder. and we do so only to differentiate between it and the more modern "smokeless powder. It has been suggested often that gunpowder was invented by Roger Bacon. and conceived of it as a destructive device. Emeritus Professor.iiir 1 THE HISTORY OF BLACK POWDER Most indications are that saltpetre became known Europe about 1250. In his "Opus Majur" of 1268. when it is mentioned in the works of Roger Bacon and Albertus Magnus. reasonably common. and it was simply called "gunpowder. Cordite. is the primitive method of producing saltpetre and is seldom encountered today except in underdeveloped areas of India and in some of the more primitive parts of thereabouts is potassium only to incendiary compositions." which is not really smokeless at all. Tremendous strides were then made in the development of more modern and efficient explosives did not in and propellants such as gun cotton. as in a rocket. there are oriental manuscripts of earlier times that describe a number of fireworks and incendiary compounds. cannons were known in Europe as early as 1326 (date of one manuscript describing them)." It was essentially identical to what we call black powder today. the third essential ingredient saltpetre was not. we can safely assume that gunpowder did not exist until all three of its principal ingredients became known. Often these are accomplished by a highly efficient process whereby native sodium nitrate (Chile Saltpetre) is converted on a large scale directly to refer Then. and single and double base nitrocellulose powders. J. and its manufacture a century earlier. he does describe the explosion of gunpowder and a year or two later gives its composition. This legend doesn't hold water when we consider that Roger Bacon described it. so we can assume that it too was well known by that the world. While two of the principal ingredients charcoal and sulphur were known in antiquity. apparently quite impressed with the explosive force of gunpowder. there was only one propellant suitable for use in small arms and artillery. its effects. of course. R. Prior to that time.

guns had to be cast of better materials and in a more perfect manner to withstand the force of the explosion. but more sophisticated and efficient means of grinding are used that today. the artillery powders dates back at least seven centuries. and artillery usage. sulphur. for that reason. but shortly after 1800. Corned powder is thought to have been invented in the 15th Century. our best eduto it in Europe between 1225 and 1250. Following this. Eventually. powder use. of mixture was formed under pressure into hexagonal prisms of different sizes. but evidence that any of them were used to propel a projectile from a closed tube (other than fireworks of the Roman Candle type) is significantly lacking. In Powder Guide is arms. still and manufactured to essentially the in substantial same formulas were in use in the 19th Century. Because of its greater force. supporting various sources and dates for the invention of gunpowder. It not only reduced the amount of moisture absorbed. and then stirred together. These cakes are then torn apart by wood or non-sparking metal tools. sulphur. rolling ship. quite completely carbonized. Some experiments were conducted with large cakes of powder that closely fitted the bore of the weapon. it eliminated any separation of ingredients. it tended to absorb large quantities of moisture from the air particularly important where sea-borne weapons were involved. it is broken down into rela- . Powders of this type remained standard for artillery use until the advent of smokeless at the end of the 19th Century. Eventually. an explosion becomes likely. In 1774. it had been discovered powder granules were more suitable for the early 19th Century. Some. sulphur and saltpetre. Likewise. Black powder of today is manufactured in essentially the same fashion as it was after corned powder became standard. again compressed into cakes.14 Shooter's Bible Black mistaken for gunpowder. During the early 19th Century. in the proportions 7/5/5. frequent turning of containers. The exact date will probably never be known. After being thoroughly mixed. as it would be in transportation on a supply wagon or on board a rocking. the English formula was 6/1/2. We really don't making know which came By —corned first better guns necessary. making possible. the ingredients are mixed the proper proportions with water and in The mix is thoroughly incorporated in a mechanical mixer. It consisted of a mechanical mixture of charcoal. forming lumps. In addition. charcoal. it was discovered that small granules burned faster than large. they are broken into smaller chunks and granules by rollers. of wizardry powder or witchcraft was A fair amount with gun- associated and one recipe contains. and provided easier and more uniform ignition. Consequently. For one. or better guns. This form had several disadvantages. military small Gunpowder quantities today. until the Corned powder produced greater explosive force than the powdered mixture. England used the same formula in its earliest days. At the same time. This could hardly have been considered a very safe treatment for even a crude. while some other countries varied the composition slightly between sporting. particularly oriental mixtures. and isn't really essential to our purposes cated guess would seem to place here. and saltpetre —but contained manner all of other ingredients accord- ing to the temperament of the maker. The three ingredients were ground separately to a fine powder. Powder compo- varying degrees and with varying success. And. larger use. add a spider skin. the Prussian mix was 8/1/1. care being taken to insure that the proper moisture content is maintained. While is it quite likely that scholars will continue argue vigorously. Early gunpowder consisted of widely varying formulas. the use of corned that was also varied somewhat for artillery "Brown" powder being made from charcoal not sition powder powder. Ignition of this fine. even on-site mixing of the three basic ingredients were all tried in into it was discovered that by forming the grains or granules (corning) that the powder's proclivity to absorb moisture could be greatly reduced. the Germans used 4/1/1. When together properly pulverized. Early powder mills were considered rather expendable because of the explosion danger and were quite lightly and cheaply constructed alcohol. Whether it was the result of direct effort or simply observation of the behavior lumpy powder it is not known. Should the moisture content be allowed to get too low. evidence that some attempts to reduce the moisture-absorbing characteristics were made by heat- There ing the is powder sulphur therein melted. useful to "It is for powder for all types of arms. Numerous methods were explored to eliminate some of these disadvantages. By 1350. the various constituents of the powder tended to become separated if the material was agitated much. in some processes. rather weak explosive mixture. its — the mix. contained the basic ingredients of charcoal. The three major ingredients are chosen for their purity and are then ground separately into a fine powder. according to the bore of the cannon in which they were to be used. Careful storage." Roger Bacon's formula of about 1260 was saltpetre. the wet powder is compressed into solid cakes. It sufficient for us to is know that gunpowder gunpowder differed considerably from the black powder we know today. adding powdered quick lime to earliest form. mechanically-mixed powder could also present a problem if it were packed tightly in the gun. Originally the grinding was done in water-powered stamp mills. the various formulas tended toward a fairly standard 75/10/15 or 75/15/10.

such as use in loading blank cartridges for artillery pieces." powder mass. its maker could expect to prosper. Eventually three companies. resulted in the colonies entering the Revolutionary War without any efficient and productive powder industry. When the glazing operation is completed. Suiting thought to action. — discharge of static electricity which might ignite the the granules to flow smoothly through measuring and packaging equipment. Many of the smaller mills disappeared with the end of the Revolutionary War. enough survived that in the last decade of the 18th Century. General George Washington stated. The latter mill figured decisively in the defeat of Colonel Patrick Ferguson at Sycamore irregular in shape. in the forest even for use as ffffg is may be further broken down and rescreened. and ffffg. at Eleutherian Mills. ing than I had the most powder is much more alarm- distinct idea of. While no doubt the New Englanders would have preferred to use the better imported powders. primarily England. and also to know that if better powder were produced in America. Boston. "Our the point. Following this. the granules have lost part of their jagged. which resulted in most colonists preferring it. With characteristic thoroughness. he was certainly qualified to judge the quality of this powder. while that too large for fg siderably superior to the colonial product. However. no less was situated in Tennessee. it is alleged that competition notwithstanding. fffg. the colonists because the powder industries there had become highly developed and experienced over a period of many years. New mill was hidden while Jersey. ffg. other sizes. and the Hazard Powder Company became the "Big Three. The ginia. duPont deNemours and Co. In 1675. and by coating the grains reduces the formation of dust. Powder that will pass through the fg screen but will not pass through the ffg screen is channeled off and packaged and sold as ffg granulation. and exposed for weeks to the deteriorating effects of the sea. but down able to supply only charcoal of the basic ingredients to for a point where the moisture content will remain rea- the situation in the article of sonably stable. and apparently took care that no great store of British powder could be accumulated in New England. and are somewhat polished and rounded. England had repowder manufacture by the colonies. European and British powders continued to be conprimarily salvaged. the bulk of the newly-free states' gun- powder needs were supplied by domestic manufacture. The same procedure is followed for the Powder too One such town. there is known to have been a small powder mill at the town of Milton near fine near Morris- —operated by another — a woman. Gunpowder manufacture in America dates back less than 300 years. had become the leading American gunpowder producer by 1810. the first duPont powder was produced near Wilmington. and doubtless some of them were destroyed by accidental explosions. the Milton mill can quite likely be credited with reducing the effect of the Wampanoag Indian attack on New England. to exist Shoals. Laflin & Rand. Thus. These factors combined with the obviously superior quality of English powder. Older mills fell to the superiority of duPont powder. and some disappeared in thunderous explosions. Even so. on the Brandywine River in 1804. Five hundred pounds of powder from that mill were distributed free to colonial troops opposing Ferguson when it became known that they were short of powder." dominating the American powder industry. the North was plentifully supplied with powder and the facilities for its . This is done by running the powder over successfully finer-mesh vibrating screens. King Phillip. At this point. Having worked in French powder mills and laboratories. When the American Civil War came along. Small powder mills sprang up all through the forests and nearby manure piles became nitre beds and to supply the very necessary saltpetre. the domestic product was sufficiently cheaper that few of them did so. duPont. On one occasion. and production of saltpetre was indifferent. Though its output of powder was undoubtedly small. launched an all-out attack against New England that resulted in the destruction of 13 Colonial towns. it is conceivable that the colonists might have been wiped out completely. the powder is screened to separate it into the four most common granulations fg (largest).The History of Black Powder lively small granules 15 and dried. though still easily The considerable amount of dust generated by the tumbling/glazing operation is removed. E. This is accomplished by tumbling the powder in a large drum in which has been placed a small amount of graphite. In 1675. Prior to the existence of this mill. powder is glazed. Delaware. Without an adequate local supply of powder. Mary Patton. Yankee ingenuity proved itself equal to the task. sulphur could be obtained only from Europe. This young gentleman was in America for the purpose were dependent entirely upon powder brought laboriously from Europe. The graphite serves several purposes it prevents the At this gunpowder. at the beginning of war. or it may be sized for particular special purposes. not dried to the It is point where absolutely no water remains. causes This appalling state of affairs could not be allowed if the war were to be fought to a successful conclusion. enter one Irenee duPont. irregular look. Chief of the Wampanoags. As if this was not enough. I. He reasoned that a lasting powder industry would be more productive than a new colony. the colonies were stricted of promoting the creation of a French Colony in Vir- he became very dissatisfied with the quality of American powder he was forced to buy while on a hunting expedition.

justify the writing of this And book. was not so The Sycamore Powder regards to powder. Even then. American powder was of such good quality and in such plentiful supply that it began to be exported to Europe. however. later to be taken over by duPont. In black powder arms were the only ones allowed by law. in many parts of the world. and ammonium picrate. by a West Point graduate. near Nashville. Though never truly plentifully supplied with gunpowder. the "Confederate Gun Powder Factory" was estabUshed and operated at Augusta. Peyton. In fact." it is still available.— 16 Shooter's Bible Black manufacture. to be operated primarily by cheap oriental labor and to use saltpetre imported from India. That this was not accomplished easily is evident from the tales told of southern ladies being requested to save the contents of their chamber pots saltpetre — Little the item to be used in the most often known today is manufacture of in short supply. The industrial giant fathered by Irenee duPont in 1804 continues to supply the charcoal. . Georgia. and saltpetre propellant without which we couldn't shoot our muzzle-loaders today or. of the nearly good life. The various sporting arms designed and manu- factured during the "Black continuous supplies of the Powder Period" required proper ammunition. but continued in operation for many years thereafter. Where literally dozens of makes were once available. Since it was absolutely essential that powder be available in California. Rains. demand for black powder continued quite strong through the first decade of the present century. These addition. the first smokeless Powder Guide powder accepted by the United States Army was developed there by W. for use Even though smokeless powder began replacing "gunpowder" in the last decade of the 19th Century. as it became known. The danger of capture by prowling Confederate Warships hungry for just such a prize made the risk too great. in at least some small way. Following the Civil War. and contributing. As the war progressed. white. markets required a continuous supply of black powder. sulphur. seven and one-fourth Centuries after Roger Bacon described his new compound which "thunders and lightens. Tennessee. At no time. has the demand for black powder dropped so low as to entirely justify its discontinuation. the California Powder Works which was established as the result of a federal prohibition of powder shipments by sea to the West Coast. for that matter. well off in Mills. thus. "Peyton" Powder. The only other mill south of the Mason-Dixon Line apparently made no significant contribution to the cause. reversing the situation of only a few years earlier. to man's enjoy- ment '^-r^O so. black powder did not disappear entirely from the scene. even today. The Confederacy. and black duPont label survives today. entrepreneures there formed the California Powder Works. Colonel George W. C. was to supply considerable powder to the Confederacy. was a composition of nitroglycerin. This plan did not produce its first powder until 1864. nitrocellulose. the Confederacy did manage to produce a great deal during the war. only the familiar red. or the only ones economically feasible for the inhabitants.

Edwards. Most men walked away from the war with their guns. the firm producing Centennial guns had once been licensed by Colt to produce design held regular shoots around the coountry. By this background. The muzzle loader. then editor of Magazine.44 Army design produced later. the westward migrants weren't armed with braces of Colt single-action cartridge revolvers and 1873 Winchester repeaters. There were plenty of spirited lads long used to the ways of war. along with a few heavy bench-rest guns. They were hand-made with tools that had actually been used to produce identical guns before in one a copy would be your head. of course) with assorted and wondrous tales of the front loader's accuracy and efficiency. Some refused to use any "store-bought" components and even fabricated their own locks from steel stock. gun wouldn't be the next one finThese fine old gentlemen almost invariably turned out "Kentucky" rifles. a few younger fellows took up the trade. were also still quite a few old-time that time. had the Colt 1860 in Belgium. even to rifling barrels completely by hand and casting their own stock furnitraditional tools hasn't been so long ago that our great grand- even grandfathers. Of course. Oddly enough. depended upon the black powder muzzle-loading gun for food. In the halycon years after the Civil War. But in GUNS production percussion revolvers would prompted to make a tidy profit. William B. rifle. there was a fair number of black powder fanciers WWII. With call Korean War. and Centennial Arms Corp. Many's the grizzled oldster who regaled my generation (in its younger days. make The guns produced the They were the real thing. and novel writers would have us believe. If they opened it a bit roughly and lawlike citizens responded with irritated gunfire. though using were — why To to risk getting a rifle barrel bent over few years after the Civil War. Centennial. convinced a' few people that modern- great interest in muzzle-loading shooting over the past decade or so. there were far more in the hands' of golden years weren't we use those terms today. Most of them operated with percussion revolvers.i»& 2 GENERAL It and methods. there were plenty of hard cases who felt the world was their oyster and only needed opening to get at the meat. the interest hasn't risen just in that period of time. 17 . Navy started with the basic Remington percussion revolver manufactured in Italy. He traveled to cated manufacturers wiUing and able to A small group of hobbiests has been shooting muzzle loaders by preference even from the very beginning of the cartridge era. be it pistol. authentic and original every respect. there gun makers who produced fine rifles in small shops throughout the South. with us. the time of the cartridge. television. and to try to rush one on an order was to (probably) ture. of well enough Europe and lo- sell make the guns. Each maker produced only a few guns per year. more modern methods. or scattergun. none of the old-timers were left. and sport. fathers. it isn't Others I western At who not many of those oldsters the end of the may rightly claim some know who took the don't really of the credit. During the preWWII Period. The outgrowth of Bill's efforts was the formation Navy Arms Co. Fortunately. war. Each smith built his "Hawg Rifles" exactly like his daddy and granddaddy had done on the same tools and in the same little leanto shack. Contrary to what screen. Men used the guns usually a rifled musket and/or a revolver. and first steps. there was shooting aplenty west of the Mississippi. In the late 1860's and 1870's. And. was the dominant arm in the frontier country for yet quite a muzzle loaders were certain your inshed. likely to get quite a muzzle than breech loaders in those "replicas" or "reproductions" as workout. There simply wasn't a demand for handguns or scatterguns. they had both of caplock percussion and loaded from the front. somewhat . hard to understand today's affluence and leisure time has the end of still virtually settlers. And by the middle 1950's. and only a very small percentage of the arms issued on both sides deviated from the standard caplock form. eager to search out hostile and forbidding territory.

Shooter's Bible Black

Both firms were almost instantly able to sell more
guns than could be obtained from the fabricators, a
condition that continues to exist even today. Even
though production capacity was continually increased,
the demand for new, straight-shooting copies of origi-

percussion revolvers far exceeded Edwards' estimates. Both firms soon followed with additional models,
significant among them being Navy's Italian-built reproduction of the Remington .58 caliber "Zouave"
rifled musket of the Civil War. It has since become the


most widely sold replica percussion long gun of


Eventually, several other firms entered the replica
business. With the exception of a few small shops
specializing in a limited output of higher-than-average
quality work,



Europe, principally


were and are manufactured
Italy and Belgium.

was considerable objection
arms. This was generated pri-

In the beginning, there
to the sale of replica

marily by collectors' concern that unscrupulous individuals and dealers might use the economically-priced
replicas as the basis for faking rare costly guns. Insofar

have been able to determine, these fears were
groundless. In the beginning, the replica companies
specified certain deviations from the original guns being


copied. Rifling, for instance, is quite different in most
cases from that originally used. Finishes are different,
as are materials. Production methods and tools also
differed. Consequently, reworking, for example, a Cen-

Ml 960 Army


sufficiently to


a collector

he was getting an original Colt 1860
would involve more work than could be justified by
the potential return. The following would have to be
accomplished: replace barrel with an exact Colt copy;
into believing

original marks; commethods; remove replica markings and replace with correct ones; re-number
in proper series. All of this would cost more than could
be gained by a fraudulent sale. And, the altered gun



marks and duplicate

pletely refinish, duplicating Colt



be identified as spurious by a serious Colt

same may be said for virtually all of
model replica guns being sold today. For
purposes, the replica muzzle-loading gun

Essentially the
the production


all of the guns mentioned are acany particular make or model. They
are simply functional muzzle loaders of the various
basic types and bear some resemblance to certain early
arms. All of the firms listed have catalogs and/or

Note that not


tually replicas of

brochures available on request and their addresses are
listed in the Directory in Appendix 2.



pose of having
muzzle-loading guns for sale here. The

"New Model 1960




1950's. purely for the purproduced abroad modern copies of

in the middle-late


item was

Army" and was an accuoriginal Colt 1860 Army re.44

copy of the
Care was taken that the gun differed from the
original enough to avoid confusion. Orders immedirate physical


ately surpassed the capacity of the Belgian factory to
produce guns. The factory, incidentally, had at one

time been licensed by Colt to produce percussion revolvers so, after a full century, was back in production
of the



item. Eventually, other replica arms were
line and are offered today, as listed




I960 .44



copy of the original Colt, I860 Army. Eight-inch barrel; hammer, frame, and rammer case hardened in
colors; cylinder, barrel, and back strap blued, guard
silver plated; round rebated cylinder, engraved scene;
one-piece smooth walnut grips.
HARPERS FERRY: Copy of the Model 1805
.54 caliber U.S. Martial flintlock pistol dated 1807 and
manufactured at Harpers Ferry Arsenal. Ten-inch
barrel, 16" long overall; bright barrel, polished
brass furniture; lock case hardened in colors; polished
walnut stock. Fully shootable with patched round ball.
VIRGINIA FLINTLOCK: Identical to Harpers


Model above except lock


marked "Virginia"

instead of "Harpers Ferry"; metal swivel ramrod; and



Powder Guide

has not been responsible for any significant increase in
the faking of true collector's items.
With better than a half-dozen firms engaged primarily in the production and importation of new percussion and flintlock guns, it can be honestly said that
we have a "Replica Industry." The availability of such

guns has been responsible for vastly increased muzzleand the demand so generated has reloading activity
sulted in more and better guns.
Following this paragraph you will find listed and
pictured the principal models produced and sold by the
major firms involved. This does not purport to be an
absolutely complete list of either models, makers, or
sellers, but it is as nearly current as circumstances will


detail changes.


PISTOL: Copy of the basic British military flintlock horse pistol in use during the late 18th
Century. Smoothbore, .69 caliber; bright barrel and
lock; brass furniture, walnut-finish stock. Primarily a


accurate rendition

of the general type flarcd-barrel flintlock blunderbuss.
Only 21 Vi" long overall; bright barrel and lock, blued
guard and furniture; ebony-finish stock. Shootable.

& Allen name dates well back into the last


century when


was known


a producer of good





Shooter's Bible Black

Powder Guide

quality long


and short guns at moderate prices. Though
a long and successful history, it passed

company had

from the active list before WWII. Eventually the name
and assets were purchased by Numrich Arms Corp. of
West Hurley, New York.
Beginning some years back, Numrich began producing a basic underhammer percussion rifle under the
H & A name. It was not intended to be a replica, but

The success of that item
underhammer guns based

40" long, 1.25" diameter at breech, .775" at
8-groovc rifling, .575" bore diameter. turn
in 72". This unit will replace the barrel on all U.S.
Ml 855 through MI 864 Springfield Muskets. Will also
replace breech and barrel of Trapdoor .50 caliber
Springfields up to 1870.
The "Instant Muzzle Loader" consists of a 39"





long barrel, breech plug and nipple unit that replaces

Trapdoor Springfields

rather a genuine shooting arm.

the breech and barrel of

spawned an extensive line of
on the same design, as well as

.50-70 or .45-70 caliber after 1870. Polished and blued,
dovetailed for standard H & A sights. In .45 caliber
only, 8-groove rifling with .445" bore diameter, 1 turn

traditional long


loaders and a comprehensive line of accessories.



are the muzzle-loader barrels


and breech plugs offered at most reasonable prices.
Also, I believe H & A was the first to offer "Instant
Muzzle-loader" kits. They consist of a caplock barrel
that drops directly in the stock to replace the barrel and
breech of the Springfield Trapdoor .50 and .45 caliber
rifles. An old trapdoor can be converted to an excellent
muzzle loader in just a few minutes. Bullet molds,
sights, powder horns, nipple wrenches and ready-to-fit
patch boxes round out the H & H line.

hammer gun

H & A

of the



in 56".

The "Zouave"




with breech plug and

nipple and replaces the original barrel of

and Remington .58 caliber

diameter .575", 8-groove
long. Polished and blued,
and tapped for rear sight.




Ml 841


muskets. Bore

turn in 72", 33Vi"

with front sight, drilled



with walnut fore-end and brass
buttplate and patch box. Barrel is 15/16" across the
flats, 32" long, available in .36 or .45 caliber, uniform
or gain twist

line, fitted


vator leaf rear,




aperture front sight, ele-

and long-range aperture tang

lbs. in


Boot Pistol

.36 caliber, 8 lbs. in .45.



and action as


above, but without brass fittings and long-range sight.
good hunting rifle.






hand Deluxe, but with short 20" barrel

use in brush or timber. Weight,






for close quar-





TARGET: Heavy target
flats. No fore-end or ramrod

IVs" across
fittings, action and
stock same as above guns. In .45 caliber only, 56" twist.
Open rear sight, hooded aperture front. This gun has

outshot custom-made









barrel length 6".


exceptionally ac-

curate pistol for the price.



other specifications remaining the same. Inter-

INC.: This firm
imports a variety of single-action revolvers and derringer
pistols from Italy
all metallic cartridge arms. In addition, however, it brings in a wide variety of muzzleloading guns of modern manufacture, both flint and
percussion. This firm makes no wild claims, saying
simply that its guns are good buys for the prices
charged. That is the way I've found them to be.

gun uses the Minuteman flintlock conit was done many years ago.

continental distributes a line of muzzle-loading acces-

Kentucky rifle but not an exact copy of any
make. Barrel is 39" long, 15/16" across the flats, available in .36 or .45 caliber with uniform or gain twist.
Silver blade front sight, low notched rear. Maple full
stock with brass buttplate, patch box, and furniture.
Weight in .36 caliber, 91/2 lbs., .45 caliber, 9 lbs.

The Minuteman
estingly, this


also available in percussion lock

verted to percussion, just as

new chrome-moly


underhammer lock parts and a one-piece walnut
The other end is bored and rifled to .36 or .45
caliber. Open sights are fitted and finish is blue. Over-




and most





the simplest


times as much.


PISTOL: Probably


lbs. in .45.



durable percussion pistol on the market today, representing an unusual design approach. A single octagonal
steel bar is machined at one end to accept the standard

.58 caliber unit consists "of

steel barrel fitted

and musket nipple,

with breech plug,

in the white,



In addition to both

handguns and long guns.


sories that includes plain and adjustable powder flasks;
combination nipple wrench and tool; bullet molds; and

presentation-type cases for




short guns.

Both versions available in fitted case with nipple wrench. In . flask. blue finish. full stock with brass blued barrel. color hardened lock...Shooter's Bible Black 22 Powder Guide Kentuckian Flintlock Here are the principal Intercontinental Arms models: RENEGADE: An rel economically priced double-bar- percussion pistol proofed for shooting. 1 1 Also available in flintlock style at same price. rifle in 6'/4 engraved lock plate. 38 furniture. weight. takes standard No. can of black powder. oz. oz. weight. No.44 caliber.44 about 2 oz. heavier. KENTUCKIAN RIFLE: walnut stock with grip cap. Takes country style percussion 33 '/z" barrel. walnut stock with brass furniture.44 caliber. some engraving. blued barrels. SVa" barrels. .44 caliber. . 31Vi color hardened locks. Traditional Bedford . KENTUCKIAN: Traditional style Kentuckian per- cussion pistol in . walnut lock..36 or . caliber. ISVa" long. color hardened caps. 1 1 cap. Octagonal lbs. Also available in flintlock style at same price. mold. oval patch box. and cutout to hold a 1-lb. Octagonal 9'/^" barrel. 13V^" overall. 58" long.

was formed by Valmore Forgett. Today. Jr. Frame. If memory serves me correctly. Quite popular among serious shooters because of its lighter line for copy of the well-known Colt 1851 .36 Navy Revolver which enjoyed such great popularity during the period of the Civil War. One-piece walnut grips. a revolving carbine.44 caliber Remington percussion revolver of the same name. NEW MODEL NAVY REVOLVER: A offer production-run replicas of percussion revolvers. and rammer case hardened in color. the Navy Arms' line contains several re- volver models. Navy Arms was the first firm to duction of the . two-piece smooth walnut grips. line New Model Navy Revolver . hammer. This company came into being 1950's to procure and maricet foreign-made rep- Hcas of the more popular Civil War percussion guns. NEW MODEL ARMY REVOLVER: A repro- . polished brass trigger guard. trigger guard polished brass. and has since grown until it offers an extensive line of both handguns and shoulder arms loaded from the muzzle. shortened and lightened somewhat.General 23 NAVY ARMS NA VY ARMS CO in the : CO. and numerous accessories for the muzzle- loading shooter. rifled muskets and carbines.36 caliber version of the above gun. barrel and cylinder blued. We've used several examples of this model over the years and find it the simplest and most convenient to shoot of those offered today. Blued finish. BELT REVOLVER: A It recoil.

24 Shooter's Bible Black Sheriff's Model Presentation Grades Zouave Rifle Powder Guide .

. Detachable hooded crosswire "sniper" front sight available at extra cost. Lock plate color hardened. Identical to the 4" New Model barrel-rammer shortened to match. barrel blued. but with 22" barrel and carbine-style stock. Measures 15'/^" in overall length. nose cap.44 cahber flintlock pistol of classic "Kentucky" style.S. blade front. six-shot. (I killed a wild boar with one of these a few years ago. Makes a good hunting gun. Authorized by the North-South Skirmish Association for rifled musket competition. Elevating musket rear sight. . brass furniture.58 caliber Minie bullets and up to 60 grains black powder. KENTUCKY PISTOL: A nicely finished . The above three guns are also available in presen- tation grades with hand engraving and precious metal inlays. Walnut stock.36 caliber. .General 25 Kentucky SHERIFF'S MODEL: Navy but with shorter. barrel and guard blued.58 caliber rifled musket of the Civil War. walnut stock. ZOUAVE CARBINE: Identical to Zouave rifle above. Ml 863 . Uses standard . Pistol Brass buttplate.) ZOUAVE RIFLE: A copy of the Remingtonproduced version of the U. buttplate and patch box. brass bands.44 caliber. Octagonal barrel. REVOLVING CARBINE: chanism of the New Model . lock is case hardened in colors.44 This is Army the basic me- revolver fitted with a 16" or 18" barrel and the frame altered to permit permanent attachment of a walnut carbine-type stock. steel ramrod.

quality consistently high. case hardened in colors. case hardened hammer. blued barrel and cylinder. WALKER 1 . rammer and frame. weight. action. Various accessories are also in few years ago for the purpose of foreign manufacture 1 Fine copy of the famous Walker 4% 1847.36 Navy or Police Model. . TEXAS PATERSON: The this firm line is has kept manufactured Excellent copy of the origi- nal Colt in . Black Powder Guide offered. Five shots. caps. Phelps. 15-14" overall with 9" barrel. 10 or No. Furnished with 6". one-piece grips. brass guard. Colt of lbs. Even the folding-trigger Paterson Colts shoot well. Oval cylinder stops. Fit and finish are uniformly quite good. 71 2".44: Italy and consists principally of accurate copies of most Colt models from the 1836 Paterson up through the 1861 . We've shot most of the Replica Arms models and find them to be both reliable and accurate. Under its the guidance of Mr. Crisp. Uses Size 13 caps. clean Takes No. highly polished hammer and frame and nicely blued. Engraved cylinder. or 9" barrel.26 Sliooicr's Bible REPLICA ARMS REPLICA ARMS: Another company formed a of replica percussion revolvers for sale in this country.36 caliber. A nice piece that will take up to 60 grains of FFG Powder with a ..452" round ball.

Engraved Cut for shoulder stock. Polished brass guard. A polished of over- rammer case and backOctagon Bar- brass guard One-piece walnut grips. in colors. rest blued. Six-shot. weight. 9 or 10 caps.44 Revolver. cylinder cylinder.31 caliber Colt all. . 25 ozs. rammer as Wells Fargo. 6" barrel with without rammer as Baby Dragoon. uses . Engraved cylinder. 38 ozs. and rammer case hardened in color. takes Size 9 or 10 caps. barrel.General 27 SECOND MODEL DRAGOON: An accurate copy of the Colt 2nd Model Dragoon . 6" ARMY: I860 Excellent copy of the original . 5". hammer. and Copy 10%" 6" barrel balls. frame. hammer. and backstrap blued. 13%" overweight.454" round caliber Colt all. barrel and cylinder blued. Size Army revolver. 5". Hammer. strap.44 An 8" barrel. and rammer case hardened. hardened Ml 848. 5-shot. frame.452 to . Available in 4". one-piece grips. 3". Engraved cylinder. 4". One-piece grips. Frame. BABY DRAGOON /WELLS FARGO: the . rel.

nipple wrenches. 1861 Identical to caliber. Paterson Charger Adjustable Powder Flask . with lighter In addition. Paterson chargers. and hardwood and leather cases patterned after the original Colt items. Very comfortable to shoot with 000 buckshot and 16 grains FFFG Powder. Available with brass or iron strap and guard.Shooter's Bible Black 28 NAVY: Powder Guide Army above but in . molds.36 7Vi" barrel and straight cylinder. Replica offers excellent reproductions Army shoulder stocks.44 levers soft or and accessories. loading of . All are of excellent quality.

Variations to be expected. is full DOUBLE BARREL MODEL 5033: Flintlock 14gauge smoothbore double. ammunition. 8V2 lbs.. 25 -7^ MODEL 6475: Flintlock. 4-gauge. . 31" barrels. full stock with three bands. weight. with brass furniVariations to be expected. iron ramrod. came common and before muzzle-loading guns became today's BUCCANEER MODEL 4910: Flintlock.General 29 STOEGER ARMS CORP. largest bore muzzle loader currently offered. 14-gauge. This is the full two bands.: walnut half-stock. and related items for many years. the 4-ounce ball from this cannon will certainly oblige you. Variations to be expected. 6-14 lbs. 9 '4 lbs. weight. smoothbore. 12-gauge. 36" barrel. weight. Variations to be expected. New barrel and assembled with European military lock. If you are partial to tossing big bullets around. 6494: walnut stock with 34" barrel." These guns are still available today for decorative purposes only and arc as described below. Stoeger offered so-called "Trade Guns. french style. stock Stock ture. before the words "replica" STOEGER ARMS CORP. Back and "reproduction" bewide variety of available. 51" barrel. 9% lbs.: An has been importing accessories. ELEPHANT FLINTLOCK GUN MODEL Flintlock smoothbore. weight. length and painted red. all manner old-line firm that of guns.

checked walnut half stock. 40" barrel. 14-gauge. but flintlock per- Deluxe KENTUCKY a rifle identical to the Squirrel Rifle. DIXIE iber. weight. TARGET pistol. Percussion.. smoothbore. shotgun style butt. In percussion or flint. 14-gauge. rifle Zouave brass rest of built rifle furniture. DIXIE PERCUSSION PISTOL KIT: Complete cussion. iron ram- rod.41 cal- manufacture in traditional caplock style. Half22" barrel. DIXIE BUFFALO HUNTER: short-barreled hunting tion . DIXIE PERCUSSION DERRINGER: A Catalog: DIXIE SQUIRREL RIFLE: New A with 32" . weight. it has progressed to the point where items from all over the world are gathered and offered for sale. lbs. for assembling a . center-hung hammer. From a modest beginning. MODEL 6475W: 36" barrel. Among these are scores of different lock and gun parts duplicating those originally used. lock case hardened in colors. 33" barrel. DUELING PISTOL: DIXIE also the principal supplier of kits DIXIE 1 1 . PISTOL: Quite similar to but with . mod- IVi and fore-end. " % to .36 caliber rifled barrel across the flats.36 Dueling the long. Half- . Many items are produced specifically for Kirkland abroad. DELUXE PENNSYLVANIA RIFLE: In both flint and percussion lock. is DGW from which one may assemble several different complete muzzle-loading guns. 9" barrel Kentucky kit style pistol. DIXIE GUN WORKS GUN DIXIE WORKS: This firm was originally organized by Turner Kirkland in Union City. The current Dixie catalog contains over 200 pages and represents the widest selection of muzzleloading gear and parts available anywhere. % -stock with two bands. checkered grip steel furniture. 10 lbs.40 caliber.40 caliber.40 caliber barrel. smoothbore barrel varying from . these guns use the same metal parts as the Squirrel Rifle. lock color metal blued. Here is a list of selected items from the Dixie DIXIE HALFSTOCK TARGET RIFLE: ern percussion rifle stock. brass furniture and patch box. " 10" Percussion. NUMEROUS OTHER KITS ARE AVAILABLE. A nice light-weight gun. smooth polished grips. 7 lbs. weight. . walnut Flintlock smoothbore.50 caliber. 6 grooves.44 maple stock. The stock is Pennsylvania style and fitted with large. checked grip. maple stock. 6 lbs. DIXIE DELUXE RIFLE KIT: As above for the Rifle. to function as a supply house of generally hard-to-get items for the muzzle-loading fan. 1-48 twist. DIXIE RIFLE KIT: Complete kit for assembling identical to the Squirrel Rifle above. Variations to be expected. Tennessee. DIXIE FLINTLOCK: Virtually one-piece cast brass frame and barrel. A around the reproduc- described elsewhere. In . Variations to be expected. iron furniture and steel buttplate.58 caliber stock with hardened. ornate brass patch box. weight.Shooter's Bible Black 30 MODEL 4957B: Powder Guide Flintlock smoothbore.

General 31 Dixie Deluxe Pennsylvania Rille Dixie Percussion Derringer Photos courtesy of Dixie Gun Works .

32 Shooter's Bible Black Powder Guide Photos courtesy of Dixie Gun Works Dixie Rifle Kit i\\~Dixie Percussion Pistol Kit Numerous --^30 other kits that are available. .

a fuse inserted the date before 1399. this matcharm could be moved by one's finger to bring the burning match into contact with powder in a small "flash pan" next the vent. after a fashion. Following the cannon lock. really began the true "lock" we use today. or red hot wire into a powder-filled flash hole (vent) communicating directly first with the propelling powder charge. hot coal. or that there aren't many people who use them even today. It might seem that today's shooters would have no interest at all in the cannon lock. Since the gunner didn't have to watch the match to insure it reached the powder. springs. By 1471. matchlock. too. without pike-like stock pole. ample is ignition. there was published a description of a vastly-improved lock in which the match moved away from the eye to contact the powder. For the first time. but we must admit it possessed liable all. The matchlock continued to be made in numerous by the Tannenburg Buchse. Cannon Lock. This type is called "Cannon Lock". the mechanism had been greatly improved. It also contained a lock plate. C-shaped metal arm which carried the smoldering slow match.iiiiff 3 LOCK TYPES AND IGNITION SYSTEMS As becomes gun We have a small but avid group that prefers to shoot muzzle loading cannons." One contemporary illustration shows this type resting in a fork attached to a cavalryman's saddlehorn. both hands could be used to aim and fire the gun simultaneously. we find the "Matchlock. This marks the first use of the fin- various lock types. Most of their guns use repeatedly apparent in this dissertation. Then. since ger-actuated trigger to bring about ignition. Incidentally. A review of the several ignition methods is probably in order." It is known to it was excavated from the ruins of a German robber baron's fortress that was completely razed in that year." It was moved to contact the powder by a spring or linkage when a rudimentary trigger was pressed. This a roughened metal wheel . tapered iron tube. but that's not quite variations until the coming of the "Wheellock. The match arm became S-shaped and was called the "Serpentine. true. formed at the breech end into a socket to accept a pike-pole "stock" which was held under the shooter's arm. everything must somewhere. Probably the earliest surviving ex- "Tannenburger Buchse. he could keep his eyes on the target and aim. most popular of all frontloaders among shooters today. The cannon lock could hardly be considered a remeans of ignition." Thus. The first positive record of the matchlock appears in CODEX 3069 at 'Vienna and is authenticated for the year 1411. and the muzzle loaders were fired by simply shoving a lighted slow match. revolver-type repeating arms were made in Germany at about this time." a vast improvement. earlier form. That certainly doesn't mean that good work can't be done with the earlier the caplock is by far the cannon lock though somewhat varied by using beforehand into the vent instead of applying the flame by hand. the eye which doubtless did likely many As in the match moved toward the shooter's for his peace of mind. reproduction hand cannons have been known to show up for firing ignition systems. as typified In 1475. It was fired in this position by directing it with one hand while the other applied a slow match to powder exposed in the vent." and sometimes "Petronel. and the first "sear. Matchlock guns were fitted with a pivoted. It's little arquebusiers' eyes were closed at the in- stant of firing. The first "gonnes" were muzzle loaders. after start vention at either Vienna or system derives 33 its Nuremberg name from in 1517. along with fairly solid coverage of the on black powder ranges. levers. In the earliest form. Guns of this type are also called "Hand Cannon. The Tannenburger Buchse is a simple." Johann Kiefuss generally receives credit for the wheellock's in- the virtue of simplicity and.

Firing a shot now required only that the shooter cock the hammer and pull the trigger. .34 Shooter's Bible Black Powder Guide The rudimentary Matchlock in which a "tricker" moved the burning end of the slow-match toward the shooter to ignite priming powder in the flash pan. The Snaphance constituted a greater advance than even and greatly reduced the number of motions the Wheel Lock the shooter must make in order to get a shot off. The Wheellock in which pyrites in the jaws of the movable cock were brought into contact with a rapidly-spinning serrated wheel to shower sparks into the priming powder. The Flintlock resulted in a simple combining of the separate battery and pan cover of the Snaphance.

it was officially adopted by the British Army. but it was never truly waterproof. matchlock. nipple. this upward movement of moved downward relative velocity of the two. France's Army used a single basic model flintlock Charleville musket until 1842. as opposed to repair and overhaul. To fire. it cammed that surface up and forward. the wheellock. The ultimate in muzzleloading arms ignition was achieved in the Percussion Lock. placing the pyrites in contact with the wheel's grooved rim. the snaphance — consisted the powered cock. The snaphance seems to have appeared around 1525 and was in fairly wide use by 1550 in various European and Scandinavian countries. its manufacture required much greater skill and better materials and it cost many times more than a matchlock. The the earliest firearms used. sporting wheellocks could be afforded only by more modest means could aspire snaphance ownership. While internal variations were many. and bolster screwed directly into the gun barrel. characteristically had a very heavy trigger pull. those of to more suited to military use. but the actual origin of the type is shrouded somewhat in the mists history. and down against it. However. the flintlock priming powder was exposed to the elements only as the instant sparks were already flying toward it. The cock was spring-detented in two posiclear of the wheel. The pyrites (most commonly used) were held in the jaws of a "cock" resembling today's familiar flintlock hammer. the pivoted cock was spring-powered and carried in its jaws a flint which was struck downward across a rough. Internally. The advantage in rain. it seems likely the bulk of their arms would have been the cheap. The cap made it possible to do away with the heavy double-jawed cock and flint. other than evolutionary simplification. Incidentally. but rather an adaptation of the existing flintlock to the use of the percussion cap which is covered in detail further on. snow. Also. The flintlock's at the snaphance several least single known have been combined in a France before 1615. it in this position. No one individual or country can positively be credited with its invention. Bourgeoys. hardened "steel" or anvil to throw sparks into the quite reliable. Where pan cover had to be opened seconds before the flint struck. the wheellock was bad weather. the flintlock mechanism needed no change and none took place. The few wealthy administrators and adventurers were probably carrying wheellocks. Pick the story you like and stick with it it will be hard for someone to prove you're wrong. Jean C. and wind is obvious. In 1690. who salient features are mechanism and used specimen exists to in died in that year. It the wheellock. carrying with it the integral. into what is called the "Batterie" or "Frizzen" (also once known as the "Hamas really a single improvement. — . development stagnated with the For example. This formed an efficient cover for the flash pan which automatically opened as the cock struck. exposing the priming to a shower of sparks. tions one first "spanned" the wheel with a wrench or "spanner" provided for the purpose. far Where the wealthy." Here. Wheellock fragments and spanners have been unearthed at some colonial sites. As in — principle the frizzen as the flint further detailed. right-angle pan cover. Pulling the trigger released the wheel which was spun violently against the pyrites throwing off a shower of sparks which ignited the powder. The name "Flintlock" appeared first in "Pallas Armata" in 1683. Coincidentally. movable and separate manually operated was cheaper and more reliable than of spring-loaded anvil. long after its acceptance by the French. trigger Compared to its pull development of the "set" was not related to the load predecessor. Improvements such as fences and drain grooves made the flintlock more reliable than its predecessors in rain. to be safe from acci- dental discharge. a chain was wound upon a heavy leaf spring. This led to the whose weight of placed on the sear. mer"). One by a maker. particularly priming powder. As the flint struck the curved face of the frizzen. A its shaft. Their products eventually evolved into the flintlock "Kentucky" rifle and descended directly from the heavy Swiss and German "Jaeger" rifles. the flash pan and frizzen. Following on the heels of the wheellock came the "Snapping (Snap) Lock. increased the improving the shower of sparks." or "Snaphance. but these expensive and complicated arms would have been beyond the average colonist's means. the British used it with little 1690 until 1840. It represented little mechanical change. and the arquebusier was not clearly shown at night to the enemy by a glowing match. tensioning sear engaged the wheel to hold The cock was then lowered. As the wheel was thus — rotated. Their places were taken by a simple one-piece hammer. in America no doubt began with flintlock arms of German gunsmiths settled in Pennsylvania. flash pan cover. The true "Flintlock" evolved from the snaphance The pan cover was combined with the steel. though obsolete. Considering the circumstances under which the first colonists arrived on these shores. days in America show little record of In 1628.Lock Types & 35 Ignition Systems spun rapidly against a piece of flint or iron pyrites to throw a shower of sparks into a pan containing fine priming powder. Arms making per se. variation from took place. For very nearly a full century no improvement flintlock. The flintlock caught on slowly and did not become widely distributed until after 1640. thus. the Massachusetts Bay Company was known to have imported snaphances for use by its mercenary troops.

muzzle-loading its most perfect and efficient ignition form. virtue of the plicity thus. The percussion cap made possible the "Underrendering it — — Many modern-day percussion target rifles are built around under-striker locks that have been highly refined to produce minimum lock time and maximum uniformity of ignition. etc. the ignition system could be truly waterproof and far more sure-fire than ever before. nothing protrudes upward to interfere with sighting. plicated than a conventional side lock. This eliminated need for extensive weakening of the stock forward of the hammer. The hammer is It — "Under-hammer" lock something not pospriming powder was used. The Box Lock also cussion form. attempts have been the latter. permitting a more graceful overall stock shape. the percussion lock more pleasing forms." The "Back-Action Lock" was developed with the mainspring behind the hammer. The mule-ear possesses most of the advantages of the under-striker. lock plate. The with its back-action lock was inletted into the wrist of the stock. There was (is) no complicated and costly arrangement of sear. priced as low as $75. striker" or beneath the barrel. In the simplest form only two other parts were required the mainspring which did double duty as the trigger guard. In recent years. — possesses other virtues as well: cap fragments are away from the shooter's face. This type has the nipple less likely to ing and equipment. For the first time." for . nipple and cap were protected somewhat from rain and snow by being directed For all practical purposes percussion lock development ceased with the introduction of breech-loading arms. it is it is more com- It does have the hammer(s) lying very close to the barrel(s). The hammer was placed inside the lock plate. Sim- sible so long as loose and low cost were major virtues of the underThe percussion nipple was placed on the underside of the barrel and a conventional but upwardstriking hammer hung to its rear. snag on brush or one's clothwas often used on small pistols of pocket or muff type where the hammer was situated on the center line of the bore. Since the modern centerfire primer is far more uniform and reliable than the percussion cap. tumbler. It a simple lever or bar that swings horizontally to strike and detonate the cap.Shooter's Bible Black 36 Powder Guide the greatly simplified percussion lock the. It is interesting that an undcr-striker caplock muzzleloading rifle is produced in quantity today the Hopkins & Allen. though it became more prominent in per- existed earlier in flintlock form. Also an off-beat product of the practical percussion cap was the "Mule-Ear" lock. and a trigger. If anything. stirrup. black powder target shooters (primarily) have sought more uniform ignition in muzzle loaders. by Numrich Arms for the same reasons the design was originally developed. The result is want of a better name. made to utilize it in place of called the "Primer Lock. In arm achieved Freed from the encumbrance of flash pan and developed into smaller and frizzen. however. The familiar lock configuration mainspring ahead of the hammer predominated and became known simply as the "Side Lock. striker. thus. horizontally on the side of the barrel. making for a very compact and streamlined arm. except that neither cheap nor simple. This gun is available in several models as this is written.

spur-trigger derringer. Modern Hopkins & to the Allen Understriker rifle which is identical basic lock form used during the true percussion period. with most of the hammer enclosed. . \ The Box Lock.and bacl<-action locks as found on modern production percussion muzzle-loading pistols. became popular for small concealable pistols such as this brassbarrel.Lock Types & 37 Ignition Systems Typical side. The same forms are found in rifles and smoothbores.

As such. then the cap containing the striker or firing pin is screwed over it snugly. They are conversions of early breech loaders. though some shooters prefer to pin or otherwise secure the breech block permanently in the closed position to prevent inadvertent removal of the cartridge case. A boss or bolster is secured to the barrel. A wide variety of new guns. Such units are invariably custom-built to widely varying designs and may be seen at almost any major muzzle loading bench-rest match. backward in time. the nipple is replaced by the device above. it has evolved directly from the latter to meet a specific need. counterbored and threaded for a housing containing the primer and firing pin. complete kits. And. and even handles may be used. especially since Turner Kirkland sells new locks of this type. This case is essential to the conversion because it provides proper obturation. are actually used by black rd say all just powder of buffs today. In recognition of such taste. a decapped fired cartridge case fitting the original chamber is seated and the breech block closed. lots of people lean toward the flint Kentucky rifle and pistol. — — them Well. A primer is placed in the shallow recess. The hammer face is then altered to suit either cap or primer. With this accomplished. it is left out primarily because originals are too scarce and valuable. Flint and percussion arms we see in profusion at every shoot. Primer locks are almost invariably custom-made by the shooter or his gunsmith and they take several forms. Snaphances show up occasionally. muzzleloaders for fun shooting. new ones are too costly and difficult to make. Cleaning is simplified if an easily (but not accidentally) removable split pin is used to secure the breech block shut. Some designs use a swinging or hinged piece carrying the firing pin rather than the threaded cap shown. The action may then be opened to allow cleaning from the breech. Since this housing must be removed to replace the fired primer. In short. Oriental matchlocks aren't too hard to come by in shooting shape. of tion of the wheellock. a block containing a recess for a standard pistol primer. we have competitions in which powder buffs today as is only flintlocks are allowed. if you can't find an original. This type retains several disadvantages of the original caplock-long. Though the primer lock is a far cry from the traditional percussion lock. again. to furnish cheap In the Primer Lock. most common with mule ear and center-hung box lock following in that The under-striker form seems order. virtually every basic type of muzzle loader ever made and that takes us back roughly seven centuries is still shot for fun by people like you. The the —thumbnail-size history of the flint itself pieces of stone that for centuries sparked the entire firing . One such conversion is carried out on large-caliber Remington Rolling Block rifles. one is quite simple to make. The gun may be fired as a percussion muzzle loader at this point.— Shooter's Bible Black 38 Several other Powder Guide modern percussion lock types exist and deserve some mention. interrupted threads. slow hammer fall and angle turn the primer flash must traverse particularly common — a right- so is not or popular. All three utilize a single. and both new and original parts are available from several sources. Some are constructed so that the primer may be pre-crushed seated under a specified. — — Flintlock shooting isn't popular as among black more reliable and convenient percussion ignition system. Even so. The nipple or nipple and bolster is replaced by ignition systems. order to write a story about it. Hammers and internal lockwork are almost invariably designed to function in the least possible time producing minimum lock time. A typical percussion hammer then strikes the firing pin to explode the primer. And. The original hammer may be top of the primer taining a short firing is altered slightly to strike the firing pin to detonate the primer. them arc with the possible excepAnd. This allows less chance of throwing a shot off in that fraction of a second after the sear releases but before the bullet departs the muzzle. uniform load to increase its sensitivity. But. and also to draw the charge when that becomes necessary or desirable. The firing pin is removed from the breech block which is then fitted with either a conventional nipple or some form of primerlock. With all this rambling discussion of lock types and you may wonder how many The most basic is a modification of a conventional caplock. Kirkland will sell you an original lock and a new barrel if you just can't get along without one and are willing to expend time and effort to assemble them into a complete gun. straight vent leading directly from the primer to the propelling charge. we certainly can't ignore it. I know of only one man who has shot a wheellock and he did it in On screwed a closing block conpin. Cannon locks are seen at every artillery shoot.

where or how the first flints were produced. Major sources were found near Brandon. Since it was invented sometime in the 16th Century. Above photo on 1" grid to show size. These people were concentrated at the sites of commercially profitable flint deposits and the skill was passed from one with skill in readily available father to son for No many generations. as mentioned elsewhere. flints (more properly called "gunflints. but good supplies of the proper type of flint were rare and there were only a few families and groups with sufficient rare skill in "knapping" the big nodules into usable gunflints. — metals could produce a gun from raw materials. and Indre. a single piece could last for only relatively few shots at best. France. rounded nodules weighing or more. Savenham. flint.Lock Types & cycle — more than is didn't use 39 Ignition Systems a little interesting. sold as curiosities by Dixie Gun Works. The nodules shown are purposely small. and might fall to pieces on the very first. . Mindenhall. Anyyears. Those from which the knappers shape gunflints weigh 20 pounds or more. The Snaphance was the first firearms ignition mechanism to use flint as a producer of heat. Relatively large deposits existed apparently resulting from the great glacial northern Europe eons ago. up to 40 as float. gunflints became an important item more so than guns themselves. the first "flints" may well have been made from chert nodules. Loire et Cher. and Tudenham in England and at Yonne. In fact. It was often used in lieu of flint for tools one knows just in stone-age times. drifts of lbs. but undoubtedly some residual knowledge of stone tool-making figured in shaping the first ones. Wheellock arms Iron pyrites. for in its of commerce lifetime a gun might consume thousands of flints. Flint occurs in irregular." as pointed out in "Encyclopedia of Firearms") became indispensable to arms users the world over and remained so for about 250 — As such. Being rather friable (easily crumbled). Chert is quite similar to flint and occurs in the same form and under much the same conditions. Small natural flint nodules as they come from the pits. provided the spark.

the "gunspall". the flint blade as struck from the nodule. "gnawed" flint of French type. to be broken along dotted lines to produce plain Enplish-tvpe flints as shown at lower right. The added simplicity of the latter type is clearly evident.Shooter's Bible Black 40 Top. lower left. Powder Guide . middle.

A broken across at intervals to produce as many as a flints in less time than required to trim one or two spalls to shape and size. and hotter spark. In 1789. properly-struck blade could be durable gunflints. and either end could be expected to strike a good shower of sparks. for all practical purposes. Other countries possessed of any is have developed and exploited them for their own use. Excavations of battle sites show the French type outnumbering the angular. While some flints are used by atavistic gun buffs on the Continent. France was more active than England in the world flint trade. yellow French flints in their — musket-cocks. in Poland. if the small supply ever completely disappears. Spain. of Peoria. Even today. or even quickly. somewhat less brittle than flint. demand for flints ballooned. but consumed more time. makes them from Montana Agate which is a very hard. They work squatting on the chip- covered ground. Holland. flintlock arms will be found in use by many primitive tribes." "Medium. and other lucrative interesting to note that British and American troops faced each other during our Revolutionary War both with gnawcd-heel. there are other materials that would be suitable but Les and his flintlock compadres say Agate is the best they've tried thus far. France is reported to have had over 30. The true traditionalist. much supplying that country. black British flints 9-to-l. both sites are reported to have been operating in a well-organized manner before 1700. and Africa. might well be reluctant to fire his musket. as well preferring iron and steel. Muskets took the largest about 1" wide. The former consisted of the blade segment untrimmcd. documentary evidence that France domiflint trade through 1800. and will last many times longer than the original. In fact. the bulk of Brandon's output is shipped to the U. Doubtless. while Russia was producing at the meager rate of 45.— Lock Types & 41 Ignition Systems The knapper wasn't interested in stone knives. As the flintlock became universally accepted for both military and sporting use. British knappers enjoyed reasonable prosperity until roughly the period of WWI. Reference is often found in the writings of the 1 8th Century campaigners to shortage or plenty of flints and the effect it had upon their actions. Shooters have reported a life in excess of 200 . The French type had one end trimmed and rounded after gunspall fashion. the flint most sporting rifles and pistols. It is American States. Today knapping isn't entirely a lost art. By the middle of the 1 8th Century. his Brown Bess or Charleville became nothing more than poor club and a worse significant deposits of suitable flint are certain to pike. this technique had been well developed resulting in the conventional half-dozen "standard" gunflint forms familiar to us yet today British and French. resting a nodule on a stake and steadying it between leather-aproned knees while plying the knapper's hammer with precision and regularity."' "Large.A. Dependable supplies were a must. virtually all flints used in the Americas came from the hands of British knappers. If that last flint failed. but whether as nodules or finished gunflints is open to conjecture.000 per month. Virtually all the world's supply of natural gunflints comes from a handful of English knappers near Brandon. then break them into usable flints. should be as wide as the widest part of the cock jaws. The common soldier was usually issued flints in the proportion of 1 even though conper 20 rounds of powder and ball — "a good flint will last for more than fifty fires. it could be reversed in the cock to provide a second striking edge when the first wore out. with a sprinkling elsewhere. Then.000. but French and British flints became. the World's supply. after which canny British merchants began to get their share." and "Small" flint sizes evolved. and then their fortunes declined rapidly. A soldier down to his last flint. by the close of the flintlock period around 1850. neater flint. They were shipped in barrels to wherever firearms were in use and were as essential to war (ever a popular pastime in those days. substitute (if we may call them that) flints produce a better. as. the fellow who tans and sews his own buckskins and smokes willowbark in his hand- made pipe will insist on natural flints for his presentday shooting. modern technology has provided ready substitutes. With care. Les Bodell. But. Russia reported to have obtained its flint from Podolia.000 flints in stock. Historians and archcologists have found that in the War of 1812. dense stone. as now) as powder and lead. Though the flintlock era may be said to have ended by the middle of the 19th Century. Illinois. The became pits) British and French areas already mentioned open centers of organized flint mining (from and knapping. only half of the flints used by British troops the rest being the home-grown came from France product. but very few practice it. while the %" wide medium size sufficed for shotguns and some rifles. Military demand by the major powers did cease to exist during the period armies were re-equipped or There is nated the world — converted to percussion ignition. a smaller flintlock market existed and was exploited extensively. However. even if it be fresh and unused. Actually. There they still strike razor-edged blades from blackish flint nodules. demand for gunflints by no means died out entirely.S. They are saw-cut to precise shape and can be had to fit almost any size and type flintlock. markets. This produced a sturdier. but rather in those long flint the newly freed blades of the proper cross-section to make strong. Small flints measured about temporary writings state that Vs" wide and fitted Generally.

a new system wiped out one which had endured for 250 years. Then. Though far from perfect. tion is the A mentioned. shiny percussion cap with which we prime our muzzleloaders. his true to awarded an surviving relatives. etc. heat and pressure will crack the agate. As natural flints become harder to get. Others attempted to copy and improve upon it but were preor at least seriously hindered. it seems logical to use agate for regular shooting. prevented the changeover from coming at least a decade Alexander John Forsyth. there to be struck by the hammer to fire the piece.Shooter's Bible Black 42 fires. John Pitt. Forsyth's invention is called the "Scent Bottle Lock" for that reason. English Brandons for whatever the future might hold. that resistance to change. this is a most remarkable accomplishment. this was the first percussion ignition system of any practical value. and they should at least be examined briefly. Today when "percussion" Powder Guide deficient. to conduct secret experiments in the Tower of London. The fulminate magazine resembled the bottles of scent or perfume used by the bathless ladies of the day. earlier. Ignition in that system is produced by sparks struck when the flint slides or family. developed a magazine device that placed small quantities of fulminate adjacent to the arm's touch-hole. Forsyth patented this system of percussion ignition and formed Alexander Forsyth and Company. Forsyth's work launched the percussion ignition sys- tem. to im- prove their downwind impression. after his death that same august body. There. we tend to think only of the small. and by the early 1 820"s the percussion cap had been patented and placed in production. Flint ignition had reigned supreme for over 2V2 centuries. Otherwise. second Earl of Chatham. the cap was preceded by other forms of percussion ignition. As is and appreciation of too late to do him any recognition accomplishments came all personal good. is a percussion instrument or mechanism. with virtually no misfires due to poor sparking. No doubt some of the ceramic materials produced today would make ideal flint substitutes. by Forsyth vented. these patches gave reliable ignition and were waterproof an area in which Forsyth's sys- — tem was grievously in By of chemistry and mechanical arts and cussion ignition system. patents. the Maynard tape primer. The patchlock primer was further developed in form to become the Lawrence disc primer and. skids along a roughened steel surface. and the "Patch Lock" developed. propelling charge belongs in the "percussion ignition" system may seem to fit the same definition but does not. In reality. does the work. 10 Piccadilly. by 1807. easily-produced "flint" for the day when the last Brandon knapper lays down his hammer. After the British army switched to percussion ignisome years later. stagnated within the system's considerable limitations. an Agate flint simply wears down without significant chipping of the deenshire. Lord Moira. Considering the resistance to change typical of the early 19th Century. the House of Commons awarded Forsyth 200 pounds credit for inventing the system. Beginning there in 1806. London. bish" had been ejected from the sterling in recognition of his pioneer the development of a reliable work that resulted percussion ignition system. (1807) a reasonably safe and reliable percussion ignition system appeared. in less than 40 years. "percussion" (from the Latin "per- means Anything used or caused to function by being struck as drums. The passage of another score of years saw the percussion cap eclipse the flint entirely. wet wheel is occasionally. Thus. Forsyth was belatedly granted though he and his "rubTower by Lord Moira's successor. he was also a well informed and inquiring person not averse unknown. Later. an agate flint may be edge. for all practical purposes. black. However. and gun development had. a Scotsman from Aberwas an ardent sportsman frustrated by wild- fowling misses he definition. while hoarding a good supply of fine. restored to usefulness by "sharpening" the edge. in the first decade of the 19th Century. It only remains for some black powder buff familiar with these materials to do a little research. The — flint in minister of the Gospel. many say it "seems faster" than not percussion. when made in a long strip containing multiple spots of fulminate. Though ignition time hasn't When wear has progressed to the point that not enough sparks are produced. and for "showing off" grit. cutere") inefficiencies accomplished skills. particularly among military minds. In 1839. Both saw considmetallic . of fulminates made It utilized into discs or cakes tween layers of waterproof paper. been checked with sophisticated instruments. even today's superb metallic cartridges use the perignition attributed to flintlock ignition. with natural flints. to probing the highly sensitive fulminates reported He obtained sufficient political support to be allowed by the British Master General of Ordnance. friction. Actually. cymbals. any ignition system depending upon a sharp blow to initiate an explosive which then fires the to strike smartly or violently. small quantities and sealed be- Placed next the touch hole or over a short perforated nipple and struck by the hammer. to produce guns utilizing it for general sale. A few more years. Others saw the Scent-Bottle's shortcomings. I'll wager he can come up with a cheap.. evidently suffering pangs of conscience. When properly seated in the cock. A fine- used and plenty of cooling water. Percussion ignition changed firearms' history and development virtually overnight. he had. He began experiments with upon earlier by one Edward Howard. Consequently. additional 1000 pounds the usual case.

short tube of soft metal (usually pure copper) closed and waterproofed at the ends. lock"). tough. there is considerable evidence that the percussion cap had also been developed in England. of the tube lock utilized an oversized nip- deep recess into which the primer fitted upper end was then struck by the hammer. a French patent on this device was issued to one Prelate. The Tube Lock was contemporary to the Pill Lock. The hammer nose was shaped to crush the alike. In 1819. Though perhaps superior in waterproofness and ease of handling. The depression might be in a nipple. Called the "Tube Lock. and flame flashed through to ignite the propelling charge. or rough handling was likely to dislodge the primer as often happened with loose or patched fulminate. They were then coated with wax. Purdey. loss during award was left to the discretion of the Secretary . this in diameter and a bit less than 1" in length. Manton next placed the fulminate loosely in a thin. — This type had disadvantages most obvious of which was the fulminate residue and copper fragments which could prevent insertion of a fresh primer after only a single firing. Unfortunately. arms in the a layer or wafer of fulminate inside its closed end. pellet in the depression to detonate it. This. It in toy survives today "cap pistols. The hammer struck the closed end of the cup. (sometimes called "pill Fulminate was rolled wet into small spherical or egg-shape pellets. This The pellet lock made revolving repeating arms practical." this primer was laid in a trough or notch over the flash hole. to waterproof them. Hawkes. it was more costly and didn't represent much of an advantage over pills or pellets. was granted a percussion cap patent in 1822. The pellet could be stuck firmly in its depression with pitch or wax rubbed over it. Government use of his invention. S. Neither saw significant use in the One form Its United States. this "Percussion Cap" was to prove to be the greatest single development in the history of firearms until the advent of the self-contained metallic cartridge. Egg. These pellet primers were then placed over the touch hole in a fairly close-fitting depression. yet this did not cup was inverted and placed over a perforated nipple proper functioning. In the United States. and others of that country are known to have done work on caps and all hotly denied that Shaw's cap preceded theirs. The walls of the cup were springy. its most practical form form of the percussion cap as we know it today. These patents covered a copper (or other soft metal) cup containing Percussion ignition achieved for non-cartridge The Pill Lock or Pellet Lock utilized a cone-sliape hammer nose to crush a pellet of fulminate that was placed in a recess in barrel or bolster.000 as full compensation for all U. and sized so ment or enough to prevent move- ple containing a rough handling of the arm. British-born artist and dentist.Lock Types & Ignition Systems erable use in the in the American Civil noise-making "caps" used Contemporary 43 War. despite the fact that the French patents of nearly two years earlier were not unknown here. much more so than the pellet-lock. But the pellet-lock was short-lived. it detonated. Significant among pellet locks was the Joseph Manton patent of 1816. it was patented in France by Deboubert. or even foil. or simply sunk into the barrel over the chamber. rain. the two French patentees have received very little credit for their work. The amount of on end. In addition. Shaw was granted an award by the 29th Congress in the amount of $18. confining the fulminate over the flash hole. Struck at mid-point by the hammer nose. The tube lock was widely used in England and Europe. In a very short time. varnish. This design gave certain ignition under all conditions." was the pellet lock. Joshua Shaw. the tube burst. and the two arc much to the patchlock. The Manton version (others soon produced similar primers) was approximately 1/16" as to grip the nipple tightly interfere with its or cone. detonating the fulminate inside to flash through and ignite the propelling charge in the barrel. In another form. This feature also added to the reliability of any arm in that neither wind.

The flange was solid on some. obturating. a cap made today is indistinguishable from one turned out at Frankford Arsenal 130 years ago. Physically. the award was granted on the basis of a report made to congress by F. brass-case cartridge of 1812. It the American others "ribbed. and yet none of them had proven even remotely acceptable for field use. Oddly enough. W. and obsoleted the percussion cap. Large sizes for miUtary use were called "musket" caps and had an outward flange at the open end. L. The first metallic cartridge began with the Swiss Johannes Samuel Pauley's centerfire. amount from the $12. Small sizes for pistol and sporting use had no flange. the bloodiest percussion cap clearly established its in history.000 was paid 4 May. The Colt revolver and its many imitators depended upon caps almost entirely for its reliability. Risque that no American or European percussion cap patents existed before 1822. It is just a simple soft metal cup containing a layer of detonating compound to be crushed against the nipple and ignited. who unaccountably Powder Guide raised the the walls of the cup contained shallow accordion-style. 1847. the supremacy. mrr The percussion cap of today differs not a wfiit meclianicaliy from ttiose in use a hundred or more years ago. The percussion caps we use today differ only in that they are made faster on more modern automatic machinery and that pure fulminates are replaced by modern. The percussion cap had developed into two basic forms by the 1840's. being simple. This has already been shown to be completely erroneous and causes one to wonder just how accommodated worn or oddcould be made slightly undersize. did do considerable the percussion cap in the United States. Revolvers had been designed around nearly every earlier ignition system." In the latter. and speed of reloading. Regardless of whom is given credit for its development. =^^30 It Wesson and Henry rimfire by the end of the War had completely out-classed and cartridge of the late American open cups. Smooth caps had to be rather carefully matched to nipple diameter to avoid looseness or splitting when pressed in place. Apparently. the percussion cap made reliable repeating arms possible. man's ingenuity was accelerating. This design . The full $18. and the percussion cap was eclipsed almost in the hour of its glory. open cups were stamped from thin sheet or strip copper in a single operation on a punch press. rapidity of fire.500 recommended by the Ordnance Office. Risque either did not bother to investigate the matter.Shooter's Bible Black 44 of War. W. After cleaning and pickling. he was employed at Frankford Arsenal in production and further development of the cap. This produced a completely waterproof cap that would fire reliably under all weather conditions. or else deliberately ignored the earlier patents for reasons we'll never know. It is on known that Shaw work For a time. But in the proving ground of Risque could possibly have overlooked two French patents and evidence of English developments. Over this was pressed a disc of foil or waterproof paper which might then be sealed with a drop of varnish or lacquer. size nipples the best. Marcy. yet expand easily to pass over nipples of varying size and still stay securely in place. Reportedly. Some were smooth. ceptability with the Smith Civil & reached practical ac- 1850's. split on others. In production. the cups were held mouth-up and a small amount of wet fulminate paste pressed against the inside of the closed end. Civil War. non-corrosive detonating compounds. vertical folds.

CHARGES AND LOADS FOR MUZZLE-LOADING FIREARMS Blackpowder ffffg granulations. CHARGES FOR RIFLES. occasionally. By sim- 25% you will If no standard charge data for your particular gun is available. but such behavior is not entirely universal. The finest granulation ffffg is for very small-caliber pistols and priming powder in flintlocks. and the coarsest and ffffg the finest. let's first take a look at what might transpire after you walk out of the store the proud possessor of a new front loader. then use the following chart. when starting with a used or original gun. While both old and modern muzzle loaders have an entirely ample mechanical safety factor designed and built into them. some load recommendation is supplied with the gun.iiit H SELECTION. Seeking to make your gun "safer" by using an excessive proof load is to simply run a much greater risk of damaging a gun that might very well have passed the 125% proof. centerfire breech loader. Consequently. The more reputable importers and dealers will make this known when they offer such guns for sale. The majority of modern muzzle loaders are manufactured in foreign countries that have quite rigid proof laws. mainte- nance and occasional repairs essential. it is entirely adequate. is now Fg is available in fg. we must be absolutely certain that it is safe for use. All guns offered today by reputable importers and distributors have been proved by the manufacturer or by the official government proof house of the country in which they were made. and you do not know that the gun has been proofed. On top of this. if the purchase is your first. ffg. they are manufactured of relatively soft metals and possess sents a inherent characteristics that make frequent detail yourself. we have to guard against the deterioration that will reduce their accuracy. undamaged condition. In addition. guns that do pass this proof firing are required to be stamped with a symbol indicating that they have been so fired and inspected afterward and determined to be in safe. out excessive crushing. AND MAINTENANCE Care and maintenance of muzzle-loading guns prenumber of problems that you will not encounter in the modern. Choice of granulation depends in general on caliber and type of gun. prudence dictates that you attend to this ply increasing where powder space is available. low-priced muzzle loaders that have not been proofed will show up on the market. fffg. limited the recommended powder charge by have assembled a workable proof load. There is no need to exceed the 25% increase just mentioned. regardless of type. simply use all of the powder that can be accommodated in the chamber withIn the case of revolvers or screw-barrel pistols. MUSKETS. Generally speaking. AND HANDGUNS Gun Kentucky Rifle Caliber Weight of Blackpowder Powder Granulation . Since modern muzzle loaders are in plentiful supply and quite economically priced. must be test-fired with heavier-than-normal charges and survive that firing undamaged before it can be offered for sale. Not only do we have to maintain guns in safe operating condition. This is not difficult to do. These laws require that every firearm. REPAIR. However.

46 LOADS FOR MUZZLE-LOADING SHOTGUNS Shooter's Bible Black Powder Guide .

down to nipple or flash hole. the charge must be "drawn. the barrel fect order. Most penetrants are highly volatile and. that it is a well hammer upward so violently as to damage the You may be reluctant to spend much time in repairs before proofing. The gun was held vertical. sound. the metal parts have been checked thor- the barrel transfer the bulk of the recoil loads. when the penetrant is Inciden- poured out of the barrel. it was not uncommon for a muzzle loader to be put away containing powder charge and bullet or shot. a good idea to clean the bore thoroughly with solvent and oil lightly. it may easily evaporate before you see it if you allow 15 or 30 minutes to pass between examinations. may split the stock. Drawing the guns. However. therefore. a substantial length of dowel or rod that will go easily into the bore) and drop it into the bore until it comes to rest against whatever may be at the bottom. When a new acquisition is found to be loaded. except for a cap on the nipple. lacking access to such and pour it full of a penetrant such as "Mistic Metal Mover. if a clear. the gun should first be completely disassembled and carefully inspected for any visible defects of wood or metal. it . it's — The old-timers' off-quoted barrel testing procedure consisted of hanging the tube by a string and striking it sharply with a small to the story. and turned out to be loaded. Make a mark on the rod at the muzzle. The breech plug and rear surface of if not perfectly fitted to wood. your gun shows no defects resulting from the proofing. Applying pounds air pressure by means of an expanding neoprene nipple clamped to the muzzle is about the slight pressure to the penetrant at the a few only practical way of accomplishing this. Because of the difficulty of withdrawing the charge. called "springing" the rammer. thud-like if On the other hand. back pressure may blow oughly. and this should be done immediately before any further shooting is undertaken. But. Of course. This applies particularly to nipples. tial gun the if necessary to is to pass proof. a surprising number of old guns remain loaded. Since only a very small amount will seep through the cracks. The process may be speeded up by lightly tapping at random points on the barrel. more likely than not the former. breech plugs. the length from the rod extends arm to shoot. Any necessary repairs should be accomplished before proofing. Speaking of bore debris. If after all of this. They may be easily repaired as outlined elsewhere. Sound barrels will bell-like ring resulted. Simply take the ramrod (or in the absence of same. services. and modern gun.— Selection. Some seepage around the breech plug can be accepted if the plug is secure. but those repairs may be essen- the lock. the rammer struck a bullet or powder charge. or bolsters in badly eroded condition. If. It is easy to determine if the gun is loaded. Repair naked the to & Maintenance 47 However. Proofing may well blow a loose nipple skyhigh. Seems it must have been loaded for over a hundred years. but don't use it to check out used and worn. Or. suppose that the gun you are using is an original that's been around 75 or 100 years. this far. or for that matter. If it struck the bare gave off a clear sharp sound of uncushioned metal-to-metal contact. but so will cracked. Many a gun carried home from the Civil War has been disrust covered in recent years to be fully loaded. It add that a thorough should hardly be cleaning should accompany the pre-proofing inspection. if the passage be badly eroded and considerably oversized. Or. on the other hand. tally. The lock recesses should also be inspected carefully for damage. you may rest assured that it is safe for normal powder charges and bullet weights. but examination procedures unloaded. stand the barrel upright highly efficient The penetrant will find its way through cracks too small to be visible. its impact was cushioned and a dull thud was heard. Any leakage of penetrant through the barrel walls is cause for scrapping that barrel immediately. Several accidental firings and some injuries have been attributed to such long-ago-loaded One my hands a few years ago. In any event. or by applying muzzle. You can go ahead and use this trick to amuse ring clearly. was sound and in pertest. and the steel or iron ramrod was dropped freely into the muzzle. According the barrel gave off a dead. withdraw the rod. This is not a valid some that are badly flawed or The dead sound does indicate a bad barrel but the ringing does not necessarily indicate a good barrel. take a close look at the stock. Chipping and splitting do not force scrapping of the stock. evaporate very rapidly. leave a protective coating." eye. others do not rust can develop rather rapidly in the case of the latter. Proofing and will remain the same as those just outlined. your friends a barrel if you you intend After all like." face of the breech plug. continuous examination of the entire barrel and breech plug surface for evidence of the penetrant leaking through is emphasized. Howmud-dauber nests and lost marbles have been found in barrels more often than you might think. the gun is If it lacks significantly in reaching either loaded or clogged with debris some sort. as such guns passed from frequent usage. and that all and other debris should be removed from the bore. was flawed. it goes without saying that the nipple or flash hole has to be securely plugged for a penetrant test. it hammer or knife butt. Some penetrants. Soldiers of the percussion and flintlock era used another method of determining whether their muskets were loaded. Eventually. of ever. flintlock fuzee came into charge produced wadding in the form of fragments of a French newspaper bearing a date in 1848. any other time one of your guns is loaded and it shouldn't be. they were put away loaded. and measure If its is mark to tip alongside the barrel. Check carefully for any splitting or chipping in the area contacted by the breech plug.

— — revolvers. there is no point in differentiating between them in regard to disassembly instruction. Whether it be old or modern. they can be separated part from part with little if any more difficulty than a gun fresh from a factory. Loosen the powder charge with a nipple prick or piece of wire. In the case of a gun that has not been loaded for a long period of time and whose barrel is reasonably clean. This causes the points of the The worm to dig into the soft lead of the projectile. Make you know which parts must be removed or you may very well damage some irreplaceable component. and pour the it out through the nipple opening. the overshot wadding is easily penetrated by a worm or screw. It isn't that the worm won't get a good grip on the but the end of the ramrod does not offer sufficient purchase to apply the power necessary to draw out a badly stuck ball. This creates no particular problems in the case of a reasonably clean. Of course. the first step (after visual inspection and making certain it isn't loaded) in determining that a gun is safe and shootable. With an old gun or a particularly stubborn ball. The wad may be rusted tight to the bore. The ramrod. once the charge is completely removed. at least much trouble. These are just a few of those available from Dixie Gun Works and other sources. Charges may be drawn from revolvers through the barrel by use of the worm. The same may be said of the filler and over-powder wads. some added help. it job to get that ball out. consists of complete disassembly. Often firing two or three rounds will clean out the residue of the original lodged wads. or even water is poured into the bore to provide lubrication. Age alone has little bearing difficult to Worms and ball screws take many forms. I've encountered modern percussion revolvers a few years old that were so clogged by rust and abuse that their disassembly was a major operation. it simply makes the ball grip the bore more tightly than ever. drawing out the the ball. insert a piece of steel rod that will just pass through the threaded nipple hole. but we'll get into that shortly. is dropped down the barrel. man ball. Since modern muzzle-loading guns are identical in design and configuration to those of a century or more passed. A transverse hole drilled through the rammer head to allow a stiff piece of drill rod to be inserted offers a much improved grip. Even in a much-abused. A careful visual inspection certain that is first in order.Shooter's Bible Black 48 traditional tool for this purpose is the "worm. if not easy. you simply pull out the bullet by drawing out the ramrod. but this is really doing it the hard way. and rotated clockwise while being held tightly against the bullet. With some makes of revolvers. The ramrod is bounced hard against the ball several times. or making it that way. and unscrew the nipple(s) from the offending chamber(s). Once a good purchase is obtained. Even with but for twisting the this worm into becomes a twoInstead of the worm. I have known Kentucky Rifle stocks to be broken in attempts to remove the barrel simply because a single barrel pin had been overlooked. On the other hand. I worm. Consequently. then driving the ball out the breech by means of a long. the cylinder need not even be removed. unscrewing the breech plug. with the worm in place. While this does obtain a much tighter grip on the ball. present a gun design dictates. wood screw soldered to a bushing that shooters use a on screws to the end of the ramrod. but can be broken up sufficiently to get the shot out without difficulty. Drawing the charge from a muzzleloading shotgun normally presents no problem whatever. We'll start from then scratch long guns and single-shot pistols first how tightly the ball may be stuck. though their greater combined thicknesses makes it a bit more break them up if they will not slide freely in the bore. Simply remove the cylinder by whatever method old. it also results in the ball being expanded tightly against the interior of the bore. This method is absolutely certain to work. For example. and use it as a punch to drive the ball forward out of the chamber. bore-sized rod inserted through the muzzle. no matter One frequently encounters Civil War Era guns that have been kept clean and well lubricated for their entire life. drawing the charge worm is. However. Often a stubborn ball can be drawn more easily if penetrating oil. if the with a too fouled when that particular bullet possible without bore was badly was rammed. causing the screw point to start a hole. prefer not using the 3 Powder Guide removal of the breech plug might problem. light oil. first. Quite often it is very difficult to disassemble such guns without damaging them." It normally takes the form of a sort of double corkscrew attachment which screws onto the end of the ramrod. fragments of wads clinging to the bore walls must be scraped out if the next round is to be more than indifferently loaded. . considerable time and profanity can usually be saved by dismantling the gun. long-loaded gun. The nipple can be unscrewed and the rod inserted following the capping groove or clearance cut. After this. but otherwise. not only for bullet. pouring out the powder charge. smooth bore with a fresh load. In the case of an this difficult disassembly. and then rotated clockwise while under pressure to turn the screw into the ball. neglected gun. or if the load has been in place any great length of time.

the barrel may be lifted free of the stock. run penetrating oil down the barrel . When you have carried succeeded in loosening each of the exposed screws Va to V2 turn. surfaces. saturate with light oil which can be working while you proceed with further disassembly. If the metal is heavily rusted where covered by wood. all but the most stubborn screws. providing sufficient slot remains by which to turn them. The pin may be driven out easily enough. Lay the barrel and tang aside. freeing the tang. Repair & Maintenance 49 A clean gun is going to be easier to disassemble. then fitted with a solid breech plug/tang or is to the stock. repeat the penetrant and rapping treatment. Keys and wedges must be examined very carefully to make sure no hidden retaining devise is sheared off in driving them out. If a screwhead breaks or the shank twists in half. Let set an hour or so. Ufting the barrel muzzle. While applying downward pressure on the driver with the press spindle. If they still don't move freely. wedges. Do not use a drill large enough to spoil the threads into which the screw is turned. Unless they break loose with relative ease. the accumulated debris of years can be washed out. further securing it to the stock. The tang screw must be turned out of its engagement with the trigger plate and drawn clear. stiff bristle — insert the screwdriver bit in the slot. When made of iron or steel. hammer the driver sharply with a small and strike several times. I find carbon tetrachloride best. save them to later be glued carefully back into place. If so. give them another shot of penetrating oil and turn them back in finger tight. Now. By going up in small steps. this screw passes through a reinforced portion of the tang or breech plug. barrel resists being lifted at the muzzle. rotate the chuck by hand to break the screw loose. fails. a screwdriver bit in a drill press. As the barrel Ufts from the stock. By squirting a jet of carbon tet under the band spring. be very cautious that it does not peel out large splinters of wood that are adhering tightly to the metal. Carefully centerpunch the remains and drill through with a bit whose diameter about half that of the screw shank. Elevate the muzzle. or during the period of time you were waiting for the screws to soak loose. Apply a good grade of penetrating oil or rust-freeing penetrant such as "Liquid Wrench" or "Mistic Metal Mover. and use this to do the scrubbing. Any attempt to loosen a stuck screw is certain to produce damage unless the slot for the driver can be used to its full depth. allowing the spring to be depressed. With everything cleaned up take screwdrivers that fit the screw slots perfectly and make a tentative try at loosening the individual screws. It is far more practical to take several days in freeing a screw than to break it off and have to drill out and replace it. destroying the slot.Selection. Spring catches often cannot be depressed far enough to allow the band to be moved because of debris filling the clearance cut under them. Don't get in a rush. Utilize scrapers filed from brass to very carefully clean all debris and rust out of screw head slots. — — you may discover if a sporting gun has a "patent breech. after a reasonable period of time this treatment all external small. and the breech plug will disengage from the tang and At arm — this point. frequently repeated. Next. try again. Bands are usually retained by a spring catch or pin. slot or clean cut-off disc to cut a If all else fails. Don't let the wood soak up water wet the brush. take a brass drift and rap the head of each screw smartly two or three times to aid the penetrant. keys. this treatment will loosen cutting slitting new saw or abrasive up the old one. that your the entire barrel may be lifted out of the stock. The next from the stock. Try again. keys and wedges are often rusted in position and must be given the penetrating oil/tapping treatment to break them loose. go no further or you'll ruin the heads. chuck with the gun clamped to the press table. a drilling job is in order. work carefully with a thin. Open this hole up with successively larger drills until the screw remnants can be picked out. Several days of this treatment. don't force it is If the either rusted tight it. If screw fragments can't then be picked out of the thrreads. In the event you encounter a screw whose slot is so badly chewed up as to be unusable. apply it to both places generously. This debris usually consists of dust and dirt mixed with oxidized oil and grease and can be dissolved or softened by repeated applications of carbon tetrachloride or good solvent. a point can be reached where the bit just touches the threads without harming them. or one whose head was filed smooth in assembly. chase them out with a tap of the correct size. In either case. and/or bands. so scrub the grime and the accumulated grease and oil off both wood and metal with a brush and mild soap. Clean the bore as well as its condition will allow. and try the screws again. Pins are simply driven straight out with a punch of slightly smaller diameter than their own. stir up a good dryish lather on its bristles. If. If any splitting starts. use a hand grinder (such as the Dremel Moto-Tool) with a small metal- Generally." Where both ends of the screw are accessible. Also. With it removed. is sometimes necessary to loosen the screws. locate all barrel retaining devices pins. don't get away and take them aU out. If pieces of wood unavoidably come out with the barrel and tang. sharp-pointed knife blade to separate wood from metal." This means simply that it is fitted with a hook-shaped breeh plug which engages under a separate tang. Go slowly and carefully. take out the step is to free the tang lock plate screw. If the barrel and/or tang still appear to be stuck tightly to the wood. and it may be applied with considerable pressure by means of a syringe and hypodermic needle. is Once the screws have been loosened. thereby. In some guns.

Whichever the case. Generally speaking. Particularly. simply order an Ampco nipple to fit. Check the condition of the nipple threads in the bolster. Often the trigger plate will have been secured in place only by the tang screw. At this time. new one made from an alloy that not erode as rapidly as the older types. lift or two as well. them and you may find entering vertically from beneath. the best treatment for the lock is to drop it into a container of solvent or carbon tetrachloride where for the next few days the many year's where A — accumulation of oil. If so. turn it out. clean up the opposing flats on the nipple with a small file. old-time "monkey wrench" or a large adjustable crescent wrench can be fitted tightly and do a good job. If they are clean. If the sides of the breech plug are parallel and flat.— Shooter's Bible Black 50 it can work on the breech plug threads. few sharp raps on the plug with a brass hammer will assist the oil in penetrating the joint. This should be turned out. The lock is quite Ukely stuck tightly in its mortise. they should also be recut and a larger screw fitted. replaced with a can be soaking dirt loose. only the lock plate screw already mentioned holds the lock in place. the lock screw may be turned in from the right side and used as a handle. in conjunction with the hammer. its The own may it in high in your warp badly from the humidity long. using a carefully fitted wrench on the plug. it is threaded in place. rather than steady pressure. Remove out the trigger guard. but there may be another wood screw or a pin plate. Gently tap the protruding head of the lock screw with a brass hammer to start the lock from its recess. but some of the older types like No. they are available in many sizes and styles from Dixie Gun Works. or threaded to the barrel. Then. If you do not have a wrench that fits correctly. Clamp the barrel tightly between cop- duty per-faced vise jaws. Additional screws may also be found securing the side plate opposite the lock. If either is present. point. Tap very gently around its edges to break it loose being careful to avoid bruising the wood. this it gun has seen much use. and breaking the plug loose by impact. The breech plugs of many older rifles are seemingly in place. The bolster will probably be fitted with a "clean-out" screw running in from the right side. These threads should also be refurbished. best bet fore-end tip and hang At against the wall or stand if weight. order the next larger size nipple and a tap with which to "chase" new threads to fit. sharp. If not. if there are opposed flats on its outer end to fit a wrench. the nipple will very likely require replacement. but the T-Handle type shown here is the most common of modern production. However. a large. and full. Even if the nipple looks "good enough. and also apply some to the external junction of plug and barrel. The secret of their removal having the barrel securely clamped in a heavy- immovably rusted lies in vise. and the conditions of the threads checked. or some splintering will surely take place. In most instances. We'll cover its rejuvenation and/or repair a little farther on. If they are badly worn or chewed up. if necessary. More nipples are ruined by improper fitting wrenches than by any other single cause. At this point. however. At this point. the interior of the bolster should be cleaned and checked to insure that it offers free passage from the nipple and directly into the bore. Removal of the lock is next. there is vertical and/or longitudinal . brazed. The lock must come out squarely. should be turned out and the condition of the threads checked carefully. Watch carefully to insure that the edges of the mortise in the stock are not being splintered. Often this is sufficient to free the lock and cause it to drop out. and rap on the opposite side of the stock with the heel of your hand. Make certain you have a nipple wrench that fits the nipple properly. you may occasionally encounter a reinforcing screw or bolt inserted from either side. slender fore-end Your is is to tie a cord around the somewhere." it should be If the will Nipple wrenches will be found in a wide variety of forms. If. it. 5 above give more leverage for loosening rusted nipples. wood screws Powder Guide The bolster itself may be either welded. If the threads are badly rusted or chewed up. set the stock aside. Turn the gun lock-down. grease. It wor/cs well if properly made. we can get back to the barrel group. having been deprived of support of the stiff barrel. Use an "Ampco" which is noted for its long life. In addition to. to gently work the lock clear of the stock. Fortunately. and Locate the pins securing the trigger guard to the stock. insert the lock screw from the left and turn it into the lock only one or two threads. but this will necessitate fitting a new bolster. One word of caution don't lean it the corner. Once the lock has started moving. remove the trigger area. clamp a small adjustable (crescent) wrench tightly on these flats and unscrew the nipple. dimensioned and hardened. too. Make sure the breech of the barrel overhangs the bench sufficiently so that the wrench used on the plug can be rotated through a full circle. or in place of pins.

Selection. then you'll have to hacksaw a close-fitting or 18" bar of V2" x 1" bound to damage perly from its seat. A the plug. and file and end of a 12" poorly fitted wrench in the may not start it pro- . is -L opening steel. Repair & Maintenance 51 taper to the plug and tang.

As a last resort. but under no cirmunstances should the angles or depth of engagement be changed. and if it does not produce a good shower of sparks from a new flint properly in the jaws of the cock. Alternatively. Percussion revolvers are a somewhat different breed of cat. if it at a half-cock and rotate the cylinder so the solid metal between chambers falls directly under the end of the rammer. and carry with them a of problems. tap over the portion of the barrel through which the base pin passes to assist the penetrating oil in working its way through. Turn out the sear spring screw and remove the spring. then depressing the catch on its right end. first turning out its screw on the left side of the barrel. After all. If luck is with you. Most gunsmiths who do muzzle-loading work will reface and harden a frizzen for a very nominal cost. Pressure on the rammer arm will jack the barrel free of the base pin not stuck too tightly. cock and the sear fully down in the notch. and will bend if overloaded. and the frizzen screw turned out to free that part. If the trigger does not allow full sear engagement. turn out the two bridle screws and lift the bridle off. or you give up. However. Never if it is strike it with a hammer attempting to break the barrel loose from the base pin. until you had done all this work. The sear nose and sear notches in the tumbler can be polished to improve trigger pull. The average black powder buff won't be able to do a great deal to the internal lock parts except to care- clean off rust and replace ill-fitting screws or broken parts. This may seem like an inordinate amount of work to do on a gun that looks pretty good from the outside. If the foregoing fails. Any trigger play that does exist can be taken up in one of two ways. Complete disassembly and thorough cleaning barrel may be drawn resists hand pressure. it can either be filed down. The protruding end of the stud may then either be tapped for a retaining screw or threaded for a lock nut. An trigger plate back in the stock. Once this is done. apply penetrating oil generously through the wedge hole and where the base pin enters the rear of the barrel. set Powder Guide Shooter's Bible Black 52 off the base pin. also freeing the sear. then a special screw must be made and the hole enlarged to fit. Simplest and quickest is to inlet the trigger plate slightly deper into the stock. but A common service re-surfacing and is this may warp the plate. and sear spring. all you need to get the gun talking again is to clean out dirt and grease from the inletting cuts in the stock with carbon tetrachloride and place all of the metal parts back into the wood. you didn't really know that the gun was safe no matter how — good it looked. vigorously . then filed down to give proper sear contact. so we'll take a look at somewhat it first. After all of this. the top jaw and screw of the cock (hammer) must be removed. Next.dence of uneven bearing of the nipple. not excessive free travel of the trigger The trigger should just barely touch the sear arm with the hammer at fullthat there before it is contacts the sear arm. Do not destroy the lip around the hammer face. If the hammer face is pitted and rough. and these should carefully be removed with hard Arkansas stones. thus. While this can be done at home. and the percussion lock disassembly is virtually identical to the foregoing except that the frizzen spring must be compressed and removed. Consequently. Unlatch the rammer arm. repair required to place a flintlock in re-hardening the face of the frizzen. Occasionally screw hole threads in the lock plate will be stripped or badly worn. However. Burrs may be found on the moving parts. Check to make certain engagement of the At the same time. turn the plate over and lock plate. the holes in the lock plate may hole. The best solution is to let one of these gentlemen do the job. complete. since this helps protect one's own face from cap fragments. drive it out with a soft Drive out the small pin drift. it was designed only to seat bullets. Refinishing of the metal and the stock is covered elsewhere in this book. With a fiber hammer. Only hand pressure should be applied to the rammer arm. fully About the only cure for this is to chase the hole out to the next larger size thread that will produce a full- depth thread. is Disassembly of a flintlock alternative is to re-thread the lock plate This completes the essential metal work in thoroughly checking and repairing a well-used muzzleloading shoulder arm. wait and correct this after the gun is completely assembled. Then. Repeat this treatment at frequent intervals until either the barrel comes free. reassemble the lock and place it and the trigger and and eager. the rear of the trigger may be built up by welding or brazing. the first which and then screw different set usually gives the most without enlargement of their holes. insure that the trigger position allows full sear at both half. and tapping it clear of the barrel to the left. and unless you are awfully fast have taken a good many evenings.and full-cock. the results are often far from satisfactory. The Colt design trouble. sear. place the hammer it the internal parts will into a threaded stud over fit be welded up and redrilled. and bring it down so that the rammer contacts the cylinder solidly. The frizzen requires re-surfacing and hardening if it shows deep scratches and gouges from contact with the flint. Only the tumbler remains to be removed from the If it can not be drawn out from the inside of the plate by the fingers. Usually no great amount of enlargement is possible because of the small size of parts such as the bridle. or a shim placed under the trigger plate in the stock. Wait an hour or so and try the rammer again. grind or polish it smooth with a mounted stone in a hand grinder. Remove the barrel wedge. it will is the order of business. retaining the stirrup.

the Remove Turn out bolt break it loose from the barrel. the cylinder should simply fit as snugly as possible and still rotate freely. Toss all the small parts and screws in a container of solvent to soak. If the base pin itself must be replaced. the gun will shoot loose in short order. Check file the chamber mouths for burrs or stone off any that are found. Turn out the mainspring screw and lay both units aside. It is also quite likely to make a dent or two at the rear aluminum drift better than having to drill out of the barrel. trigger the trigger screw and the trigger will drop appears in the hammer recess at the rear of the frame. pressing in bushings. pate any significant amount of shooting. The base pin is the heart of the Colt design. replace the barrel on the base pin and tap the wedge in place. is carefully slide so as to not lose the hand. using successively larger drills so as not to damage the threads in the frame. Lay and carefully the cylinder aside. hammer which is reasonably certain to break the barrel loose from the base pin. the frame tightly in protected vise jaws and place a wood solid under the barrel. is solid. so check carefully to make sure it is tight in the frame. Scrub all of the dirt and debris out of all the frame recesses. Strike the drift sharply with an 8 oz. in either of two ways. fortunately. re- moving wool or fine abrasive cloth in a spun by a portable electric drill. naturally get the to the rear. take a brass or rest and place it solidly against the rear of the barrel where it meets the cylinder. Slide the cylinder off the base pin. Before doing this. and carefully remove them with a countersink if they exist. place the cylinder on determine whether excessive cylinder play exists. then machining the bushings to a slip fit on the base pin. after which the barrel can be clamped in a vise and the ruined base pin twisted to Back and the guard of the mainspring slid off the engages the hammer. Both of is these methods are beyond the capabilities of the aver- age black powder shooter.Selection. These screws same treatment already described for at the One more comes out and disassembly screw. install all new Ampco nipples in the If you is it antici- best to same manner as already described. It may then be drilled out. depress it and rotate the spring sideward to clear the hammer. and then clamp If this fails. then press in a full length sleeve which is then reamed to a slip fit on the base pin. The simplest consists of counterboring the front and rear end of the base pin hole. Looseness can be corrected within the cylinder. and assuming that you got the rammer screw and disassemble that unit from the barrel. If it is loose. and replacement since it's screws are readily best to go ahead and get a complete new set. and seldom will except with a very badly rusted gun. In addition. Clean off any burrs that intrude into any of the recesses. Any competent gunsmith or machinist can do the job without much difficulty and at no real great cost. The remnants of the old base pin must then be chased out of the threads in the frame and a replacement pin carefully fitted. Since there is very little metal between chambers. The alternative is to bore out the hole its full length. Turn out the two screws flanking the hammer that hold the backstrap in place. and There it no specified tolerance for this fit. check carefully for outside dents which bulge into the chamber. — of sources. Screwheads are usually pretty badly battered. If there is any wobble whatever. be very careful not to remove any more metal than is absolutely necessary to clean out rust. may then be Observe where the Turn out spring. This can be avoided by using a shortened version of a shotgun dent remover to force the metal back where it belongs. all nipples. and I do not recommend that the even though new average home mechanic attempt it replacement pins are available from at least a couple available at low cost. back strap recalcitrant fastenings. Remove readily available. Check the muzzle for burrs that intrude into the bore. They will and with nipple probably require replacement if the gun has seen much use. He can then utilize an oversized base pin and fit the cylinder correctly to it. but without any play whatever. complete. After the base pin/cylinder relationship has been taken care of. Scrub the bore and the base pin recess and clean all dirt out of the wedge recess. Rammer screws and catches are often badly worn. and also the single screw spring screw and remove the hammer screw and the hammer down the wrench remove tip off. Then. Base pin and barrel may then be punched out from the rear of the frame. Any deep dent of this sort will result in a very thin rust with steel slotted rod spot in the chamber wall after the chamber is polished. out. it should be drawn up snugly against the frame. replacement parts are to the beginning. that holding the bolt. Repair & Maintenance 53 complete the other stripping. Scrub the chambers thoroughly. This is a job for an expert. Turn out the three screws holding the trigger guard in place and lay it it the barrel off easily. with the alignment pins at the forward end of the frame seating fully in their respective . the head of the base pin should be carefully center-punched where If lower forward corner of the grip. a temporary fix can be accomplished by centerpunching around the perimeter of the pin where it is exposed in the hammer recess at the rear of the If the base pin frame. is hammer and method the drift fails. Pull the one-piece grip those pieces aside. The barrel should be snug without binding on the base pin. but this is the base pin which the only alternative. then the cylinder should be sent with the frame to the smith doing the job.

then you will be far better off by beginning with a new. modern copy bit of time and effort. though the bolt is pivoted to the trigger. . but it is certainly of the original item. Tightening the cylinder tively simple. one simply removes the rammer screw and draws out the rammer. powder charge can compensate oversized gap. Removing a single grip screw allows the grips to be taken off and provides access to the mainspring for its removal. the The barrel. and safe. bolt. and then filing the hole to size and removing a comparable amount of metal from the barrel lug where it contacts the foreward end of the frame. Consequently. making way for the action parts to be removed after their screws are turned out. Accuracy does not suffer significantly from an off. If you haven't the time or inclination to take care of these details. Reassemble the gun completely. the Remington Per- cussion Revolver can be treated as the Colt. with the cylinder as far forward as it will go. albeit. However. Take out the single screw at the forward end of the trigger guard. frame.006". hand. the gap between barrel and cylinder. If these parts all appear serviceable. and preventing any side The work without dragging on the rear face of the barrel. In this manner. On the other hand. rather than separately. cylinder should rotate freely wedge cut in the barrel. should not be more than . the of the saving of a few feet per second in velocity that can be achieved by closing up the barrel/cylinder gap in this manner is not really worth the trouble and expense of the job. or very quickly turn out an oversized replace- ment base pin. them at this time. reliable. the entire barrel can be drawn farther to the rear. and don't concern yourself with chapters concerning refinishing. etc. It can only be done by partially welding the front of the wedge cut in the base pin or the rear rotation. can be lifted free of the frame. trigger. with consider- ably less time and effort involved. the Shooter's Bible Black is brought to full-cock. and bolt spring. Any inder. for this. which then allows the solid modem percus- good However. The Remington design has a Refurbishing an old or well-used sion revolver does involve the expenditure of a more --r^O practical. Generally speaking. Correcting an excessive gap here is rather difficult. It may not be as romantic as shooting a gun that might have been used in the Civil War or one of the Indian campaigns. and cylinder should be given same general treatment as already outlined for the on the base pin is relamachinist can either bush the cyl- Colt. but velocity does drop a slight increase in With barrel and cylinder matched back to the frame. check the hammer. and function well enough to index and lock the cylinder positively when hammer Powder Guide Then the cylinder cylinder base pin to be removed.54 recesses in the barrel lug. Aside from these differences. The Remington same manner as the action functions essentially in the Colt. and the guard lifts off. the essential operations must be carried out. refer to other frame and fixed barrel. if you want a gun that is accurate.

of course. The one shown here. They are Target rifles will lay 40 rod paper all fun to shoot. Gettysburg. But there is one truly utilitarian front- loader that can be shot reasonably well by anyone — and it doesn't cost a fortune. too. shoot we must have a safe and serviceable gun. the scream of horses and the hoarse. we can re-live history that is still close enough behind us to have real meaning. and to see them perform on the line at Friendship can stretch one's credulity. With it. who this is written. among of the caliber U. for similar with Arms "Zouave" copy spring outfit. the military arm of our Civil War is by far more popular among black-powder shooters than any other type. is by Navy Arms. from what we've heard and seen. They have gled through Chicamauga.S. a Remington M1863 a copy of the original as one could want. that. along with the crash of caisson and carriage wheels. or — shoulder with the ease of More man-hours have been To see a fine of the gunmakers art is bloodletting a zephyr-wafted feather. rugged guns with all the grace and aesthetic appeal of a wagon tongue. there's hardly a man who can't claim some near or distant kin caplock guns. manufactured by to shoulder like a cedar post. In short. With an original or reproduction of that arm in hand. rifle leans against the Caplock Rifled Musket. inarticulate cries of valiant men lunging toward their fate. It's Navy . . Seemingly. bulky. and in other photos in this chapter. They satisfy our urge to seek perfection of performance at any cost.58 as faithful If you aren't interested in shooting this must be simply because you've never held one type. you probably borrowed instead of bought this book. spent on beautifying some muzzle loaders than fine sporting Cadillac. but as its all my desk. With few exceptions they are sturdy. But. one's mind slips so easily into imagined scenes of blue and grey uniforms appearing wraithlike through billows and tendrils of white. and come some an Enfield or Springfield "Minie Gun" in hand. in it your hands. pungent black powder smoke. but there own. for less than friend wife pays for a hairpiece or It's new like all the the rifled musket has tremendous appeal all For one thing. there and punch neat holes in day long. the faint voices of long-dead drums and bugles can be heard. As you stand there. If you're one of the latter. uncounted millions the world over. They are heavy. the first firm to have them made. but are practical for little else than paper-punching. or else just don't like to shoot anything. I a fine grace and beauty found in few mechanisms Kentucky is a deHght to all the senses and comes to us for you To strug- 55 may be some small hope yet. and it doesn't have to be custom-made You can buy one off the counter with little or no difficulty.iiiff 5 SHOOTING THE CAPLOCK RIFLED MUSKET of the Remington M1863 "Zouave" rifled caplocif musl<et are by far ttie most popular for this sort of shooting. We like them. Reproductions The sporting guns are nice to shoot. during the middle third of the last century. the rifled musket creates in one a feeling that can never be produced by the most beautiful Kentucky or most accurate 40-rod gun ever built. it Whitmore or takes to build a similar example Old closely akin to viewing an Master or the Parthenon.

ammunition in the form of musket ("top-hat") caps.58 caliber minie bullets properly lubricated. Tower muskets in . made sight. an excellent shooting arm. but bargains like that just SO let's "War aren't to be had anymore. some good. it was procured by hundreds of thousands from numerous commercial sources. Of course. Navy Arms Corp. quite a few of the hundreds of thousands of rifled muskets left over from our Civil War are still around. Even so. On today's market. they did not survive in sufficient numbers to be easily Collectors have priced them out of the come by now. The entire British small arms industry grouped loosely around Birmingham seems to have enjoyed unusual prosperity while producing Enfields for both sides of the Civil War. Some of superb arms. any visible from shooting will depreciate ly affecting its value to collectors. The second most common surviving caplock miliThe Ml 861 basic Union arm of the Civil . — tary rifle in the country is the ubiquitous . it is the most common today and. And. With its polished brass furniture. and is thought of quite highly by shooters. If you are casting your own bullets. Certainly this is far less trouble than completely overhauling an original gun. What else do you need? First.S. a can of ffg or fffg granulation black powder. they may lack the fine hand finish of the old made to closer tolerances and from are Outstanding in this group is The "Zouave.. In addition. please keep in mind that it won't last forever. A specimen that can be put into even reasonably good shootable condition will easily bring half that much. their quality ranging from "acceptable" to excellent. U. better materials. This carefully checked is explained in detail elsewhere in this book. even though it looks pretty rough. you should have a nipple prick. far less costly. Generally. virtually quality and accuracy to top-grade commercial show up will in the these have turned out to be equal in models of the same period. As with most things. you get about what you pay for so I suggest buying the best you can afford. its A resulting gun in really fine original condition simply — too few have survived this long to be able to justify reducing their number any further. Yes. Of course. that it is in essentially as-issued configuration. with open sights. Consequently. in the long run. the and and de- . An average-condition specimen may be shot a reasonable amount if cared for carefully without significant- — — Powder Guide However. Original guns must be completely disassembled and and inspected before shooting. In "Civil War Guns." Wm. be sure to follow the procedures outlined in the chapter devoted to various projectiles.Shooter's Bible Black 56 take a look at what's available. and a supply of pure lead . it need only be degreased and checked over and it is ready for the range. Other firms offer less expensive reproductions of Civil War vintage rifled muskets. full stock.. their fabrication and preparation for shooting. If you do decide to use an original gun for shooting. so there is really nothing to be gained by shoping specifically rifled The for it. and blued barrel. a new one! Very fine reproductions of the basic Ml 863 rifle are produced in Europe and sold here at prices ranging up to $125. $75. The later M1863 rifled musket is also not too difficult to find and at about the same price. It is a heavy charge of special "proof" black — — — cal condition. Also. While these far the to acquisition of a "shooting" rifled reproductions guns." copied directly from the Remington contract piece made from 1863 onward. but a substantial portion were. but are usually picked as a "second choice" by hard-to-please shooters. As it comes from the box. not all of them were the Enfield British "Enfield" of musket. War was the Produced extensively at Springfield Armory. These other accessories serving the same purpose are wrench. Please don't. it will be far. And. B. let's assume you've selected your gun old or new and that it is now in perfect mechanisuperior in strength to the originals. By most economical and practical approach musket is to buy a new one. the Enfield is just as costly as the original Springfield Ml 861 or Ml 863. One of this model in fine shooting condition may be encountered today for up to $200 a pretty good piece of change for any of us. occasionally. Rifled British caliber — shoot too badly. to shoot it would be an extreme As for a "mint" gun shouldn't be shot — act of folly. there are dozens of other different makes and models suitable for shooting. It is well of modem it is a most colorful materials and certainly proofed with powder by its manufacturer. when in good mechanical condition. This model follows the contours of the original very closely. The days when Surplus" British. and equipped with iron or steel ramrod. bright at steel ramrod. In any event. All grease grooves should be completely filled. Edwards indicates over 700. or other nationality caplock rifles could be picked up for a couple bucks each have long since passed. nipple worm and cleaning heads for ramrod (or separate cleaning rod if you prefer) a charge cup or adjustable measure-flask. Enfields probably shoot just as well as the Ml 861 and Ml 863 rifles.000 arms were exported from there in 1861 alone. a small lot of recently discovered foreign military guns hands of surplus dealers.69 show up now and then and they don't shooters' reach. deterioration value. some bad.577 caliber which several hundred thousand were procured by both Blue and Grey. and both scribed fully in another chapter.58 caliber rifled musket. Drool all you want over Bannerman's old catalogues.

57 Shooting The Caplock Rifled Musket Prepare the gun for firing by wiping all oil and grease from the bore with a patch dipped in solvent or lighter fluid. lean the muzzle out to arms' length. Do not use the fist or palm to drive in the bullet. Charge Your Piece! After bore is clean and dry and nipple has been cleared. While doing this. Some smoke should issue from the muzzle. If you haven't cleaned all oil and grease out of the bore. you'll begin with loose powder and bullower the hammer full upon the nipple. bit. Pour a charge of 50-grains (weight) of powder into the muzzle. Next. the area. Firing several more caps will make doubly certain everything is clear and is normal practice. Held between thumb and finger as shown. avoid placing any part of the hand directly over the bore. does it?) With the hammer at half cock. indicating all passages are clear. the bullet will not do any damage in the event of an accidental firing while your hand is there. nipple. thus. pour the proper powder charge down the muzzle. it will catch and hold powder. With rifle butt near your feet. Take the lubricated bullet between thumb and finger and start it base first into the muzzle. Pour a small amount of solvent into the upright barrel (hammer If at half and let it run out through the nipple cock) to clear oil from the vent hole. but the buUet will pass safely . place a cap on the Ear the hammer to full cock and fire the cap making certain the muzzle is pointed down range or in a safe direction. solvent doesn't get through. Soldiers were regularly issued extra caps for this purpose. blow through the nipple to dry up any residual solvent. use the nipple prick to get it started. making certain that any accidental discharge will be directed up and away from you and anyone else in Assuming let. (Doesn't taste very good. The cap flame will burn moisture out of the nipple and drum passages. Muzzle flash may down scorch your digits a between them.

weighing 570 grains. once it makes contact with the powder. Seat bullet with a single. here) should be started straight and as far into the muzzle as possible with the fingers. Do not batter the bullet out of shape by banging the rod repeatedly against it. Powder Guide .Shooter's Bible Black 58 Properly greased minie bullet (Lyman's new #57730. smooth motion of the ramrod. Note that no part hand is actually directly over the muzzle.

with larger cylindrical base cavity. smooth movement ending with the bullet solidly on the powder is best. but never ram it really hard. reverse it and use the cupped end to force the bullet home on the powder. weighs 460 grains. Ear the hammer back to half cock. Holdbetween thumb and forefinger. To do so will seriously deform the bullet and crush the ing it powder granules resulting in a very inaccurate shot. — load her up Hurry up other go at again and let's have an- it! Stop right there. pressing it solidly home with the ball of the thumb. ramming will point that the the bore — — — perhaps 15 or 20 become difficult. press the trigger. Simple. This will only deform it down and ruin accuracy. aim. you'll probably just stick the ramrod upright in the ground at your feet. a misfire. just as thousands of them did on battlefields more than a century ago all butt A over the world. setting the stage for just a slight jar of the gun to cause an accidental firing. In musket down-range. flame and white smoke blossom from the 500-grain slug as big as your cavernous muzzle. or an accidental firing*. Assuming you intend to fire immediately. There wasn't but any other way. wasn't it? Fun." With the hammer properly at half cock. 570 grains.59 Shooting The Caplock Rifled Musket Draw the ramrod from its seat in the stock. clean After firing several shots don't start trying to drive the bullet the barrel. and never "bounce" or "throw" the ramrod against the bullet as depicted in some television and movie scenes. point the returning the ramrod to its seat in the stock. pushing it into place with the tip of a finger so as to avoid passing any part of the hand over the line of the bore. You don't have that problem First — — Lyman #575213 minie is of traditional Shape with deep conical base hollow. cradled in the left arm (for a right-hander). and a good bit more bearing surface for more accurate alignment in bore during ramming and seating. . making certain the trigger is not even touched during the process. Right is new #57730. place a cap over the nipple. use the tip of a finger so as to keep all parts of the hand clear of the bullet's path in the event of an accidental discharge. seating should be verified by thumb pressure. A single. seat cap on nipple solidly. The infantry private in the line at Manassas had to hurry loading or take a bayonet in the throat he had to risk things like lousy accuracy. "Ready on on finger on the right — ready on the left — ready hammer to fuU cock. the firing line"! Pull the on trigger — the front sight. thumb arcs toward the target. and as that broad shoves ponderously back into your shoulder. highvelocity. Return the ramrod to its seat. When it reaches the thumb and finger won't do the job. orange. A clean barrel and proper size bullets will always produce smooth. Bullet should be seated with uniform force. "Commence Firing"! Settle the bull After the bullet is rammed. A capper may be used if desired. easy ramming and best accuracy. too! No modern. This precarious engagement is sometimes called "false cock. Any trigger movement can result in improper engagement of sear in the half-cock notch. but even then. smallbore rifle can quite match the atavistic thrill to be had from the big military charcoal-burners of yesteryear. In the case of a rapid-fire match.

58 caliber it friend of mine. This will prevent the rush of air that might fan a nearlife. preferrably sandwiching a small piece of leather between the two. he'd forgotten only one thing take the ramrod out of the barrel! Only a little mistake. but hole could fan the spark to ignite the propelling charge. if you up-end that musket immediately after firing and dump a fresh powder charge down the barrel. take your time reloading. there just might be a spark or ember down in there. Don't laugh. watch to in — ? All this is intended to convince you to take in the beginning. it might ignite the powder with one hell of a bang. smoke and lead. So. The final and fired hurriedly charged. scribed. before reloading. both bullet and ramrod would be This sort of thing is easily prevented. it easy . First. to you will for that next shot explode. quite possibly making a mess of your hand or anything else in line with the muzzle. Powder Guide lower the hammer full down on the nipple. Second. open-mouthed dismay as his three-foot long ramrod sailed end over end toward the to target. Just don't be in a big rush to reload. Navy Arms Zouave is man's gun and feels really good when . In too big a rush. If so. and can be most embarrassing. and most enjoyable step is the shooting.Shooter's Bible Black 60 have problems if you get in a bodacious hurry and do something stupid. capped. you might even ram a bullet without any powder under it. perhaps causing the flask. There could be a half-dead ember in the vent hole. Another reason for careful handling of the ramrod as already de- rammed. nothing might happen until the bullet is rammed home at which time air being forced out through the If so. spouts flame. If that happened. Some shooters affix a short leather hammer for this purpose. In the rush. Another rather interesting result of too He much haste occurred to a shot out. if you're using one. swinging it aside dead ember to strap to the for shooting. it's happened to many an experienced shooter.

it less can be many things to you petition in the — serious com- skirmish tradition. the powder is poured down the barrel. one simply plucks the bullet from the tube. or putting winter meat in the smoke-house. The rifled musket was all things to all men in war. often spitting the bullet into the muzzle as he reached for his ramrod after pouring in the powder.58 caliber guns. shifting the center of gravity well forward. Seldom is much thought given to shooting any- off the base of the cartridge. While Lyman Bullet 575213 normally shoots quite well in . the range at which most rifled musket com- petitions are held.58 caliber rifled muskets.Shooting The Caplock Rifled Musket 61 made faster and more conThe first step in this direction is to place premeasured powder charges in plastic containers to simShooting can be safely venient. Lyman makes molds suitable for about any bore size you might encounter. Either the base may be torn open or the end containing the bullet may be torn off to expose the powder. the bigger ones with more. patched stemmed from this need. Keep powder charges light to start. plinking along the creek bank. The original issue powder charge for the U. but they and short-range work. It hits like the flat of an axe swung by a seven-foot Swede. It produced 934 fps with the 500-grain minie bullet from the 33" barrel. To be competitive in official North-South Skirmish matches. in fact. A gun and load tuned to produce the 3" groups at 50 yards already mentioned is easily capable of taking deer and black bear at ranges up to and most of those animals are shot a lot 100 yards balls are fun for plinking — closer than that. 575494. An occasional European arm of the type will also show up in some other caliber. However. is North-South Skirmishers often grab the bullet in their teeth and twist the tube off. Nitrated combustible cartridges are far more fragile than the plain type and must be handled carefully. a gun must be able to group its shots into slightly less than three inches. the much for the rel- so don't try them. it will be well worth your while to try 575213 O. and produce much less recoil as well. ferently. but there is still the possibility that an ember dif- charge should be varied until maximum accuracy is obtained from your particular gun. Paper cartridges of this type are not nitrated. The heavy charges often used round-ball in rifles are a bit atively thin-walled musket-barrels. bullet obtained. In either case. good teeth were essential. The paper may be torn in almost any manner. This type is inserted whole into the muzzle and rammed as a unit. Combustible cartridges may also be used. he might hold the bullet in his hand and bite accuracy than the issue load. the army's rigid dental standards ever. develops And. so is blown clear of the barrel without being consumed. Plastic tubes may be which are a snug Powder fit on the placed in the tube which is then "stoppered" with the bullet. Round the bore. Any deer hit decently with it will either plow dirt with his nose or die of pneumonia from the wind going through that huge hole in his hide.S. That load is too hefty for comfortable range work. and immediately starts bullet in muzzle. Or. Only in the past few years have those old cartridge-biting tooth standards been relaxed. considerably less accurate than lighter charges. Hunting with the rifled musket can be a most rewarding experience. Interestingly enough. Particularly pleasant to shoot is 35-40 grains of fffg which produces excellent accuracy at 50 yards. the cap flash will ignite and pierce it to fire the propelhng charge. Since individual rifles will behave somewhat and has been producing very fine accuracy. In use. too. Perhaps we've been remiss here in referring only to . beginning at about 30-35 grains and working up only to the point where acceptable accuracy is produced. thing but minie-type bullets in the rifled musket. In either case. But than that its performance is much more impressive figure suggests. Since its use is fairly well restricted to the rifled musket. rifled muskets will be encountered in . even if the nitrated paper blocks off the vent hole. so long as the powder isn't spilled.54 and . The envelope or tube contains the powder charge and is tied or cemented securely to the bullet. The latter has a very blunt nose. On paper that big minie than 1000 fp of energy at the muzzle. pours charge into barrel.58 caliber rifled musket was 60 grains of black powder. and the new 57730. exposing raw powder to the cap's flash. And. Charges in the vicin- will linger in the of ity you of if 50 grains of ffg or fffg usually give much better How- round balls can also be used with a fair degree of success. As for power. Smaller calibers work best with less powder. fg granulation. Also a considerable convenience is the prepared paper cartridge described in detail elsewhere in this volume.577 and . plify charging. so no problems there. Actually. (oversize). won't do as well as the minie. . They.S. just take the time to do your It can do them all — part. if he were more fastidious.69 caliber with some frequency. Simply load them as for a conventional round-ball rifle. are covered in detail in another chapter. Then the bullet and whatever paper remains attached to it is rammed home. we'll dwell on it here at some length. but the soldier armed with the rifled front-loader grabbed the bullet in his teeth and ripped away. The paper is consumed by the burning powder. The tapered nitrated paper case ruptures when rammed solidly. don't fret. with ticking patches. This increases the possibility of a live ember the paper being left in chamber depths to scare the hell out proper charging precautions aren't taken. . Procedures are the same with all of them.

heed the pleas of collectors and historians. a custom-built of once the original is worn out or damaged. The gun maker will normally These specified by the among just powder shooters. hereafter. start looking.40 or . As a flintlock. If you simply want to shoot. there. thoroughly washed twice to remove all the sizing. the slug guns have their following. So. and confine your shooting to modern rifles. it won't be light enough to take to the field. or striped bed-ticking. and others in the $150- Kentucky rifle.or 30-pound target rifle intended for showing off one's skill in the peaceful times. I'd reckon the round ball caplock rifle is shot more today than any other. playful or deadly serious the round ball rifle may be any of these. The scatter gunners have their day as well. There's one to suit every man's taste. balls are the easiest of all rifle — — Round new maker of the gun. Patching cloth can be unbleached muslin sheeting. . It may be an incredibly slender. You can even buy parts or kits and build your own. a light. as stated factors all you carefully contribute to the make rifle's yourself. Big or little. It's the best? a journey — caliber. descended from heavy. There are plenty available. The round ball rifle. the Dixie Deluxe "Kentucky" at $165. If you plan backward in time that includes a fall elk or bear hunt with round ball. You'll need round balls of the proper size. as do the picket ball guns. heavy or light. you'll need something on the order of a plains 6 SHOOTING THE CAPLOCK ROUND BALL RIFLE Depends on what you want to do.42 caliber) Of all the sporting and target muzzle loaders.45 or . and. it's the form in which the rifles of Rogers' Rangers. short "Buggy Rifle" of the settled areas. either original guns or those of modern production adhering to the buUets to cast or buy already made.45 the pound (.36 caliber is best. But.40 caliber. Examples are the Dixie "Plainsman" rifle at $125. and similar bands of patriots decimated Redcoat ranks in the forest battles of the American Revolution. popularity is worth. short or long. They can be bought dirt cheap in many calibers by the bag full. a slender Kentucky of around . then the thing to get is a heavy target rifle of at least .32 or . ranging from the Hopkins & Allen . the entire supply of a very important historical item is reduced it can never be replaced. preferably over .30 or . and then we'll take it from old designs. but add considerably to your education as well. That will not only save you money. In any event. get the catalogs of the outfits supplying such guns (listed in the directory at the end of this book) and decide what you want and what you can afford. or the more expensive linen. you don't already have a front-loading rifle for the coming season's activities. What's today's black If 62 . The modern gun by one is easily replaced. upward to as much as your want to pay a custom maker. of at least . and. or even a 20.50. usually elsewhere.49 to .45 caliber under-striker at about $75. shooting a ball 40 to 60 to say. The ball should be under bore (land) diameter. a robust . without loss to posterity. called simply a rifle.55 caliber "Plains Rifle" intended for bear and Indians west of the Father of Waters. Marion's Swamp Foxes. If you want to do some serious target work. The rifle comes in many forms. It's the problem since many of us vast the real freed states. Of course. as detailed elsewhere in this volume. gun upon which the trappers and mountain men staked Original guns of any type have become too pre- Money isn't spend as much on cious and rare to be spoiled by shooting. has earned its popularity. along with those optimistic fellows who bang away with smoothbore "rifles. stubby Jaeger guns that has generated so much legend of the 18th Century in America. Get the gun.28 caliber "Pea Rifle" used for small game." wishing all sorts of projectiles toward the target. these factory-swaged balls will often shoot better than the ones as a fine original $200 range. They require a minimum of lead and arc thus economical. their lives as they explored the unknown domain west of the original 13 newlyIt's the gun upon which the golden era the fabulously weahhy fur trade was built.

and clearing the nipple by firing a cap or two.) . flask. During the Revolution. smokeless powder breech loaders. just a counted. nearly Of listic 2000 it light powder fps with a full charge. repeat the starting operation with the long leg of the starter. Once this was done for a new rifle. This must be done cleanly and the knife must be very sharp. Even the 20" barrel produced over 1400 fps with a charge. or measure. Set the hammer down on the nipple. The ball should be seated tightly enough to compress the powder only slightly. In accuracy will often suffer if you do." Roberts states this method results in the following average charges. The results are contained in the appendices of this volume. start by wiping the bore clean and dry. Make certain the sprue is uppermost and centered.52 or .' The Caplock Round Ball 63 Rifle material thickness. Pour the powder into the barrel. cleaning supplies. and reading them can be a revelation to those who think in terms of "low-velocity" muzzle loaders. Moisten a corner of a piece of patching cloth thoroughly with saliva. Actual weight Rifle. screwdrivers. far from maximum.36 cal. A Hawken . After all. powder horn. You'll dso need a patch knife or patch cutter and patch lubricant.) gr. (100 per lb. Lacking a solid bench. Loading routine should become so fixed in one's mind that no matter what interruptions occur. . is a very poor bal- loses velocity at a very rapid rate. Tim Murphy is credited with a single-shot kill on a British officer at over 300 yards. lay it across the muzzle. least a season's shooting — 10 buy enough for at Get caps as specified by the gun maker. Next. Even so. there are many contemporary accounts of men and game being killed consistently at ranges of over 200 yards in the late 18th Century. thrust the ball down firmly on the powder. ball) . long-barreled rifles charged to the hilt. powder? The old timers had rules to go by.44 cal. — (47 — (70 — (116 — (388 . don't hesitate to get a local expert to shoot for you if you lack the requisite skill. has shot out his ramrod. Take your patch knife and while gathering up all excess patching with the other hand trim the patch flush with the muzzle. this is a "fun" game. not just speed and noise. ball) powder -. seat it on the ball. since the round ball shape. Probably better than you think. jectory is likewise very high conical projectiles of the don't have to load for maximum velocity. On the range with all your gear.) gr. Take the ramrod. just as in modern. use a bedroll or roll of blankets and shoot from the prone position. and with a smooth motion.) gr. preferably with a piece of leather between the two. The round ball rifle drives its buhet faster than any other muzzle loader. Take the short ball starter and with a single blow of the heel of the hand. a cup-type measure of horn or similar material was made to hold that much powder. Cock and shoot! Best do all your first work with a new gun from bench rest. the proper steps will all be taken.Shooting. When you find some that's right. How much what his Lock or 12 yards. It was tesults that and the average rifleman couldn't tell you charge weighed. Extensive velocity tests have been conducted with Hopkins & Allen (Numrich Arms) under-striker rifles of modern manufacture. and then press the ball into the muzzle as far as possible with your thumb. Don't pound the ball or bounce the ramrod. and a supply of fffg powder. nipple wrench. With further shooting. ball) . A . Ear back the hammer to half cock and place a timer cap on the nipple. This outfit is described in detail elsewhere and for use with is pretty much the same any muzzle-loading arm. etc. and prepare to charge with powder. ignition. With all the gear together. Shoot for comfort and accuracy. The usual shooting kit is essential: nipple prick.60 cal. Many a that piece of instruc- man. Tra- when compared to that of same diameter. (56 per lb. A ragged trimming job will reduce accuracy. From there it's matter of carrying a micrometer and shopping. I've set up a chronograph at matches and recorded velocities even higher from small-bore. (150 per lb.25 grains — 40 — 60 — 85 grains grains grains You can easily interpolate between these four examples for other calibers.31 cal. You fact.53 caliber might well consider 200 grains of ffg or fffg powder a perfectly normal to full-charge diet. and the one most often cited consisted of placing the ball in the palm of the hand and pouring out enough powder to cover it. ball) gr. and center a smooth ball in the muzzle. (18 per lb. including the old who lived by his front-loader. and all that you need in the beginning. More pressure will deform the ball and interfere with uniform powder single. In checking accuracy initially. No. Withdraw the ramrod. and uses considerable powder to do so. worm. The charges given are moderate. In "The Muzzle Loading Cap recommend patch of the charge didn't really matter. maybe you're beginning wonder just what kind of ballistic performance can be gotten from the rifle. using 120 grains of fffg powder. tion isn't superfluous. course. seat the ball the depth of the short leg of the starter. you'll develop a charge that performs best with your particular rifle and ball/patch combination and can then make up a charger or measure a supply of the starting charge into plastic bottles. Additional "standard" charges for all types of guns are found in appendix.40 cahber rifle with 40" barrel can produce well over 2400 fps with its 95-97 grain patched ball.

so correct them as quickly as possible. Thorough cleaning after each group may well cure this problem also. Like driving a car. patching. The accompanying drawing shows clearly what to look for.Shooter's Bible Black 64 Powder Guide Recovered patches should look as in "D". rounds exactly as the Load first. and so on fouling is your problem. the bore is becoming too heavily fouled and needs cleaning. if group No. the better the accuracy that will be produced. on the paper. 2. In that case. This is best done in a lathe. but best accuracy is almost invariably found below that level. 1. but with care a 45-degree countersink reamer will do an entirely acceptable job. and "C" muzzle has cut through patch Assuming shoot a 1 the ball went 0-shot group." the muzzle edge is too sharp and should be lightly weight equal to ball weight. enough. "B" too loose. Annular cuts as in "c" arc made by the sharp bore edge at the muzzle. Observe all the loading precautions outlined in the chapter on the rifled musket. Any of these patch conditions mean you'll get lousy accuracy. 3 larger than No. scorched by blow-by gas (windage) as in "b. balls. Don't expect a single group to tell you much at each charge level. Look out in front of the muzzle a few yards for patches that have fallen off balls. the shooter. Work upward first. or the ball's flight will be erratic. If not accompanied by other cuts as in "a. Having checked the foregoing. All must fall off. is powder least five are If work down- . If the patch is Or. makes it for both you and nearby parties. muzzle-loading shooting is as safe as you. Patches cut as in "a" indi- — chamfered. First. proceed to varying the powder charge. it A Top limit for thick barrels necessary for a valid test. may cate either too-thick patch material or too large a ball be that your new barrel isn't smooth rough surface may not wipe clean. As shooting progresses." patch is too thin or ball is too small. going in increments of two or so tight in the bore that the lands cut through the fab- three grains. proceed to and subsequent The more uniform your the second and the loading operations. No. If it increases significantly. "A" means fit in bore is too tight. After obtaining groups of consistently the same size (no matter how large that might be) it's time to tune rifle and load for best accuracy. heavier charges aren't the answer. in loading. Inspect recovered patches carefully. 2 is larger than group No. watch the pressure required to ram the ball. it may be lapped or polished as outlined elsewhere. Powder charges have been ignited by an ember as they were poured down the barrel. At ric. Bullets and ramrods have been fired right through the shooter's hand during loading. Patches should look as in "d" when they are recovered. even with a tight patch. A very slightly larger ball or thicker patch may help by doing a better job of pushing the fouling to the breech during — ramming.

a muzzlecounterbore in the bottom of the block around each hole is a decided improvement. the round ball rifle is the basis of nearly all of those the shooting games muzzle-loading fans talk about woods walk. and significantly more costly. The holes are a snug balls are seated in it simply a block three or four holes drilled fit for a patched ball exactly as in the rifle and muzzle. Some shooters soften bees-wax with Vaseline and dip of the barrel. the rendezvous. in a single then try changing to a greased patch. In all probability. They are. with added emphasis on uniformity of loading and of components. shooting. Essentially. a load or varying powder adjustable powder measure and loading funnel combined. The block is placed over the muzzle and the ready-patched ball is seated in much less time than otherwise. anyway you'll to prevent rusting manner of lubricants have been used on patches. and many others. quite a few shooters heavy guns who fancy this type in bench rest form not suited for any other purpose. Where speed in reloading is reEventually. remember the cause of the effect factor at a time. a single measure like this can be reset for use with more than one gun. the ball fitting Especially handy when working up charges simple. better accuracy than a wet patch. drip melted bees-wax or candle around the seated cap from working in through the vent to kill powder charge. Slow and careful shooting with plenty of attention to cause and effect will enable you to extract all the accuracy possible from your round ball rifle. There are. Having ironed out these first problems. Conversely. range session. Such guns are more temperamental and careful load development is required. and rain or moisture is a problem. — . the squirrel hunt. accuracy may deteriorate. they must be treated as outlined to keep water the — on slug rifles. Aside from plinking and shooting on the range.Shooting The Caplock Round 65 Ball Rifle though. If if that you vary switching to a thicker patch. Round ball heavy target rifles are capable of superb in the chapter in bullet type accuracy. and so on. A simple loading block This can happen as a result of the bore being slowly but surely polished by each shot. You may find that accuracy improves unaccount- ably over a period of time. maximum accuracy. a loading block of in is essential. though. whittled out of a piece of scrap lumin a hurry. you might Don't expect to find the best charge want to use greased patches It may produce For hunting. When hunting. I've used both petroleum jelly (Vaseline) and vegetable shortening (Crisco) with good results. So far. All patches in this melted mixture. It's the real backbone of the whole game and can open up a whole new world of fun for you. we've talked only about the sporting round ball rifle. The basic rules are the same. Since must be centered over the bore. and probably some competition. the famous "Seneca" match. quired. It's almost a must ber greatly simplifies reloading for hunting. By recording the settings. allowing for the difference and patching material and method. try them In striving for you'll never know more than one If you're striving for all. several hundred rounds will be fired just in determining this one factor. however. Tallow was once popular. as was sperm oil and bear oil. you'll want some plain fun maybe even some hunting. perfection. It's hardwood with a row of it. if through neglect you allow the bore to become rust-pitted (no matter how slightly). significantly better than hunting rifles. don't change anything else. a lot more trouble to shoot. ward in is this same fashion from the the starting charge. These guns are fitted with false muzzles and mechanical ball starters. Attached to the block by a thong is a starter with stem long enough to push the ball through the block and into the bore where the ramrod can take over.

This is absolutely essential after could be traced to defective materials when only black powder was used. The Lyman Gun Sight Co. — a quarter or less of the price of a shootable original and it sources.44 caliber flasks. Consequently. Centennial shoot better as well. including round ball moulds. shooting an scarce. and require techniques closely approaching those used with rifles. Accessories are generally available from any of the — above. They also offer a single-shot target pistol. be an atavistic urge to emulate our great grandfathers or simply a desire to try a different form of shooting. to name the principal suppliers. caps. and Civil ($1) of the Colt in either Arms features replicas Arms has the Remington — is a treasure Incidentally. come they Remington will cause some mechanical accompanied by a similar depreciation just don't shoot in value. modem percussion revolvers are as mechanically safe as a gun can be. Tingle. including Navy Arms Company. While current production guns lack the fine finish and bright blue of the original models. In fact. The answer is quite simple original percussion revolvers. down to the diminutive Wells Fargo. — replicas and a most complete line of Colt revolvers from the Paterson. and its screwed-in barrel is inherently a stronger design than the other. etc. days. they appear to be produced to closer tolerances. All are listed in the directory section of this book. Single-shot pistols are less complicated. the muzzle-loading. it is impossible to generate excessive pressures with any amount of black powder than can be loaded into the individual chambers behind a proper bullet. In addition. are sold under a number of brand names. 66 it also has far fewer screws and parts to . we will concentrate on revolvers. single-shot pistols an underhammer "boot" pistol from Numrich are offered by Numrich Arms. circa 1860. and are certainly made from better materials than were available in the 1860's. I have yet to encounter a single instance of a "blow-up" that safety their ready to shoot. and Replica Arms. There's no need to. etc.44 caUbers. and Remington revolvers. Replica. Tingle makes a single-shot target pistol. and the 1860 Army. Dixie Gun Works has a low priced "Navy" revolver and several models of single- To use the word "modern" in describing today's percussion handguns is perhaps not entirely correct. chest of black the Dixie catalog powder shooting every black pow- It should be a must for der shooter. offer single-shot caplock pistols.36 or . so long as only every shooting session. Replica shot caplock pistols. The 1860. of the Colt — assortment large available. really.7 SHOOTING THE GAPLOCK REVOLVER Whether it black powder and proper bullets are utilized. will Navy Arms Co. Both Replica and Navy guns are manufactured in Italy. A offers . too. Original arms of this type are by no means but in anything like safe shooting condition. Centennial Arms Corporation. The tremendous up surge in collecting percussion revolvers has driven prices out of sight of the casual shooter. Both are available balls. Numrich Arms offers their Hopkins & Allen Boot Pistol in . powder Alcan offers swaged .45 caliber. In the discussion of shooting techniques which follows.36 or . the Colt design with its open-top frame and wedge-fastened barrel is quite simple to dismount for cleaning. Richland Arms. for a new modern percussion revolver can be had for Caplock handguns are available from a number of original Colt or deterioration. so will be covered elsewhere. several other firms information. of newly-manufactured guns ern. In addition to these. In the revolvers. In addition. design is little War (if at all) is modchanged from American Though manufacture and materials are Reproductions of Remington and Colt revolvers. Then. The Remington design with its solid frame completely encircling the cylinder. margin of the imported replica revolvers is undoubtedly greater than that of the originals. offers popular moulds in round ball sizes to fit every black powder caliber. Walker. indeed. very dear. black-powder percussion handgun enjoys greater sales and popularity today than at any time since the advent of the cartridge handgun. including Intercontin- ental Arms. Centennial guns are produced in Belgium by a firm that once manufactured the same design under Colt license.

thus. exemplified by this ornately engraved Navy Arms "Belt Pistol" is the sturdiest and best suited of modern percussion revolvers to the fitting of adjustable target-type sights. . the least likely to be neg- lected. The Remington design.Shooting The Caplock Revolver The open-top Colt design to disassemble 67 of percussion revolver is the easiest for cleaning.

the . check that particular nipple by running the nipple prick through it. but is a bit too large for others. use molybdenum disulphide base is to commence within a day or two. Both are entirely satisfactory. screwdrivers to fit all screws. or a charge cup. others are required. and bolt cam. the newly-purchased gun should be completely disassembled and studied until you know it well enough to tear it down and put it back together properly with a minimum of effort. The Remington is far more suited to sight improvement and fitting of modern target sights. pour the proper amount of powder into the chamber nearest the loading cutout. clearing grease from them. Set cock and make certain the cylinder rotates freely. If you do it outdoors. All six nipples should be capped in this fashion.Si's . be certain Powder Guide it fully stretches or splits in being seated. and.Shooter's Bible Black 68 lost or damaged. assemble the following items and materials: can of fffg black powder. If you want the latter. two caps on each nipple. then the ploded. a powder flask with spout of proper size to throw the correct charge for your particular gun. a wiping cloth. even To load.44 caliber. Set hammer at half cock. if you don't want your wife objecting too loudly to dirty clothing. Unless you are completely familiar with singleaction revolver mechanisms. If no smoke issues. vertently left . With your thumb. then thumbing the cap firmly onto the nipple. first parts in non-flammable nothing else if is available. and allow some to run through the nipples. a choice between the two must be made on the basis of personal preference.44's require . These functions can be performed before leaving home. rotate the cyhnder so that the ball comes directly under the rammer plunger. a canvas carpenter's apron. firing a second cap will clear a clogged nipple. caps of proper size to fit nipples of your particular gun (No.38 Special fired case works same case shortened 1/4" in . preferably a slotted-tip rod. This is most easily done by holding the gun on its left side. Hold the gun muzzle up. 10). Apply a good grade of gun oil to all pivoting and sliding parts. coat the base pin (upon which the cylinder revolves) liberally with heavy grease. it must not be so tight that any great effort is required to it a practice to explode the hammer force it at half on. a nipple wrench. which require No. A well in . press a cap firmly on the nipple. and some good lubricant at sear notch. down on the nipple and not drag against the face of the recoil shield as the cylinder is Never let the muzzle point at your own body. during this operation.452" balls. Turn the cylinder by hand so a nipple lines up with the capping cut in the right side of the recoil shield. rotated. A drop of oil on each screw will also facilitate later disassembly. or that The cap must go shooting session. I make Caps must be seated snugly and firmly on the nipples. which may either be case or swaged (. mainspring bearing. . If shooting nipples. Wipe the bore out also.320"). Unlatch the rammer lever and with smooth. The cap should be snug enough on the nipple that it cannot be shaken off if the gun is held vertically. Take a ball and seat it on the mouth of the chamber. right side toward you and. all In shooting the cap lock muzzle-loading revolver. if you are truly fastidious. During reassembly. orient them carefully so the sprue cut is upward and centered. and grease out of the individual chambers with solvent. or looking through it at the sky to make sure light can be seen. be real classy. and . or fall off. make certain no unfired caps are inadon the nipples. Use correct size or cap will either split in seating. hammer drawn to Smoke issuing out full cock and each cap ex- the barrel as the cap ex- plodes indicates the nipple vent or flashhole is clear. it is standard practice to explode a cap on each nipple before loading. Yet. These be pointed out as we go along. normal firearms safety precautions must be ob- served. Cap shown here is not fully seated and must be pushed down until it rests solidly on the nipple face. Most of the time. Now. and a cleaning rod and patches. do not oil or grease the inside of the chambers or the to grease. . a small tin or widewill mouthed bottle of soft grease or kitchen shortening such as Crisco. This can be combined with an initial disassembly and cleaning of the gun to remove all preservative grease before become the Wash all the component solvent or in gasoline. and aside from sights. If cast balls are used.375". Personally.36 caliber. pure lead round balls. 1 1 fits some. It will be large enough that it will not enter. Swab all oil To make absolutely certain the nipples are clear and the gun will fire. To prepare for shooting. with charge cup or flask. muzzle angled downward. you might add a nipple prick. in addition.36's. or anyone else. And. For a trouble-shooting kit. and.

striving for uniformity of powder charge and of ball seating pressure. Helps prevent bore leading. The hammer is rested on the nipple of the unloaded the Gun should be held muzzle-up and powder charge carefully poured into chamber. Continue placing powder and ball in the remaining chambers. and use it to fill the chamber over and around each ball using a knife blade or wood spatula to keep the mess off your hands. fouling from each shot will be wiped out by the When ball diameter is correctly matched to chamber. For informal or competitive shooting. it can happen if an effective means is not used to seal each chamber. smooth stroke of the rammer lever. Get out your grease or shortening. chamber. and the ball can be felt grating against powder as it seats. The old timers had trouble with multiple discharges when flame from one shot ignited powder in adjacent chambers. Ball snug on powder works best. seat the ball firmly on the powder. A charge cup is adequate. Filling mouth of chamber over ball with grease or shortening prevents this and also serves to keep powder fouling soft and easily removed. Grease thus applied serves two purposes. but a flask more convenient and rapid. vents flame from the chamber being fired It pre- from flashing over and firing adjoining charges. Though this possibility may seem remote. next. only five chambers are normally loaded. increasing the between cleanings. The grease also serves to lubricate the bore and ball and keep the abundant black powder fouling moist and soft. carefully center ball in chamber mouth with sprue upwards. Too much pressure will deform the ball and ruin accuracy. Don't crush powder excessively. a thin ring of lead will be sfieared off as the ball is seated. Use just enough pressure to compact the powder slightly and to seat the ball at least 1/16" below the chamber mouth.Shooting The Caplock Revolver 69 pressure. The grease should fill the chamber flush with its mouth. and then seat with a single. number of rounds that can be fired . and don't leave space between ball and powder. If kept moist. ring of lead will normally be sheared off A thin by the mouth of the chamber. is After each chamber is charged. too.

My shooting kit con- dowel as large as can be accommodated by the bore and this is used to force the ball out from the muzzle after removing the cylinder. misfires will be conspicuous by their absence. and reinstall the nipple. more often than not explodon the offending chamber ing a second or third cap will ignite the charge. Fill the vent with powder granules as outlined above. align the sights carefully. the quicker rust will develop. perhaps due to the balance of it being contaminated by oil or grease. Considerable improvement can be achieved on the Remington-type guns by filing rear sight notch to a neat. Pour fresh powder into the base of the nipple hole. Consequently. you will probably eventually pull the trigger to be greeted only by the slight "crack" of the the charge and bullet remaining right where cap you loaded them. The higher the humidity. should you be so unfortunate as to have a misfire that does not respond to these treatments. Modern. Take the nipple prick and thrust it through the vent into the main charge. or the pins will not prevent inadvertent cylinder rotation. they are not particularly conducive to fine shooting. Except in extremely arid climates. square form. simply ignore cap. drill a woodscrew into it and drag it out by brute force. Clean it thoroughly and set it aside. at the time you are loading. Personally. but immense pleasure does not it I in the receive from the shooting. ball. in that the original sight is simply a very small V-notch in the hammer nose. safety pins protruding Pull the hammer to full cock. Never try to remove a stuck ball by shooting. if you anticipate a great deal of shooting. However. Place a fresh cap on the nipple and attempt to fire. after which a flatface blade can be attached in lieu of the original front sight. With powder. the ball may come to rest somewhere inside the barrel. Wiggle passage Powder Guide around to make it completely free into the chamber and that some loosening of the powder has taken place. — If your caplock has been properly prepared chambers free of grease and nipples properly cleared and properly loaded. The hammer nose is lowered into these notches and is made more secure than by pins. If your gun lacks these pins. and reassemble. By far the safest way to remove the that chamber until you get small hole into the ball. Clean the chambers in the same barrel way. However.Shooter's Bible Black 70 If applying grease in this fashion is too messy to taste. any such attempt will at least result in a ringed or bulged barrel. then your only safe choice is to leave a chamber unloaded and let the hammer down on its nipple. This may handicap my least reduce the scores. hammer down so that the small from the cylinder between nipples of Colt-type guns enter the slot on the hammer face. black powder fouling may promote rust in a matter of hours. More likely than not. cap each nipple as outlined before. then soaking them melted grease or tallow. holding the gun muzzle down. then replace the cylinder. In Colt-type guns. One other malfunction may occur. the barrel is usually removed and the ball forced out from the rear. If. — — When that happens. you'll have to remove the ball in the field. but be fitted to this is prop- erly outside the sphere of this dissertation. have yet to encounter an instance where chamber. Then. Swab the barrel with a wet bristle brush until clean. Place one in each chamber. you know that firing will not take place immediately. In my own experience. adjustable may target sights any one of the reproduction caplocks. Personally. Deepening and widening this notch will help some. taking special care to get all fouling out of the nipples. further measures are in order. simply do not cap the nipples until you are ready to shoot. then turn a ball is with a stiff cleaning rod. use grease-soaked felt wads under the your suit ball instead. Complete disassembly and tains a cleaning Remove isn't usually necessary to restore reliability. Prepare them by cutting wads about 1/32" larger in diameter than the chamber. remove the cylinder from the gun and use your nipple wrench to unscrew the nipple. A worm on the ramrod becomes essential then. I prefer the Remington-type gun here because of the deep safety notches between nipples. and grease in place. Actual shooting of the caplock revolver is no different than that of any other single-action handgun. Sights on these modern guns are copied directly from the original. Normally. Certainly they handicap the inherent accuracy of a properly loaded gun. I home. and then hold and squeeze. Once there. though rarely. but the sideplay in the hammer limits accuracy. over the powder and seat the ball on top of it. as fouling builds up from successive firing. it is a good idea to carry cleaning gear along to the range. and cylinder (cylinder only in the case of Remington types) and wipe all exposed surfaces free of fouling and/or unburned powder. The gun will again be ready to go. If only a small portion of the powder charge burns. a properly loaded gun may be fired for many cylinders-full before becoming too fouled for proper functioning. If you are shooting a single shot. does not. If it does not. wipe the rest down with an oily cloth. However. Fill the vent full. I prefer to shoot these guns with the original sights. Put a little fresh grease on the base pin if necessary. Unless shooting is to begin immediatein carefully set the ly. this action has fired the charge certain that the is about every time. and this action would not clear the fire. and then dry with clean patches. The Colt-type guns present another problem. Take your nipple prick and work through the nipple hole to break up just If it and remove a portion of the rear of the powder charge. . but do not attempt to tamp the powder down. dribble fine granules of powder into the vent.

which can be irritating and time consuming. This may well be true. but if you are too lazy to clean the gun the same day you shoot it. They don't look as if they would shoot as well as a smooth gleaming cast ball.S/iooling The Caplock Revolver 71 this. spray with your favorite gun oil.36. add any good detergent. Conical bullets were supplied in the prepared cartridges used during percussion days. can actually cause wide variation in diameter and roundness. is Pure lead bullets have always given better accuracy than those made from harder alloys. you deserve all the rust you get. But there are other factors to consider. The accompanying table shows the velocities produced by these charges. and scrub off all fouling.44. and then set the whole thing in the kitchen oven with the temperature control set at about 200-250 degrees F.36 Bullet Granulation Charge Velocity Remarks . screws. the question of bullets. and essentially the same forms (and moulds for them) are available today. while parts are still hot. Given 20 or 30 minutes in the oven. putting all pins. I cannot see that such careful pruning serves any useful purpose. put on a lid.452" and the various sizes of swaged buckshot serve dia. there will be pockets and screwholes that remain wet for hours unless given the oven treatment. The matter of powder charge is always good for an argument. I suspect that their relatively poor accuracy is due primarily to the fact that because of their shape they are often canted in seating and that they are likely to enter the bore at somewhat of an — angle. Then. they generally produce slightly better accuracy. the gun should always be cleaned almost immediately. with a heavier charge used beyond that range. weight.)." Taking averages of the guns in my rack. Cleaning must be complete and thorough. However. Swaged lead balls are available in . Take particular care with the bore. Quite light charges are preferred by many for target shooting to 25 yards. Wipe off the them aside. Remove lid and run in hot tap water until all residue and suds are gone.44 caliber (. The spherical bullet. for the smaller bores. Because of and small parts es deep. First. This method of cleaning takes far less time and effort than one might imagine. grips (stocks) and set Rinse all parts in the hottest water you've got. Put all other parts in a basin of hot water. Not only does their use eliminate the job of casting. When cool. These balls loosely look rough — they have been tumbled together in packaging and shipping and are coated with graphite. on the other hand. Most water will evaporate quickly from the heat of the parts. Cast balls are often carefully trimmed so the sprue matches the curvature of the surrounding area. Put a small amount of detergent into the small-parts jar. and 38 in . nipples. Completely disassemble the gun. I've not found this necessary. I do not find it inconvenient nor particularly demanding it absolutely guarantees that no rust will develop for many weeks. however. it relatively free of this trouble. and frame recesses. It has been recommended that balls be rolled between glass or steel plates to improve accuracy. they run more uniform in diameter. fill it half full of hot water. all metal will be absolutely dry. The round ball has proven in most instances to provide better accuracy than the conical bullet. BLACK POWDER LOADS AND BALLISTICS Caliber . even though the gun be completely ignored in the meantime. or even desirable. and shake vigorously a few times. and density than the average cast ball. So long as the sprue is centered as described earlier. So much for the bare mechanics of loading and shooting. chambers. The full charge for which the gun was originally designed is seldom used except for hunting or "showing off. There are solutions offered for sale which are alleged to prevent rusting if sluiced liberally over all fouled areas. full charges with hound ball are generally 27 grains in . wipe and reassemble. but in my experience. In fact. Drain by dumping the parts into a large metal collander or strainer. I in a wide-mouth container several inch- find a pint Mason jar ideal.

you'll have a new respect for it. familiar with the caplock. That method works. plicating a pleasant pastime with additional accessories and work. especially rain and snow. and still fire reliably.Shooter's Bible Black 72 calibers. but for the first round of the festivities he was a formidable opponent. If there is small game or varmints within several want to use your on them. Others pre-measure or pre. If you are expecting damp weather and want to get more than five or six shots off before coming home again. from the impact when you jump off a cutbank or across a creek. making It will also come out in a mess of holster or pocket. you'll eventually front-loading revolver for paper punching. I see no point in comto dirt and debris and will also for it target collects run in hot weather. With a little attention to detail. Cylinder changes are made quickly and easily on the Remington-type. Because of the conditions encountered. Charges carefully weighed to plus or minus 0. Properly loaded and cared for it is both powerful and accurate. the percussion ignition system is far from waterproof. though the Colt-type requires the butt of your knife or some similar instrument to tap the wedge loose. Carefully loaded in the above manner. . A The no improvement with the other see Powder Guide powder flask with spout filed to correct length throw the desired charge is the simplest method of getting powder into the chambers. His sustained fire power may not have been much by today's standards. but where I live showers come up fast. Melted candle wax should — in exactly the Once you've become — ^-^30 as above. the cavalryman of the 1860's wasn't too badly off he had 10 or 12 powerful. In spite of the claims made for it hey-day. accurate shots that could be delivered as fast as with today's finest singleaction revolver. Some shooters who are particularly concerned with maximum uniformity of powder charge carry adjustable volumetric measures to the range. we need a way of waterproofing the joint between cap and nipple otherwise water can seep in under the cap and through the vent to kill the main powder charge. and the use of the loading lever bearing on the cylinder between chambers to jack the barrel free of the base pin. I have found that by careful and uniform use of a flask I can throw charges that vary no more than one grain. If two are in the same pocket and bang together. invest in a spare cylinder or two. a percusbig gobs sion revolver can be carried for hours in the rain. serve just as well. this in its not be of any concern to you. loading for the field requires a somewhat different technique than hundred miles. it is also extremely reliable under severe weather conditions. combined with melted wax around the ball to further seal any gaps. If you're hunting in Arizona. and can grease applied around the balls shooting will also keep moisture out. there is the possibility of rupturing the wax seal around the nipples. but is difficult to seal the area between the nipple and the bottom of its cutout in the cylinder. same manner Load the spares may and then place each in its own small cloth or leather bag and carry them in separate pockets. I have found it far simpler to first make certain the area is dry. or even firing a cap and shooting yourself.weigh charges at home and carry them to the range in small plastic or glass vials.2 grains have not produced any measurable increase in accuracy. even immersed in water. black-powder revolver. With a pair of them riding loaded in saddle or belt holsters. The best solution is a greased felt wad under the ball. Therefore. then run melted beeswax completely around the nipple. The old timers sealed this gap by rubbing beeswax or tallow over it after seating the caps. Though the caps themselves are waterproof. but granulations.

While original guns are If the slug acteristic. or merely normally finely finished all over. 73 and wrapped is long and heavy. there is maximum one particular item or piece finest results. but the Its same thing much babying infinitely better do the job 60-pounders aren't particularly rare. — Gun is the one we're talking the Ferarri of the muzzle-loading clan. The heart of the slug gun is its massive barrel and carefully-mated false muzzle. mostly because it leaves the top completely clear for installation of a large target-type scope sight. and are not lubricated. It may be cut with uniform or "gain" (rate of twist increasing toward the muzzle) twist. The rest prevents any canting whatever. the slug gun is normally of percussion lock design. In all likelihood.50 isn't uncommon. The boys spend their money on performance. and go as much as 40 pounds. not looks. sometimes aluminum. the false muzzle will have been cut from the same steel bar and carefully fitted and doweled in place before final reaming and rifling. it's another matter. they are encased during loading with a bond paper patch that is gun is the perfection with which the bullet must be engraved (forced into the rifling) and centered in the bore during muzzle loading. muzzle rest. The under-striker lock is most often seen among new guns. both now Both have won matches and set records and 100 years ago. and flat across the bottom to rest on the bench or a shelf thereon. In our game. Some have even been formed integrally with the barrel. carefully in a . A . brothers do a good job. the modern tube may be (and often is) externally only a roughly-planed octagon without any polish or finish. The average . It's it if does albeit requiring as as a virgin bride. which the barrel is is usually fitted with a solidly-attached of special value with guns producing relatively low velocity. and those big slugs may weigh up to an ounce and a half. One of may be screwed or pinned to clamped around it. This is to insure that lands and grooves of barrel and false muzzle are in absolutely perfect register. Of course. The lead slug bullet gun of is shot with a large-caliber swaged long length and cylindro- relatively conoidal form with blunt nose. Some shooters swear fervently that uniform twist produces often oiled. The bore is most meticulously rifled and polished to produce a glass-smooth surface and just the right amount of choke (inward taper) toward the muzzle. the Slug about. A middlin' slug gun will have a barrel well over an inch in diameter and will weigh close to 20 pounds. while others are equally adamant that only gain twist can of equipment that has a reputation for producing the is there is — Since the slug gun is shot only from bench rest. though primer locks appear to be becoming more and more popular on modern guns. Guns so equipped don't have fore-ends. the characteristics of the slug Typical slug gun bullet lead. Bullets are smooth surfaced. I doubt any difference. it accuracy. Slug gun bullets aren't small. Some guns top that considerably and 50. This is of metal. The perfectly-aligned false muzzle is essential to this. The rifling is of the shallow. A big one will have a barrel as big around as your wrist. gun has one outstanding physical charsize and attendant weight. yet being the most temperamental and hard to please. The muzzle rest the barrel. A foreend only gets in the way on a rest gun.MW 8 SHOOTING THE SLUG GUN In every field. anyway. Inside. just buttstocks. wide groove type with narrow lands that has proven best with paper-patched bullets. swaged from soft paper patch. all other factors being equal. either. Instead.45 caliber slug will go 500-510 grains.

draining for 3 hours. it is agreed that having the paper grain parallel with the bullet axis produces best accuracy. so it would be redundant to go into the subject here. and measuring is much faster and easier to accompUsh. and isolate the soft lead from the bore. produce the known. producing uniform lead density." Some shooters prefer to cut the "X" in one piece cast — opportunity to render out Neats Foot much bear Powder Guide fat these days. Such patches are cut from a high grade of 100% rag content bond paper. from pure lead. And. the modern primer is more uniform and reliable being more were — highly developed than percussion caps ever were or will be. a torn patch means a shot out of the group. Swaging must be done uniformly. but in the constant search for better accuracy. without overlapping. modern guns are likely to be of under-striker type. seems an ideal substitute. Top shooters always check finished bullets for uniformity. This serves two purposes the bullet to proper shape and size more precisely than it can be cast and compressing the lead to eliminate any voids or air pockets such as occasionally occur in even the most carefully cast buUets. Unlubricated lead rubbing on the bore will produce instant leading. Whether solid or composite. The patch is dimensioned so that when the bullet is centered on it and forced into the bore. Swaging and casting proper buUets are covered in the chapter dealing with bullets and molds. And. Length varies directly with weight. And. slow-twist grooves to produce best accuracy with the bullet enclosed in a paper patch." Ned Roberts recommends primer ignition for "ideal" slug gun. Weighing each one separately may be best. and many modern guns are made with variations of those devices. as did several other makers. The nose is cast separately from hardened lead and assembled to the body. The "composite" or two-piece bullet has the bearing surface portion of bullets are used. The hard nose of the composite bullet is intended to avoid deformation that might be produced on soft bullets by starter or ramrod. but a dripping wet patch is no good at all. Both Warner and Brockway produced devices to use primers in lieu of caps. Some guns have shot well with an un-oiled paper patch. possess the power needed to ignite black powder. Slug gun barrels are rifled with wide. fatal to accuracy. As mentioned elsewhere. A cavity in the front of the body accepts a tenon on the rear of nose. Slug gun fans may not know why. the slug gun bullet is bringing always swaged. Only experimental shooting will tell you which is best in a particular barrel. the late his In "The Muzzle-Loading Cap Lock Rifle. they completely cover the bullet's bearing surface.or 3-strip patch is considered better. Once this has been determined. While the older slug guns generally utilized a conventional side lock. incidentally. that soaking for 15 minutes. William Billinghurst pro- duced very fine under-striker target rifles. In this manner. but few of us have the The typical under-striker lock is popular cause of Its simplicity and the fact that it breech and out of the way of sights. Patches can be dipped or laid in the oil. but they are few and far between. Early guns nearly always used percussion cap ignition. since strips can be cut with the grain of the paper. but careful measuring of their length is equally effective in weeding out those that are too hght or heavy. and length. It won't hurt anything to try dry patches in your gun a time or two to find out what happens. Oiling not only lubricates the bullet's passage in ramming and firing through the bore. but they do know what performs best. as sold for leather dressing. then taken out and allowed to drain. though. you'll know Oil. Some guns prefer oilier patches than others. Pure lead is use for the body because it receives the rifUng freely and more perfectly than any harder aUoy. for slug is guns be- underneath the . then blotting for a specified time will produce patches perfect for a particular rifle. weight. the old timers some- times used the under-striker. experience has proven that it normally produces best accuracy. shallow. all as a matter of loading convenience. Oiling is best done the day before use. the same amount of pressure being applied to every bullet. To remove excess. Even so. place patches between sheets of blotting paper. though many prefer pure sperm oil. Two types will accuracy for which the slug gun is The solid or one-piece design is cast in a single piece from pure lead. Patches are usually oUed before use.74 Shooter's Bible Black Each Nothing individual bullet less is carefully than perfect bullets made by hand. Most often the patch takes the form of two (sometimes three) separate strips of paper crossed to form an "X. The 2. Failure to center the bullet accurately on the patch will spoil accuracy. Pistol primers. recommend primer and any new gun you might We'll go along with that ignition for want to build. the strips fold up along the sides. both shotshell and metallic cartridge primers tried late in the last century. (or vice -versa) and swaging locks the two parts securely together. but makes the patch less likely to tear as the buUet is seated. Bear oil was once the preferred lubricant.

loading tube made by soldering a funnel to a barrel-length tube is a sure way of getting all the powder to the chamber A area. certainly weather. Any base deformation whatever will reduce accuracy. bore-size tube of barrel length is soldered to the funnel to carry powder to the breech without touching the bore. rifle charge would be 50 x 2 57 grains. adhere to strictly. the bore must first be wiped clean and dry of oil or grease. reducing its accuracy. shooters recommend wiping the bore with a dry patch after snapping the cap. Once oily. The gun produce the accuracy for which only if all the components are perfect. Even then. The more perfect the bullet. with any other muzzle loader.40 caliber) and 2 calibers for those over that gauge.45 caliber. Since this is only a starting point. Thus. Try both. before. the greater accuracy will be produced. you will have placed pre-measured powder charges in plastic tubes or bottles before going to the range. the charge may be funneled directly into the muzzle. preferring to start a charge weight equal to the caliber. there are several old rules of thumb that can be used. it tins or plastic Inspect Store the patches ready-oiled boxes to keep bullet. oil scratches. if too long the proper degree of oiliness is determined for best accuracy in a given barrel.or 3-strip patch." This means you simply multiply the caliber in hundredths of an inch by IVi or 2 to get the powder charge weight m grains. too dry. For . though. can interfere with best accuracy by getting between bullet and bore. and the utmost care is exercised in loading. Any new rifle will be furnished with powder charge recommendations. Generally speaking. for rifles vary widely in their preferences. This is best avoided by using a long-spouted loading funnel.2 gr. if any. especially at the edges of the base. Even a single powder granule or piece of dirt between and the barrel will result in the bullet being seated at a slight angle. Even a single granule. or clamped in a fixture that slips over the muzzle. powder measure A uniformly in any good adjustable drum-type can. cutting the patch or notching the base in seating. it a bullet is may have been quite soft and can cast and swaged perup defects easily pick before the time comes to load Bullets are best kept it. it type. very careful handling is required. Place the gun upright in the loading rack and check to make certain the false muzzle is properly seated. and the nipple passage must be cleared by firing a cap (primer) As or two upon Some it. Assuming you it are using a 2. Because of wind and practical to weigh charges on the range. must be free of nicks.Shooting The Slug Of Gun 75 goes without saying that whatever the and other firing mechanism must be of the best quality and suited to the shooter's tastes. of it will cling to the bore if everything is dry and humidity is low. The measure may simply be held over the muzzle. Set course. and absolute it slug has become will known uniformity in all loading operations. fffg in those under that.38 cahber. however. "Use IVi calibers of powder for rifles under 70 gauge (. They must be precisely centered and not wrinkled or torn. Charges should be weighed or very accurately measured. Keep really essential to accuracy. This is the only sure way of keeping powder from chnging to the bore walls. block or compartmented box having a separate space for each individual bullet. or dents. use ffg powder in barrels over . patches. I've known some in a shooters to arrive at the range with bullets wrapped in cotton batting. and original or used guns should also be accompanied by some data on what has been used.40 caliber barrel. Center the bullet over the patch and false muzzle and press it in gently with the fingers. a . With bore clean and dry. it doesn't really matter bit which you use.50 caliber 100 grams of powder. Simplest is the one that goes. If you've nothing at all to go by. Others do the swaging just before loading to reduce bullet handling. Little. it would be 38 x IVi Charges figured by other rules will be fairly close to the above. This means perfect bullets. The is it = isn't simply won't function appreciable air current. so we quote only the one rule. Argument will wage forever as to whether weighing to zh 0. Note carefully whether the patch . They should also be checked to determine that they are neither too dry nor too before they shooting. the lock triggers are the general rule. It in air-tight from evaporating. Though fectly. Some con- in mind that charges so computed are only approximate and that best accuracy will undoubtedly be produced by a bit more or a bit less powder. be used to throw accu- rate charges directly into the barrel at the range. If oiled too soon may be too wet. slide the strips into their respective slots in the face of the false muzzle. though. 40 grains for a . it do any harm. A = servative shooters feel charges figured this way are a heavy. Seat the bullet starter on the false muzzle and press it gently down as far as it will go. If you are a convenience-minded shooter. can't scale However.

is absolute uni- essential in pro- ducing best accuracy. if a primer lock. only to see the false muzzle go sailing downrange. it must be seated the same every time. etc. get that first shot off carefully. Then. run the The bullet must be the powder. Others snap a cap on the nipple after cleaning. Even with composite bullets. Most false muzzles have some sort of protrusion that blocks the line of sight. Let's assume the first bullet was on target and take it from there. uniform pressure is required. I recommend you attend to that detail immediately. — Powder Guide The slug gun demands a perfecdy solid and rigid you don't have a bench that meets these requirements. If it wasn't. being passed the full length of the bore the same number of times after each shot. remove the starter and insert the ramrod Then. the Many false muzzle is re- a rifleman has fired. seated firmly on the powder. you'll never know just how well your gun can shoot. What works for him is not necessarily best for you and your gun. shoulder and cheek the gun the same. If your false muzzle isn't so equipped. that particular bullet won't go as close to point of aim as Strike the it should. or may it may prefer to be gripped tightly. It is equally essential performed exactly the same each and every time. it ruins your score and can also ruin the false muzzle. Individual guns behave differently. and the gun is ready to cock and fire. If one just happens to seat a bullet without cleaning the bore. Everything will have to be the same for each subsequent shot. it may be impossible to start it moving again with the ramrod. In any event. for every shot. All that remains is to place the cap (or primer) on the nipple. Even with them. bullet fully down on in the barrel. so heavy a ter held lightly. making mental note of just how you performed each function. With the bullet properly started. You must sit the same. single. with a bullet. Make moved absolutely certain next. bullet has been than the balance of the bore. The gun may shoot bet- the shot as in loading the gun. The best approach is to start with good basic benchrest shooting techniques and then vary only one factor at a time until the most accurate combination is found. He must be right. Most shooters use only enough fingers in gripping the ramrod to insure single-motion seating of the bullet. solid blow with the heel of the hand. This avoids having an excess of strength available which can result in too-hard seating of the bullet. remove the fired primer. The point will also be deformed if the blow is too light and a second one is necessary to complete the seating operation. If you don't. press the trigger the same. minor shooter inconsistencies will have no effect. One wellknown shooter says he gets better accuracy shooting while kneeling on the ground instead of sitting on a stool or chair. Even shifting your derriere's position on the stool or chair can cause changes in point of impact. you'll have to spend a few rounds zeroing. Barrels are finished with a slight constriction or choke at the muzzle and the starter is intended to carry the bullet through this area. some point deformation will result if the blow is too heavy. but try it anyway. seating pressure should be just about right. This situation may call for disassembly of the gun in order to drive the bullet out slightly smaller from the breech. Tain't so. The goal of slug gun shooting is maximum gun/load accuracy. up somewhat. As formity the ultimate goal. Some shooters blow through the nipple or run a pipe cleaner through it to dry it out before the last dry patch is used. a clean dry patch is used to swab out the loosened fouling. Don't laugh. The number of patches and number of passes through the bore is of no great importance so long as the bore finishes clean and dry and the operation is performed in exactly the same manner each time. the powder charge is felt to "give" just a small pressure. or to be held the production of top accuracy. but before reloading. If one leans sideways or wrinkles. and is in all other operations. If side factors should be allowed to influence Rest shooting requires as much it. that bullet will be out of the group. but that can be combined with learning to load and handle the big gun correctly. yet without too much And. seating the bullet the length of the starter. A wet bristle (not metal bristles) brush or patch is used first to loosen the fouling. If the ramrod stops part way through the operation and a second stroke is necessary to finish the job. Then you'll know. then strive to make it uniform from shot to shot. there is bound to come the day when you'll shoot off the muzzle. any attempt at firing makes it obvious the device is still in place. knob of the starter a single. Ramming then requires relatively since in passing through the swaged choke the little pressure. If amount. Then. The ramrod must be stiff enough that it won't bend and rub the bore. and no outrest. followed by a final clean patch to completely dry the bore and pick up any fouling missed by the first. half cock the hammer and remove any cap fragments or.Shooter's Bible Black 76 strips are folding up evenly. You'll never know when the load and loading is exactly right because there will be "bench error" enlarging your groups.. because he wins matches. Lever-type bullet seaters as encountered on falsemuzzle Schuetzen rifles may also be used. This is not only highly embarassing. Cleaning the bore after each shot is essential to It prefer to recoil fairly freely. Take the time to learn just full how heavy a blow is required. uniformity in firing It might seem that with gun solidly rested. After the shot. Set the gun in the loading rack. that the cleaning be . on the resting smooth motion.

ignition varies directly with pin energy. Erosion and enlargement of the nipple vent. air compressed ahead of the bullet during seating can easily escape. Degrees of other wear and tear that are acceptable in sporting guns can easily result in decreased accuracy. along with temperawind direction and velocity. Eventually. compressed air might force the bullet up off the powder. Army tests away from the sun. If you travel a good bit and shoot at ture. or more shots are required to condition your particular barrel for its best 10-shot group. again with emphasis on uniformity of every component and every action. While black powder is hammer or firing relatively easy to can occur. if horizontally. etc. With the gun cleaned. The least marring of the muzzle or the false muzzle is fatal to accuracy. One set of rules says "When groups with one-piece bullets open up vertically. experiment to find out. reduce powder. A slug gun's behavior may change. When you first en- rules You must counter vertical or horizontal stringing of the group and are certain it isn't your fault. The water cleaning eliminates any possibility of there being an ember that might ignite the charge. a gun's behavior may change as one season moves into another. This necessitates the keeping of a comprehensive scorebook or log book. Reverse for two-piece bullet. Loss of mainspring (altitude) tension can produce non-uniform ignition. under any circumstances." and "If one shot is out of the group. 4-. being affected by temperature and to bright sun will shoot humidity. the barrel will heat uniformly there and remain straight. This is ample reason for never leaving your gun laying in direct sunlight while waiting to shoot. 5-. there must be no water in the nipple when the gun is fired. which in target.Shooting The Slug Gun 77 Obviously. the slug gun must be cared for carefully. they will give vital clues to improving the gun's performance. producing at best a poor dirt the rod clean after each use — shot at worst a "ringed" barrel. As known for your particular rifle. Regardless of exactly how you wind up cleaning the bore between shots." Heavy slug gun barrels must "warm up" (both literally and figuratively) before they shoot their best. Wiping is a good idea. Repeat the complete loading procedure. Once If quently." Then. Tests by Ed Yard prove conclusively that primer energy. Note that this is contrary to rules given for loading other guns that are not cleaned after each shot. Even though the shaded inside of your car might seem like an oven. vary the powder charge both ways to determine which is the proper corrective action. Most important of all. the next time the same thing happens you can correct it immediately and positively instead of fumbling in the A slug gun is somewhat like a wife or mistress dark. It is interesting that a 90mm tank gun tested for the sun's effect in desert-like temperatures walked its center of impact in a U-shape pattern around the point of aim as the sun moved through its full travel. develop a fast. they are /mportant in achieving maximum accuracy. humidity. you'll find that under certain weather conditions groups begin to open up. For example. conse- places differing produced on considerably in elevation target. With the hammer at half cock. S. one must know intimately and treat it cormost out of it. since if that bullet might which can eventually wear away the rifling. Concentrate on developing an unbroken loading routine that insures uniformity. this is direct sunlight with the big gun. you'll learn whether 3-. add powder. allow others to interrupt or intrude during loading. set the hammer at half cock. This is due to expansion and elongation of the side of the barrel facing the sun as it heats up causing the muzzle to move ever so slightly away from the sun as the barrel bends. That is. Another thing you might notice is the effect of hot. No matter how small and insignificant such factors seem. variations in ignition velocity. and studied periodically. This was with the gun pointed due south. the load developed today may not shoot as well next week. keep a record. Fire several shots before judging the accuracy of the gun or "going for record. but can be brought back in by reducing or increasing powder charge. you can secondguess the weather and load specifically for it. If loading routine is altered. Then. barometric pressure. decrease powder charge. tine for knowing it will it a goof so as to insure uniformity without waste of A hardened steel cleaning rod is best not pick up and hold abrasive fouling or time and effort. Probably no other type of shooting requires the minute attention to detail and uniformity demanded . Record each group and load. such records are kept assiduously. Shooting records are full of incidents where a top shooter lost a match because fans interrupted and caused a loading error. rhythmic routhe next shot into the dirt fire cleaning. This really should be done from the first round fired from a new or newly-acquired gun. U. and they effect turn effects vertical dispersion on ignite. Because of its temperament. If trapped by a tightly-sealed nipple. it too should be recorded along with any visible effect it every cap or primer seems to fire correctly. Best use an Ampco or in that shooting progresses and you develop proficiency on center of impact. Such may apply to your rifle or they may not. years ago confirmed that a heavy barrel long exposed it rectly in order to get the carbide-lined nipple to avoid this. Do not. Shooters have been known to load and was made in open up the group. you'll note many factors affecting its day-to-day accuracy. or uneven hammer/nipple contact can cost you points. even though record that also.

Even the centerfire bench-rest once he's loaded needs concentrate only on shooting.Shooter's Bible Black 78 by the heavy shooter He. It represents the epitome of muzzle-loading guns and shooting. a single shot than a breech-loading Powder Guide 10 rounds. plagued by minutea. his man does on an entire 10-shot string. ^^^O . The slug gun shooter probably expends more physical and mental energy on — The but slug it gun demands the most from the shooter equal measure in accuracy and will return sense of accomplishment. is less slug gun. at least.

is& 9 SHOOTING THE SCATTERGUN Once the trailbreakers had passed and cabins and homesteads began springing up. last — shot. then tapered back down toward the to — kill Procuring a shootable muzzle-loading shotgun follows the same guidelines set forth in regard to other guns. A conventional choke is then formed at the muzzle. Next in line is the "jug" or recessed choke. it might be an old smoothbore musket stripped of its excess weight and hardware and loaded with anything from factoryswaged buckshot to a handful of gravel. conditioned as we've may not sound like become to patterns from commercial loads. and shot. shot was cut from sheet lead. as has been done since almost the beginning of firearms. no one could afford to build his own shot tower on the frontier. A tapered hollow punch is driven over the muzzle. fit the nipples of your gun snugly. managed it Muzzle loading shotgun barrels may be choked in one of the above ways. for all its theoretical weak points. — and the shooters powder should be ffg granulation. leaving the muzzle constricted to produce the choke. Many a man alive yet today remembers cutting shot as a boy. Replacement eyes and arms are hard to come by. a recess is bored in the barrel behind the muzzle. far be it for me to try to change any minds. it seems to do rather well. buy good shot. Square or cubical shot today.and 12-gauge. So. One simply peeled a narrow strip from one edge of the sheet. Original muzzle-loading shotguns were cylinderbored without a choke. the swaged choke is the only solution. one man could and make The muzzle. Some recommend fg in 16. or cast balls or conical bullets as desired and the cost was less than for store-bought "dropped" shot. quickest. wads. wasn't available on every street best method calls for enlarging all but the few inches of the bore near the muzzle. working from the breech. on the frontier. and probably least desirable type is the "Swaged" choke. Make certain you have a safe gun before loading up and shooting from the shoulder. the muzzle-loading shotgun was more likely than the rifle to be the family defender and provider. and bottom the entire barrel is bored out to large diameter. Don't try to feel make 79 it yourself. last walls thick corner it wasn't unusual for it to be made at home. of course. Shot size choice depends on what you intend to shoot. Large buckshot could be cast like bullets and. this assumed considerably more importance than paper pattern density. Top consists simply of swaging the muzzle inward on a taper. A number of gunsmiths are set up to choke cylinder-bore guns. Shot was another matter. The last two methods require fairly thick barrel something many of the old timers don't have. it was only recently that the choke was considered practical in a barrel loaded from the muzzle. The simplest. With a supply of sheet lead at hand. Often as not. You'll need caps. Caps must. match winners of today do use choked barrels. constricting the barrel slightly. . but more and more shooters are having their guns reworked. and then chopped it roughly into cubes. Shot. Obviously. In any event. Be that as it may. The two methods require that the barrels have enough to stand removal of a significant amount of metal and many oldtime guns don't meet that requirement. Yet. powder. Middle. as we know it today. but I that's too coarse. The bore is enlarged behind the muzzle for a few inches. Lots of guns are shot today without chokes. much and 90% seems the boys 80% enough game with it to feed their families and. For them. Apparently. And. and since every one has his own ideas on that. of course. the larger balls for "buck and ball" loads were easily molded.

Working from the charge table given below (which is conservative) or those appearing in Appendix 4. though cheap. If making your own. Another card wad goes over the shot. consequently. Barrels vary a great deal in bore diameter. celotex-type insulating board can also be used. There is also the possibility of fires being started by smoldering pieces of tissue. One goes over the powder. one over the shot. Begin loading by wiping the bore and clearing the nipple by firing a cap or two. followed by a 1/4" or thicker filler or cushion wad. Many for a shooter has started by using toilet tissue wadding — three or four sheets the powder. It will pay you to make your own. you can use store-bought wads or cut them with a standard gauge cutter obtained from DGW. Gauge Powder Guide . Use a card wad directly over the powder.80 Shooter's Bible Black Wads are another matter. but not as well as when proper wads are used. If it isn't. recoil of the first shot in a double gun will loosen the charge in the other barrel. If making your own. pour the powder down the kill barrel. Make it as outlined a cutter for a patch cutter in the accessory chapter. and it should be tight in the bore. and it must also be quite tight in the bore. shoot and tamped down over Guns so loaded will game. Store-bought fiber or composition wads are fine. standard size wads are often too loose or too tight. upholsterer's felt is best. For a starter. especially if your gun's barrel has been polished or freshed out. though. to make the right wad It will be best eventually from tubing or pipe of exactly diameter for your barrel. use 3/32" to 1/8" thick sign cardboard.

45 caliber doesn't even have to concern himself with casting bullets. But they do. Today. In fact.32. the fron- blessing and hardly ever cast a ball unless not available ready-made. Carrying a melting pot. Equipment can range from a tomato can and spoon used over the kitchen range with an old fingerburning brass mold up to a modern thermostaticallycontrolled electric furnace and heavy multiple-cavity bullets. when visiting lead only for rifles." too. just remember what the autos and airplanes of a like. many shooters will use anything that resembles lead. The cache could be visited when replenishment was necessary. at the bullets very often. Swaged balls are available in the larger calibers. The tumbling also produces the numerous flats and dents one sees on the balls' surface. it's because they were probing an unknown field in attempts to produce accuracy and effectiveness on game and target. but I suspect more legend than fact is contained in that scene.or wood-burning kitchen range. I consider them a All are customarily cast from the softest and purest lead available. solid lead. it can be seen that Natty Bumpo didn't have any real reason to cast were an essential we have He expended powder and food and in defense of his scalp.36 caliber balls weighing only IV2 pounds or less. hammered-down. and so it is with commercial round balls. smaller calibers. molds. Commercial swaged buckshot is available in sizes correct for the three . say. mere 50 years ago looked part of the development of what rifleman didn't shoot for fun except tier Laugh deformed.44 or . Bar lead was certainly obtained on trading trips. Considering that the working rifleman would average probably less than a shot per day. The it's a size traditional bullet casting setup consists of a cast iron pot (often with a heat shield) intended to be set on the old coal. "civilization. No doubt this happened often enough. we use the following bullet types in muzzle loaders: cloth-patched round ball. dirty appearance. naked lead bullets of the 18th Century Jaeger rifle if you must.30. to 200 a horn of shots. but remember that they gave birth to the patched ball of the Kentucky rifle and many other subsequent developments. the balls are tumbled in powdered graphite which gives them their blackened. but With small caliber round baU good powder would take care of 150 today. many guns deliver better accuracy with these commercial balls than with the hand-cast variety. . This rough appearance leads many to believe such balls can't possibly shoot as well as one gleaming and freshly cast. They seem pretty silly. and an equal number of. producing round balls of very uniform weight and diameter. Both buckshot and the large balls are formed in automatic "cold-heading" machines from lead wire. ladle. 81 . Much has been made of the romantic scene of the frontiersman molding rifle balls over a tiny campfire hidden deep in the forest. No cast bullet is as uniform as a swaged bullet. — Casting techniques are essentially the same for all and are the same as those used for cartridge types. The round ball devotee using arms of . for casual shooting. and . an iron ladle. grooved lubricated hollow-base "minie" bullet. though. Once formed.36. could be carried in a bag no larger than your fist. . cut to length. unlubricated bullet. Wire is fed directly into these machines. and bar lead doesn't really fit in with the mountain man's concept of mobility. Personally. mold. After all. a single-cavity brass or bronze mold. If some of their efforts look ridiculous today. and squeezed to spherical shape between two hollowended punches all faster than the eye can follow. but it and bullet-making equipment were undoubtedly cached along with other occasionally-needed items. The swaging operation closes any voids that might exist.10 BULLETS AND BULLET MAKING Muzzle-loading shooters of yesteryear tried all manner of bullets in developing what we use now. It is generally conceded that pure lead gives the best results but the difference is often so small it can be ignored without serious consequences. Before you laugh or sneer at old bullets. paper-patched.

Replica Arms. They resemble modem molds more than the old timers.Shooter's Bible Black 82 and a knife or nippers with which The pot and ladle work fine today to trim the sprue. in the begirming. and the bullet is forced through a smooth hole to bring it to precise diameter and roundness. As it becomes fluid. The grooves on the bullet are filled with lubricant. Since a pound will produce 100 . After hardening. lead must be melted and heated to a temperature where it will flow as freely as water. Molten lead is poured into this cavity. Whether you're using a Lyman pot on Mama's gas range or one of the big electric outfits. perfect bullets are no less desirable. and A content will cost half to two-thirds that isn't bullet nearly as satisfactory.36 caliber round balls. Far better are the modern separate-block molds produced primarily by Lyman Gun Sight Co. Pope. grit and impurities) floats to the top and must be skimmed off. When the lead is hot enough to char a dry wood splinter without it bursting into flame (or at about 700 variety of old-style molds as they are produced today in replica form by. The second from left. Those molds are works of art an easily produce perfect bullets. but it really can't be justified you want the best accuracy Let's take are less critical of . Now. Scrap lead of unknown much. Those with plain. In spite of all this built-in forgiveness. As you get deeper into muzzle-loader shooting. the blocks are separated and the bullet falls out. this isn't at all prohibitive. and to a lesser degree by SAECO and Hensley & Gibbs. handgun bullets first. they represent only a very minute percentage of the old molds encountered. Nothing to it — or is there? possible. though. Except for the nose portion of composite slug gun bullets. But. Powder Guide Commercial pig lead can be obtained as this is written from most large plumbing supply shops at 30-35 cents per pound. Whitmore. And. all-metal handles are guaranteed to blister your hands in short order. The temptation to use everything from auto wheel weights to to grade junk battery plates in A the end if is great. dross (dirt. oddly enough. begin with the purest lead available. — even better than before with gas or electric ranges whose heat can be carefully controlled. Its short. for the short guns minor qualitative and quantitative variations. and the sprue-cutter (if there is one) is too flimsy to do a proper job. copied after Colt Paterson molds is somewhat better. we don't mean downgrade the very fine molds furnished with highrifles by makers such as Billinghurst. leaves a lot to be desired. If you do plan to use such molds insulate the handles or attach wood extensions. it's easier to cast good ones. The small blocks overheat rapidly. short metal handles become impossible to use after casting only a few bullets. Yesterday's mold. mold is simply a pair of metal blocks into which has been cut a cavity shaped exactly as the finished bullet. by all means. Brockway. try the old molds. In making the foregoing statement. but still difficult to use because of the extreme shortness of the handles. They are in themselves collector's items. and are far more tolerant than rifles of lead temper (hardness) and bullet shape. etc. use the modem type and far better bullets will certainly result. But. it's ready to load and shoot.

melting and an mgot mold sprue-cutter. the striking mer handle lor lead. The latter isn't at all necessary. but is convenient. of Handloader Magazine . Tn which to pour leftover bullets. mold.83 Bullets & Bullet Making Photo courtesy ]he^ good Not much is really needed to cast pot. dipper. lead hamlayout here is plenty.

you're in real luck. I hope you didn't do it indoors. but the lubricant you'll be using on the finished bullets works about as well as the pot to anything I've tried. Adjust the valve han- it. for a right- hander). if you had set the mold on the edge of of the game. By all means. stir the mixture well. the stream is too big and must be reduced by cutting down the valve opening. smoke a foreign material up the whole house — so don't do lot. does a common brick. In the event. This will save a lot of time getting the mold in the right place each time. that is the way the makers intend it to be used. An old. drop in a bullet-size lump of grease. and this while the stink lady of the house in entertaining her Kaffeeklasche. Hold the mold in one hand (left. you can drive a few Wfien dipping from mold. large serving spoon with a few small holes punched or drilled in its bottom works quite well for this. pot. but in my own experience. wrap a piece of aluminum to prevent spilled (yes. The lead will flow from dipper to mold and the excess lead in the dipper will exert pressure on that in the mold. The uproar won't last long. you can carry the pot outdoors for fluxing if you've a tyrant for a housemaid. nails into its top. with cavities parallel to the floor. thus the rate at which valve lead will flow out the spout. sometimes. fit its nozzle to the sprue hole while still horizontal. The stream of lead should enter the sprue hole dead-center. As soon as the smoke has cleared away and you've assured the hysterical neighbors that there's really no fire. Scrap wood works fine and so. cut-off plate toward the pot. If lead splashes over the side. Much has been said about special fluxes and greases. small puddle of molten lead should remain in the sprue hole. Or. Take the Lyman dipper (the one with the integral pouring spout) and immerse it in the lead for a few seconds to heat up. aligning it with the pot spout. If it using wood. The spout on the bottom of such pots is opened and closed by a handle connected to a rod dropping down through the molten lead. Separate dipper from mold. Lyman makes an excellent "Mold Guide" that bolts directly to the furnace for this purpose. wfietfier it be thie fine tliermostatically-controlled SAECO unit sfiown or a tin can set on the kitchen range. If the kitchen range has an exhaust hood and fan and you can work there. forcing out air and filling all nooks and crannies. and skim off the dross. While the lead was melting. Unless the dipper is hot. rotate them to an upright position (counter-clockwise for a right-hander) and hold steady. You'll see color and texture as it it rapidly change solidifies. Better results are often obtained by letting lead run freely into the sprue hole. This will boil and bubble. and will harden A so that no lead in two or three seconds. no keeping them from joining completely together. with a controllable heat pot). you are using a bottom-draw electric pot for your what first bullets. you'd be a few minutes ahead no matter. you'll spill adhering to foil over some) lead from Wood Photo courtesy of Handloader Magazine has the added advantage in that forming a sort of pocket for the mold. . it seldom works well. Build up a support that will hold the mold with sprue hole directly under the spout and about a half inch below it. you should have washed all grease and oil out of your mold in solvent or gasoline. so a fan and an open window will clear things up in a hurry. What's left should be reasonably pure lead just what is needed for good — bullets or balls. lead will "freeze" in the spout. Better make check to last-minute a is on the block insure faces. An adjustable stop controls the amount the handle wiU move. we'd better cover that some- different procedure before continuing. If the latter. Holding dipper and mold firmly together. submerge the dipper deep in the molten metal. it will heat quickly enough as casting progresses.84 Shooter's Bible Black warm degrees F. try it that m way. The spout appears to be made to insert in the sprue hole of the mold. But Powder Guide up. thus. wait a few seconds. And. Lift dipper horizontally and bring its spout into firm contact with the sprue hole in the mold cut-off plate. and truth. ttie dle stop. and then turn mold and dipper upright together so that the weight of metal in the dipper will force lead into all corners of the Slide the mold under the spout and raise the valve handle very carefully. rolling the two apart is spilled.

so turn the heat up a bit. Instead.Bullets & Bullet As soon Making 85 up as lead wells in the sprue hole. First. rounded edges and voids. causing lead to leak from under it. As lot easier. the cutoff plate must be swung aside. If the bullet doesn't fall out readily. Soon. This is best done by a sharp. The plate must be struck in a line parallel to its face any other angle will eventually bend it causing uneven bullet bases. The hardened sprue should look mer — . What's wrong? Nothing. even with only a single cavity mold. may take a few hours' and lead wUl often make the difference between bad and good handling bullets. And. the mold should turn out wellformed bullets. it won't turn out good ones untU it has been broken in by casting 100 or so slugs. But. Cutting and prying such spillage off is a chore. left untU cool. The mold won't make perfect bullets until it has been warmed up. cutting the sprue from the body of the bullet. With a little practice. This also wUl deform it so it will not lie flat on top of the mold blocks. so avoid it. it is enough being dropped on a hard the bullet quite hot and soft still using a bottom-draw pot such as this Lyman unit it is sometimes better to have the mold a short distance from the spout. back to the pot and dipper method. use a stick of hardwood (an old hickory hammer works well) or a plastic mallet. it's Never use a metal bar or hammer. and freeze on the mold preventing the blocks from being opened. light blow on the cutoff plate arm. if it's a new mold. After becoming hot enough to cause a drop of water to dance and sizzle audibly (the old-timers spit on them to check this). or both lead and mold are too hot. isn't it? that first bullet FuU of wrinkles. Using the Lyman fJlold-Guide shown simplifies this considerably and also ma/ces handling multiple-cavity molds a When knock it out of shape. if not perfect bullets. and keep trying. you just cast sure is a mess. and you'll no doubt invent a few new cuss words before called for here. It experimentation with mold temperature. you can cut off the sprue and have it fall directly into an old sardine can for eventual return to the pot. though. Open the Photo courtesy of Handloader Magazine mold by spreading the handles apart. will stay hot. Adding more flux Eventually. Never strike up or downward at the plate. close Fast action is the valve by letting the handle drop. has hardened. or lead will overflow you've learned to avoid overflow. you'll get the hang of it and be able to turn out a pair of bullets per minute. This will jar the bullet loose out. rap the top of the mold hinge joint with the same instrument used on the cut-off plate (never a metal object). The dipper should be immediately returned to the pot so it When the sprue (that puddle of lead) time to open the mold. lil<e this. You may find that after quite a Photo courtesy of Handloader t^agazine few have been cast that they come out of the mold with a frosted appearance and the sprue is taking a longer time to harden. Never use a hamor other metal object to strike the sprue plate and never strike the mold proper. comes from the mold. If it doesn't. the plate can be bent or warped. Either the mold. the lead probably isn't hot enough. Fold an old towel or piece of blanket into a pad on which bullets can be surface will dropped and Man. Fast action is called for with the valve handle. you'll get good.

this defect will be you have just begun to cast. Wrinkled irregular surface: Check first to make no oil or grease is present in the mold Check temperature of both mold and bullet certain that metal. try additional fluxing of the metal in the pot. You may as well use it to make vise jaws or door stops. Do you find air holes and voids? Weigh a dozen bullets carefully. If all else has failed. But don't throw anything away. This contamination can easily exist when scrap lead from the local junk yard is used. Powder Guide The weight of additional metal in the dipper. closed with bullet and sprue in place. in a bucket of lukewarm water for a few seconds. and other sharp edges not filled out cleanly in exact duplication of the mold cavity: If using the hand-dipper. Take a few of those bullets and look them over closely under a magnifying glass. slowing down the casting. must swing The plate freely yet not be held so tightly against the time. know work friendly cavity. and you've decided there really isn't much to this casting bit. juggling. trapping air. Right is a bullet deliberately cast to produce a thick fin on one side. increase the temperature of the These factors often require considerable also. and allow casting to continue so fast they dunk the mold every half dozen bullets. you know) and check a dozen bullets for diameter. Bands. Don't use steel tools or abrasives. Edge of bullet base not fully filled out: This results also from trapped air. Are they as uniform as you thought? Running through this Ust of tests. there be insufficient of tin will often make A very small amount the mixture flow better and tin in the alloy. at least you think you are). lubricating grooves. And. Modern molds have the blocks machined on their matching faces with a series of regular. lead not quite hot enough run into a cold mold. you'll find enough wrong with your new bullets to deflate your ego a bit. shallow grooves which allow air to escape as lead flows in. These grooves can become clogged. won't harden the lead enough to cause trouble. Up to 1-part tin in 40-parts lead will improve casting without impairing accuracy. aluminum. I don't recommend attempting to vent a mold yourself the factory is far more able to do a proper job. Some mixtures may require more frequent fluxing than Grease and it prevents the escape of air. By now. Don't be discouraged for there are many things you can do to eliminate the defects you discovered. between the plate and the blocks can also contribute to the problem. keep a larger quantity of lead in it and keep in contact with mold for a longer period of time. If this seems to slow production too much. Older molds were made with smooth faces. and is usually corrected by — slightly loosening the cut-off plate screw. If casting to bring the If nificant lead improvement. open the valve more. and if that turn down the pot heat a bit.86 Shooter's Bible Black try First. call on your will cool off quickly it Some people faster. Center is ttte first bullet of the day. we deliberately emphasized it here. If using a bottom-discharge furnace. If either or both are too cold. maybe even to make you think the equipment isn't any good. you'll make bullets that have a natural-bom "X-ring" tendency. oil } . Waiting until the lead became hot enough and pre-heating the mold on the edge of the pot would have made the effect far less pronounced. face of the blocks that Next. you're getting pretty good buUets (or. when you can do these tricks." This consists of very carefully filing a minute groove from the offending portion of a mold to the edge of the block. or one of the other materials that act to greatly increase the surface tension of molten lead alloy. If you don't have an accurate scale. the metal is of no further use for casting "good" bullets. That setup will give you perfect bullets virtually every time it's heated up. applied for a longer period of time to the fluid metal in the mold will force lead into the mold's nooks and crannies. Particularly. Anything that interferes with complete closing of the mold blocks will produce this same effect to a lesser degree. But you're wrong. There's a lot more to it. then immerse the mold. Cleaning with solvent and an old toothbrush will usually do the trick. thus. Air trapped in the mold can also prevent fiUing out the sharp corners. This do the doesn't trick. and often required "venting. Are the edges of the bands and grooves as sharp and clean as they appear in the mold cavity? Are the bases clean and square with no "taU" or ragged cavity where the sprue was cut away? Do you find any holes when probing with a pin where the sprue was cut? Split a few bullets lengthwise. and hold it open for a longer period of Plioto courtesy of Handloader Magazine Left is a properly cast bullet withi all areas of the mold fully filled. I pharmacist for help. If the condition persists. may others to flow well. casting 15 or 20 bullets does not produce any sig- produced. Are they uniform in weight? Borrow a micrometer (you really should have a good one. providing an escape passage for trapped air. it may be that your bullet metal has been contaminated by zinc. once you learn the tricks of the trade. continue mold up to proper temperature. Once so contaminated. soldered joints found on some cable sheathing can contain impurities.

other solution is a new plate. strike of the hinge joint one or two light. top embedded in the surface of the bullet. there are burrs in one of the mold blocks. mold or both are too hot. the cut-off plate may be removed from mold and polished has actually solidified before striking cut-off plate. but blows with with the stick used on the cut-off plate. Burrs of . examine the sur- face of the cavity under a magnifying glass. Shift the If this fails. straightened satisfactorily. but the bullet remains momentarily in the other and tips as it falls clear. Wedge-shaped lump left when sprue is cut off: Make certain underside of cut-off plate is perfecdy flat the and that edges of the sprue hole are clean and sharp. Reduce heat of metal. it cannot be Band appears to be cracked or slightly separated from body of bullet: Caused by dropping the bullet from the mold before it has cooled sufficiently. It is also possible that you are relaxing your hold on the mold handles at the time the lead is entering the frosty iust the right temperature. mold as freely it is from the mold: opened. the cut-off plate is probably warped or bent usually due to incorrect striking of the plate. Loosen the cutoff plate and use more lead in the dipper. Loosen cut-off plate screw so that plate swings freely. If more effort than that is required to jar the bullet free. flat on abrasive cloth stretched The only tightly across a hard. mold by dipping it periodically in lukewarm water (with bullet in the cavity). insufficient weight of metal in the dipper (as noted above). Fins on base of bullet: If fins are uniform around the perimeter of the base. perfectly flat surface. Bullets If alternately. or guide pin holes are clogged and causing the same thing. heavy bullets in single cavity blocks.Bullets & Bullet 87 Making Photo courtesy of Handloader Magazine Largest bullet has a correctly cast base. Allow a longer cooling period. coming from mold and metal of Left bullet has do not drop cool the a satisfactory production rate cannot be maintained. and slow down casting until bullet appearance is bright and normal. the cut-off plate is too loose. If the deformation is only slight. Clean mold block faces and guide pins and holes. Fins appear on bullet at line where blocks meet: Foreign material is holding blocks slightly apart. Holes or cavities in base of bullet: This can be caused by either trapped air. Tighten the screw slightly until fin^ disappear. Thus. frosty appearance: Either metal. Ragged cavity in the base of the bullet where sprue was cut off: Usually caused by striking the cut-off plate before the sprue has fully hardened. dull. Bullets have crystalline. This can be a particular problem with large. even though lead temperature is held to a minimum. With the blocks clean and dry. If the fin is predominately on one side of the buUet base. Make certain the sprue mold. and make sure you keep a good grip on the handle. All the others show varying degrees and types of cavities that result from poor casting methods. The large amount of molten metal heats the blocks very rapidly. Once bent. then strike plate sufficiently hard to cut off the sprue in a single movement. or by using two position of the the molds firm. Photo courtesy of Handloader Magazine appearance resulting from both mold and lead becoming too hot as work progressed. the bands mold is are slightly displaced. Onehalf of the mold pulls free of the bullet cleanly as the opened. Right bullet is smooth and glossy. or a combination of both. allowing the blocks to be forced slightly apart. and is sometimes accompanied by smearing of lead across the cut-off plate and surface of mold blocks.

Most authorities work on a mold. bullet off. However. we all eventually find ourselves in pos- session of bullet metal whose contents known. be seen. sufficient size to cause trouble should easily Usually. Normally. but mold so damaged. and flux lead frequently so that all foreign material floats to the surface. skimmed to remove impurities. though. After all. like all other mechanical contrivances. Now. but a might not be. then suddenly one or more of the above conditions will crop up for no apparent reason. Powder Guide resulting in excessive it. 45 Lubricator-Sizer. Use more metal in the dipper and fill the mold more slowly. from the surface of the mold or being carried in with the molten lead. tin is simply added until it flows well enough to produce good bullets. If the metal flows well and fills the mold completely. Often you may be casting perfect bullets. While it has been said that sizing . I do not find this at casting a bullet that looks perfect. Patched buUets. is uniform and possesses no internal or external defects still does not accomplish the entire job. Rest assured. a round ball is ready to shoot. Careful attention to all details mentioned above is not something that you'll be able to accomplish in the first. Keep mold clean. Consequently. just analyze the defect and take the appropriate corrective action. The bullet must be cast from an alloy reasonably correct for the job you intend it to do. and can be very carefully removed with a pointed scraper. I use it as is. Also sometimes caused by too rapid filling of the mold which results in a splashing action that traps bubbles of air. to be skimmed face: either falling in — Once cast. Swiss needle advise against any such no other way is file. sharply defined small holes in bullet sur- Caused by foreign material in the mold cavity. to salvage a better to at least attempt to correct the condition than to mold without discard the can you lose? Air holes inside trying. They often cast a bullet somewhat larger than the desired diameter. what by weighing or bullet (disclosed sectionalizing): Usually the result of inadequate weight of metal when mold the is filled. and the other which is of known content and used for more demand- I feel it ing guns. sooner or later it you. must be smaller than bore diameter to allow space for the patch. I usually have two different bullet alloys on hand one of more or less unknown content which is soft and used only for round balls. is most easily plished with the Lyman No.Shooter's Bible Black there is sample bullets are cast from it. four. Bringing it to proper diameter and perfect roundness is called "sizing" and is accomplished by forcing the buUet basefirst through a die made for the purpose. Often they are at the outer edge of a cavity. yet large enough to force the patch into the rifling. Minie bullets must finish up slightly smaller than bore diameter of the barrel in which to be used. they are small and fragile. all necessary. This type may be safely removed by extremely cautious application of a fine. or perhaps even the tenth casting session. If several times without stirring. It's game. make up a quantity of 1-20 mix. in weight. don't cuss the dog and kick your wife. accom- reserve such windfall metal for use in round ball guns. Sizing is required because molds. must be made to certain tolerances. fluxed and it is melted up in batches of 25 to 30 pounds. If it gives any casting problems. a single mix containing no more than 1 part tin in 40 of lead is all you need. having been pro- duced by the two blocks banging into each other. excess tin will be removed as it skimmed and antimony Then a few floats to the surface. regardless of patch type. There are fussy people who keep three. I Photo courtesy of Handloader Magazine Lubricating. When it all part of the will happen to does. Unless you intend making hard-alloy noses for composite slug gun bullets. It requires continuous practice and effort over a period of some time. For hard noses. inside and out. More often than not it will are totally un- be quite soft. sizing too when necessary. or even more bullet alloys available and use each one for a specific purpose. The latter often requires yet two things: Reduction to the diameter correct for your particular barrel and the application of a suitable lubricant in the grooves to prevent leading of the barrel. shrinkage with nothing to replace Irregular.

This protects them properly untU use. by far method is the use of entirely satisfactory. or containing a cavity. a lead bullet must also be seated and rammed carefully in the rifle. perfectly sized and lubricated. grease Either way is However. Seating punches should fit the nose correctly. The die body contains a polished cylindrical cavity of the diameter to which the bullet is to be produced. the lower of the size to which it was desired to reduce that bullet. it has been fully sized and grooves are aligned with passages leading to a lubricant reservoir. as should the ramrod head. If it and is it must not. The die bullet sv\fage in its most basic form consists simply of a close-fitting shaped punches for base and body and nose. the better. if the bullet base is damaged in any way. This simply means that a bullet so sized is more often than not thrown out of balance and may not be expected to produce best accuracy. Bullets are seldom swaged by the shooter except for use in slug guns. accuracy will be reduced. The bullet is placed in the mouth of the sizing die and is then forced down into the die by means of a handle and nosefitting punch. or it may become damaged in the process. Close-fitting punches enter the cavity from both ends. Also. When the bullet reaches the lunit of its cating downward travel in the die. less than perfect results may be expected. the Older dies were made with a two-diameter hole upper portion to accept the as-cast bullet. Lubricating and sizing is not so simple that it doesn't require considerable attention to detail. Consequently. Of course. The other is shaped to form the bullet nose. Bullets sized in the newer dies are generally more accurate. damage can be held to a minimum by using the proper type die. This device combines lubri- and sizing into a single operation. the less reduc- — tion. may be pressed down over the individual buUets to cut them free from the cake of lubricant. The nose-punch which forces the bullet into the die must also be aligned correctly with then the bullet may be forced through the die somewhat canted resulting in the appearance shown in the accompanying photographs. rounded. yet do not touch the bottoms of the grooves. More recently produced resizing dies connect the two holes of different diameters by a long. the simplest and most convenient a lubricator-sizer machine of the type sold by SAECO or Lyman Gun Sight Co. or grit is allowed to collect on the bearmg surfaces of the bullet. The lubricant may be appUed either before or during sizing. it goes without saying that perfect bullets. In any event. a fired cartridge case with the head cut off. . this is a quick and easy way to get the job done. I find it best to store prepared bullets stacked closely on their bases in covered boxes. parallel to Typical Minie bullets that have been lubricated by smearing in their grooves by hand. Swaging consists of compressing the cast bullet in a die to eliminate all voids or air spaces and to bring it to a greater perfection of shape and surface finish than can be produced by the mold. Such a bullet is sized off-center and along a line not fit the bullet. One forms the base. its longitudinal axis. forcing it into the grooves in the bullet. Lube may simply be rubbed into the grooves by hand (a most time-consuming process) or the bullets may be stood in molten lubricant that is then allowed to harden. Because of its soft nature. When sizing isn't required and not too many bullets must be processed.Bullets & Bullet 89 Making always damages a cast bullet to some degree. or a length of tubing. which is usually gently rounded with a flat tip. After the lubricant is hardened. very gradual taper. but rather compresses the bands in a reasonably concentric manner. be it flat. If lubricant is allowed to be contaminated with dust and dirt. Such dies shear metal off one side or the other of the bullet bands. These two holes were connected by a sharp shoulder or a sharply tapered area. must be kept undamaged until they are loaded and used. Fewer tools are required for the former. This longer taper does not remove any metal from the bands. it may be badly out of balance and grossly inaccurate. Reversing the movement of the handle then lifts the bullet back up out of the die and it is ready to use. ratchet handle then exerts pressure its A on the lubricant in the reservoir. the die.

Nose portion is hard to resist detormation during ramming.90 Shooter's Bible Black Powder Guide Some shooters go a step further in attempting to produce bullets as homogenous as possible. or vice versa. The result is a all perfectly Bullets are forced out of the die fitting internal voids elimi- homogenous bullet. Swaging dies are normally furnished by the rifle maker. the punches will upset and stick tightly in the die. and. Both punches are inserted. but weight will remain as cast and length will vary with base of the bullet since it is especially difficult to trim such "fins" off and preserve a perfectly square base. It's hard — to argue with success. one needs a separate mold for every weight. the die. then lapped to a "slip" fit. is by use of a hydraulic press. then hardened. punch in the bullet duced. adjustable stop for the nose punch and drilling an escape vent in The relation to weight. the job is simpler in a heavy-duty vise. Composite slug gun bullets are cast in two parts a pure lead body. . Theoretically. The bullet is compressed between the two punches and expanded radially to fill the die cavity perfectly. by a separate close- I bullets prefer this method. this will produce the most uniform bullets. All surface im- perfections are ironed out. In addition to the slug gun. lightly lubri- is cated (case resizing lube or lanolin works very nicely) and placed in the swage. When cast slugs are used. However. the assembly placed on the bench. bullets are cast very slightly overweight and swaging pressure then When "bleeds" excess lead through the vent. This limits swaging to paper patch type bullets. — Typical Minie bullet with its large base hollow which causes the bullet to be expanded by powder gases to engage the rifling. Much simpler than casting the slug. Swaged can be produced without casting. then swaged as already outlined. the die. Exactly the same swage design and operations can be used to produce this type. but the lead is thoroughly pounded to close any voids it might contain. both in amount and rate of application. the nose no further pressure is exerted and the desired weight and length is pro- strikes its stop. The cast slug is laid on a clean. the only method by which the pressure applied can be closely controlled. If not hardened. you may have a breech loader chambered for one of the obsolete black powder cartridges that used lead bullets with wrap-around paper patches. If not fitted very closely. while still being small enough tor easy loading through the muzzle. base punch down. any competent gunsmith or machinist can make them without difficulty. The excess attached but is lead forced into the vent remains sheared off as the bullet is forced from ± no more than weight can be produced in this manner. By providing a positive. A roughly cylindrical shape is retained. and nated. however. To do this. Extruded lead wire or rod is virtually free of voids. in normal slug gun practice. This is extrude be- particularly bad at the Diameter of bullets so swaged will be very uniform. The nose punch is struck several times smartly with a hammer. Obviously. This system has the added advantage of allowing any reasonable variation in weight to be made by changing slug length. The parts are pressed loosely together by hand. Slugs of the correct length and weight are cut from the rod and placed directly into the swage. A tenon on the nose fits into a cavity in the body. However. smooth steel plate and pounded with a hammer. body soft to take the rifling easily. something that can't be and Swaged bullets may be solid or two-piece as is this one intended tor a slug gun. the bullet same thing 0. The bullet cast slightly undersize. said for cast slugs. shooters develop an "educated hammer hand" that turns out surprisingly uniform bullets. I frankly cannot see any value in this treatment. bullets of surprisingly uniform weight and length can be produced. swaging can be applied only to ungrooved bullets. they will allow lead to tween them and the punch. die. Bullets varying "knock-out" punch must also fit snugly or will happen. since proper swaging accomplishes the same end but some match winners swear by it. and a hardened alloy nose. In practice.2 grains in While "hammer-swaging" as outlined above is the most common. Die body and both punches must be very carefully polished. One simply obtains extruded lead rod or wire of a diameter small enough to enter the swage body freely.

be carefully removed. so we'll not go into it too deeply here. If you must keep sights. This will help a great deal. Since the original dovetails were most likely handfiled. the become enlarged and won't hold the original sights securely again. All this has been covered in this author's '"Gunsight Guide. smoke them dead black of impact several inches at and 91 rear (top) fitted into ttie . ing. These particular shapes are considerably better than the originals. Save Use a soft drift from and light the tops well oversize. You'll sights. even though sight shape the country. at least accuracy — and where match that the left to right. That doesn't new ones made to tap the old sights out care not to lousy. its common gun it. damage to gun can be restored to original condition and value whenever you wish. and windage can only be obtained by driving the sight sideward in its dovetail. keep in mind that many sight installations will require drilling and tapping or other alteration of the gun. either the barrel or sights. Needless to say. The V-notch and rounded blade may be fine for snap-shooting in darkened. you want modern if sights. primeval forests. more open-sighted guns than any other is the situation. Leave muzzle-loading matches around the country. The sight will be low and have a simple V-notch filed in its upper edge. they'll not accept any standard sights. hamTake original barrel dovetails. fine mean those original sights are by any means During the black powder era. However. If the sight dovetails are barrel dovetails will made too large. but such shenannigans can greatly depre- an original gun. you're really interested in shoot- maximum may fit the sights. be it the finest bench-rest slug better than military do some at rifled musket or is no with a candle stub or carbide lamp. latch onto a copy of that book. but sunlight bouncing off that shiny brass can shift the center New and use the original and front sights can be filed to ttiese sliapes old dovetails. There will be no vertical adjustment. a great deal of sight development took place. the steps are usually some indeterminate value. That's okay if a modern muzzle loader is being used. the original sights means rules don't prohibit them." pubhshed by Shooter's Bible. You'll have to whittle new ones to fit from solid stock. though. look at the original guns first. 50 yards. Hunting models normally have a simple one-piece rear sight dove- ciate the value of A will tailed into the barrel ahead of the breech. from cannon lock to present. then the the best to be had.ii*r 11 SIGHTS The muzzle loader. Military sights will have a sliding and elevating steps. If you really want to dig into sight development. and the boys mer shooting with this combination. To improve open rear and brass blade And. while fitting the dovetails very carefully. make no mistake about really see in Traditional on the hunting or the V-notch rifle is front sight. even when marked for leaf of z ^ specific ranges. The blade front sight will — n be a one-piece rounded brass the poorest possible shape — also dovetailed into the barrel. Use hacksaw and files to cut them to the shapes shown.

or The by sliding the eyepiece Powder Guide up and down a simplest form of this type si^t is staff. Clamp the barrel in a padded vise. toward the rear. but leave them higher than you want. the same procedures can be used on a modern muzzle loader if you aren't satisfied with the sights that come on it. to fit the curve of the tang. do that now. will do. Redfield Gun Sight Co. If it needs deepening or widening to suit your particular tastes. Check horizontal sight alignment on the target. be sure to make index marks on barrel and sights. deepening the notch accordingly. makes a "Muzzleloading Adapter" to which can be screwed a modern micrometer-type receiver sight adjustable for both windage and elevation. Once zeroing has been accomplished to your satisfaction. Of course. file down the top of the rear sight. Now you can file the front sight down to approximately the desired height. just a piece of threaded rod turned vertically into a hole in the tang. A modern muzzle loader can easily be drilled and tapped for such a sight. and containing an aperture at its upper end. and the front blade toward the front will reduce reflection and produce a sharper. When any form of aperture sight is added to your muzzle loader to improve its accuracy. Such sights were usually made adjustable only for elevation by screwing them in and out of a vertical hole in the An adapter for modern target sights can be made by selecting a piece of bar stock which is first bent to fit the tang.92 Shooter's Bible Black After fitting the dovetails. or touch-up solutions can be used to finish them in place after polishing. or they'll rust. and rear Make line. allowing too show on either side of the front sight. It is then twisted to form a vertical surface to which the sight can be screwed. Elevation adjustment is obtained by screwing the threaded stem in or out of the tang. Assemble the gun and shoot it in at the desired range. If the original tang screw is kept. No evidence of the sight installation will remain. Now. Redfield sells such an adapter ready for use. a higher front sight required since adjustable rear sights sit higher above . true up the edges of the sights and clean up the rear sight notch. It need not yet be filed full depth that can be done in conjunction with zeroing later just deep enough to line up the front sight with the gun at your shoulder. If Don't leave them bright they are removed. tang. Such sights won't spoil the appearance of an original gun. Final windage adjustment is made as you shoot. Fifty yards is a good zero range. as well as. — — A by fUing down the front sight to raise it. The completed sights can be removed and blued or browned. longer tang screw (which must be custom made). pointed at a target about 100 yards distant. the gun may be restored to original condition at any time. Drive the rear sight sideward in its dovetail to correct any errors. and then locking it in place with the jam nut. centered in the rear sight. Don't make the mistake of making the notch too wide. thus. This sight adapter also has the advantage of placing the receiver sight back near the shooter's eye where it is most efficient. Carefully file the square notch. It and it works equally well on doesn't require that they be per- manently altered. If this isn't done you'll not get the sights back in the same locations and will have to re-zero. by tapping the rear sight sideward. Make it just wide enough to allow a thin Une of hght to be seen on either side of the front sight. even though it can't be calculated precisely. until the sights are aligned on target a few inches lower than the bore. An old or alternative exists new guns. Original sporting and target rifles were often fitted with an aperture rear sight mounted on the tang. The adapter is drilled and tapped to accept standard receiver sights and may be bent cold to position the sight as desired. Generally. This soft steel adapter is attached atop the tang by means of a new. much light to Tapering the edges of the notch. and they will certainly improve your scores. even the top of a fence post. but to do so on an original gun wouldn't be a good idea. Some early rifles were fitted witti a simple tang aperture sight as this. shape the front blade leaf. Make final elevation adjustments by filing down the top of the rear sight to lower point of impact. This difference compensates somewhat for bullet drop and simplifies zeroing. is square bore center- certain the rear face of the front blade and the rear leaf is perpendicular to the Align the two sights over the bore centerline as perfectly as possible. a new and better front sight is is in order. good bit of shooting can be avoided if the breech plug is removed and the gun is bore-sighted at this stage. blacker image. Almost any kind of target.

It should be made and fitted as outlined for rifles. Now and then we see a muzzle-loading rifle fitted with a modern scope and used for hunting. Both Redfield and models. for modern Of course. but by careful selection. Mounting them correctly is a job for a competent gunsmith.58 caliber rifled musket and killed a variety of big game with it. Even better is a new sight fitted to the top strap. such a bar does not interfere with functioning or disassembly of the though it no problem at all since most mount producers make flat-bottomed bases. The justable mounts. The mount base must be chosen to match barrel radius to obtain a solid installation. target-type front sights are readily available. It can be improved by reshaping the notch. thus. it is is a Make as already outlined. If an adjustable target rear sight is being installed. Dovetailing a similar solid sight in place looks better. It can then be filed down for boreand zeroing. Properly fitted. The other coning modern instruments of up to 20X are by far the most commonly used. It may be the type just mentioned or. . you can come up with sights that can be made to fit without too much trouble. is "possibles. modern-style sights in order to extract the accuracy built into your barrel. If the mount base is carefully fitted to barrel contour.36 replica is fitted with Micro front and rear target sights and will out-perform a good many modern cartridge revolvers when In the final analysis. There isn't any way to do this except by drilling and tapping holes in the barrel. extend- back over the cylinder. My favorite "shooting" Navy Arms Remington . The first consists of simply fitting the rear sight on the rear portion of the barrel and accepting the loss in efficiency that results from placing it so far forward. Almost any rear sight improvement requires a new The cone or pin sights on many caplock front sight. Original sights on single shot pistols can be given the same treatment outlined earlier for rifle open A Colt design. fitted a regular hunting scope on his Navy Arms Zouave . interchangeable-insert. The simplest improvement consists of an L-shaped square-notch rear sight bent from sheet metal and screwed or soldered to the upper rear of the V-notch — original Colt in the sights hammer nose aren't is better than barrel. and the sight installed upon it. It can even be used for hunting if a plain post front insert is used." modem and frame are thick enough. but as high as the rear aperture above the bore. revolvers are really not of much value. dovetails can be cut to accept new sights. of a Redfield or Lyman receiver The combination and target front sight with interchangeable inserts probably the best to be had for paper-punching. use a target-type sight. it can be attached with solder or epoxy cement. eliminating the need for screw holes. you can fit almost any type of modern sights to a muzzle-loading rifle. but target sights. with a Uttle ingenuity. and foam at the mouth at the lation on an original gun. Solid frame revolver rear sights can be improved by filing the notch to square shape. Since muzzle loading barrels are often rather thin-waUed. Octagonal barrels present of attaching a bar to the rear of the barrel. They can be installed with no fitting or filing. straight blade fitting the original dovetail. but this doesn't lessen their on muzzle loaders. be they for slug or round ball. Front-loading handguns present no great problems. It offers the advantage of being readily adjusted to zero for any powder charge or buUet change you might want to make. The rear sight is then installed on this bar in the normal relationship to the cylinder.93 Sights the bore than the originals. then attaching the sight to this ring. Single-shot pistols and solid frame revolvers can be easily fitted with sists by screwedon longitudinal dovetails. Fixed open sights force you to take Kentucky windage and elevation when any load charges are made and that's not the best way to shoot Standard models aren't made to fit such guns. a well-known hunter with muzzle loaders. The simplest form plain. If you're really serious about getting the best target sighting sights available. by all means include a matching front sight of the same make. Such sights may be fitted to an original gun without altering it by making a split clamp-ring to fit the muzeffectiveness Lyman make good zle. If there isn't enough metal to allow a dovetail to be cut safely. are often fitted with scopes. An occasional original example will be seen with a contemporary scope. sights. on target that the results count but you need top-notch. care must be taken in installation. It isn't something to be undertaken with hand tools on the kitchen table. Fitting them requires either a new transverse dovetail or a mounting block to be secured to the barrel. The no sight at all but not much. Don't let the screw holes run into the bore. particularly when they are of shiny brass. The late Al Goerg. they are made cartridge arms. Even some better quality sporting guns carried scopes. attached to the rifle barrel the barrel Open-top frames like the Colt percussion revolver no proper place to install a target rear sight. I've seen this tackled two different ways. Actually. does look a bit odd. but takes a lot more time and effort without producing a corresponding increase in performance. so think hard on it before doing so to a good original gun. — carefully it's and properly loaded. collector will scream sight of such an instal- worth much. A Weaver scope and mount base can be attached directly to the barrel ahead of the hammer. Dovetailing a new properly-shaped sight into the barrel is the best approach. but is still a wobbly affair that does very little for accuracy. They are target-type scopes in ad- If leave sight Bench-rest guns. if you want to go all-out. then a base block can be sweated or screwed in place.

It comes in all forms. Force a length 1" of wire into place. Sure you can buy cheap ones. In an emergency. and more fun. pushing out fouling and debris. to the flash hole. Like the cowboy with a ten-dollar horse. but fit it For a is to the nearest flintlock.islff 12 ACCESSORIES you may be able to use a very small adjustable wrench (crescent) if on a long gun where there is plenty of clearance. but most common today is the T-handle type. Cut it off. own and shoot a with nothing more than ammunition. Make and Go a comfortable handle of horn or hardwood a tight hole to accept the wire. more room in which to display his initiative and knowledge of the game. thing to keep you off the streets. the same instructions apply. rifle But life would be pretty dull and prosaic that way. many of the standard accessories can be made with only hand not only they give a fellow tools — and mama will appreciate Where there is sufficient room to get a conventional openend wrench on the nipple plate. Nothing more is required. Better yet. leaving about drill %" sticking out — and polish the end smooth and round. A NIPPLE PRICK probably the easiest accesmodel shop and get a short length of piano wire that will just pass through sory to make. what is more important. poorly machined. To clear the flash hole. in addition to ammunition and ramrod. how can we make them ourselves to avoid stealing from the grocery money? Any time you go out to shoot you need. faster. They will bend and twist on the first tight-stuck nipple encountered. Let's take Nipple Wrench Nipple Prick Ball Starter Patch Knife Loading Block Capper Powder Horn Powder Flask Powder Measure Priming Horn Wiping (cleaning) Rod Breech Cover Nipple Protector Hunting Bag Rifle-Loading Bracket Handgun-Loading Stand Patch Cutter Gun Case Authentic Costume The The T-handle nipple wrench will work in the closest quarters but lacks leverage and requires careful heat treatment if it is to hold together on tight nipples. the nipple. This type works well. Accessories make shooting easier. a look at the items you'll eventually collect to go with your front loader. but it's easier to carry the proper wrench and don't forget spare nipples. and poorly heat treated. fifty-dollar boots and hundred-dollar saddle. the muzzle-loading shooter soon find himself We all know it's swamped entirely possible to — with accessories. 94 . simply run the wire through. Sort of like having only Scotch at the bar. It can your having some- be made by filing or grinding from flat tool steel stock. a NIPPLE WRENCH. But what are they good for? Why do we need them and. It's used to unscrew or replace the nipple and must fit that part very closely. list *ype. This is one item you won't make on the kitchen table. I'd not try to make this may never be completed because someone will always think of a new gadget we just can't afford to be without. but they'll be soft. or by reshaping a hardware-store wrench of the proper size.

The loading block may just as easily be of horn. A seater for this purpose is easily made from scrap hardwood. one that doesn't it's have you cussing a streak. Once the ball is centered on the patch. it's magazine for caps. one simply seats patched balls in each hole just as in the rifle muzzle. but it is quite simple to make in either case. The edge is formed by beveUng only one side of the blade leaving the other flat so as to slide smoothly across the muzzle. And. They come in a variety of sizes and shapes. it must first be pressed just below the muzzle so the patch can be cut off. Strung on a thong. The Actually.95 Accessories ened on the inside of the curve. Essentially. yet can be pulled free after being pressed over the nipple. — — A patch knife is a necessity and blade should be beveled on one side only as shown here. the block is slipped over the muzzle and the long leg of the starter is used to drive the ball from block into barrel. patches. just to trouble than will a . Give the completed starter a good coat of oil or stock finish. and string it on a thong for hanging round your neck or tying to your outfit. Bend a sheet of thin brass into a square tube just big enough for free passage of the caps you'll be using. Any long gun other than the rifled musket and shotgun requires some sort of BULLET STARTER. perhaps 1/4" to 1/2" long. Whittle a rough ball that fits your hand comfortably. Trim one very short. you'll never want to be without it. a twist of the wrist. to load. Trim the other to 1-1/2" or 2" and give it the same treatment. metal. Then. An opening in one end exposes a single cap. You can make a simple capper. Place a plastic follower block and weak coil spring in the tube and close the other end. On one side the the holes over the bore. In use. drill a hole through the ball. the loading block can be carried around your neck. can be loaded faster by means of a BLOCK than by any other method. A nipple or llasii hole prick is nothing but a piece of stiff (preferably spring-tempered) wire that can be forced through the hole to clear out debris. but wood to match the gun's stock seems of hard (I like more appropriate. Slot and shape one end so that a cap sliding down will be held there. two-legged ball starter shown here is quite easy make. And. or trying to remove the lid from a tin box. Our rifle LOADING drawings show wood how simple this gadget is — a flat piece maple) with a row of drilled holes that fit patched balls snugly. The blade can be ground out of saw blade a piece of with little trouble. Slip that cap down over the nipple. Once you've tried a capper. and hollow its end to fit snugly over the ball. or plastic. Carve out a pair of short pegs just under bore diameter or use commercial dowel and glue them in the holes. It's so much less trouble than fumbling in bag or pocket for loose caps. any sharp knife will do for cutting Old straight razor blades work very nicely. This can be speeded up by stringing the starter to the block. A CAPPER may — more work The simple. handle may be The of any material. and drop the capper back in bag or pocket. Then it needs to be shoved several inches into the bore so the ramrod can be used. The best knives are made with slightly curved blade sharp- look like a complicated gadget worth. but the horn blanks from Dixie Gun Works available suit me best. that is not likely. A PATCH KNIFE is essential unless you will always use pre-cut patches. It can be either plain or fancy as shown here. then drill two holes in it at right angles. Also shown is the simplest form of leading block. The accompanying drawing shows a patch knife easily made from a hacksaw blade in a few hours time. and to fit either plain or musket caps.

but time-consuming. r ^i Mt « « « ^1)1 1 « « ii a *Q ne<yTO was in When its Powder Guide heyday during caplocks came into though. or slaughterhouses. but one item many shooters prefer to make themRaw cowhorns can sometimes be obtained from Several outfits supply this is selves. That stinking. it real smooth.Shooter's Bible Black 96 The POWDER HORN the tenure of the flintlock. . new horns ready for use. and then make L-shape cuts around the circumference. every use. yet will stay in place without a bit of trouble. but pler to order it's far sim- what you need from one of the mail- order suppliers. caps can be slipped in or out easily. Requires rather careful work to make. If the cuts are made right. Don't worry about getting remove the outer layer completely. Simply cut the disc out of heavy leather. scrape the outer surface of the horn to remove the skin. but it's take some work. Unless you've a very temperate and broadminded wife or housekeeper. cruddy-looking horn can be turned powder carrier as you'd like. the patent charger flask became pretty much the accepted powder container. surface and the core will pop out. The steps shown here (left to right) are all that is needed to turn out a perfectly serviceable horn in a couple of evenings. farmers. ranchers. and it is almost as handy as a capper. even though The simplest form of true capper is this square tube fitted and follower and cut at the end to allow caps to be slipped in and out. With knife or glass. it must be boiled to into as fine a going to loosen the core and soften the shell. Today. front-loading fan seems to prefer the horn. do this outside and downwind from the house. rough just Ma/f/ng a powder horn is quite simple. rap the open end on a hard — Far simpler to make is this cap holder. The horn adds color. It will stink! After cooking. with a spring flasks are I much simpler to -use. guess. First.

POWDER FLASK with charger spout is the most convenient way I know to carry powder ready for use. percussion caps were once carried in small horns with a mouth just large enough to let one cap out at a time. then carve a hardwood plug as shown to fit it snugly. Drill small pilot holes in both horn and plug to prevent spUtting. then make the body and put everything together. With the head carefully seated in the horn. Actually. measuring to its Mark the end on the outside of the horn. if you like. The horn won't be very smooth inside so you can. Care must be taken to keep the of the An old plane blade or saw blade makes an excellent scraper. The cut-off horn tip should now be drilled with a cavity to hold just the proper charge for your pet rifle. Carefully shape a plug to fit the open base. but broken glass will do fine if carefully handled. but it's fun to make one. Leave the horn under pressure until completely cold and dry. cross-polish in bootblack fashion with strips of fine abrasive cloth. Trim off the large end of the horn squarely. Finish up with the finest grit wet-or-dry paper you can find. better yet. use large C-clamps or weights to apply the pressure. we prefer to buy the charger head. The outside of the horn may now be left plain if around the neck and tie a thong there to which the plug can be secured. Both modern designs and reproductions of traditional measures are readily available. drill and tap holes for the securing screws. Maybe you'd horn with a charger spout like those on powder flasks. you can make the whole works. the horn walls will be thick enough to allow considerable handfitting. the walls are thin enough wood driving in a horn cold. shape. but the out-of-round opening may raw horn that can be cut to fit as shown. Once the it will assume some flattened other steps remain the same. then saw off the tip about 1/4" or 1/2" past that point. Measure head and horn carefully and saw off the latter squarely at a point where the head can be fitted snugly in place. use epoxy cement. I shape is particularly horn for flintlock priming powder. If at least four you're lazy. charm of older plain horns was due to the fact that they had been scraped almost paperthin. rotten-stone and oil it just takes many rubbed by hand will do the job times longer.A ccessories 97 Poke a wire up into the hollow. by driving in a ring require boiling to soften in order to With the plug in place. and then choose a like a The sibly powder tiask shown here could poshome (sans decoration). as well as aesthetic reasons. With a round file and scrapers. files. careful scraping and sanding. Then drill a crosshole through its end and loop a thong you like. thread both head and screw them together. If you're real handy and have a well equipped shop. That's the plain. No problem. of its If original achieved. Secure Much it a shallow groove to the horn-carrying strap. but lacking that. But. If a big enough vise isn't available. Use screws or. The most common is carving or burning one's like a small. since it made the horn lighter and smaller. Place it between two stiff. but would be more worth when it can be bought at a reasonable number of sources. When hold its new shape and the head will fitted. then rounded by be easily plug of the proper diameter. six. This was for practical. real Some fancy. now use scrapers. the may plug from horn. or securing the base plug may be a problem. traditional form of be made trouble than price from a it at is . The plug can be made perfectly plain. To be horn. Drill a 1/4" or 5/16" hole into the hollow. and then Flat pocket and aren't hard real high-class. This will remove all scraper marks. flat boards and compress it in a heavy vise until the horn is as flat as desired. with just a knob or grip. You can attain the same results by slow. or you can get end. Then another long thong or carrying strap at the same place. We leave this step initiative. Incidentally. centered in the cut-off face. taper this hole slightly. and knives to make it smooth. Save the cut-off tip. through. This rendered them somewhat translucent and the powder level could be seen by simply holding them up to the light. to suit you. A felt pad charged with any very fine — abrasive also works well. then polished to a high gloss. It may be turned on a lathe. secure it of brass nails or small brass screws. When wall thickness as uniform as possible. horns are sometimes more convenient to make. pocket-size flat name to or simple designs your imagination and The upon it. Simply obtain a flask head from a supplier such as Dixie Gun Works. The horn may have to be boiled to soften it. Don't make the walls too thin near the opening. traditional horn. all taken out too soon. Then wet-sand with the grain of the horn to remove cross-polishing marks. A powder horn can be decorated in a number of ways. Final polishing is best done on a soft muslin wheel. shooters prefer to make the fit the plug. If carve so. and again at the base plug. Select a horn that curves only in one direction (no twist) and boil until very soft. Use a fine-tooth hacksaw for a smooth cut.

then another lock nut. Punch a hole in one end to slip tightly over either the nipple itself or the hammer nose. One of the simplest measures is a large-caliber centerfire cartridge case shortened to hold the right amount. but it seems too modern to use on a powder flash.Shooter's Bible Black 98 Powder Guide This modern-style tubular powder flask is easily made ir) a couple of hours. Other flask shapes can be made. A female die of the shape you want can be carved in a hardwood block. More in keeping with tradition is the cowhorn tip hollowed out as previously described. A piece of fairly thick (not sole thickness. I haven't done it. . To perform its function. Thread the end of the rod and run a lock nut on it. such a cover can prevent It is made as shown in the accompanying drawings. but require more I possess. patience than Some sort of MEASURE powder charge is necessary to get the your gun. The simplest design is the tubular or cannister body shown. and dust or dirt off that part of the gun. Very soft. though) leather is shaped as shown sort of a "dumbell" shape. and clamp the inner portion of the wheel between the nuts. Obtain brass or copper tube of a diameter to fit the head and cut it to length. Naturally you can't just pour from the horn and get the same charge twice. then trimmed and soldered together to form the body. snow. If you're hunting in lousy weather. A simple adjustable measure can be made from any convenient piece of tubing. cap fragments. tightly A BREECH COVER type a leather is hood isn't seen too often. and powder fouling from scarring up the wood and metal near the nipple. Epoxy cement will do as well. fitted with a old roller skate wheel makes a good handle. The other type covers the barrel and stock in the which sticks up through a hole. This cover's purpose is to prevent flame. but is improved by addition of a hand loop bent from 1/4" or heavier rod. Good muzzle-loader CLEANING RODS wiping right sticks — into — aren't easy to find. This can either be welded or threaded in place. The handle may be used as is. Ideal are the adjustable metering chambers furnished with Belding & Mull and Redding-Hunter standard powder measures. up and fall clear of the lock instantly. Such a flask can be ornamented by cutting designs out of matching or contrasting metal and soldering or riveting them in place. A carefully-done lap joint can be "feathered" with a file so as not to break the smooth radius of the tube. Traditional wood rods and light metal ones pick up grit and dirt and often bend enough to rub on the bore. Pulling the securing thong allows it to open misfires. sturdy rod of hardened steel. that completely One encloses the hammer and nipple area. then attach the head with screws or solder. This gadget is simply a strip of leather laced over barrel and stock. NIPPLE PROTECTORS serve two purposes and a good one can be whipped into shape in a moment or two. rather thick copper sheet can then be carefully pounded into the shape of the die. 1 prefer a very stiff. Soft iron barrels of some guns can be badly worn in this way. but this is what I'm told by fellows who have. Two halves are produced this way. This leaves the rim of the wheel free to rotate independently of the rod. drilled and tapped at one end to accept standard accessory tips. Only sheet brass or tubing and a ready made head are needed. They are sturdy tubes fitted with threaded plugs and jam nuts. Eagles and bears look good. Add the wheel. The best rod is a length of hardened ground drill rod. containing a hole through which the nipple protrudes. the solid end of the leather strip is placed over the nipple and the hammer lowered full vicinity of the nipple — upon it. roll sheet metal into a tube and solder or braze the seam. The other end should be An ball-bearing swivel handle. A sliding plug is made to fit inside it and is held in place by a setscrew. Its purpose is to keep rain. Solder or rivet in a base disc. If tubing of the proper size isn't handy.

The one shown is a basic design that can be adapted to almost any revolver or single-shot pistol with minor It Most commonly used bag material is buckskin. even with no more than a jacknife and hand drill. PATCH CUTTERS round The ball rifle. A more calf approach is to have the local shoe repair shop do the job on a sewing machine. tightly prefer a fall while cleaning or loading. it won't budge. too. Attach a closing strap and a shoulder strap practical — basic job is done. so don't take a chance on a fall ruining one of yours. can be a lot easier to handle if provided with a LOADING STAND. All this can be avoided by sewing loops and pockets on the inside for: nipple wrench. The hunting bag must be pockets. you'll really scream. but tanned with the hair on also looks rather nice. if you like. They were pretty. The caplock revolver. this is easUy avoided. it can be notched or pegged to provide a secure place for the rifle. can be made mentioned in Another type of pro- form of a snug-fitting brass over the nipple. there'll be a place for every item and you can grab what you need in an instant. can be permanently installed on your portable bench or clamped to permanent ones found at some ranges. It may be attached to a screw or staple in stock or lock plate by a length of small chain. Don't try it on your wife's machine or you'll break a needle and upset the her. but even so. Slip the gun in place. They can wind up as fancy as you like. When you're finished. it provides a socket for the gun and a clamp for the barrel. butt. new words extra patches. If you want to be real frontiersy. There are a few places ing with either slug in bench-rest shoot- ball rifle. punch holes with an awl (which was a vital part of every mountain man's gear) and do the job with thin thongs. patch knife. it's just that the bag "fits" with the gun. It isn't that all the shooting paraphernalia can't be tector in the or copper cup that fits BAG A carried on your person or in your pockets. If you use a portable bench and carry it to range and matches. easiest way They to turn are a big convenience for the are also quite simple to make. But. The gun will stay right there until you finish and no powder will be spilled. even when ramming oversized balls or conical bullets. Basically. somehow seems to make a HUNTING fellow feel better equipped for muzzle loading afield. If the gun gets damaged or the sights are knocked out of line. but the one shown in the accompanying drawings can be put together in a skid single evening. but we prefer to fit it with a broad plywood base and use a heavy Cclamp to tie it firmly to whatever bench is being used. Simply cut the pieces as shown in the drawing and sew them together. Pad the jaws with felt or leather. Either way. can of like. The choice is yours. Yet. capper or can of caps. balls. Top-notch guns are virtually irreplaceable. If you simply lean the gun against the highly irritated the first bench sooner or later you'll be picking it up off the ground.99 A ccessories Should you become interested gun or round This protects the nipple in storage or carrying and also seals the nipple passage tightly as the various loading instructions. Properly built and fitted to the gun(s). the simple buckskin outfit you put together in a single evening will be fully that Indian style — as convenient. You can plentifully supplied with carry everything loose inside if you add but fumbling for just the item you want will to your profane vocabulary. I much LOADING CLAMP enough clod kicks it to which grips the barrel keep the gun in place even if some as he walks by. changes. It's easy to turn out in a single evening. one out is to get a 3. ad infinitum. even this won't insure that the gun won't away and you can buy a ready-made bag. you'll get time the gun tumbles to the ground as it's being cleaned or loaded. Hunting Bag Loading Rack Such a loading clamp is shown in the drawings. Make the jaws to fit the barrel. tighten the barrel clamp and the gun can't possibly get away from you nor does it matter much if you're interrupted during loading. We've seen some were completely covered with beadwork in representing a year's spare time work. and even canvas isn't bad. and use an oversize wing nut to pull the jaws together. make it the same from hardwood. This loading stand can be screwed permanently to your own portable or private bench. nipple prick.or 4-inch .

We could have written a full book on powder horns and flasks alone. Frankly.or 3-strip patches which are easily cut with knife and template. black powder shooters do have full mounregalia. basic tunic cut from soft buckskin. list of or that the instructions their fabrication couldn't be more detailed. Finish by stoning or poUshing and keep it sharp. Just fold over a length of skin into a long. File or grind one end from the outside only to produce a sharp edge. but . It wasn't used In use. Boy Scout and similar skill at manuals go into such decorative techniques in so there's little reason for exploring them here. him happy. You'll have to take a large-diameter piece of steel bar and laboriously saw. Bring the cutter against the patch material. and drill to produce cutting edges of the proper size and shape.100 Shooter's Bible Black Powder Guide Cross Patch Cutters The dyed-in-the-wool muzzle -loading buff will eventually envision himself decked out in moccasins. . nothing could be more simply made. Sew across one end and up the side. while others settle for a fringed hunting shirt and a battered wide-brimmed hat. of cutter. of muzzle-loading arms. fringed buckskins. Periodically someone will offer in a magazine advertisement to Many tain man Stand with an inside diameter same as the patch you want. getting your shirt that it way I recommend make instead of trying to yourself. not slung over one's back or saddle. so have at it. them when going otherwise Pistol . The case furnishes lots of room to display your beadwork and fringing. if not the operation. there's no have them. The carried in the hand. And. piece of pipe make such garments to order. since it's a simple. and then give it a good whack with a wood or plastic mallet. There's no short cut for this job. Give some of the foregoing suggestions a try and I think you'll agree. but then there wouldn't be room for all the other things of even more interest. ^-r30 . I save the trouble by using simple 2. In basic rifle form. Any seamstress can put one together for you. simply place several layers of patch maover a piece of cardboard on the end grain of a 4 X 4 or similar timber set on a solid rest. for Suffice it to say that accessories are essential to the enjoyment. A your fringed and beaded buckskin carrying case for will dress up the den a good bit. slender envelope that will just accept the rifle. It will cut cleanly terial The material and the patches may be pushed out with a dowel or rod. if it makes really valid reason he shouldn't to the I don't bank recommend wearing to apply for a loan. and coonskin cap. leaving the case long enough that the rifle butt Patch Cutter protrudes just a few inches. manner was rifle of today's case or saddle scabbard. work very well for cutting small are used in the round patches and same way. Standard shotshell wadcutters through. Of course. Personally. file. I don't own one. We don't pretend this has been a complete muzzle-loading accessories Paper cross-patches are made with the same type no ready-made pipe for the job. Traditionally this type case was slipped over the rifle to protect it from moisture and dirt. but there's in the cased — detail.

for that matter) from parts and materials that are readily available at reasonable prices. Producing a gun by this means demonstrates a remarkable degree of skill. And. This shooter be very well turn out to be less satisfactory than those obtained vidual truth indi- of pres- may even go so far by candlewife chew buckskin and as to cast his bullets in the fireplace. its bore and other critical components will be produced to unbelievably fine tolerances from the finest materials that money can buy. nor do we get so deadly serious about the game that it starts giving us ulcers instead of curing them. I guess you might call us the "fun" shooters. we have the fellow who will spend hundreds and hundreds of dollars to make or have made the finest modern muzzle-loading arms that today's technology can produce. The one hell it individual of a lot who does this will certainly spend of money for original pieces in fine shooting condition and. Consequendy. and hammer nothing and carve the individual parts of more. it may resemble powder a piece of sewer pipe bolted to a railroad tie. The usually take many a Kentucky or Match Rifle proudly displayed as the handiwork of its owner-shooter. he will depreciate value their known. read and demand that his on feast days. accurate. If you are reasonably handy with not to tools. But. but is stated simply to show that there are low-priced guns that will allow the black powder buff of moderate means to compete with the Cadillac drivers. We make up the third class of front-loading shooters that must get the most shooting pleasure from every dollar we can scrounge out of the grocery money. most other gun they can't or don't wish to buy. His interest buffs. It is a matter of record that Hopkins and Allen Under-striker Caplock Rifles manufactured by Numrich Arms and sold in this price range have repeatedly wiped the eyes of shooters using custom-made or original arms worth the price of a new Volkswagen. He cares not one whit what the resulting gun looks like and. most of us do not fall into their income brackets. This fellow would rather not shoot at all than to use anythree types of black thing less than a genuine BUILD YOUR "make" — a rifle (or pistol or shotgun. find is group. on his results target may if the who is willing to take by the some advantage ent-day technology. like pride in improvising and in being able to serve Indian pudding "perfectionist. The average shooter simply does not have the time. skill or patience to sit down with files. Then. Black preferred — Hawken or other fine origi- Harvey "Diamond Grain" powbuckskin patches. Some of these lads are machinists or toolmakers and they've made every cotton-pickin piece of that gun with their mentioned delights nuts. and fairly well supplied with patience and the perfectionist are more often men (and. tiiat WANT TO who can afford to take their approaches to this grand game. and to copy their methods precisely. an — than not monied professional 101 . of course." as OWN occasional feminine type) there are roughly powder shooters wandering loose (sometimes much to the chagrin and embarrassment of wives and other close relatives) around the country. drill. We are neither purists nor perfectionists. genuine split just exactlty as tier. chisels. Curtis and der. patience. Unfortunately. mind you a complete lock out of bar steel. However. frankly. and perseverance that I. This doesn't mean that the Hopkins and Allen is the best gun available. do not possess. opposed whatever ing the may to the "purist" smallest He particularly purist make what — just as did the frontier riflesmith of the 18th Century. you'll purely in accuracy and nothing be allowed to stand in the way of achiev- above.13 so YOU It might be said. by shooting them. and durable muzzle loaders can be had today for as little as $50. 1 suppose. This type of shooter is a own two hands light. Handsome. this doesn't mean that you or I cannot — in producing a modern muzzle loader that will exceed the highest degrees of performance ever obtained by original arms of the muzzle loading period. Buckskin and powder horn mean nothing to this fellow. for one. and everything else might have been found on the fron- nal piece. in fact. the fellow who seeks only to We've got the purist shoot exactly the same equipment carried by his forefathers.

The black powder buff hasn't been ignored. you can buy a lock. Probably the major supplier of this type of kit is Gun Works. a brand. Dixie J Powder Guide . But. barrel from another. flintlock rifle. but otherwise unfinished. Then you can set about finishing each of these individual components and fitting them together into a complete gun. under the tutelage of one Turner Kirkland. I strongly recommend it for your first gunmaking project. finished or semifrom one supplier. hardware. containing all the essential components to produce a comely and accurate caplock or finished. frankly. a gentleman and a scholar who searches the world over to stock his warehouses with virtually every black powder shooting item one can imagine. screws. there's an easier way. In this day and age. a rifled. spanking new rifle with which to start the spring shoot- ing season. and sheet brass from the local hardware store. How? Well. And. we are besieged with kits from which we may make almost everything from a cock-eyed picture frame to a 36-foot cabin cruiser. Various kits are available. a maple plank from somewhere else. and miscellaneous pins.102 Shooter's Bible Black mention an understanding wife who will sit idly by whUe you ignore her for hours on end you can put — together in a single winter's long evenings.

Lift out the barrel and begin slowly and carefully peeling off very thin shavings of wood wherever soot FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 Photo courtesy of Dixie Gun Worl<s Tang must be carefully inletted into stock as barrel is inletted at breech. cut about 1/16 inches deep just inside the pencil mark you have made. Before some means be removed proceeding of you'll have to have where further wood must further. remove the wood about 1/16" deep inside your incised line. and press it down firmly so that the soot leaves an impression on the wood at all contact points. Place the barrel back in the wood. it wiU be easier to tions or pictures in get a good Now. emulate your forefathers by firing up a smokey candle and apply a thin coat of soot on the bottom and sides of the tang and as much of the barrel as does not enter the channel snugly. . the bolster (drum) must also be inletted simultaneously or it will bear on the right side of the barrel channel and cause the barrel to tip. uppermost Take in the stock a sharp pencil With a sharp-pointed and knife. So. lay the barrel tang it fully to the rear. Using a narrow (1/4") chisel. mark around the tang.So You Want To Build Your Own 103 the rear of the tang to your liking. As barrel enters stock deeper. thus. If at this point you taper the sides of the plug and tang very slightly inward toward the bottom. and slide fit in the stock. using the illustra- your references as a guide. spoiling the entire inletting job. knowing just to allow the metal to seat properly.

the tenon bases may be filed will flat. overlooked. However. the sides of the recesses will re- main black. Under no circumstances. The tang should be at least 1/16" deep in the wood. file. gaining practice so you can do a workman-like job in curve of the stock. just you did with the tenon. This is slow and exasperating a very small triangular work. In the long run. fitted at this Take your pick. this process until sufficient wood has been removed under the tang and rear of the barallow the entire length of the bottom flat of the lie smoothly against the pre-cut channel. hand cold chisel. Tenons (in the case carefully channel. sharp wood to metal contact you've worked for so hard. Using a very narrow chisel. Mark the sight locations and very carefully saw and file the dovetails to shape. tenon bases to show where metal must come off. recesses. You may discover that the tang shallowly into the wood is seated only very at its rear end. it will be out in the open where everyone can see it. I consider this to be one of the most difficult operations in assembling the rifle. then better. Now. you will encounter no difHowever. Personally. snugly into the bottom of the channel. Powder Guide inletted deeply enough that the barrel can of its the tenons They must be rest solidly channel. After the barrel has been in and out of the stock a few times. time or the job may upright portion The 1 1 inches forward of the and the forward edge of the inch back from the muzzle. Keep your chisels razor sharp and remove only the thinnest possible shavings. the percussion version. Take particular care to keep the bottom of the doveas tails parallel with the barrel file flat. you will probably do a lousy job here. and then clean up with grinder. the bolster bearing against the throw the barrel out of alignment and louse entire inletting job. If you want to cheat just a little bit. a fair amount of protrude above both wood and barrel. Measure back 3 inches. Drive the sights in off the protruding portions of the bases to provide a neat appearance. and and try" I know until the of files. very caresmooth up fully all inletting cuts and remove all soot from both wood and metal. fill in with bedding compound as outlined in the chapter dealing with repairs. or small Next. perhaps in conjunction with a small-diameter drill. these place. inlet on the bottom stock and barrel — bottom of the barrel stock. as shown in the accompanying illustrations. With or grinder remove the bulk of this surplus. you will have to cut dovetails for the sights on top of the barrel. of the rear sight should be rear face of the barrel. Mark them clearly on the outside of the stock. attempt tear wood to pry out by levering the chisel against the edges of the recess. And. it and tact the smoking If this wood is will up your When it does. Then carefully silver soldered to the bottom flat of the barrel. using undercut the edges of the notches so that the dovetail base of the tenon can be driven securely in place. front sight should be Carefully file 1 the dovetail bases of the sights true. it is best to go ahead and dovetail the tenons in place. Sandpaper will tend to spoil the clean. by measuring from muzzle and top flat of barrel. three) of the flat after this is accomplished. Right now. the excess metal with files. Mark the approximate center of each tenon. Do not away additional wood here. Following the illustrations. at barrel. This will certainly spoil the much-desired close Continue fit. Should you inadvertently cut a notch a bit too large. 16 inches.104 Shooter's Bible Black has clung. Scrapers filed or ground to shape from old saw blades work very nicely for this. make vertical cuts with a Remove and parallel with the top barrel same time curving it gradually to match the the top of the tang flat the hacksaw inside the outlined notches. and . we need something Smoke smooth and flat. mark around each tenon at of the Dixie Kit. A word of caution — the inletting proceeds. and 1/8" case. keeping positions. to tie the barrel into the stock locate the tenon positions in the must be done before the tang screw (which is the most important fastening) can be fitted. being careful to insure that their flat bases form straight male dovetails. Using a scratch-awl. It fit The be left can be sights for later. inletting for it you will have to begin right along with the rest. When the barrel and tang appear to be inletted uniformly to one-half the barrel diameter. and without the practice gained in fitting the tenons. Remove wood only from the bottom of the. rel to barrel to As inletting progresses. the bolster will eventually con- wood. no tenons shortcuts. Leave about 1/64" of tang metal for later careful finishing flush with the wood of the together while the lock and trigger are fitted which simply "cut is the notches. its edges may be peened to close it up slightly. outlining a notch the width of the smaller end of the dovetail. Now. then very carefully bend the If this is the tang down and deepen the inletting to match. firm contact with the wood. Wood-to-metal fit at the sides of the tang and barrel should be as snug that you can possibly keep them. If you've been sloppy and it doesn't. Seat the barrel in the stock. if you are using ficulty with the flintlock gun. locate drilling point as shown. you can ruin the whole thing by getting in a hurry. is much rear of the Even tang files must be fitted to the bottom These tenons are rough castings which must be trued up with files. and 30 inches respectively from the muzzle and mark the bottom barrel flat. and. It's a lot easier to cut out more wood than it is to put back some you didn't mean to take out. even though the metal fits in easily. to tie the fitting the sights. Scrapers work best for this. you will see that the metal is sinking peras ceptably deeper into the wood. or solder may be used to help hold the tenon in place. The reinforced portion of the breech plug should make full.

Note locations measured from both Dovetails for botfi tenons muzzle and breech. Barrel pins may be made from 6-penny finishing or from brass wire or bronze or brass welding rod of the same diameter. securing the barrel solidly to the stock. filed flush with the surface of the stock. .So You Want To Build Your Own 105 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 4 Photo courtesy of Dixie Gun Works and front and rear sigfits must be carefully filed into barrel. Some slight correction can be made with the larger drill bit. Simply drive the pins in place. and stock securely in place align on and clamp its table so that the drill bit will pass squarely through stock tenons. but it isn't necessary to do that now. If you the barrel will be using a drill press. the pins will be nails. first drill through with a 1/16" diameter bit. Eventually. take a 3/32" drill and open them up to finish size. and then pull the barrel out and check to make certain each did pass through the drill tenon at an acceptable location. In any event. secure it tightly in place with C-clamps or with wrap- pings of reinforced tape or strong cord. then get else to stand off to the side and "eyeball" alignment as you proceed. thus. Assuming the holes did pass through the tenons. you'll simply have to carefully plug the holes in the stock and start all over. though it need not cut the exact center. If you missed. Drill all three holes. If the job someone is to and be done by hand. The hole must pass through the tenon.

. Do this carefully.BARREL ^-. lock must be carefully aligned with the barrel. smooth-cut file. Drilling of pin holes in stock and tenons simultaneously can be tricky and locations must be accurately measured and marked before drill is touched to wood. lay the lock plate. Outline the lock plate on the wood with a sharp pointed to the breech plug. Now. Looking at a few pictures of original flintlocks will give you a feel for this positioning. Next comes the inletted into inletting of the lock. This really can't be accomplished properly unless you strip all internal parts from the lock plate. and make certain you know which part goes back where. use a cleaning rod measure the distance from the muzzle to the face of At this point. If it is not. check the outside edge of the lock plate to be certain that it is smooth and even.i DRILL HERE Photo courtesy of Dixie Gun Worl<s Tenons must be carefully bottom of barrel channel. positioning it so that the punch mark lies just above the bottom center of the pan. or if there are burrs upon it.106 Shooter's Bible Black Powder Guide FIGURE 6 TOP VIEW - BARREL INLET ^ ^ 1 SIDE VIEW. If the gun is to be a flintlock. with flashpan attached.^A ^ i- I I 1- -i FIGURE 7 MEASURE / - i -^ — MEASURE . midway between upper and lower edges of the right vertical barrel flat. The but is not absolutely necessary. position the lockplate so that its lines flow smoothly with those of the stock. pencil or scriber. and in what order. Maintaining this reference. centerpunch for the vent hole. clean up the entire perimeter with a slight inward taper given the edges A will facilitate inletting. on the side of the stock. First of all.

removal of wood should be kept to the absolute minimum. Work carefully and slowly until the plate is seated at least one-half its thickness into the wood. While amount of clearance must be provided around the moving parts. ^ Photo courtesy of Dixie Gun Works Lock must be accurately aligned with respect to drum and nipple. both vertically and horizontally with the right vertical flat of the barrel..So You Want To Build Your 107 Own FIGURE 8 r-«»j-r«-«!j.^^. When room has been made all of the internal lock parts. If you are working on a percussion gun. then lock . At this point. During this final inletting. but various-sized drill bits. care should be taken to insure that the outer surface of the lock plate is parallel. The lockwork recesses can be cut with nothing to allow a certain more than knives and chisels.. assemble the internal parts to the lock plate and begin removing wood them to seat in the stock as well. Inlet for the lock plate just as you did for the breech plug tang and rear part of the barrel. continue deepening the recesses until the outer surface of the flash pan seats solidly against the barrel flat at the vent center- for punch mark. will speed the work up considerably. Simply hogging out a huge hole (which is by far the easiest way of doing it) will seriously weaken the stock at a point not too strong at best. . even a hand grinder with rotary files.

This is easily done with a round file or a hand grinder. adjust as its position so that the shown with the nipple. hammer Once face is aligned correct alignment is obtained. Now replace the lock plate in the stock and either clamp or tape it solidly in place. The lock Remove is to left side be held in place by a screw entering of the stock. then outline the lock plate and proceed with the inletting as outlined above. As this notch is being cut. Misat best imperfect ignition. 21 drill. Strip the lock as before. the hammer and centerpunch the lock plate in the reinforced portion between hammer and rear fence of flashpan. Remove only enough wood allow the internal parts to work freely without binding. If no drill press is available. but leave the hammer Place the lock plate on the stock. in place. alignment requires somewhat different treatment. and you will see that a half-round notch must be cut in the lock plate to clear the bolster. use a friend or two to eyeball the drill bit as squarely as possible. face strikes centrally and squarely upon the nipple. drill through the stock with that same centrally . drilling this fires. Using the hole already drilled as a guide. and drill through it squarely with a No. will result unless the from the hammer able.108 Shooter's Bible Black FIGURE Powder Guide S> Photo courtesy of Dixie Gun Worl<s Inlet to lockwork slowly and carefully. Level the lock plate on the drill press table. If a drill press is avail- screw hole properly is relatively easy.

or as a last resort is necessary. it — — . plug the hole in the stock with a hardwood dowel and start all over. the hole should be plugged and re-drilled at the proper angle. Considerable care is necessary to make certain alignment is correct. buy a Beg. If the stock. Now. Take the brass side plate and place it on the left side of the stock so that the round boss on its upper edge is centered over the hole No. please feel free to do so. was inletted squarely into was drilled squarely in the lock plate. the edges of the side plate. 2 1 drill. Centerpunch the boss on the side plate and drill through it with the No. borrow. and side plate next for a last check to make certain the hole is properly located and the side plate falls where it should. 21 drill through the lock plate. Pass that same No. everything is all right. If this places the plate in tion shown. and open up the hole in the stock with a No. stock. take your files and very carefully clean up just drilled. If you feel like exercising your individuality by reshaping the outline of the plate somewhat. 9 drill. If you goof. this hole will emerge on the left side of the stock at the proper location.So You Want To Build Your FIGURE Own 109 10 FIGURE Photo courtesy of Dixie Gun Works A single screw passing tiirougti side plate and stock secures the lock in place. Remove both plates. Open up the hole in the side plate to the same diameter. If slight shifting of the side plate can be accomplished at this point by shifting hole location by filing it to the larger size. 21 drill. and the lock plate if the hole roughly the locaIf not. steal.

care FIGURE Shooter's Bible Black Powder Guide to insure that the ends of the side plate do not bend outward instead of seating evenly may wood Ln the stock. or ignition will suffer. Turn it into the lock plate sufficiently to up snug it as draw the side plate against the stock. . The depth and filed flush with the of the stock. Make the threaded portion about 3/4" long. or it may be inletted only about one-half its thickness and the edges filed to a side plate be inletted its full pleasing bevel. and then carefully outline and you did the lock plate. Since the brass is fairly soft. Tap the hole in the lock plate full depth. Thread the end of the bolt blank with the 10-32 die. When the side plate has been fully inletted. Now lock is fully inletted and secured recheck aligimient of the vent hole punchmark with the flashpan. cut off the excess of the bolt where it protrudes from the lock plate.110 standard 10-32 tap and die set. If any corrections are that the solidly in place. Use the lock screw to plate in as inletting progresses. and pass the threaded bolt through the side plate and the stock. Hole must enter bore with its full diameter just ahead of breech plug face. Adjust the position of the side plate inlet draw the on the stock. must be exercised 18 VENT m^ MEASURE MUZZLETO BREECH PLUG I / VENT ON ANGLE DRILL Photo courtesy of Dixie Gun Works Flintlocl< vent hole is best drilled after lock has been com- pletely inletted. Replace the lock plate in the stock.

screw must and tang . Positioning the trigger in this slot so that it will engage the sear approximately 1/8 . As further inletting transpires. Centered on this line and begiiming The trigger a center line about 1/4" behind the position of the hammer screw. take extra care to insure that the trigger remains vertical. the lock will have to be removed because the sear will otherwise block accept the slot progress of the trigger. mark the outline of the trigger plate and continue inletting until the plate is almost flush with the wood. The hole should run and bottom barrel flats. but drift end so that the full diamjust barely forward of the breech at its inner is plug face. Draw on the underside of the stock extending from the rear of the ramrod groove well past the rear of the lockplate.So You Want To Build Your Own 111 necessary.3/16" from its rear edge. Cut this deep enough to intersect the sear recess cut earlier from the right side. repunch properly. and tang screw are installed next. Drill into the barrel at the punchmark with a 3/32" parallel to the top slightly forward eter of the hole bit. As the inletting progresses. When the trigger plate is about 1/64" from being 12 Photo courtesy of Dixie Gun Works Trigger plate must be kept vertical as it is inletted line up with forward end of trigger plate. cut a vertical slot into the stock sufficiently wide to FIGURE flat upper portion of the trigger.

clean contact at the outer edge. unprotected easily be damaged (particularly at the toe of the stock) or badly stained by oil. you have performed all of the operations necessary to convert that basket full of rough hardware into a shootable firearm. preferably about 1-1/2x9 size. yet is not bearing too heavily upon the sear. it Keep wood can so. Open up the hole in the tang and stock with a No. or powder fouling. tapping the plate with a rubber or rawhide grain. clean continuation of the top line of the stock comb. and. in and is not semi-inletted for the brass butt plate casting. hogging out the rest of the wood. 2 1 drill through the tang. through the brass and at least an inch into the wood with a 3/32" drill. Get out your candle and your sharpest Smoke chisels again. it is probably safer not to shoot the gun until it has been completely finished. With coping saw. The it latter first. This or grind off the large casting "gate" on simply superfluous metal formed there is during the casting process. It is best to withdraw the drill as soon as you feel it touch the trigger plate. As inletting progresses. tap the trigger plate for a 10-32 thread and thread the end of the blank tang screw the same for about 3/4". Using eagle-eyed friends or drill press. grease. countersink the hole in the tang so that the head of the tang screw will be flush with its upper surface. drill and countersink a hole in the rear of the trigger plate to accept a wood screw. Drill a pilot hole in the stock for this screw and turn it in solidly to hold the trigger plate in place. and countersink. keep the wood in as intimate contact with the metal of the plate as possible. But. clamp it se- curely in place and centerpunch a hole location one- back from the front end of the top strap. and the reinforced forward portion of the trigger plate. Actually. wood and metal are dressed down place. Through- out the operation. Considerable wood must be removed. and begin spotting and inletting it just as you did the tang and breech plug. Keep in mind that when installed and finished. Open up the hole in the brass to accept the shank of the screw and countersink to accept the screwhead flush with the surface of the plate. Obtain a solid brass countersink wood screw. will up the all plate where edges clean and square. Make the cuts perpendicular to the center line of the stock. carefully run a No. If run slowly. I can think of no single reason why you shouldn't shoot the gun at this stage. half inch Drill — clearance hole in plate. Let your conscience be your guide. a far more secure fit of the butt plate is obtained if wood is left to fill the hollows in the plate. in fact. If all checks out properly. plug the hole in the stock and start over. that the raw. File the edges that are to be inletted into the stock of the brass trigger guard smooth and even. To avoid trouble in these areas. Using the procedures already described. you have a gun that will one hell of a lot of work to be done to make it look and feel like a Kentucky should. many additional hours required to give the gun the polish and finish it now needs. for the trigger plate presents a rather small target. 9 drill. and then carefully mark around the tang portions to be inletted. band saw. There is always the temptation to simply maintain firm. the plate must either be replaced or welded up. then large gaps will show up when to their final shape. mallet will produce better soot impressions. and make certain that the trigger will drop the hammer. hog off the bulk of the excess wood outside the marked position position of the butt plate. Turn the brass screw in tightly. the freshly filed surfaces of the butt plate. Centerpunch the upper surface of the tang approximately 3/4" behind the rear face of the barrel. file the side. With the face of the butt plate trued up. though. With the guard clamped or taped securely in place. or what have you. and turn it into the trigger plate securely. Assemble the lock to the stock. If difficulty is encountered in . Carefully true Keep contact the wood. lay it in on the butt of the stock and mark on the wood its position there. If you're like most do-it-yourself fans. Probably the simplest method is to work the butt plate down and forward simultaneously until it is properly seated.112 Shooter's Bible Black flush with the wood. inlet both tenons and guard until tangs are very nearly flush with the surface of the wood. you will not be able to resist dashing off to the range with powder horn and bullet pouch to see if everything works before putting in those many. Position it over the trigger and trigger plate as shown. If this is done. stop the inletting the rear portion of the trigger as and shown so file down that with the hammer cocked and the trigger plate fully seated. the trigger will just barely contact the sear. and both sides as identical as possible. and the butt plate itself requires a lot of filing to shape. the top line of the butt plate must be a smooth. At Powder Guide game. Once the hole is properly located through all three parts. If not. Drill alignment is quite important here. Chisels must be kept very sharp as most of the cutting here is directly across the While the wood may be cut straight across. Also file the tenons of the trigger guard flat and straight. a standard combination "screw drill" may be used to do the entire job in one operation pilot hole in wood. feel this stage of the shoot! There is still Once the butt plate is fully inletted. Cut off the excess tang screw protruding from the trigger plate. While doing this. drill through the stock and tenons as was done on the barrel and pin the guard in would be pretty hard to resist the temptation to do mind. At this point. Then remove the plate and determine if the drill struck properly. insert the tang screw. The Dixie Kit stock is cut squarely across the butt. stock. If you go ahead and drill completely through the trigger plate and the hole is too far out of place.

use and plate fine-cut to the wood cross section. it into the hard maple of the stock.So You Want To Build Your FIGURE FIGURE Own 113 14 15 Photo courtesy of Dixie Gun Worl<s Trigger guard is simply inletted. but moment. This can be done by very carefully deepening the countersink holes until slots in their Get your come files down vertical as the screw is turned in out again. rather. Having accomand coarse abrasive cloth wrapped desired plished this. With both screws turned in tightly. and carefully dress the wood. solid brass and carefully trim the obtained. center of the butt plate arch. It may be that at some flush with the wood points ignore this for the will overhang brass. apply a soap to the threads or open the pilot hole slightly. make it a straight continuation of the stock lines. use files rasp to bring the stock and butt- files . check wood-to-metal fit. After this inletting until a peris done. "regulate" the heads run vertically. Drill and countersink excess brass much screw and turn it into place. If any gaps have developed. Butt plate must be drawn down tight so that there is no gap around its perimeter. but care must be taken to insure that it is vertical when the job is finished. remove here for a the plate fect fit want a is larger. Centerpunch another screw hole slightly below turning the slots will little tightly. Be very careful not to taper the brass backward but. Using pictures of original guns as a guide. if you really screws so that the first-class job.

Final polishing to a mirror-bright surface is best saved until later when the last finishing touches are being applied. solid is epoxy cement. Once this is accomplished. when the thimble is inletted to the proper depth. wood file of the fore-end. carefully trouble can be saved here ticable while producirig a clean. secure with a small brass screw and to the head flush. clean all mold roughness off the inside. Lightly sand the entire rod. No nose cap is supplied with the kit. Having smoothed the rod well. dressing them flush with the surface of the plate. applying a little extra effort on the end that is to fit channel. your Kentucky has everything on it . yet it is may be in the thimbles easily pressed in place not so loose that it wUl slide out own not distorted by this filing. then inletting is continued until the thimble bore is properly aligned with progresses. Carefully file or carve a tenon on the tapered end of the rod to fit the recess in this tip. about an inch behind the tang. With a fine-cut shape the outer edges of the guard. bright brass surfaces. Some if a template is made to insure that both sides of the guard will be shaped exactly. way letted part somewhat different in- forward portion must Its the as just others. If any difficulty forty. we don't want it pointing off toward the south of the wood. Secure a snug fit. As first this be in- inletting the thimble extension must be carefully bent and shaped to the same contour as the bulge of the stock. but one may be purchased from any of several sources and carefully inletted. fits at the point where the groove becomes a hole. Try to produce a smooth.114 Shooter's Bible Black around shaped pieces of hardwood to clean all casting marks from the rear face of the butt plate. file At ramrod blank this point. particularly careful that the smooth flowing curves are is encountered in keeping of its The traditionalist tip in place. and you don't want to louse them up at this stage of the game. The traditionalist will solder a small brass pin to the underside of this plate. Maintaining the arched cross section. not a sharp edge. the job can be simplified considerably by leaving the thimbles as is. The most workmanlike job results if the thimble flanges are soldered together and inletted to full wood-metal contact. not left flat. with its extension piece. into the hole at the rear of the channel. carefully sand the channel full length so that the rod fits freely. wood screws and give them the same treatment as those used to secure the buttplate. A neater job can be done if fine-grit paper is wrapped around a smaller dowel and worked back and forth in the channel. begin fUing across the outer surfaces of the guard to remove all mould and casting marks and to arch the surface. remove all mould parting lines inside and outside the guard. this hole may also be The inside of smoothed considerably by wrap- ping steel wool around a brass bore brush of the proper diameter and working it in and out of the hole vigorously on the end of a conventional cleaning rod. with the ramrod. Careful trimming and shaping of the already-inletted Using small flat trigger guard is next in order. use pictures or original guns to guide you. and make certain that the tip is properly in line with the rod. This will avoid rounding the chaimel edges. The Dixie Kit stock has a pre-drilled ramrod The rod blank is slightly oversized for the rear portion of the channel. file down the front and rear tangs (the inletted portions) flush with the surface weight when the muzzle of the completed gun is lowered. This is as good a time as any to fit and finish the of brass ramrod. Carefully the nosecap metal flush with the At this point. If the extension is reluctant to stay down in its recess. Again. and brass shield-shaped plied with the Dixie Kit. bright surface. Most do-it-yourself nosecaps are intended to be secured by a small brass screw turned in from inside the barrel channel. A threaded brass tip is supplied for the rod. try the make certain that and withdrawn. wiU wan to pin or crimp this but a simpler and equally effective method of securing it to the rod is the use of a small amount the tangs seated solidly in the wood. Now. However. Then. The third one. furnished and other accessory tips Taper the rod carefully down A to tip diameter. A steel worm threaded to fit the tip may be purchased. But the epoxy just men- tioned works quite well. Use care to insure that the flat edges of the plate are identical on both sides. and the extension is inletted its full depth into the wood. and simply cutting V-section notches as shown. even surface free of waves and humps or hollows. Take your skinniest three-cornered files and work carefully into all the notches and joint areas to produce clean. This shaping operation is carried directly across the screwheads. bringing them to a small radius. Be Powder Guide Three ramrod pipes are furnished formed from The two identical ones fit in the open groove with their front ends four inches and fourteen inches respectively from the tip of the stock. and half-round files. barrel. Regardless of the method used. Carefully inlet the first two thimbles until they are seated so that their bores form a continuation of the ramrod groove. Leave the guard as thick as pracfOe. thin out the outer edges of the guard. Don't carry the arch deeper on one side than the other. drill a 3/32" diameter hole through stock and thimble flange and drive in a pin identical to those used to secure the sheet brass. The rear thimble presents a letting exercise. Keep the fUed edges vertical. name supcarefuUy inletted into the upper surface of the wrist of the stock. This drive it in or initial plate is may be place after inletting. as was the buttplate. Along with this dressing of the guard. Graceful curves are a characteristic of the Kentucky Rifle. A more attractive appearance wUl result if the cleaned surfaces are slightly rounded. as is sure to occur with hand sanding. install small.

leaving the existing contours as they are and simply sanding the stock carefully will produce a very nice looking job. the lock plate. these items should be carefully formed and inletted before final shaping and sanding of the stock. however. reliable. If such is the case. a solid block in order to prevent tapering or rounding off the edges of the brass. trigger guard. polishing of the metal parts type- Bringing the stock to final shape requires very little effort in the case of the Dixie Kit. curable. that you wish to apply decorative inlays and/or a patch box that will be both decorative and utilitarian. Kits containing less well-finished stocks or working from a rough blank is an entirely different matter. with the finest Once grit the two have been sanded paper you have. By sanding directly over wood and metal where they join. The pipes must all be in Fitting line necessary to make it remains to be done safe. It is worthy of mention. It may be.So You Want To Build Your FIGURE Own 115 16 ABOUT FIGURE 4"- — N"- IT rz3 Photo courtesy of Dixie Gun Worl<s ramrod pipes is not a great task. however. is when and careful sanding the job is finished. flowing curves. but don't get in a hurry and hog out too much wood. All that and final shaping and application of an external finish to both wood and metal. the exposed . perfect matching of the two down is obtained. The be applied to the butt plate and done in conjunction with finish Sandpaper should be backed with final polish to other brass parts is sanding of the stock. that most people feel a Kentucky Rifle is rather naked without at least some decoration of this of the stock. In fact. Even so. some shaping will be required in the area of and blending the machining marks on the butt and fore-end to produce smooth.

and avoid enIt may be that you would prefer a bevelled lock plate. However. then you will all of the curves larging any holes. clean off all burrs and true up all edges. Make certain to keep smooth and flowing. the desired luster. Then. have originally inletted the lock plate only to one-half thickness. and pin or epoxy in place. its Photo courtesy Most fore-end or nose caps are Powder Guide easily secured by a screw entering from ttie barrel channel or they can be cemented in place with an epoxy compound. All that remains now is the application of an exterior finish to the metal parts of your Kentucky. Give the trigger plate and trigger this same cleaning-up treatment with files and stones. — of Dixie Gun Worl<s . The barrel can be blued by any one of several readily available home-use solutions. and finished up with worn emery cloth. very carefully file a smooth. Simply cut pieces to shape from sheet brass. All manner of ornamentation may be inlaid in the stock if you so desire. If this is the case. The procedures for this are covered in detail in the chapter devoted to finishing and refinishing of metal parts. the residue of must be thoroughly washed clear lacquer may all polishing material off after which a coat of be sprayed on to preserve the shine without frequent polishing. at this point. inlet. a proper "browning" job of the type originally used is much to be preferred. With small fine-cut files and abrasive stones.116 Shooter's Bible Black areas of the brass should be polished in boot-black fashion with strips of very fine abrasive cloth. red jewelers' rouge on a soft cloth or loose is by far the best. In most kits. Polishing areas inside buffing wheel done with very narrow strips emery cloth or felt bobs in a Once the brass has been polished to the trigger guard is best of abrasive cloth and hand grinder. a fair number of burrs and machining marks will be found on the various parts of the lock. For that final high shine. uniform bevel that ends just at the surface of the wood.

which from In — it. and fewer dovetails to be filed. rod pipes. There just isn't any point in repeating the whole procedure here. brass trigger guard. sights. and miscellaneous pins. trigger you hanker to build a single-shot muzzleloading pistol. barrel tenons. ramrod. All of which is plug and tang brazed in place (that of the rifle is threaded) and. in every and trigger plate. fully assembled lock and side plate. the bolster and nipple installed. kit contains an octagon barrel with breech 117 . in the percussion version. it may be done in exactly the same way to say that if already outlined for the Assuming you'd rifle. and they perform the same functions. check the Dixie Gun Works' catalog.36 caliber pistol kit. It's offered in either percussion or flint persuasion and the two are The identical otherwise. do the job from a like to kit the necessary parts. you'll find a Kentucky-style . except that the breech plug is furnished permanently installed on the barrel one less step for you to worry about. screws. The one advantage possessed by the pistol is that there is much less wood work to do. rather than start contains all scratch. 14 BUILD A CAPLOCK PISTOL Percussion Pistol from Dixie Kit built The caplock or flintlock pistol is virtually identical way to its rifle counterpart. It possesses all the same parts which are assembled in the same manner. roughshaped maple stock. Assembly and fitting of the various parts and assemblies is conducted exactly as for the rifle.


Shooter's Bible Black



Powder Guide



Photo courtesy

The pistol barrel comes with breech plug and drum already
installed for the percussion version and is inletted into the
stock in the same manner as a rifle. The flint version, at top
above, requires that the vent hole be drilled after inletting
of both barrel and lock.

of Dixie




A Caplock



Photo courtesy of Dixie Gun Wort<s

Dovetails for barrel tenons and front and rear sigtits must
be carefully hand-filed after roughing out the slot with several




Shooter's Bible Black

Powder Guide

Photo courtesy of Dixie Gun Works

After tenon is fitted to barrel, it must be closely inletted into
bottom of barrel channel in stock, and then drilled simultaneously with stock for the pin to tie the whole works together.



Caplock Pistol



Photo courtesy of Dixie Gun Works



lock plate can be properly positioned on



for inletting, a groove must be filed or ground in its upper
edge to accept the bolster in the percussion version of the

Only the necessary wood should be removed just gouging out a big hole seriously weakens the stock. — Powder Guide of Dixie Gun Works .122 Shooter's Bible Black Photo courtesy After the lock plate is aligned and inletted. the internal parts are again assembled upon it and wood is removed from the stock to provide clearance for them.


A Caplock








Photo courtesy of Dixie Gun Works

A shield for name or initials may be inletted into the upper
part of the wrist behind the tang after the lock and side
plate are fully inletted and assembled.


Shooter's Bible Black

Powder Guide



Photo courtesy

Tiie last step in getting enougii parts



to the sfoc/c

everything function is inletting of the trigger and
trigger plate. They must enter the stock vertically ^and be
held securely in place by tang screw and the small woodscrew shown above.

of Dixie




A Caplock



Photo courtesy

is pinned in place the same as the barrel,
is only the one pin, a woodscrew is necessary
the end of the rear tang. Another at the front tang is
also a good idea. The butt cap is inletted just as the butt
rifle, but is held in place by a single screw
plate on a
through its center. Extreme care is required here to get a

The trigger guard

but since there

good, close wood-to-metal


of Dixie

Gun Works


Shooter's Bible Black


Powder Guide





Photo courtesy

Only two ramrod pipes are required on the pistol. Make sure
they line up with each other and with the ramrod groove, and
that too much wood is not removed. Since this is a noncritical area of inletting, the common tendency is to get too

of Dixie

Gun Works

. VENT ON ANGLE DRILL Photo courtesy of Dixie Gun Wori<s Thougli the vent location should be center punched before so that any necessary corrections can be made in hole location. Remember to angle the hole slightly forward so that its full diameter emerges into the bore just barely ahead of the breech plug inletting the lock.Build A Caplock Pistol FIGURE 111 U MEASURE MUZZLE TO BREECHPLUG z. leave drilling until last face.

and all sorts of other items can be added even substituting a wedge for the barrel fastening tlie — pin. . Decorative inlays. nose cap.128 Shooter's Bible Black Powder Guide Photo courtesy of Dixie Gun Worlfs A great deal of effort and time can be spent in finisfiing up pistol and giving it a bit more class. fancy ramrod tip.

11mm Remington or 11mm Mauser barrel. cut threads in the bore about V2" deep. if there's any and square with the bore. Tap threads in this hole as was done to fit the breech plug. Center punch the head of the screw and drill a Vs" hole through it full length. If you own a bottled-gas — The drum or bolster is easily made from two cap screws one for the bolster proper. that length in the completed gun. If no tap is available. It shouldn't be too hard to find a damaged 9 (.35 caliber or over. also at right angles to the top of the tang. Now. . but it will work to perfection and costs little but labor. a lock and a barrel. The section shows how the large screw is drilled and tapped to form the bolster.45 barrel for next to nothing.45-70. align and fit the plug as outlined to blend lines of barrel and torch. or . Just center right angles to the bore. Take all this home and lay out your files. The result won't be fancy. In short. file the breech end (thickest. breech plug together neatly. shorten the cap screw to V2" of thread.Build A Caplock Pistol 129 may be that you'd just like to build a shootas cheaply as possible without particular effort to make it a duplicate of an original type. Almost everything else can be made with hand tools. Try to borrow taps to match the threads of the bolts you bought. but the extra length for a purpose. eliminating the chamber if present. The photos show what must be done. Thread about the first 14" of this hole to take a convenient screw to form the clean-out plug. Get one screw this size and about P/i" long.45-70 But. File a piece of scrap steel to shape for a tang and have it either welded or brazed to the cap screw head as shown. looking in scrap boxes for 9 or 10 inches of usable rifled barrel of . shorten it Vs" and run it in again. will start from a bolt — it has been done many times before. If that doesn't work. so turn the screw in tight. don't is fret. Keep it lubricated and repeat deepens the threads to the full V2". so let's try it that way. write some of the big surplus dealers and ask for an 11mm or similar barrel. This is your breech plug. principally. drills. the other to form the clean-out screw. look for a cap screw that is about the same diameter at the bottom of its threads as your barrel is at the bottom of its grooves. Turn this improvised tap into the barrel V2". Shorten further and turn in again. If the latter is octagonal. Get another short screw that has a diameter about 2/3 that of the bore. but really isn't if you think things out beforehand. able. At the hardware store. make down a tap so it The bolster or drum comes face of the breech plug. beautifully. file the end of the big screw then back this until it it to tap shape. Stick this in your barrels which work choice. but if this isn't possible. First. If necessary. Scrounge around in the gunshops you know. it accurate pistol mm is available. repeating until you've got a full thread V2" deep. but it will shoot as well as a new gun from a top maker. Drill a hole through the barrel wall very slightly larger than the other screw's diameter at the bottom of its threads. I'd pocket and go shopping for a breech plug. Then. full threads clear to its The tap won't cut end. Two or three longitudinal grooves filed through the screw's threads will speed up this operation. You'll only need a fraction of /1\/K/NyIV1V ^^NlAJ/\^^4^ A breech plug made from a screw will look something like this when ready to screw into the threaded barrel.S. difference) of your barrel flat If a tap is available to match the biggest screw. the welder's fee. If you have much recommend a . and a hacksaw.35).44. grooves such as this filed in a cap screw allow it to tunction as a tap well enough to cut breech plug threads in one barrel. // no tap will do the job yourself with silver solder and save Turn this breech plug/tang assembly tight into the barrel. . . What do we need? Of store-bought items. so don't neglect it. ahead of the punch the barrel at next. Shorten the screw to the thickness of the barrel wall and turn it into the hole tightly.375. This may sound like quite a chore on the surface. Get this one with a head as thick as possible. Saw off about a foot of the barrel near the breech. Not a thing of beauty. off a bit. tapering the threads in the barrel. file a flat on the barrel around the hole so the screw head will seat solidly. . just to see how simple the job can be kept. Some of them still have good U. Stone the cutting edges a bit.

Sure. that comSelect a nipple size that the screw modate and drill pletes the barrel. Now. cheaply as $6. There's no point whatever in Sound new locks are available trying to make a lock. scaling the fore-end to suit the length barrel you've chosen. laid square grids to enable you to easily prepare pattern. True the muzzle up carefully. but the typical side lock as is less trouble to you more leeway in stock shape. This might best be saved until later so that the nipple and hammer locations can be matched up to get proper contacts and good ignition. Select the one you want and make fit and will allow lock work out on 1" a full-size a pattern. Several styles are shown. For all practical purposes. 9" or 10" overall is plenty. saw off the barrel at the muzzle to the length you want. Powder Guide . then chamfer the bore mouth lightly and break the sharp outer edge a bit with the file. they need polishing and a bit of tuning. You'll need to have a stock before the can be done.50. To my way of thinking. Get a back-action type if you like. Be sure and order the pistol size lock. but that's a lot less trouble than trying to make one.Shooter's Bible Black 130 head will accomand tap the nipple hole.

75. Remove except that barrel and do the final shaping and sand- there won't be any tang bolt threaded into the plate. "Feel" is more important than looks in this area. For a gun of this type. Can be bent and filed from a piece of strip metal in a matter of only a few minutes. it may not look like she shoots A simple trigger guard is easily made by bending a plain piece of strip brass (or any otiier metal) to the shape shown. 15 grains in . Drill holes in both ends then inlet them flush into the stock.A Caplock Pistol chapter. its leaf. whisker and a surface as possible. Cut a strip of 1/16"thick brass and bend it as shown. I recommend quickacting G-66 paste bluing compound. Attach the guard with brass woodscrews and another job is done. Bolt everything back together and it's ready to shoot. so we Build rifle we 131 refer you there Disassemble lock and barrel from stock. the rear sight in place also. polishing out file marks and carefully scraping away any excess silver solder. Since started inletting before the outside of the stock was rear sight from sheet metal as shown and shaped. stock. drill. apply your favorite stock finish. it Silver solder with the front Don't cut the rear sight notch yet. Solder or screw to barrel. Now is the time to carve away all the surplus stock wood. A model maker's plane. Snap a cap or two on the nipple and load up with. It produces a good blue finish in a minimum of time if used according to directions. Once you've gotten this far. Polish all by hand. much. Inlet and regulate the trigger plate as already described for the Dixie rifle The simplest form of rear sight. Taper it toward both ends and bevel or round the edges for a more graceful appearance. and then dovetail a tenon inlet. file it in so that plumb center at 25 yards. we don't need one. aligning your lock is of conventional design. as smooth Then. sharp knife. make sure you understand it thoroughly before cutting into the If the side plate the center of blade. Try the gun often while shaping the grip area or you may wind up with a shape you don't like.36. With the stock shaped nearly to final dimensions. 20 grains powder in . and pin it as outlined for the rifle. and then brown or blue as suits your fancy. must be fitted. ing of the stock. but it was so cheap and easy to build that you'll probably do another one next winter and it will be — a beauty! --^30 . so as you shoot. and a patched round ball. and Stanley "Sureform" rasp are all that's needed for this. Solder or on the underside of the barrel. Remember that there's no notch in the rear sight yet.45 caliber. You can make a trigger from a nickel's worth of steel but a complete trigger and the trigger — assembly costs only about $2. Bend a for details. Scrape and sand carefully to produce Use a single wood screw there instead. there really isn't much more you can do except learn the gun's habits and how to get the most from it. Go over all steel parts now. Fancy trigger guards are for sale. but for a basic gun like this. File it lightly mark from brass or a front sight in place. Of course. say. the lock will have to be seated below the surface of the wood in order for the hammer to line up coin silver and silver solder with the nipple. and then drilling a pair of holes for attaching screws. If attachment is different. next inlet and fit the lock screw described for the Dixie Rifle Kit. so you'll be money ahead to buy one.

It can creep into a minute metal flaw. it has been washed out or wiped off with a wet rag or patch. they'll be red with rust by the next morning. against bench or table . Accumulating in breech plug threads. In the days when all guns had to be thoroughly and frequently cleaned. cleaning. For centuries. a fine black powder arm is completely ruined by that Red Devil. some inThe bore Fouling that has collected in the nipple or bolster passage can spoil ignition. Here. and eventually rust a hole through the barrel. fouling will cause massive rusting of metal and rotting of wood. moisture will cause rust to begin in a matter of powder guns shot in a humid climate must be cleaned no later than the end of that same day. and ing information we've gleaned. or it — loader. muzzlc-up. pistols. If they aren't. something interferes. so rust takes much longer to form. we'll it's for a reason. Old timers used tow twisted around a "jag" on a "wiping stick. modern rifles. Black powder fouling is soluble in water. and by the time the job is remembered. circumstances. these mixtures can be sluiced over the entire gun in a few seconds. Out in the desert country. Some shooters just leave the gun like that until next shooting time. A slotted tip was also used to hold a piece of cloth for wiping the bore. Where — it — The to think "I'll clean it tomorrow. Today. But. Guns have been found in the desert still in good condition after laying in the sand for scores of years. any way you look at it. even cause misfires or hangfires. and you can pick out which suits your guns. can cause them to rust so badly the part may some day blow right out of its seat as a shot is fired. It makes the gun and shooter that look as if residue is from the they'd just crawled through a chimney. and temperament best. If you come in beat from a day of shooting and mama has you lined up for an immediate bridge or dinner commitment. this hours. I've tried that a time or two. Allowed to collect on lock parts. Working unnoticed down between stock and barrel. you can bet a bottle of your best scotch whiskey. With a few generations so conditioned to minimal. But. there is very little moisture in the air. The large quantity of solid residue generated when the powder burns is black and sooty and clings to everything it touches. How to clean? Simple. there are other reasons. nipple. then swab it out and wipe it off.illff 15 CLEANING & PRESERVATION Here and there in book we've touched on it was applied in a parlump together all the clean- this If it cleaning of muzzle loaders as ticular instance. they survive undamaged very well. "Blacksolve" and "Gun Juice" are two common trade names. — primarily due virtually impossible. it's too easy absorbs moisture the fouling lays seems I'm over dwelling on the consequences of improper cleaning. and in stances. it — shotguns are often shot for a whole season even a year without ever being cleaned. Rust. — dirty fouled walls. this wasn't likely to happen. can cause springs and screws to rust through. The patch will often come off a jag or slotted tip and remain in the bore a most on metal. And. suck moisture from the air. bolster. The finest black powder gun can be completely ruined in just a few days if fired and put away neglected. highly hygroscopic air rapidly. They will protect it perfectly until the cleaning can be attended to properly. I find wrapping a patch around a bore-size bristle brush to be most convenient. but it's too messy. Black Avoiding the pitting effect of rust on bores and working parts is plenty of reason for prompt thorough cleaning. bore is to the less solid accurate than a clean one particles clinging to its A makes loading isn't all that suffers." When tomorrow comes. we have "black powder solvents" that can simply be sloshed on the fouled areas to provide rust protection for weeks or more. Black powder shooting is messy. Garden-variety (but thorough) cleaning of an assembled front-loading long gun is not difficult just a bit more time-consuming and messy than for a breech Excessive fouling cuts patches. deforms bullets. clean-out screw. with today's smokeless powder ammunition. frustrating occurrence. if any. Lean 132 the gun." or into the worm on the ramrod.

Lightly oil metal and. Switch to a close-fitting patch or flannel mop and repeat with plenty of water. and pins must be checked for bolster if likewise. The tube is connected by a hose to the hot water tap. cleaning time inspection time." very reliable. The cleaning will go easier after the fouling is soaked soft. carrying the fouling with it. then oil while metal is still warm. but I suspect its value is more psychological Careful drying and oiling The main reason cleaning. especially if the gun has been out in the wet. con- passage as possible to which is attached a neoprene tube. leading running hot water to the bore from the tap. My only real objection to them is that they encourage hurried. so extra care should be taken to insure everything is dry. others won't. Let barrel drain. sloppy cleaning by virtue of their ability to prevent rusting even if the fouling isn't removed. dip it in hot water and swab the bore full length. the job I — have and greases to keep their guns fresh and bright from season to People their favorite oils is an old favorite. The tube is placed in a tight fitting bucket (or the bathtub) of hottest water. over the nipple. A nipple tube should be used to prevent water spurting out onto lock and stock. should you suddenly dis- hammer and slip a piece of neoprene surgical tubing solidly caked. if needed. Keep adding water until it comes out of the nipple clean and clear. necessary. Stocks need occasional cleaning. A gun properly cleaned and cared for will last through a pair of lifetimes but one neglected won't see you through a single season. that it is for essential after water using hot water heats the metal which then speeds drying is when is finished. normally dry revolvers in the kitchen oven after cleaning then I know no water is trapped somewhere in a screwhole or recess. a complete disassembly is in order. its main purpose soaking into the stock. then fast-running hot water does the rest. Use a funnel to fill the bore with hot water which will slowly run out the nipple. etc. and the tube is inserted up the barrel to the breech plug. Wipe everything dry. and restore the wood sealer. When all the fouling appears to be gone. not a drop of murky water will get on the metal and wood to cause rust. Use an old toothbrush to get in around the base of the nipple. The fouling is first loosened with direct wet brush. Repairs or replacements should be made as soon as discovered. Next. the or some sort of drain. remove the tubing and with a damp cloth wipe off any fouling around the breech area. method is used properly. No doubt there are other variations on the hot water theme. As noted elsewhere in this tome. But the new aerosol cans of synthetic lubricants and preservatives are much handier to use and provide excellent protection. This isn't practical with long guns. I've found the "Anderol. they'll seep into the at inletting cuts. weakening the stock. but any of the foregoing will get a bore as clean as it can be gotten. a soft bristle brush or coarse cloth and mild soap will clean it quickly. Occasionally. "Rig" "Saftipaste. but not long enough for it to get cold. If used wood to excess.Cleaning & 133 Preservation (better yet. Screws is tightness. Yet another gimmick consists of a barrel length metal or plastic tube of about Vi bore diameter. combined with a hose slipped over the muzzle. Run the tubing into bucket or basin cover that you did let a gun go uncleaned several days. Some will harm the finish. care should be taken to see they aren't slopped over the stock. Water flows up the barrel tube. snail." "Stoegerol. bounces off the breech plug and flows back out the muzzle. Check the Chapter on a "dry" lather with as little stock making and repairs. A variation on this method stock or seep between is or clean-out screw and replace it to remove the nipple with a fitting. When the stock is just plain dirty. Nipple and along with every other component that is accessible without further disassembly. patch or combination of patch and brush is then worked up and down in the barrel to pump water in and out. — . as is the old B. fill the bore with water and let it soak a few hours before getting panicky with rod and brush.S. The gun is held nearly level. Powder fouling must be wiped off after every shooting session or it will work into the wood and ruin the finish. Applying oil while the metal is hot causes it to penetrate and provide maximum rust protection. Swab bore dry. Take a bristle brush (not a wire brush) on a steel cleaning rod. I find it useful to add just a touch of non-sudsing detergent to the cleaning a water. Don't overlook any crevices. Of course.A. All of these running water methods still require initial loosening of the fouling with a wet bristle brush. but muzzle down. Just a few strokes will loosen most of the fouling. clamp it somehow in that position). Keeps the mess off the floor. Clean and grease all parts covered by wood. Another trick consists of the same drain arrangement just mentioned. Use water as possible. taining as large a A clean water is used for a final rinse. When using the patent cleaning mixtures. Cock than real — except where the fouling has become Incidentally. keep sooty water from old towel around the barrel just below the muzzle to catch splashings and drippings. Putting the work off only amplifies the defect. rub a bit of paste wax or your favorite linseed mixture on the but stock to refresh When this its to is Wrap an beauty. Then a bit of paste wax rubbed on and buffed gently will restore that deep satin gleam." and "G-66" products all to be season.

The two competitors start at opposite ends and shoot successive targets toward the middle. Just visit all the gun shops and ask for names of people who've bought muzzle-loading guns or are known there to be shooters of same. each tailored to suit a particular type both some most interesting shooting and for keeps. Black powder shooting doesn't require a fancy setup. you can start scouting for a suitable shooting site. for group size.. don't despair. The lone front-loader owner can get in his shooting only if he has access to spacious farm or woodland. you're a damned poor salesman if you can't get a club you'll observe NRA NMLRA. sands of black powder buffs from California to Maine and Mexico to Canada. The shooter can earn bonus points if he breaks all his targets. O. There. He'll get lots of conversation. Just room for a few firing points. Each shooter may fire as many shots as he likes. Spice is added to rapid-fire matches by using a single. Ask about clubs and ranges in your vicinity. Old levees and embankments make range clutching his long rifle and powder horn isn't going to get in much shooting. except where his black powder brethren gather on their own ground. even though not big enough to suit the breech-loader boys. If he's cooped up in a major city. there simply isn't any place to shoot. just in case no club does exist. the winner being the one who places his ball nearest the center of the "X". tact the stration But. Usually two shooters or two teams square off against a given number of breakable targets. Friendship. If you want to shoot and don't know of a club from which to get assistance. P. Clay birds and small balloons are popular targets. too. ask for instructions on forming your own club. It may be for score on ring targets. His best shot goes for record. And. find — matter of setting up the soon as you have an organization. it's down for help. Who. If it comes to that. for fun just a club and affiliating with the let's types of matches. then on. There's enough written elsewhere on range building that you can find the information if you need it. There are many Informal Sunday-afternoon (after church. Armed with that information and a telephone. benches. interspersed with a few gibes. There simply aren't any recognized matches he can shoot in. Once that's done. but a few demon- good backstops. As 134 . even though it be only some friendly farmer's creek bed. to the type of competition you'll black powder shooters. Indiana 47021." Rapid fire off-hand matches arc great sport. Then he gets into his oppolocal started in a single evening. paying the entry fee for each one. of course) shoots are usually confined to "shooting the mark" in the old time way. Con- shots are about all he'll be allowed. and permission The rest. cares if a fellow spends five bucks to win three dollars worth of bacon? I've seen it happen that way many times. They like more color and dash. they can eventually form a club. immediately get a letter off to the National Muzzle Loading Rifle Association. assiduous digging will eventually produce a place they can set up target boards and shoot. From among NMLRA or get of gun. The glory goes to the side breaking all its targets in the shortest time or breaking the most targets in a given time. a solid backstop.isft 16 COMPETITION AND GAMES Simply lining up on the range to fire a muzzle 50 yards clear range. or to "cut the X. meat shoots are held under somewhat different rules. both for shooters and spectators. long row of clay birds. it's a rather prosaic test of skill among the thou- to shoot there. abandoned gravel pits and strip mines often make good loader a few times at a conventional paper target is fun. can be put up in a weekend or two. Box 15. Someone showing up at a formal rifle or pistol club range sites. if you've never seen it before. For the Fourth of July and similar occasions. Plain off-hand shooting is another mainstay of the game. Incidentally. Wherever at least three shooters can get together. target frames. The real backbone of shooting is the dozens of small clubs and the various State muzzleloading associations. etc. Targets consist of an "X" on a board or paper and firing is from the prone position with rifle rested across a log or similar support. But. Matches may consist of a single shot from each competitor.

it's no piece of cake. Even a four-gun team firing as fast as it can. which may be anything from broom handle up to fencepost. Some 135 pretty spirited competition can de- velop in this game. it can be done." Sometimes called a "Stake Shoot. but even at close range. using rifled muskets. Two clay targets are placed strad- — dling the axe. broke 27 straight in '68 with his 12-gauge caplock scattergun. The object of the game is to hit the sharp axe edge with a bullet.Competition & Games nent's share. Naturally. Speed isn't in the shooting as much as in loading and more than one rushed competitor has shot his ramrod targetvvard. Old timers and their front-loading shotguns will surprise you with their performance over the traps.58 caliber minie balls. a 4x6 timber with . pistol and shotgun fanciers all have their own pet games. The latter also have speed and accuracy Of matches on rows of clay targets and balloons the rifleman. often an axehead is secured to a suitable backstop a stump or log-end into which one edge of a doublebitted axe is sunk. the winner Stake. takes a while to cut a the individual shooter. this is fine practice for it's more popular as team event. Sure. Scattergunners shoot trap and handgunners shoot slow and rapid fire on standard paper targets. Probably the most spectacular consists of "Shooting the Axe. Who says muzzle loaders won't shoot? like ." With is the first man or team to "Cut the broomsticks or similar targets. A team or individual is assigned to each upright and on command starts shooting and continues until one or the other shoots his stake in half. causing the two bullet halves to splay out to hit and break the clay birds." Here. However. are set in the ground. course. When really experienced hotshots get together. Another one consists of "Cutting the Stick" or "Cutting the Stake." A a pair of wood uprights. a few more interesting games are played. This gentleman has been shooting at the Nationals for years.

petitor Powder Guide .44 percussion revolvers This comhas loaded powder and ball carefully and is now filling the balance of the chambers with grease as described elsewhere.136 Shooter's Bible Black Favorite in revolver matches war Remington is the Navy Arms replica of Civil .36 and .

. Note modern. straight-line. and this one doesn't do badly. speed-lock percussion pistol.Competition 137 & Games Pistol matches seem fairly popular with the ladies.

138 Shooter's Bible Black The National Muzzle Loading Matches now even have an offipiper. cial Powder Guide . This isn't unusual when one considers bagpipes were not uncommon on the frontier in the 18th Century.

" These events occur (as do others of lesser importance throughout the year) at the Association's official home and range just north of the friendly hamlet of Friendship. flintlock. Heavy round ball match rifles burn great quantities of powder and literally fiide gun and marksman befiind a thick white fog. is really smoking things up at Friendship. The knowledge of guns. their own A couple I've heard of even have Seneca described a bit local version of the further on. Even if you don't figure you're good enough to compete at this level. and techniques that can be picked up there is invaluable and will go a long way toward increasing your enjoyment of this grand game. This little community lies about 70-75 miles south of — Indianapolis.Competition The & Games 139 bigger clubs will conduct more formal and game extensive matches. Two massive muzzle-loading events that take place each year under the auspices and control of the NMRLA they are the "Spring Shoot" and the "Fall National Championship Shoot. you owe yourself the experi- ence of attending." The latter is often referred to simply as "The Nationals. equipment. This one. a . Best of the local shoots is the State Championship Matches. Indiana. often including virtually every in the rule book.

Its closest modern counterpart is and shoot his way across country against time. though few com- Shooters must be in authentic frontier dress. yet! to match "The Mister's" But in of spite all the sidelights — Tomahawk throwing. That's the biathlon where the hero has to ski . Occasionally. others chores. There are quite a few other interesting sights. I'd have to list the "Seneca" at the top because of its color and duplication of frontier situations. and cook with gear you'd expect to see in a wagon camp on the Oregon Trail a century back. Even buckskin mini-skirts. a Seneca runner will gallop off after his shot and drop or leave his ramrod behind. interspersed with five stops for loading and shooting. The shooter is poised at the starting train all and at the "Go" signal. knife throwing. perhaps plying their tools on the tailgate of a pickup truck or in a tent. He might even be accompanied by a comely lass who looks as if she just stepped out of a tepee over the hill. which might be anything from breechclout and mocpete in it. depending upon the nature of the owner. and. Four more line the targets are and shoot up there somewhere. stops. Many a Seneca runner would gladly swap for some of the biathlon men's snow after his August run. don't be surprised to come up against a lanky. bearded and moustachioed character in a long-fringed buckskin from head to toe. If you think it's to easy. Here gather the elite of the muzzle-loading clan.Shooter's Bible Black 140 Twice each year. You might even find a few horses tied in one of the nearby thickets. car. The airplane. girl friends. then return down the creek to the starting line. they come from coast to coast. men don't come alone. and a Little Taos Lightning (consolation for losers after dark) shoot- — primary concern. casins to broadcloth and boots with beaver hat. Many 'uns are there in droves. Quite a few are in period dress outfit. Proudly displayed or jealously guarded. but ties are broken by the fastest run. trading. While conventional dress predominates. it was a Nationals where shooters hot day. Modern-day artisans will be there. ing is their rest their buffalo rifles on crossed — sticks to duplicate the feats of early hunters. and he must locate all of them. the "Buffalo" Not only the boys go all out In regard to period costume. moves out running. It's a gruelling 300-yard run through water and gravel and over rough rocks. Top Seneca runners complete the course in seven eight minutes and shoot scores in the high 40's (possible 50). Here is seen the epitome of development of the muzzle-loading rifle (and pistol and shotgun). motorcycle. The Seneca is everyone's favorite. and bead-bedecked accoutrements. Every imaginable sort of shooting takes place. loads his rifle. there will be hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of the finest original and modern muzzle-loading arms one could hope to see. Here. perhaps even draped with tartan sash. tend the camp of them and young shoot. Up creek a way he spots a partially-hidden target. such as this Warrior's Delight perched alongside an isolated stream at the maybe she's thinking about a swim. If I were to pick the three most interesting matches. coonskin cap. and accuracy of the equipment used. The match consists of much more than shooting and demands top physical condition. you name it and somebody came in or on it. Regular competitors year for it. Highest score wins. come on down and try it some time. wives. even from Alaska and Hawaii — by camper. precision. fires and gallops on. the Slug Gun Matches for the superb quality. the area is Powder Guide innundated by hun- — ranging from dreds of the finest people I've ever met dirt farmers with an inherited "hawg rifle" to professional men shooting guns costing thousands of dollars. bus. The course is laid out along a rocky creek that twists up a draw. last.

and drop it into a swage which is further struck with is hammer blows to shape the bullet. All of this. Five such off come upon identified. the shooter may then select a cast bullet. absolute unigun requires. It ain't easy. a partially-hidden target which then hit with his Long Rifle. and what the shooter strives to achieve. After loading the powder. If you watch eral shots. may take nearly five minutes and the shooter is busy all the time. The bore wiped again and the false muzzle is carefully fitted. he'll touch off and a thumb-size slug will arc strike right in he hopes leisurely downrange to carefully The big — — the group he's got going. And. brother! the men The lady and what new cusswords they spectators cover their ears listen sharply to see can pick up. *'*. Wliile killing time. carefully as possible formity This Mountain in a few yards is is what the slug .Competition 141 & Games Primitive matcli competitors at play. the accuracy that can be produced with a 45 -minute long. To watch a top shooter is fascinating. and seated precise. and then a fresh cap or primer is placed on the nipple and fired to clear the innards. and shooting. loading. and are marvels of mechanical precision. The cavernous bore is first carefully cleaned. waiting for a match. cleaning. After reading mirage and checking wind and light. shoot as much as 1-1/2 ounces of lead. started. 10-shot group will amaze you. you'll see that every action ^S^C^«a must first be Man he'll is and running on the Seneca match. controlled The bullet strip is on the powder charge. all. him for sev- duplicated as from shot to shot. then carefully centered on oiled paper patches in the false muzzle. gun is then placed back in its rest and capped and the shooter carefully prepares to fire the shot. targets and a 300-yard run constitute the match. forge it with a hammer on a steel plate. The guns used weigh up' to 60 pounds. The Slug Gun Matches are carried on at ranges out to 500 yards. they hold impromptu contests in knife-throwing (here) tomahawk-throwing and all other manner of frontier games.

Shooter here is placing bullet and patch in a holder from which it will be pushed into the false muzzle and on into the barrel.142 Shooter's Bible Black Slug gun shooters are most meticulous in every step of loading. Powder Guide .

Competition 143 & Games At the matches. . An excelloading covered the Smoking rule at lent reason for the No — bench. and shot and wad bags or pouches. most scattergun shooters simply lay out all rather than use the necessaries in large. capper. open containers flask.

tobacco. one horn of powder. or a week or two. And. and it's settled. the guns.144 Shooter's Bible Black A slouch-hatted. but they'll have gotten a fresh the rest of the world. They may be wet and cold. First one in clean the spring and shoot some supper meat. they'll have a fire and. it's not what you think. But. but to live again. knives. kneeling." The competent muzzle-loading buff who has proven his ability as a marksman. they'll be living as did the trappers and scouts of the late 18th and early 19th Century. that's to do. night and day. They'll sleep on the ground. a peace pipe or a bag of Indian "Kinnikinik" tobacco? A new hunting shirt of finest fringed buckskin." "Done all around. complete with saloons. The people." No. salt. and all come in. and all the rest combine to form an experience no muzzle-loading fan can afford to miss. As a base camp. unshaven. living by their guns. the shooting. All oughta be in by sundown the 5th. and a pair of knee-high beaded moccasins? It's all there all you can think of and more and it's all for swappin' or sellin'. one of the club shoots or at a big match from a group of three or four slouch-hatted. they went at it full tilt. heavy. late enough be no people around. Charlie. He needed the steadiest position possible. maybe. hunter. Walk in. For a time. What's settled? rendezvous for three or four shooters who once or twice a year break clean with the business world and retrogress 200 years to spend a few days. with the aiming point right over the lungs where the old timers usually shot. and the mountain men and trappers would converge on the rendezvous from all directions. something else find himself invited to a again to the bearers of the Long Rifle. laden with beaver to trade. but to relax. Some suppliers spend several thousand dollars just to display (and sell. So he shot sitting. little pemmican or jerky. octagon rifle barrel across a pair of sticks. In the days of the fur trade. carrying on their backs the bare A fall minimum of supplies and equipment for survival a long." "Meet at the spring above Cooper's Bend. One of the most appealing facets of the muzzleloading hobby is the opportunity (Reason? Excuse?) it gives one for getting completely away from people mainly the flurry and press of what so and things — — — many people call "civilization. and it jump on had better look out! . a brush lean-to in case of bad weather. they'll have cast the yoke of today aside everything except their forest camp and the daily tasks of caring for themselves will have been wiped from their minds. They may come back gaunt. moccasined or booted figures under a shade tree. factors and traders held Spring Rendezvous for the trappers. and smelling — a bit rank. of course) their wares at The Nationals. Perhaps at you'll hear snatches of conversation there are events and classes for the ladies and young- "Early September good enough for you?" Early enough to be comfortable. and in his ability to make do and get along may eventually "Rendezvous. The barrel lay in the "V" of the crossed sticks and elevation could be varied by shifting the crossing point. This is the "Buffalo" match. resting the long. The guns allowed are comparable to those once used for taking the big American Bison. or squatting. an improvisor. Need a new barrel or a smokepole? How about an authentic trade tomahawk. Not to die. Not the least of the rendezvous purposes was to provide the itinerant riflemen with the requisite whiskey and women for a monumental carouse which often ended only when were gone or he'd collected a knife They were hard men. Even the targets are buffalo silhouettes. One blanket. Primitive. Game — and and fish taken with primitive gear will constitute their entire diet. But. yet the waving buffalo grass was too high for him to shoot prone. but to get away from it. brothels. singly or together. his year's earnings or bullet in his Not ribs. They'll walk in several miles." the other essential elements would spring up hundreds of miles into the wilderness. As ship appealing to is the many "Commercial Row" where vast "Good enough. and with only one fling a year available." "Fair. a tent city. If the weather turns bad or hunting is poor. Regular outfit otherwise. bewhiskered figure behind a heavy ting rifle sitting or squat- rested over a pair of crossed stuck in the ground conjures up visions of a down on a sticks squinting. the modern long rifleman's rendezvous isn't to catch up with civilization. The word "rendezvous" means one thing to those of amorous bent. odoriferous hide hunter leveling herd of buffalo out on the Kansas what just it meant is prairie. no matter what happens. Want a quart of genuine Someone there will have new lock for your favorite bear's oil for patch lubricant? it. The And they shake. as the shooting at Friendvirtually every item even remotely associated with black powder shooting is on display. Many other matches take place at Friendship and Powder Guide word would have gone out. and wits in some isolated patch of forest. The shooting position is prescribed to resemble the buffalo hunter's "stand" from which he might kill dozens of animals without ever moving. Many a buckskinned Lochinvar survived a year in the hostile wilderness only to pass from this vale of tears in a fog of Taos Lightning and flashing Green River steel at Rendezvous. to carouse. stores. The rest get camp goin' as they sters as well. they'll go hungry. small bore muzzle-loading rifle. Virtually overnight.

Boss Johnston. Show. they never forsook those fine. Interest was such that it seemed advisable to form an organization to promote. But. Kentucky. notably the hilly south. who'd been a party to setting up that first match. The result was a it's a quiet area (except when a big good one village of Friendship. Men nurtured on the rifles caplock bought lever-action mundane purposes like cartridge killing repeaters for meat and convincing revenooers to stay up north. it may be an extended affair approaching a rendezvous. They. we can walk away. general factotum. partly timbered tract of land just north of the The goal was a permanent range and association home. Ohio. and points south back in the early I930's. Just casual use to please the owners. maybe. The rifleman of yesteryear placed the biggest stake of all on his skill with the long rifle his life." which remains today the official organ of the association. Those guns were still in use in the hills of Ohio. Shooting was in the traditional manner when a few black powder fanciers gathered for a day on afternoon or for a more formal fall "Beef Shoot. The muzzleloading clan had been invited to come on up and show their prowess. — . — never stopped. and can you kill him cleanly with the single ball in your front loader? The answers come quick and positive. rather. Eventually the association purchased an attractive. way back in Chapter muzzle-loading shooting has been going on all along if or. you might get invited. Today. too. Less strenuous and of shorter duration are the "Squirrel Hunts" and "Woods Walks" often organized for small groups. they must be performed That's a Rendezvous. Or.ed among a good many men. The match turned out so well that several people decided they'd like to try the muzzle loaders. An association bulletin was organized and circulated. rolling. sleep. Interest has grown to the point have established special "Primitive Weapon" seasons for deer and similar game. long-barreled caplock rifles. A in may be squirrel hunt some hickory just that — a dawn meeting grove. Can he see you? Can he wind you? Can you pick the right time and place. woods knowledge and marksmanship is put to supreme test only when you're all alone in a hillside thicket and a cedar-tree buck works his way up the draw toward you. A woods walk may stretch for 30 miles or more and have certain tasks that must be performed at various stations along the way. for there was no association or organization to tie shooters together and to set up competitions. — with primitive equipment. the dredge forth again the latent skills that made those loose-walking mountain men able to conquer most of to a continent. with the genial Farris elected Secretary and. when you're woodsman enough to live in the woods then. followed by a day's hunting with or percussion squirrel rifles fittingly ended around campfire graced by squirrel carcasses cooking on greenwood sticks. All members receive it today and those who have had the foresight to save and have it bound over the years now own a most valuable source of reference material on muzzle loading in all its forms. and scores were higher. Participants expect to feed off game they kill and may be out two or three days. undoubtedly. the couldn't walk — away he didn't like the odds. shot with a pea rifle. soon to be replaced by "MUZZLE BLASTS. And. percussion never went out of fashion insofar as shooting for pure enjoyment is concerned. and. Clarence McNecr and a goodly number of others. "Muzzle Blasts" has been put together for several years now by Maxine Moss. If they're all right. schedule. It came about as a result of some earlier joshing E. as Slim put it. we should say that it 2." Slim Ackerman (whom everyone in this game should know from his profuse writings) tells me that in Feba muzzle-loading match took place in Portsmouth. In some parts of the country. "Red" Farris and a shooting buddy had taken by a black powder booster. Range shooting is fine. And. and a lot of fun. Hunting of all sorts plays a big part in today's use flint a of muzzle-loading guns. and drink the job. Walter Cline. we compete with our muzzle loaders for acclaim or.Competition & Games 145 When you're good enough and handy enough with a snare and baited hook to feed yourself in the woods. from the hills of Ohio and Kentucky. and regulate matches and competi- ruary of 1931 tion in general. Bull Ramsey. if we don't like the gamble. The founding group also included Oscar Seth. Things looked promising. All had learned to love and appreciate the muzzle-loading rifle and recognized the common bond it already form. The battered hat and the carefully smoked and fringed buckskins make us look pretty woodsy. for proving their skill shooting the mark. so the match was repeated the following year. then. especially if we don't shave for a few where several states days. new guns showed up. a delightful and dedicated lady who seems to eat. then you can take pride in being able But. long-range rifles and the urge to shoot at anything that moves. and it makes all better marksmen. a side bet or two. A special season is set aside so that the primitive hunter won't have to compete with a horde of modern hunters equipped with scope-sighted. and only off only the gear in your possible sack then. Indiana. And. Walter Grote. they did. are carried out with authentic equipment and dress. Indiana. New people and.M. The upshot of all this was the formation of the National Muzzle Loading Rifle Association. Many of them have now been in the same families for well over a century and in may have been freshed out two or three times. As we've mentioned earlier.

H-3-Open opening open Sights sight is one where the a U. a permanent home for muzzle loading. pistol. the association has functioned ceilings championships. I'm certain Red Harris had a lot to do with keeping things practical and in preventing hide-bound specialist's groups from crowding fun shooters out. goals. excluding scopes. had sight. These rules and regulations apply in all competitions sanctioned by the association.54 . H. able debt is owed him by all who A consider- enjoy muzzle-loading shooting today. National Government or Confederacy. of today's world behind. V. though it appears they have been held to the minimum consistent with reasonable control something that can't be said for some organizations I know. but it grew and grew. or rectangular opening as wide at is may be shaded or the top as at any part of the sight. Particularly impressive is stone fireplace and its where one and all can gather for bragging or explaining. Still quite active in and for the association after 35 years. I. — ladies. septegenarians. Gun types are outlined loosely and so far this has worked well. Additional land purchases have expanded the area considerably and the ranges of today are well laid out. Full to the crack of many a squirrel comfortable. . Matches are held frequently during good weather. It was named "The Walter Cline Range" after one of the founders and early association presidents. this and regulations.S.58 or . The number of scores which may be so fired. H-10-Musket as Issued A musket as issued by States. one or more of the highest scores being considered to determine the relative rank of competitors.69 only. — H-5-Spotting Scopes The use of a telescope to spot is permitted in all events. all affiliated the association has —Any may be single lens ideals. with the association and subscribing to its all. slug and any reasonable other clasRules have been kept down to the minimum consistent with insuring everyone a fair chance at winning. one might desire. shotgun. Any sight or combination of H-4-Telescopic Sights sights containing lenses for the purpose of magnifi- — cation. competitive shooting is now based on classification. the EQUIPMENT H. Exception Revolver and Musket.A. I- 1 -Individual TYPES OF COMPETITION —An event Range Match — An event Match petitor reports to the in which the com- Officer. NOTE TWO EXCEPTIONS: to establish rules tain H-2-Any codes. and a most useful journal. competition NMLRA tube sights. And don't be surprised any day to see a figure there looking like a Sublette man just in with beaver to trade. including substitute for prescription glasses. in which the comI-2-Re-Entry petitor is permitted to fire more than one score for record. whichever scores dictate.. In addition to providing national charted muzzle-loading clubs in the U. There are matches for tyros. It lies alongside Laughery Creek and today rings season long. H-7-Ignition cap that — fits only Ignition on nipple or by old type percussion flint stone striking frizzen. revolver. and roofed to provide protection from the elements. round ball sification rifles. the only survivor of the original founders. he is guns. No International type jackets allowed. The range was Powder Guide (1) Wheellock with original type of (2) Slug Guns may use — ignition. attached to the rear sight as a Sights — Any —Rear sights without restriction as to material or construction. He's that kind of man. In the meantime. Replicas permitted as approved by in the is — — N-SSA. Safety shields must be used on all Lock bench rifles. without the bickering over minor points one occasionally encounters among shooters of more modern weapons. except a massive clubhouse with beamed and H. Front sight a post or barleycorn. it has promoted and fostered shooting throughout the country. H-9-Muzzle Loading Gun Any gun in which a Black Powder and patched ball or patched bullet is loaded H-8-Flint-Locks Flint — muzzle of the rifle and ignition at the breech by cap or flint. unshaded.146 Shooter's Bible Black match is in progress) and one can walk woods with long rifle in hand and the lot 5 minutes into feel he's left a built — not much at first. standard weight will be lowed.1 -Metallic rifle all period dress doesn't get you labeled "eccentric" there.11 -Shooting Jackets may be used in any Muzzle Loading Match up to and including a 10-X Large or Small Bore Jacket. For the benefit of those who may want to make cernew guns and equipment will be adaptable to the at Friendship. we reproduce here excerpts from the latest (7th edition) of the Range Rules. and the number of high scores to be considered in deciding the relative rank of competitors must be specified in the program. In accomplishing Sights (RIFLES) not containing a lens or system of lenses. al- H-12-GIoves— SeeQ-1. primers. There are well over 150 well. pin-head. As a result. youngsters. H-6-Powder It is an irrevocable rule that the propellent charge used in our muzzle-loading matches will BLACK be of BLACK — POWDER POWDER AND ONLY. but the highlight of the season is "The Na- tionals" already mentioned. blade. Caliber . Through all this development.

where the palm or hip rest may be used or otherwise indicated on the match program.89 in. The butt of the rifle must be supported by some part of the body. 5. target changes are under consideration. J-2-Prone Position In all prone matches. no part of the rifle shall touch the ground or bench except that part which is supported by the muzzle rest. the following targets are to be used per the NMLRA Rules & Regulations. TARGETS ring 3. bench rests may be used when furnished by the shooter.1 -Offhand Position porting the rifle. POSITIONS — This means extended arm supno part of the supporting arm to touch the body. The rifle must rest in the palm of the hand and not on the fingertips except in Scheutzen Matches. 4. elbow to be at least six inches from the body. For the 1968 season.89 in.Competition & Games 147 J. — K. J.89 in. — . In all prone matches when fired either in prone position or from a bench rest. However.

We'll go down the list in order of the quantities produced and describe how they can be loaded and shot today without heini^ altered. 148 A flash hole in the . All are primarily U. creating a secondary explosion there. the linen cartridge. plastic cases currently sold. Generally speaking.. The rubber case can be duplicated by turning its likeness from Teflon rod. Burnside. if the gun breech is tight and not eroded. enough today that people would like to shoot them.fciff 17 EARLY BLACK POWDER BREECH LOADERS AND CARTRIDGE GUNS Man was more or less satisfied with muzzle loaders large purchases of Sharps. the Sharps has a habit of leaking at the breech. This is a steel ring placed in the chamber mouth. and could also be muzzle loaded if the breech mechanism failed to open. cases can be made from brass tube with sionally. The "patent" percussion cap-ignited designs of before he iust mii>lit the Civil War aren't very common later designs plentiful today. The breech is closed. the breech block may be left closed and the gun loaded from the muzzle in the usual fashion. but civilian models will be encountered occa- rear of the case. a charge of — Best of all for the Burnside's are the polyethelene They approximate the origand may be re-used many times. loading may be accomplished from the muzzle in the usual fashion. Nearly all of these "Separate Ignition" guns can be fired today if one exercises a bit of ingenuity. Smith: The Smith breaks open somewhat like a shotgun and a rubber or paper and brass cartridge is inserted directly into the chamber. Since there is some gas leakage at chamber/barrel junction. military arms. but with the coming of the percussion cap. etc. a gas check is sold today to eliminate same when loading from the muzzle. the second type has a hinged breech section which raises or lowers at its front to be muzzle loaded with some form of cartridge. A combustible (nitrated) linen cartridge containing bullet and powder is inserted. If you'd rather have brass. exposing the a pierced plug soldered in the base. If parts are rusted or eroded badly. it became evident be able to produce reliable breech loaders. Burnside: The chamber section of this gun tips up at its forward end to accept a tapered brass cartridge inserted rearward. With any of the above methods. All of the designs we'll mention here used the standard percussion cap on a nipple for ignition the "cartridges" containing only powder and bullet and being provided with direct communication from nipple to powder for the cap flash. Lacking cartridges. In addition. during that Reproductions of the original cartridges are easily nitrated paper or linen as shown at the end of this chapter. Sharps: The vertically sliding breech block is lowered by a lever. This is followed by a bullet seated below the chamber mouth. and then loading with powder and bullet. the breech may be opened and powder poured into the chamber. gas escapes in sufficient quantity to be dangerous to the shooter. By leaving the breech closed. In the first type. Raising the lever lifts the breech block whose sharp upper edge shears off the rear of inal brass case powder charge to flame from a percussion cap. In addition. the breech is closed and the piece fired. The force of the first firing wedges it forward to bridge the barrel/chamber gap. the rear of the barrel full of powder before closing the breech. the Burnside of the second. loose powder gathers in the breech and is sometimes ignited by the cap flash. When firing is concluded. It may also be loaded by simply dropping a bullet into the chamber from the rear. S. Both types were intended to be loaded with loose powder and ball at the breech if the cartridge supply gave out. The Sharps is an excellent example of the first type. However. exposing the rear of the chamber. and then dropped back into alignment with the bore for firing. these guns fall into two load- lots of ing systems. and then pouring the cham- war make the ber made from for the several centuries the flintlock reigned. and the cap flash reaches the powder charge through a hole in the is uncovered by movement of either barrel or breech mechanism to allow some form of cartridge to be inserted into the barrel. the ring is knocked back into the chamber with a rod so the breech may be opened for cleaning. The cap flash travels through a hole in the breech block into the powder.

. This gun may be muzzle rating gas check case is loaded if some form of obtu- used. so can't be overcharged as often happens with smokeless powder. if in good mechanical condition. or the case may be loaded with powder and bullet and used conventionally. one could fit a sliding gas check there. The Golden Age of small arms development was spurred by. 149 While some of those old guns may look rather hopeless.. Cheap and simple sets of tools are availers in obsolete . I refer you to "The Shooter's Bible Reloader's Guide. Box 729. you'll have to reload. and with plenty of gunpowder. it may be loaded from the muzzle. essential to firing this design for there is no other provision for sealing gas in the chamber. But. Maynard: This is a tipping-barrel design using an unprimed. yet they got the job done. S. care should be taken to see that chamber snugly and that the rim fills the the space intended. Some were chambered for conventional primed rimfire or centerfire cartridges. They beg to be shot. the American Civil War. It was also meant to be loaded with loose powder and ball in the same manner as well as from the muzzle if the breech became inoperative for any reason. breech loader and It uses a separate chamber piece which pivots upward exposing the chamber mouth. And. Steindler. a cartridge case similar to the Maynard can be made up and used conventionally. and countless other blood-soaked arenas won its spurs and acceptance piling up windrows of dead in Africa with black powder. That great destroyer of WWI. lead and primers available. Many other offbeat designs were manufactured during the Civil War and may occasionally be encountered. at least. This isn't a book on reloading and I've already used too many pages to go into it here. Regardless of the caliber of the gun. However. the boys who bought 1873 and 1886 Winchesters didn't have our modern reloading equipment. pump. Typical methods of making Maynard cases are shown at the end of this chapter. The best you can do with this one is to load it just the way the designer intended (above). then close breech and fire. but otherwise fairly conventional rimmed brass cartridge case. Oroville. A hole in the center of the case head admits the cap flash The cartridge case is to the powder charge. though it would restrict the gun to muzzle loading while in place. thin-walled brass or copper gas check can be fitted to allow safe shooting by muzzle loading. Verdun. the machine gun. With a proper case. with complete accuracy we say that virtually every type gun we have today. It was originally intended for use with the stanHall: first first a flintlock." by my good friend. Dixie Gun Works which case seals the supplies a turned steel allows muzzle short. We can't work our way through a whole book about black powder arms without mentioning those many fine old metallic cartridge breech loaders that came before the smokeless era. Since considerable gas escapes at the breech/barrel junction. excessive at all. it's best to work from a full chamber quite cast and carefully-taken dimensions. Since factory black powder loads are no longer available in any caliber except as aged lots from dealammunition. chamber and A few small shops make up full length brass cases for regular use. convenient. A. The lever. Uncounted millions of those black powder arms are still in shooting condition. Since they virtually last forever. fueled with black powder. For that part of the story. there's no reason for not using them. No competent gunsmith or machinist will have any trouble making such cases. pour in the powder. destined to arm both sides at Ypres. Cases of those bygone days were designed to just hold the correct amount of powder. Inc. Those depending upon percussion cap and nipple ignition don't really present too many problems. first barked with black powder. R.G. In some instances. and automatic rifles were all first built around black powder-loaded cartridges. destined in the next century to slaughter millions all over the globe. It just takes a bit of thought and effort. and we'll talk about them later. Reliable. boltaction rifle. A close examination of the breech mechanism will usually suggest a manner in which a short. published by the same gentlemen who did the honors with this book. the Somme. there are darn few of them that can't at least be shot safely by muzzle loading. most of them seem to have wound up in this country by one means or another. One similar to that described for the Burnside would certainly make shooting more pleasant. as can all other loading equipment. Reloading dies in virtually every black powder caliber can be obtained from RGBS. So. dard paper musket cartridge.Powder Breech Loaders and Cartridge Gurts Early Black center of the case head admits the percussion cap flash. arose from man's genius. was first developed around black powder. The repeating magazine rifle and shotgun were nurtured on black powder. 10 or 12 cases will keep a Maynard shooting for a long time and their cost of a dollar or two each won't seem loading only. and began with. seat ball and rest of paper on powder. The Maxim M. The basic Mauser-type. it can. Some of those early cartridges were odd by today's standards. Bite off the end of the paper. and erful breech loaders of all the types pow- we know today were developed during the tail-end of black powder's seven-century reign. When this is the case fits done. accurate. The made as standard U. be fired with the proper bullet and all the ffg or fffg Powder the case will hold to the base of the seated bullet. with the possible exception of the automatic pistol. In making or having such cases made. California. some information is in order.

bullets to move A To this enough. Lacking a measure. conical object. Gently close the jaws to force the primer into its pocket.45-70-500 caliber rifle and a handful of empty cases. and you've got a loaded cartridge ready to fire. set it to throw a charge of fg or ffg that will come fully up to the base of the bullet when it is seated." the late Ned Roberts says. look up the caliber in my book "Cartridge Conversions. it just didn't seem likely that the bullet could be started from a new-fangled cartridge.50-3-1/4" Sharps. "Even as late as 1886. This will usually straighten out the bullet." Even rifles after the fine breech-loading single-shot target of the 1880's and '90's came along. Use the same die. cut a reject case off to just hold the right powder charge. In order to be used through or wire seated in the end of a piece of dowel. as a tool or press in which to use it. But to them. Exactly the same procedures and tools apply to any other caliber you might come up with from the . smear the grease grooves full of your favorite lubricant. and still strike as close to dead center as the carefully front-loaded slug or ball.45-70 as an example. but run the case in only far enough ready to be reprimed. squeezed down to fit the rifling. Set rotate the cartridge 1/2 turn. The primer must go in flush with the surface of the case head. it Wipe any excess grease from the completed assembly. If you've many rounds to load. It will corrode and weaken the brass if not removed. flare it out a bit with any hard. They aren't fast. bullet. wash the black powder fouling out of the cases as soon as they are fired.Shooter's Bible Black 150 able from Lee Custom Engineering. and they will turn out perfectly-loaded cartridges. Don't use too much and please keep the bases clean. A block of wood taped to one vise jaw as a stop will insure reasonably uniform seating depth. used for the same purpose. and with a 1/16" diameter nail Powder Guide correct the former. Suppose you have an old Springfield or Remington . providing automatic alignment as the dowel and cheapest and enters the case. When that happens. you can get by with nothing mold and a few scrap materials more than a bullet and household tools. Hartford. Any that don't go in should be set aside for eventual full-length resizing. but they are durable and reliable. crimp die is required for this. A little juggling will get the nail into the flash hole easily if fingers. To is entirely The old-style Lyman-Ideal driven or pressed adequate for tighten the case on the is simplest this type of bullet the same operation must be performed but to a lesser degree. Cartridges loaded in this fashion will do fine in single-shot rifles. First. recoil will cause in or out of the case mouth. Don't flare the mouth too much or it won't enter the chamber Often the old timer will be encountered in a caliber for which it is very difficult to obtain even a few good cartridge cases. resulting bullet seatin failures to feed from the magazine. the case must be crimped on the Unless this is done. the best breech-loading match rifles in the hands of expert marksmen were not capable of making transition period. Middlefield. many a die- hard muzzle-loading fan was hard to convince. Inc. back off on the vise a bit and tridge-to-be in the vise to squeeze the A you'll most likely find detailed instructions for making what you need from cases that are readily available by what we call "reforming. or when loaded directly into the chamber of repeating arms. they'll have to be resized and means a resizing die. and Lyman Gun Sight Corp. If the bullet starts to lean. don't fret. To be sure. A large C-clamp can also be mouth down enough to hold the bullet. If you've an adjustable powder measure handy. we chose only the . Of course.. powder flasks.. Place this assembly squarely between the jaws of your vise with primer against one jaw. Then use it as you would a charge cup for muzzle loading. accuracy purists were by no means ready to drop muzzle loading as a concept. Even though the "cartridge guns" had proven themselves superior for hunting and war (which to the true rifleman is somewhat akin to hunting)." There The case is now of dowel slightly longer (1/8" freely. do the job with your tubular or box magazines. They must have been right. type into which the case loading. handful of cases and the simple tools just outlined will enable you to keep any centerfire black powder breech loader talking for years to come. But.32-20 Winchester to the big . but isn't otherwise necessary. This is simplified if the dowel just fits into the case and the nail is centered in it. even an old plumber's countersink rotated backward. Try each case in the chamber to make sure none over-expanded. With bullet started straight. but doesn't. free of the bothersome details of loose caps. Place a piece is enough) than the case in the case mouth and start a primer in the pocket by hand. just pour in powder to fill the case to that point. and when cool. In . force out the fired primer. the fired case over the hole. at least during the "The Breech-Loading Single-Shot Match Rifle. they liked the convenience of the brass cartridge case and easily operated breech. A card or felt wad seated firmly on the powder makes handling more convenient while seating bullets. Wisconsin. Start a bullet by hand in a charged case. etc. Cast your bullets as outlined in Chapter 10. dowel against the other. Eventually your cases will expand to the point they either won't enter the chamber or won't grip a bullet. Drill a 1/4" hole in a board or block of wood. Connecticut. again place the car- and slowly close the jaws to press the bullet down on the powder. If the mouth seems pinched in and stops the bullet.

or at least. Special molds were often used. Such guns were known to be highly temperamental. if not actually the very best." as it was called. especially in regard to bullet lubricant and bullet hard- bullet being driven fling will the 151 target rifles. held in place by a thin wad. As with caplock matches. the Pope "nose-pour" type being deemed among. the Americans breech loaders. S. with front bands bore diameter and at least the base band groove diameter or slightly larger. Though made in vial. a muzzle-loaded bullet is swaged down and cut by the lands toward its point. As with the caplock muzzle loader. While some breech-muzzle-loading was done with paper patched bullets. Perfection of base was sought by pouring and cutting off from the nose. the patch guides were not needed. amount of metal displaced rearward as the lands cut into it." After all this. These lubricated lead bullets were then loaded through a false muzzle nearly identical to those used on caplock target rifles. Then. on as a con- maximum accuracy. along with a bulletless cartridge case containing the powder charge. Niedner stated that the better shooters in his area all used muzzle loaders until around 1895. absolute uniformity of components and loading procedures were (and are) essential to match-winning accuracy. to a true caplock muzzle loader. The foreigners used muzzle-loading rifles. In this manner. leaving the base free of distortion. Of course. U. it was still believed by many that the modern breech loading rifle fired with self-contained cartridges loaded with metal jacketed bullets would never surpass the accuracy of the breech-muzzle-loading target rifle. and both won to start the bullet. and the gun was ready Some shooters varied bullet lubricant hardness according to the seasons. They attributed the fine accuracy of muzzle-loading caplock rifles in part to the fact that A no "fins" were produced on the forward into the rihave a certain. Mann and Harry Pope eventually proved to the satisfaction of themselves and many other shooters that breech-muzzle-loading kept bullet bases perfect and was worth the effort required. Additional fins will be formed if the bullet is larger in diameter than the bore. cylindro-conoidal form with several annular grease grooves emerged as the best. this Cartridges for muzzle-loading arms are a lot older than you might think." He goes on to cite examples to prove the point. muzzle loading lived cept essential to the production of long after it was obsoleted from a practical standpoint by advancing technology. shooters beat the Irish and British teams at long-range shooting. Many top shooters swore that only in this fashion could maximum accuracy be developed. much depended upon degree of perfection with which the bullet was paper cartridges were about the only way loading from the muzzle could be speeded up. . Until the coming of the semi-rigid plastic tube or to shoot. We — enclosed in a twisted or rolled paper envelope. To ease the human effort required bullet base. Simply load a patched ball or lubricated bullet from the muzzle using a ramrod stop to insure the bullet stops at the proper point in the barrel. and early 1950's. in terms of superior accuracy. chamber a primed and powdered case. though. might vary from one part tin to forty parts lead. perhaps. Most common are the Springfield Trapdoor models and the Remington Rolling Blocks. Both had their staunch supporters. The bullet proper was loaded from the muzzle through a carefully-fitted false muzzle in classic fashion.Early Black Powder Breech Loaders and Cartridge Guns groups at 220 yards rest shoota muzzle-loading caplock rifle. On the other hand. having found that what produced best accuracy in hot weather was not adequate in cold and vice versa. A. As late as the late 1940's. while the breech loaders used iron sights and were shot from muzzle rest only. Bullet "temper. Gentlemen such as Dr. made and seated. to as much as one part tin to twenty parts lead. This displacement results in fins or tails of metal being dragged rearward of the base. and then the grease grooves were filled by means of a lubricating pump without distorting the bullet in any way. As a matter of interest. as outlined elsewhere in volume. The bullet was then seated to a predetermined point just ahead of the chamber. though small. and you're ready Not very authentic. In correspondence with Roberts. by means of a stiff "loading rod. Modern bench-rest shooters have since proven otherwise. fun. as those made with The end result of all this was that certain discerning gentlemen combined the two systems into what became known as "Breech-Muzzle-Loading. the primed powder-filled case was chambered." The breech-loading rifle was used. O. straight. but lots of The Remington also lends itself well to conversion to shoot. the blunt. toggle-joint starters with considerable mechanical advantage were often used. Ken Waters points out that in at least one of the examples the muzzle loaders used the best available telescope sights and shot from machine rest. but it took them quite a while to do so. Doubtless it isn't possible to say when they were actually used for the very first do know the troops of King Gustav Adolphus used cartridges of a sort ball and powder charge exactly time. with all bands of bore diameter. There are thousands upon thousands of obsolete large-caliber black powder single-shot rifles around the country. Only extensive experimental shooting could tell the shooter what combination was best for a particular rifle. Bullets were cast in two forms: tapered (stepped). Even so. They were carefully cast to proper diameter. as high scores or small ing. the breech closed. one can use this breechmuzzle-loading system just for fun. — preferences. Two apparently identical rifles might have vastly different ness. the most popular.

It pays to have plenty on hand. little powder charge in the tube. bore. dip the bullet portion of the completed cartridge in melted lubricant. Twist the end of the tube closed and secure it with a couple turns of heavy thread tied around the edge to secure cement is required. so it overhangs the rounded end of the stick. Draw out the stick and drop in the proper powder of the tube may be either tied off tightly or closed by folding and creasing as shown. but the folded tail The remainder charge. In use. is torn open at the base. ways and from various sorts of paper. powder this cartridge is Some shooters dip the bullet portion of such car- tridges in melted tallow. Slip the tube off the stick. This type can easily be made today exactly as it was well over a century ago. different mentioned dumped Simple plastic tubes into whicii powder and bullet can be placed mal<e muzzle loading more convenient. Insert the bullet mouth of the tube. Brush a bit of cement fold Very cement and press together. With the stick still in Drop it to the tube. This paper it up to then cut to a size that will roll around the stick and allow a substantial seam. just wittidraw the bullet and pour the powder down the the cartridge consisted basically of a paper tube. Roll a blank around the stick and brush the overlap The powThe bullet In use. best for this purpose. In either case. into the vial. set mouth to secure bullet and case together. powder in the other.Shooter's Bible Black 152 Powder Guide throw two turns of thread around the tube behind the ball and tie it off. ball messy and shooters replace this type of musket car- tridge with the plastic vial many find this too I real value. or tied shut. Combustible paper cartridges may be made for Sharps and similar breech-loading Civil War vintage arms. it is thin and light. This prevents powder from working down around the ball during place. . but the cap flash will penetrate the heavier paper just as well if it is Paper properly nitrated. leaving no significant residue in the is chamber. The nitrated paper will burn almost like gunpowder. poured down the barrel and the ball and attached paper is rammed down the bore. Then you'll be able to stack eight or ten sheets of paper and cut that many blanks simultaneously with a razor blade this type. Drop the round ball or lubricated minie bullet into the paper tube to settle in the closed end. A fairly soft. Old cartridges were I prefer a glued tube and for it simply allow 1/4" or 3/8" overlap. This is your cartridge stick. go in point first. slip the resulting tube off and let dry. Nitrate onion-skin paper and cut in squares that will back over the end of the cartridge stick as shown. or sharp knife. Sand smooth. or form. then forced into the vial mouth as a stopper. glue the seam. securely. not glued. of course. Don't use a hard-finish. Roll the nitrated paper around the cartridge stick. its rear will reach the breech block. An alternate method is to tie the tube tightly around the bullet base. glossy paper which works will tear too easily. A flat-ended cartridge stick is made of a diameter that will produce a tube into which the bullet will fit snugly. is nitrated by soaking whole sheets in a satur- ated solution of Potassium Nitrate and hanging drain and dry. and you may cut your pattern for earlier. Tying is the most secure method. directly handling. Once the pattern is made. Place on the end of the stick and press down into the cartridge tube. the shooter grabs the protruding bullet in his folded. Its length must be regulated so that when the assembled cartridge is fully forward in the chamber. is muzzle. When time to load. make a template of it from cardboard or light sheet metal. but of little Modern der charge (minie) is simply teeth. and make some more. Wrap paper around it to determine the size sheet Good quality bond paper is Some prefer onionskin because needed to form a cartridge tube. flush with the end. both ends twisted. and then wax heavily. Brush glue around the the into the over the nose of the bullet. shellac or varnish. in one end. Slip the stick in and tap the ball to seat it solidly. The bullet is then and pours the powder down the rammed in conventional fashion. The minie must. tough paper best. the paper being overlapped sufficiently to prevent powder leakage. placing the powder close to the vent leading from the percussion cap. Select a piece of dowel very slightly larger than the diameter of the ball or bullet to be used. twists off the vial. is easier to tear off when loading. or make the tube long enough that it may be tied shut thinly with a quick-drying Slip the resulting tube down it aside to dry. Make it long enough for convenient handling and round off one end.

the case need not be brought forward completely over the bullet as shown. Paper cartridges are just another example of the you can do to further enjoy muzzle-loading things shooting. After a cult to make. plug one end with a piece of tissue paper. If you'd like to try it. using a minie bullet properly lubricated. charge with powder. and glue or tie case to bullet. The drawings show this in detail.Early Black Powder Breech Loaders and Cartridge Guns 153 Combustible cartridges for revolvers are made exactly the manner forming stick just described in except that a tapered used with wedge-shaped blanks. little practice. I once met a fellow who made up this sort of tapered combustible cartridge for use in the . and did facilitate reloading. Re- is volver cartridges must be tapered to the rear for easy insertion into the chambers. seat bullet. they aren't at all diffi- . to tial. just make an enlarged version of the revolver cartridge caliber rifled musket. Cylindrical combustible paper cartridges for Sharps and similar rifles are easily made as shown. roll paper into a tube that will enter the chamber. For revolvers they are essenbut for that use. After nitrating. Tapered combustible paper cartridges are no more difficult make than the straight kind.58 It seemed to work well for him. Incidentally.

Samples shown here are available from Dixie Plain Gun Works.60. from left) and gas checks for use with most of the early percussion cap-ignited breech loaders can easily be turned from brass bar stock. . Cases (2nd. Shovi/n here are .154 Shooter's Bible Black Powder Guide Cases and gas checks of both plastic and brass or steel are available from Dixie Gun Works for many of the Civil War era breech loaders. "iH'H^ paper musket-type cartridges are available from a few small makers.44 caliber versions offered by Dixie Gun Works. Even ready-made combustible cartridges for the various calibers of percussion revolvers are now offered for sale in the event you v\/ant to use them but can't spare the time to build them yourself.54. Illustrated here are those for Burnside. and . and Williamson guns. & 4th. but each should be tailored to fit the individual weapon. --r^O . Smith. Maynard. Sectional views shown are typical of the types required.

and in shooting condition. Unfortunately. in their view. almost anyone can buy one of those and shoot it without difficulty. and put your own 1200- to full-size pound artillery piece together in the garage. Not as big or impressive as a full size Napoleon but all parts work and the gun can be shot with round balls or blank charges. This gun isn't exactly a miniature and is big enough to tow along in a parade. The people we are talking about love muzzleloading cannons of the Civil War period. The latter aren't satisfied with mere . cannon enthusiasts have made their guns. Smaller guns than this were actually used in warfare during the American Revolutionary Period. most being in museums. Their ultimate ambition is usually to own a bronze Napoleon 12-Pounder. It has a 26" tube and measures 46" overall. ranging from half-inch bore miniatures up 12-pounders and larger. either rough or finish-turned and bored. Up a notch in the size scale is the Dixie "Little Mite." an all-iron typical muzzle-loading smoothbore cannon of 1-1/4" bore. complete with carriage. Considerably smaller and less costly is the 1/4scale Napoleon. has a 26-inch tube and is 20 inches high. full-scale 3-1/4-inch bore James tube only will weigh 800 pounds and cost $325 or thereabouts as sold by Dixie Gun Works. It utilizes a 43" cast barrel and a built-up carriage with 40" wheels. No lightweight. sold complete and ready to shoot for around $250. This may sound small. Its bronze tube is 16'/^" long and the assembled gun measures 30"™ 18 CANNON There are big bore enthusiasts. Bore is IVa inches and it makes one hell of a noise. but the complete gun weighs in at 350 pounds. it weighs in at about 350 pounds. A Typical of small-scale muzzle loading cannons that have become popular is the "LITTLE MITE" all metal rig sold by Dixie Gun Works. such guns are exceedingly rare today. and monuments and worth thousands of After all. Probably most representative of the cannon used by today's enthusiasts is the Dixie "Civil War Cannon" of 2-3/16" bore. national parks. It's quite popular among cannon buffs.69 or . It is generally loaded Dixie Civil War Field Cannon with 43-inch tube and 2-3/16inch bore.72 caliber round ball muskets fired from the shoulder. dollars each. There is sufficient demand for such items that today you can order from a reputable supplier a cast bronze or steel tube. Over own the years. Wheels are 18" in diameter. 155 . Mounted on a semi-modern carriage consisting of a welded trail and cheeks and old wood wagon wheels. along with a set of authentic looking wheels. then there are BIG bore lovers.

Never fail to thumb the vent while loading. Assemble your powder charges in small paper bags have been nitrated by soaking in a solution of Potassium Nitrate and allowing them to dry. Make a mold from a length of pipe which is capped at one end. ville. This reduction of powder charge eliminates the probability of burst tubes and heavy recoil which were the bane of early-day cannoneers. ordinary common sense in everything you do around the cannon. Accounts of burst guns and premature firings. certainly no projectile should be used. The nitrated paper bag will usually burst once it reaches Never insert a fresh powder charge without first swabbing the bore ///// length with a wet sponge or mop. Cast iron balls of proper size are available but baby-food or juice cans filled with concrete are the most popular and quired a serviceable muzzle-loading cannon. thrust dribble fine Take your a probe powder down (fffg) length of fuse into in until (remem- . ShelbyIndiana. Do this before ever attempt- ing to load the cannon. No projectile is needed to produce a satisfying report. Cannon gunnery is a bit different from regular muzzle loading shooting. Assuming that you or a group have somehow ac- to be visible in the vent. mere fractions of the service charges used in comparable bored original guns. Clean the bore and vent free of grease or oil.156 Sliooier's Bible Black Powder Guide with a 4-ounce charge of DuPont cannon powder. It will be much easier to load and ram than loose newspaper. Dixie Gun Works is the best in their spare time. Reading contemporary accounts of artillery actions of over a century ago will readily convince anyone that a cannoneer's lot was not a happy one. then use the rammer to seat it solidly against the bore breech face. The wad will be precompressed and will hold its shape. For demonstrations and saluting. unscrew the pipe cap and push the wad out with a stick. but this requires a lot of work. vent. and explosions of powder in the gun pit seem to indicate the cannoneer wasn't a very good insurance risk. Original cannons were provided with a on a long handle. Best are wads cut from composition board such as Celotex. Only small powder charges should be used. along with legs crushed by recoil. The fuse burns at the rate of about 30 feet per minute and each new batch should be tested against a stop watch. Let dry or heat in an oven to speed things up. We'll talk about condition. the breech. but similar lightweight material can be used. Place the bagged charge in the tube. The bag serves to contain the powder while it is that being is rammed to the rear of the bore. With charge and wad in place. However. single source for a number of models. economical time fuse A projectiles. afford. Powder charge and wad are all that is necessary to fire a blank. Never use oversized projectiles. give attention to the ramming hasn't pushed loose powder up so as Never experiment with explosive or elongated projectiles. and then tamp solidly into the mold to the proper depth. We'll assume you've had the good judgement to retire with your artillery to a place where neither sound nor shot will create any hard feelings or injury to persons or property. Then visible in the vent. Never use a cannon not known to be in perfect and this is all to the good. a percussion firing mechanism available from Dixie can be used. Never stand directly behind the piece as it is fired. Here are things not to do: Never place any part of your body in front of the muzzle of a loaded gun or while loading. For example. or fuse the piece until ready to fire. projectiles later. Never overload. These prepared charges must be kept in a closed box or chest well away from the gun so that a stray spark from the muzzle flash cannot set them off. Never smoke or allow any high heat or open flame near the powder. a 6-pounder Civil War cannon service charge was 1-1/4 pounds of powder yet less than half a pound of cannon powder is more than enough to produce satisfactory results on today's cannon range. rammed down tightly. shoving a small charge of loose powder down the bore would be quite inconvenient. Some cannoneers simply use crumped newspapers rammed tightly. All of those hazards can be eliminated in firing replica cannons and certainly this should be done. If Never fail to use plain. Excellent wads can be made from newspaper beforehand. cap. Wads should be snug in the bore. the charge. though. — to be how is it handled? Most current models — are intended to be ignited quite like liie common dynamite by fuse. number of small makers produce a few cannon one of which is Bob Tingle. Never leave the gun loaded tending to fire — - load only when in- immediately. Never joke around or indulge in horseplay. Careful servicing of the piece will eliminate the other hazards. Since the tube nearly horizontal. Follow the powder charge with wads equal in thickness to the bore diameter. Turner Kirkland can produce about any cannon you might want or be able to balls. Never use smokeless powder or fine-granulation black powder. When the wad is dry. as well as for and parts. then turned over to dump powder ladle to the breech of the the powder there. It was inserted barrel. Soak newspapers in water. accessories. Never prime.

Pour water into the elevated tube and loosen — A match or taper is fine in perfectly calm weather. Try a small. well into the charge. The splitting makes the fuse ignite much easier and may be done ahead of time. easier. If that doesn't work. reach over and light the fuse. . Proceed as already described from this point. it cleans out the fouling so extinguished. Double check to make certain no one is near the muzzle or directly behind the gun. try a sharpedged. it could run over you in recoil. and then flush the powder out with water. start. Use wadding. the vent to clear it of water. swab the bore mop sheepskin step after firing first is to length with a snug-fitting sponge or full well-soaked with water. You may only have a delayed-fire and it could go off disconcertingly while you are trying to correct it. powerful magnet on the end of a rammer staff. Some gunners then the vent into the like to dribble around the a bit fuse. end of the fuse and the gun is ready to fire. Can be had from Dixie Gun Works for about $500. Steel tube-lined bore measures 3V4 inches. use the may be draw worm on it out. prepare to draw the charge. The worm will also usually serve to pull out a round ball. it — premature lem down The very in the tube. You can follow with a dry swab if you like. difficulty Once will "flash-through" rather the projectile is out. Dribble fine work it around powder into the Make new down vent. and the heat of the tube will speed drying.Cannon 157 ber the burning time) and thrust one end of it through powder charge. but if you're If the all this fails. the rest of the wadding. is will it can also spoil the fellow doing the ramming. Then from the side. It does make more smoke when or ash. weighing nearly Va-ton. You'll do well to have a wet piece of old blanket handy with which to beat out any flames that violence. splash vent. Then. leave the blasted gun alone for a half-hour. In addition to being a necessary safety measure. The powder charge you probably thought too small will surprise you with its The blast will hurl chunks of wadding several some of them smoldering and likely to start a grass fire. pull any fuse remnants out of the vent and brush away any loose powder A full-scale reproduction of the Civil War James gun. make passes are necessary to certain Some water should Two all or three embers are up through the been cleared of hot embers. evidence that orifice has also reloading much is Blow through stopper it der charge War style carriage. This is just additional an ember still smoldering after swabbing is fanned into the charge Civil firmly with your insurance that isn't Old British naval gun on Dixie life by air forced through the vent as rammed. Do But reloading brings up a new probdischarge due to embers smoldering again. If it did flash-through and you were standing behind the gun. You must stand clear in encountered. The fuse bums down into the vent and your cannon goes off with a hell of a roar. All of this must be done before reloading. Mangled feet and legs were common on shipboard in the days of muzzleloaders a rolling deck making it difficult for a man to keep clear of recoiling guns. but a smouldering slow-match is best for lighting the fuse under normal circumstances. yards. insert certain the fuse sticks fuse and try again. Plunge the vent probe deep into the charge and to loosen the powder. the gun fires. Any glowing ember in the tube cause the charge to explode while being rammed. and then thumb while the next powbeing rammed. right-angle hook which can be forced through the event of the million-to-one chance that the fuse the metal of the can to give purchase to Split or fray the free than burn slowly. though. What to do if the gun misfires? First. but more powder fine isn't it into the vent at all necessary. Such an occurrence not only spoils the rammer staff. cannon worm to pull out using concrete-filled can projectiles.

wad over gun may then be fired without a top wad. the prefer a tight-fitting disc. if improperly handled. Don't get the idea that such projectiles are harmless. 1 can be a single fiber Powder Guide make it wad too thick plenty. the pro- the rammer. Muzzleloading cannons arc true firearms. these cannons are not toys. Don't vent thoroughly. Baby food and juice cans can be found which fit loosely into the more standard bores. cheap ally. Iron balls about 1/4" less than bore diameter are available in some sizes but are costly. A quarter-sized chunk of wadding can cause serious injury when striking a person. Even the very light powder charges give projectiles a most respectable amount of energy. Once powder and wadding are in jectile is seated on the wadding with place. they've not had they Cans may make entirely satisfactory sand if removed. just as deadly as a machine gun. Person- — 1/2" to 1" is the projectile. Filled with concrete. A sandeasier to pierce and withdraw than also be filed with their tops completely filled projectile is one of concrete in the event of a misfire. Keep that in mind and they can be lots of fun. projectiles. If you're shooting at relatively high angles of elevation. Either will punch through both sides of a barn as one individual who shall remain nameless found out. Even loaded with blanks.Shooter's Bible Black 158 the charge with a sharp stick. I've seen wad fragments breeze right on through 1/4" plywood 10 feet from the muzzle. This or a pressed newspaper of the type already dccsribed. --'^O . Then lower the muzzle to let the slush run out. Finish by cleaning tube and Let's get back to loading and projectiles.

cleaning begins before attempted. you'll find varying degrees of some of which will have come off with the soap and water scrubbing. remember that only the dirt and grease is to come off. decreases the value of the piece. and repair cracks. Repeat application if necessary.ami 19 RESTORATION AND REFINISHIN6 You'll probably start shooting with a modern reproduction and might even eventually build your own battery. restoration. it's likely you'll buy something needing a bit of restoration. and take care of separate without damage. The fellows command do the job This this sort of work at restoration. the is Whatever. something is holding them together. No sweat. even if you don't intend bers at a to shoot a living to it. Flattened cartridge cases are good for this. often than not. varnishing the stock. In a real stubborn case. Then bristle pieces than you can count have been spoiled by un- informed attempts first. Often a gun that is horribly encrusted with dirt and oxidized grease and oil will turn out to be beautifully preserved simply because the dirt protected it. though. Simply coat them with "Naval Jelly" and wipe it and the rust off at the end of the prescribed period. leaving remove original finish a form of rust itself so can be used only it sure there More is none which when is you're left. except that more basically sound "RESTORATION" means rust. even from threads. though. Scrub with a stiff brush and take your time. never steel. This is particularly true of stocks. If they do not come apart with moderate effort. Dirt and grease come off metal first. but it may be so cruddy that it can't be taken apart until cleaned. there's no doubt but that one day you'll just have to have an original gun or two. or copper. screws. Of replacing only — small parts such as pins. springs. it may also be rust Rccutting a barrel to clean up a rusted-out bore barrel is rebuilding and. some finish will still be present and should be preserved. you've loader that function right. If trigger. under any circumstances. gold-plating the and giving the barrel a high-polish blue job. otherwise spoiling the piece. In such cases. More likely. So. all that can be added here is that hurried or improper disassembly can easily ruin a good piece. In instances where the original finish can be duplicated without splits. even though a dozen guns later you'll still be shooting the modern pieces. while installing a new. Honest restoration consists of cleaning wood and metal without changing contours and without removing markings or evidence of honest wear. try to separate wood from metal by mere force. Collecting proper is far too involved a subject to go into here. Don't be tempted to for high wages so you'll probably want fine it After everything repair yourself. disassembly is covered in Chapter 4. A tight-fitting brush rotated in a hole will dig out all the crud. off every bit of rust. An assortment of bore brushes will clean out almost any screw hole. If not too dirty. About First. that's the case. — is apart. disassembly comes first. and pin holes. It might be a concealed pin or screw. Don't overlook recesses. but it is useful to know how to put an old piece back into acceptable condition. Internal parts having never been browned or blued can be de-rusted very quickly. use a brass bore brush. Never. zle heavily rusted that the original finish has obviously been made good buy and now have a muzneeds some work to make it look and away may be given The Naval Jelly will lift eaten a bare metal. Use soap or detergent and water. must be carefully cleaned and disassembled. Either way.. screw. brass. rust 159 . New-condition originals are scarce as WCTU memHiram Walker sales meeting and priced at hundreds of dollars. you're in luck. and serious dents or deformation. the piece as near as possible to It doesn't mean just its that — restoring original condition. in my is modern-production view. the parts will scrape with a steel knife blade or similar instrument. Areas where a brush can't reach can be cleaned with small scrapers filed from hard plastic. And. etc. Other parts so part of legitimate restoration. or simply thick find out It will also precisely the same treatment. all is who do an undercut. to place piece in operating condition. So.

the part should be marked in an inconspicuous place so that it is identifiable as a modern replacement. grinding. and don't apply much pressure. it should be left as it is. Simply preserve it with a coat of oil or. frizzen. removal — you're not in a rush." to follow the maker's instructions. the part is not original to the gun. was polished by thousands upon thousands of full-length this — strokes of flat Arkansas stones. The treated areas will then blend in with remaining original finish. coarse rust flakes are best flicked off with a probe made by setting a large needle in a wood are listed in "Firearms Bluing handle. etc. place the steel wool as it Flush the avoid forming an abrasive the remaining finish. The same applies to springs. are currently produced by the lost-wax casting process. Then. complete sets of screws are sold for Colt percussion revolvers. polishing by hand with shaped stones or abrasive cloth glued to shaped blocks. there are no shortcuts and the process simply can't be rushed. top jaws. But. Appendix 2. I knew a man who did a masterful job of polishing and refinishing old guns. upon whether the pohshing can be done without destroying any markings and on whether you are competent to do a proper polishing job. The more obvious parts are another matter. After you've loused up the job is a poor time to read Generally speaking. though. Don't rub it round and round. it's time to appraise the situation and decide what else needs to be done. If all finish is gone and the surface is deeply pitted. The advisability of depends. It's generally agreed that pins. you can do the job. will remove rust without spoiling the remaining finish. A by the new finish. but polishing is neither easy or fast. refinishing may be in browning solution may be applied directly over the metal without further treatment.. Replacement screws and screw blanks are available in a wide variety of sizes to meet most needs. screws. if you prefer. triggers. the same procedure is in order. even of original manufacture. springs. dishonest to claim or imply that it is. But. general rule is . Large. More often than not. A roll pin or a phillips-head screw would certainly be frowned upon in a Kentucky rifle. a sprayed coat of clear lacquer. might consume weeks of fectly polished barrel with all The end result. are replaced without harming the piece. If a significant amount of old finish is present. being highly perishable. which spare time. Relatively fine rust should first be soaked in at least a few hours. Years ago. On and the the other hand. Every edge must be preserved and the original profiles and angles must not be changed. allow more coats and more time for the job than the instructions specify. for example. light pitting can be polished off original finish duplicated. Many home-brewed solutions Most important is Powder Guide and Browning (Angier). Once this is done. The roughened surface will not produce the original smooth finish. Fine wool. surface clean frequently to paste that will wear the steel the part wool — in away uniform the direction in which original polishing was done. Once all rust has been removed.160 Shooter's Bible Black is more a matter of patience and effort than technique. An octagon barrel. Application of a tion used. However. we still have the matter of repair or replacement of metal parts to consider. Some modern replacements are identical to the originals. the careful workman can change it by filing. Dozens of styles of hammers. If you are willing to take the time to use similar methods. was a per- his edges as sharp and clean as new. take the finest steel wool you can find and gently rub Keep adding oil and rebecomes clogged with abra- off the rust. For example. No matter how good it looks or how hard you worked on It is it. if the style or profile isn't exactly right. the replacement midst be a duplicate of the original. and if light oil for a time the fine print. Exact replacements are often available. etc. A proper job cannot be done on powered wheels by anyone but a professional polisher. Pins and screws should be of the same type and dimension as the original. No offense intended. If most finish is gone and yet only light to moderate. and nipples. However. properly used. Browning new is depends upon the solumost common and several finish the solutions are available from the suppliers listed in the Directory. He used no power tools whatever. the proper size may be obtained. but will take on color and will be somewhat protected pitting is order. This same applied to any replacement part other than pins. Nipples. and blank springs can be filed to fit. Use strokes along the length of sive rust flakes. A missing hammer must be replaced if the gun is to look complete. and springs may be replaced without detracting from the value of the piece. longer certainly won't do any harm. I recommend you get a copy of the book just mentioned from The Stackpole Company. If they can't the problem still isn't too severe. The parts dealers can often supply an original hammer. screws. or welding.

soft wood C-clamps. Fit them together and turn the screw in tightly to draw them together. not clamp so tightly that the wood is crushed or to apply pressure with Do dented. A bit of soap wiped on the threads will help avoid this and will make driving the screw easier. A break repaired this way will be stronger than the wood surrounding it. the head must be countersunk to prevent it from interfering with the tang inletting. A great deal can be removed this way. If there are pieces of wood missing. matching scrap material must be carved to shape and glued in place. Work up a dry lather on the brush and use that. Hammers worn on the tumbler or badly be welded up and restored to original functioning and shape without losing their origeroded on the face loose may inality. separate the parts and apply a modest coat of epoxy cement on the mating surfaces. Further treatment stock in the solution. This treatment will bleach dark wood slightly. the joint must be carefully filed. Also. or sanded flush. The traditional method is to heat the wood until the grease bubbles to the surface and can be wiped off. but only on the surface. of course. is An recess. Far better is the use of carbon tetrachloride. in holes Wipe with and recesses where a cloth moistened with solvent. Then. half at a time. The break should be large enough to avoid having the screw split the wood. inside and out and use scrapers the brush won't reach. Of course. It will also thoroughly raise the grain making extensive sanding necessary. Often pieces have been broken or burned away around the nipple or flash pan. Carefully drill a pilot hole for this screw. These operations constitute a repair. This will remove grease some depth. and check alignment. In the case of a split or crack. The wood may turn out to be heavily oil soaked. Replacement parts such as these triggers and ramrods are readily available. but some always remains just under the surface. and sometimes must be larger in very . and cracks in the lock and wrist area are common. Repeat in through a hypodermic comes out until the fluid clean. not a replacement. take it out and let the carbon tet evaporate. get a piece of light-weight pipe a bit over half as long as the stock and large enough to accept the widest part of the stock. as are most other component parts. If is by immersing the the entire stock needs treat- ment. snugly. but not too tightly. Select a long woodscrew that will reach at least 1-1/2" past the break when run through the center of the wrist from the tang inletting and complete break calls for drastic at the wrist treatment. Cracks and are easily repaired splits they can if be forced open enough to insert a hypo needle. Cap one end and fill with carbon tet. and then clamp the Use shaped blocks of parts together tightly. First make sure the break surfaces are clean and free from oil or grease. Mild soap and luke-warm water applied Splits sparingly with a bristle brush will get rid of the dirt. such a repair may show. yet portion of the hole past the small enough to allow the threads a good bite. This material gives off toxic fumes so must be used with all surfaces. The balance of the hole should allow free passage of the screw and. Make sure the screw doesn't twist the parts out of alignment. Many are of new manufacture.Restoration & 161 Refinishing wood free of grease deep enough be applied. Clamp carefully together. the stock may be warped by heat. Once this is done. scraped. First scrub to of the wood. then set aside for the epoxy to cure. Go over the entire stock. Salvage all the pieces and splinters and make certain by trial assembly that they'll fit back in place. Force epoxy cement in through the needle. depending upon hardness and density care. cleaning is the first step in restoring any stock. but hundreds of thousands of original parts are stocked by several firms such as the Dixie Gun Works. usually lost-wax casting technique. and let it soak for a couple hours. The same applies to a rcfaced frizzen. Don't soak the stock. Stocks are often in worse shape than metal parts. Immerse the stock. carrying the grease with it. Repeat until the to allow a new is finish to Take particular care to insure that all grease and are removed thoroughly from any areas requiring repair. The hole hard wood than in soft. Repairs and refinishing aren't practical until the oil is removed. or a vise. Wood missing from other visible areas should be replaced. Even when carefully done. wedge it slightly oil open and squirt carbon tet syringe and needle. Try the screw and if everything works. Carefully epoxy back in place any exterior fragments of wood. rod clamps. A not uncommon almost-complete break is easier to repair if broken all the way and given the same treatment. Any minor gaps can then be filled with the matching color stick shellac rubbed in place with a heated knife blade or small spatula.

Then. Both stock and oil should be warm to facilitate penetration. rubber cement is best since it allows easy removal and replacement. wood fibers. And. the steam lifts the offending fibers. and then holding the stock near a source of high heat to turn the water to steam. "Lin-Speed" has given good results when used sparingly and rubbed in well. wood is more jet of effective. Work through progressively finer grades until the wood feels glass-smooth. repeat two or three times or until further wetting and heating does not raise any more whiskers. Shallow dents are covered with a few layers of wet cloth. This is called "Whiskering. new finish matches and blends in If a complete new finish is required. At this point. quick-drying finishes . Once ing the mating surfaces lightly with chalk to high spots. modem approximate it very closely when properly used. Glue sandpaper to these blocks to insure against buckling and stripping. The edges of the area must be carefully trimmed smooth with knife or new chisel. since it's open mesh does not load up." Wet. penefibers are not badly trates the nal shape. In this case. While linseed oil was the traditional finish. Fit a piece of matching wood in place. A merous treatments are often necessary to raise the dent. and then a hot iron or soldering iron is applied directly over the dent. sanding is the most important step. repair stronger than the original of along the edges of the barrel channel. original Minor gouges shellac in the wood can be already outlined. heat. coat- mark the place. They need be raised and cut off flush with the accomplished by wetting the surface. is file and sand the repair flush with wood. Once all repairs are finished. but does not have the capability of drawing the two parts tightly together and therefore requires heavier clamping. use a good grade of "boiled" linseed oil applied sparingly and rubbed in well with a lint-free cloth or the heel of the hand. and expands them back to origiDeep or very large dents may require more A steam applied directly to the hose can be clamped over the safety valve stem of a pressure cooker and used to direct steam into the dent. Only when this point is reached can finish be surface. where the wood crushed or broken. so don't give up with the job half done. Use fresh. If applied in accordance with the instructions and rubbed down with fine steel wool. This to is safely applied. it produces an exoil-type. use very fine steel wool to smooth the bare wood areas feathering into existing finish smoothly. however. This will often require the use of hardwood sanding blocks shaped to fit specific areas of the stock. many fibers are bent over and compressed into the wood. This should be repeated at intervals of several days until the with the old. and sand lightly to cut off the whiskers. Steam is formed. we If substantial original finish don't want to spoil it. Patience and perseverance will pay off. Use epoxy cement and clamp in the joint cured. as filled with stick Dents. nudrastic treatment.162 Shooter's Bible Black A Powder Guide wood can be made by use a long countersunk screw and epoxy as shown here. Sand only with the grain of the wood. consideration can be given to renewing the finish. clean paper. A dowel may be substituted for the screw. Just getting the wood smooth isn't enough all the original edges and contours must — be preserved. can be raised by steaming. Since the original finish is probably well-oxidized linseed oil. remains. "Gritcloth" is the best sanding medium I've found. In either method.

Scrape the stock recess and back of the inlay clean. If wood has rotted or chipped away so that the metal is not fully supported. the inlay should be flush with wood. Stoeger Stock Wax is excellent for this purpose. The same cant gaps elsewhere. etc. and all come with complete in- structions for their simple use. a coat or two of good paste wax will help keep it looking fresh. and otherwise refurbished. and the sanding marks can be buffed out with jeweler's rouge. Oflen. then clamping or weighting them down until the cement cures. we've treated the stock as if there were no decorative inlays. But. Those slightly loose can be tied down by injecting epoxy cement under them through a fine hypo needle. This should all be done before sanding the stock in the vicinity of the inlay. Those that are solidly in place should be left alone. the finish is When the sanding is finished.Restoration & 163 Refinishing cellent finish. though. You may spend six months of your spare time in manner just outlined to put a worn Hawken or Zouave back into original working condition. patchboxes. finishes. Careful attention should be paid to fit of metal to wood. glass bedding compound should be used to fill the gaps. . Rough sanding can be carried right over the inlay if no engraving is present. coat with epoxy and clamp in place. Any good grade of glass bedding material may be used. but is applies to any signifi- especially important there because the breech plug and tang transfer all recoU loads to the stock. Unless they are quite loose. Thus far. the the result will be a source of pride well <-r30 worth the effort. there will be brass or silver stars and other decorations inletted flush with the surface of the wood. particularly in the breech plug/tang area. With all parts carefully cleaned. the gun can be re-assembled. Those that are very loose can be carefully lifted out. Several other Once makes produce equally good completely dry and has been rubbed down. repaired. don't try to remove them.


primitive. Usually refers to an workmanship. in coach pistols against highwaymen. BALL — The jority of spherical lead projectile used in the muzzle loading rifles BALL AND SWAN DROPS and —A barrel combination load number — The metal emerges upon BARREL BAND ma- pistols. One of the several bands holding and fore-end together on most military muskets. ters the front sight. BAR-ACTION of metallic sight. of a barrel "peep" rear sight with a small hole through which the eye automatically cen- The most accurate type — BAND SPRING ignition.. AMPCO NIPPLE — A ple. muzzle loading Purdeys. BALL SCREW — An attachment of a ramrod. R. So named because its shape often suggested a barley grain before arm military pieces. to be mechani- deep two-grooved rifles. Ackerman. followed by a wad. science of a projectile's actions after the propellant's explosion. tougher and highly re- sistant to erosion of the flash hole APERTURE SIGHT —A BALTIC LOCK of percussion nip- of a special alloy. in in front of the tumbler and hammer. in —A later type of percussion which the mainspring is BARREL to the rear of tile tumbler and hammer. rifling of cer- particularly British Smith. rather than crude conventional early front sight of simple bladed type. later including certain wheellocks. key which holds barrel and half-stock rifles and shot- guns. who compiled it for his own series of Muzzle Loading Books.M. in use harder. N. BACK-ACTION LOCK side-lock. . large A spring which band from a musket. barrel to fore-end. which has the appearance end — cally fitted into the a lead projectile without firing tain the arm. early version of the about 1600. O. consisting of a ball over which were a — —A — The BARREL PIN — A which influence its and the various factors BELTED BALL accuracy. Albuquerque.GLOSSARY OF MUZZLE LOADING TERMS This Glossary is included here by the courtesy of Maj. very low in height. threshing. to remove raised belt around for the threaded round metal pin which fastens usually on earlier full-stock more arms. approximately . made modern type of brass but is much from the heat of move — A — The which the mainspring is more usual is depressed to re- side-lock type. ARQUEBUS — A very better BARLEYCORN — A early matchlock firearm. 165 etc. and (in certain areas) in the earlier formal pistol duels. flintlock. A its lead ball cast with a single circumference. BARREL KEY of the swan hunting. Used occasionally in warfare.27 caliber. BALLISTICS flat many fore-end together on shot used in tube from which the projec- firing.

usually carried inside a boot BORE was underhammer with a compact BUCKSHOT — used definitely it A musket load as sometimes used in the Civil War. — A metal-heating process in conjunction with bone and leather scraps. barrel. — An instrument rifle. usually ranging were control. through BORE GAUGE small. this may be cide exactly with a point at a given distance. surrounding a ball in a muzzle loader BUTT MASK mechanism with end of the often erroneously used. sured in — On representing a grotesque face. BUGGY RIFLE — The BULLET BULLET MOULD for determining the BULLET PATCH — Adjusting of the sights to coin- upon which the bore is aligned With a muzzle loader. Also. purposes. loader. —A form of a long-barreled single-shot pistol with rifle sights and a detachable shoulder stock. which a musketeer carries paper or combus- the British forces during our colonial period.36 caliber.24 Large round lead shot. In multi-ball loads. It is basically a mechanical mixture of potassium nitrate. buckskin or bore. heavy. — The — A metal BUTTSTOCK mea- A plate that seal which is designed to provides support for the end of those screws upon which the sear and tumbler pivot BROWN in a BESS — The widening conventional lock. BORE SIGHTING often in the A metal tool containing a cavity or cavities for the casting of lead balls or other firearm projectile passes. A firearm with a flared muzzle. light target shooting. it. which predated modern bluing. CALIBER expressed in thousandths of an inch. Civil — protective metal plate stock which goes against the shoulder. a gas-tight seal for the rear of the barrel. charcoal and sulphur. projectile itself. projectiles. combat and big game hunting. Popular about the 1870's for protection. usually consisting of one spherical musket ball behind three buckshot. a leather belt-pouch for musket caps in the in oxidation process for finishing part. exact diameter of a bore. the leather tible cartridges. and informal tridge as the term — The which the not. patch of cloth. slender muzzle loading pistol. often used to repel boarders in naval warfare. BREECH — The the tang — similar material. the and projecting above hammer BREECH PLUG — A threaded plug which provides is and to which p. these in riot if action. done by removing barrel and breech plug. which could be desired. BREECH PRESSURE serves as a gas of a buttstock. BLUNDERBUS Glossary Of Muzzle Loading Terms I. BROWNING on the rear A shallow grease groove around the CANNELURE circumference of a conical bullet. in the butt of a Deringer pistol. — BUCK AND BALL propellant of the muzzle loader. BLACK POWDER of target for rifle. — Another term CARTRIDGE BOX — For our CAPLOCK pouch flintlock — A hinged metal trap in the stock of a percussion shotgun. BREECH SEAL earlier pistols. BOX LOCK —A lock inside of the lock plate. not the entire caris hole in a tubular gun barrel. so that it may be used as muzzle BRIDLE metal butt cap — (pounds per square inch). small game. to . . A deadly shortrange load. a The diameter of the bore of a firearm.s. — The smoothbore barrels — and metal portion of the wooden — CAP BOX War musket of period. — The standard often quite from a bench firing — which BOOTLEG —A from .Appendix 166 — A type BENCH RIFLE designed especially rest with the shooter seated. which engages the rifling and BUTT PLATE rear —A seal. It is erroneously pictured as the standard arm of the pilgrim fathers.i. chemicals which imparts a beautiful finish in CASE-HARDENING An for a percussion firearm. or more recently. etc. inside —A pressure exerted by the provide obturation to an arm such as a Civil War breech loading carbine. usually attached. rapidly expanding gases of the ignited propellant.

this a pistol once carried by travelers for protection. It cams the sear nose down during firing. Favorite stock rifle" raised portion behind the comb of a stock. CREEP sear the rear. certain kinds of Maple. COMBUSTIBLE CARTRIDGE it completely consumed by the flame of ignition. of a flintlock. It does not interfere with half-cocking otherwise. Forsythe refused to use wrist or trigger-hand grip. between shots. —A CAST-OFF variation to the right in a gun stock from alignment with the barrel. CLEANING PATCH for wiping the bore —A barrel which is not DAMASCUS — An barrel steel. CHARGER — A powder measure for one exact charge. This was the "Lawrence patent. — Very powerful high explosives which are initiated by a blow. Different chokes are desirable for different — The figure in the grain. to align the eye with the sights. to cut the mould blank. at where the powder charge receives ignition.Appendix Glossary I. preferring mixture of potassium chlorate. Most used in percussion revolvers. COACH PISTOL — A shotgun constrictions near the muzzles are often given a touch of choke for superior — Usually a smooth-bore. but we vastly prefer a plainer and stronger strips of various early steels barrel for actual shooting! cloth patch. usually flannel. panding wedge. raised top of a stock just back of the They made the percussion cap possible. They selected only — DETENT A detent. it 1805. made from welded together in a pleasing design. and modern primers. but years. DISC PRIMER — Used on many of the separateprimed Sharps rifles of the transition period. Of Muzzle Loading Terms 167 mottled colors while making the metal surface quite CORNED POWDER hard. on a ment. — CHECKERING flask. Seldom seen on muzzle loaders except for CURLY MAPLE shotguns and some duelling American "Kentucky pistols. To the left for a southpaw is called CAST-ON. to control the range at which an ideal rifles maximum revolver. May be on a horn. to miss the half-cock notch. CULOT — The iron wedge in the hollow base of a per French Captain Minie's original design. Fine custom-made muzzle loading accuracy. CHERRY CYLINDER —A steel — The varying CYLINDER BORE conditions. The harder metals resisted browning more than the milder ones. burr of precise shape. pattern occurs. which was the — Crude early type black powattempt at formation into first grains. cavity in a bullet CHOKE rocky terrain. — A muzzle loading cartridge encased in nitrated paper or other material. Alexander Forsythe developed the first ignition. for of the early and preferably from sparse. The decorative roughening of a — handgrip. The deterioration of a bore or other metal surface from oxidation or other chemical reaction. Hammer action caused a tiny magazine to place a disc primer over the nipple for each shot. or a separate instru- — CORROSION — The erratic. or thorough clean- ing after the day's firing. Fixed or adjustable. Seen in some muzzle loaders. —A CHEEK PIECE wood makers. not requiring COCK — The action of drawing back the Also an early term for the COMB — The hammer hammer. but not usually. is CONE — Early term for a percussion nipple. CHAMBER — An unrifled portion of the barrel. which in already known." . practical detonator lock for firearms about patented ance for his many 1807. usually containing six chambers. charcoal and sulphur. or fly. should be added to the tumbler when a set trigger is installed. which accounted for the beautiful effect. of shotguns. was Not DETONATING POWDERS for target accuracy. der. American ordnancemen later eliminated this ex- Minie bullet. recommended revolving portion of a percussion choked. rough pull of a trigger when and tumbler notches have not been properly stoned smooth. and did not gain general accept- Although mercury fulminate was it. to better fit a righthanded shooter. See EROSION.

elk and grizzly were upon rotation its ' damage DROP — top of the lateral error in a bullet's flight. descent shavings into a pan of priming powder. ples of our colonial fore- gone. these were seldom covered with powder fails to — See FENCE. due to rifling. for the big is — — There were side-by-side double metal inlay strengthening the — The FALSE MUZZLE precisely fired the piece. under the remove every The portion of the wooden barrel. With improved steels. It was less graceful but stronger than the more standard "goose-neck" flint hammer. then smoothing the tops of the lands. etc. Various names for the steel part which the flint scrapes FRIZZEN SPRING — The outside spring which con- by which the comparitive strength of powder samtested. most percussion arms returned to the goose-neck — ESCUTCHEON Glossary Of Muzzle Loading Terms hole through which a barrel key or other fastening early flintlocks. etc. The decorative end of a patch box. Raising the front sight lowers EPROUVETTE —A it. usually by a rotating gauge and stationary needle. to the rifling at the muzzle. was used on many later flintlocks. Only for the thoroughly experienced shooter. steel. device. 1800. flint quality single-shot were for that purpose. FLASH GUARD the line of sight to the in either flint A main charge the Generally considered the The distance from it. FULMINATING POWDERS — The enlargement of a bore. especially military arms. in from the placed J plentiful. mer. Simpler than either re-rifling or sleeving. The flash sets off the main charge through a touchhole. The made — Or in ham- reinforced several types of dou- game rifle was largely a British Many of Africa and India. Not too accurate. — FENCE A projection on the rear of the flintlock pan. in either flint or percus- sion. when our buffalo. — The is and to prevent deforming starting the bullet without FLINTLOCK DRIFT accessory which the muzzle of the finer target rifles dur- ing loading. Ignition of the priming when comb and DUELLING PISTOL — FORE-END — A superb and light-reflecting inlays — in Currently outlawed in actu- which a tiny priming many larger matches — Raising the rear sight raises the point of impact. filagree. triggerFINIAL guard strap. coupled with projectile wear. to fire a flintlock. — Detonating agents such as fulminate of gold and of silver were discovered as early as 1600. to divert the flash from the face of the shooter. stock which small percentage of the "duellers" ally Traditional which a the top of the heel of a stock. or percussion. and there which one long pull in the cylinder ble rifles sion. touchhole or nipple vent from the intense heat of ignition. DUPLEX LOAD in a flint- explode. fairly practical firearm.S. ELEVATION — Or lies FOULING SHOT earlier One arm strikes steel. but found no practical purpose. style. FLASH — lock pan. Contrary to common belief. hammer. particularly bench rifles to aid in accurately and percus- the U. battery. . Reasonable loads increase barrel life. This will generally require a new mould or enlargement of the former one's cavity. but a peachy con- trols the frizzen's position. top quality British percussion rifles found their way here with their sportsmen. lock plate or other metal gun part.Appendix 168 DOG LOCK — A manually-operated catch engaged hammer on some the rear of the — An arm DOUBLE ACTION of the trigger cocked the if was one. may be EROSION dropping incan- vestige of oil before firing a match. first forearm. turned DOUBLE-NECK HAMMER I. —A first shot into the backstop to — Generally accepted mean an — worn bore by FRESHENING — The rejuvenation FOWLING PIECE shotgun to a light single-barrel. versation piece. designed solely for aristocratic mayhem. The discovery of fulminate of mercury was announced on March 13. now around charge of "bulk" smokeless shotgun powder is loaded ahead of a reduced charge of black powder. DOUBLE RIFLE A inserted. for cleaner shooting. fathers. leading to the invention of the percussion cap almost 20 years later.. across the nation. both in flint preference. of a deepening each groove. pan cover. if your bore is not too far FRIZZEN — Also hen.

rifle of our pioneer forefathers. leather tooling. german silver or HANG-FIRE — A dangerous condition pointed down-range! sterling silver. HAIR TRIGGER — The forward double-set trigger assembly. Thus. progresses from breech to muzzle. HAND CANNON arm history. a yellowish "fool's gold" of the inexsteel. shaded by a short metal cylinder. — An rifle — The traditional long flintlock One of the few purely American developments in firearm history. etc. GROUP loading projec- after fuse. percussion cap. Striking sparks from or firing trigger of a may be adjusted to re- the ignition agent of both the wheellock lock. chiefly military. in which the early American rifleman carried smaller bores. being drastically modified conditions. small-headed pin. reaching its peak of excellence between 1775 and 1830. to grip the cloth patch. 169 — All the minor metal trim on a muzzle which may be of brass. iron. HAMMER to drilled tile — Decorative shaped contrasting wood. which the hole is plugged.. The INCISED GROOVES water. a shotgun bore. ivory. future groups to the target's center. the opposite of patching. HAMMER — The piece which holds the flint in a flintlock or which strikes the capped nipple in a percussion JAEGER RIFLE our Kentucky to suit arm. INLAYS target — single- a bullet to rotate in flight. fit into re- cesses in the stock which exactly receive them. GERMAN RING TARGET — An early type of pa- — A muzzle per target the popularity of which extended into the HYDRAULIC BULLET Schuetzen match era of the I880's. HAMMER SPUR rear of a typical The thumbpiece on percussion hammer. slow match. — GLOBE SIGHT A fine front sight like an erect. lease at a very light touch. Glossary Of Muzzle Loading Terms FURNITURE loader.Appendix I. Also the size of by the number of spherical which comprise one pound of lead. GUNPOWDER — The propellent explosive used in —A IRON PYRITES metallic-looking sulfide. pill lock. fired. JAG — More — The the upper New World —A arm in fire- early German arm from which evolved. for firing a flintlock. as spiral cuts of rifling which cause group is a series of bullet holes in close proximity. GAIN TWIST —A type of rifling in which the pitch or the degree of twist increases steadily as the bullet HEEL — The corner — — HORSE PISTOL Any measuring device. serrated. etc. linstock. sories for his long rifle. The leather pouch. GOOSE-NECK necked hammer of the IGNITION flint — — The graceful — A good and the percussion eras. let pieces of metal. GUNFLINT — A hand-shaped piece of flint stone INLETTING — The woodworking which per- precise mits barrel. It common The mineral. into the surface of a gun- and finished flush with that surface. is leather. ridged or button-ended tip for a cleaning rod. lock and other major parts to with a chisel edge. used by early horsemen and often carried in a pommel holster. KENTUCKY RIFLE earliest small useful for scaring the enemy's horses than as a serious weapon. it was and the pyrites perienced prospector. pyrites. preparatory to reUef carving. A large pistol. stock. determined balls of bore size of the buttstock at the top of the butt plate. inlaying. small arms. HUNTING POUCH — Example: one pound makes 12 balls that fit a cylinderbored 12 gauge shotgun. GAUGE when an apKeep it parent misfire goes off after a brief delay. Makers such as Norman Brockway sometimes used a hog bristle for the pin. insert The method by which the charge is such as flintlock. usually priming horn and other acces- flints. This gives increased expansion on a solid target such as game. spare rifle calibration. etc. . larger numbers mean decorated. Sight adjustments will then move — When on wood or a surface cut to a given depth.

NOSE CAP The metal cap on the front end of a muzzle loader fore-end. LOCK-SCREW percussion system with a — MUSKETOON bine in The in- the long. it is laterally. calculated at or near the muzzle. Also may refer to a person who shoots muzzle loading A MUZZLE VELOCITY — The NIPPLE (the which the cap pan. With its arm upon threaded base. —A workman who skilled chips out gun- using hand tools exclusively. for smoothing out a bore. or front end. by means of a ramrod. The pressure rifling Comes — sights rules of of propellent gases — WRENCH placing nipples. See Failure of a loaded of the rifling. tances.p. OCTAGONAL BARREL — lier MINIE BULLET The conical projectile of the Civil War infantry rifle and similar minie rifles. MAINSPRING VISE clamp to compress the mainspring. MATERIEL — The equipment be confused with the raw of the military. to save time in loading a rifle. (f. — MIQUELET Forerunner of the true flintlock. LINEN — A woven from cloth material — LOADING BLOCK drilled with several holes A small strip of hardwood. — The earliest firearm to include an mechanism. METALLIC SIGHTS tain front end of a barrel.Appendix 170 KNAPPER flints. exat the muzzle or at various measured distances. directly onto the nipple. hammer. full-stocked. OPEN SIGHTS — The standard V-notch plain blade front sight. firearms. which pivoted flat side when to fire MUSKET — Generally. rear and . A smouldering. flax fiber. which supports the heads of the lock-screws. which carry pre-patched balls. its hollow base into the muzzle loaders. pattern. the — MULE EAR LOCK precisely fitting plug. expand A tool for removing or re- in various sizes. this is Seen on many of the earthe conventional 8-sided barrel. hemp cord "match") was levered into contact with the primed — Speed pressed in feet per second actual is tiny tube of a percussion placed.s. LOCK-SCREW PLATE —A metal plate opposite the lock plate. Issued to artillery and sappers (military MUZZLE mounted. the only remaining professional knappers operate in the village of Brandon. for easier disassembly of the lock mechanism. as their chambers are loaded from the front of the cylinder. Currently. which more properly describes the same calculation at various dislet. England. — MAGAZINE A CAPPER convenient device for dispensing one percussion cap at a time. usually of lead arm HANG-Fire. metal plate upon which the firing mechanism of a conventional muzzle loader is flat — A long screw running laterally through the stock to hold the lock in place. often preferred for ball patches. — grooves. — MUZZLE LOADER A firearm designed to be loaded from the muzzle. smoothbored shoulder arm of the early infantryman. — The — MATCHLOCK — MUZZLE ENERGY The force exerted by the bulexpressed in foot pounds.). MAINSPRING — The heavy spring which actuates engineers). particularly on a full-stock arm. —A LAP and charged with abrasives. of the projectile. it had on outside mainspring. It differed from the snaphaunce in having frizzen and pan cover in one piece. nitrated. LOCK PLATE — A hammer. The first issue rifles were sometimes termed "rifled muskets" and their outside appearance was little changed. A shorter shoulder arm of musket between the infantry musket and cavalry carlength. — MISFIRE LANDS — The raised spiral ridges between the grooves Glossary Of Muzzle Loading Terms I. MATERIAL Not to from which NIPPLE — Gun magnifying glass lenses. made. A better term is kinetic energy. tended. which do not con- A stipulation in the etc. Percussion revolvers are included. many matches. it is readily replaceable.

Thought to derive from Pistoia. PRIMING HORN — A miniature horn for FFFFg priming powder. the firing trigger to . The percentage of the total shot charge inside the circle is a guide to the degree of choke. With the westward migration. Usually it is age. advent of practical breech loaders. brass or zinc. An extremely tiny round pellet of fulminate was used instead of the later metal cap. or else the tallow for greasing them as of — PILL LOCK A very early percussion system. waterproofed. Even distribution of the shot is essential. Often foil-lined and — Tiny stampings face. PATCH KNIFE PITCH — you do not use pre-cut patches. Proper accessory with a flintlock. in container for gunpowder. If each is trimmed at extremely sharp knife. PEPPERBOX — rifles. repeating percussion pistol of the 840's. double-action. an early Italian firearm center. in the flintlock ignition systems. Extreme care was required in loading to prevent it tipping and losing all developed PROPELLANT. See tips for improvement elsewhere in this book gle — rifle POWDER HORN transporting. more often used with a separate non-adjustable charge measure. a mistake — 1 sion era. containing a tiny amount of deto^^ating powder such as mercury fulminate. to signify that it in a barrel's sur- has been proof-fired with a pre- scribed overload under government supervision. rifles were usually half-stock plains POWDER FLASK mellow finish that comes with fine furniture. — From our colonial period comes powder container of cow or buffalo horn. PATINA short tubes on the underside of a muzzle loader for holding the ramrod. the PATTERN The shot pattern obtained by a shotgun. with a revolving barrel A generally of copper. a special attachment permits ignition by a modern primer instead of an ordinary cap. Generally found by firing at a single spot in the middle of a 30 inch circle at 40 Yards. The famous Hawken shorter Or French breech. PULL — The measurement from the center of the butt plate. A pattern with large gaps in it is a "blown" pattern. bullet patches with the aid of a mallet. zle loader before the PERCUSSION CAP — A small copper or PROOF MARKS brass cup- shaped primer. Normally has a measuring charger on top.Appendix PAN I. PRIMING —A — The finer powder in a flintlock's pan. and heavier calibers for buffalo. — POWDER MEASURE A separate accessory with a graduated plunger. as a safety measure. — PATCH CUTTER An instrument for pre-cutting PISTOL —A firearm to be held in one hand. of the first conical bullets Only the very base was bore size. tapering forward from there. one barrel key is pulled and the barrel lifts right out. PERCUSSION — The cap and PROJECTILE ball. the second is Example: For the propellant we use a propellent powder. rifled and turn. chambers aligning with a sin- Usually small caliber. A fine steel wire to clean out a PICKET BULLET — One accuracy. for convenience in cleaning or The twist. for example. PROPELLENT of nipple vent or flintlock touchhole. useful for experimenting with varying loads in the field. PRIMER — On some percussion bench rifles. In a half-stock rifle. angle or speed of the rifling. PICK — Or picker. in which greased patches were carried. many a writer. The first is — Stumbling block the noun. last type of muz- — The ball or bullet shot from a fire- arm. the muzzle during loading with this — Or PLAINS RIFLE — — The on a fine gun or to remove it. the adjective. PIPES — The they were used. a was needed for loading on horseback. — PATCH BOX The lidded recess in the buttstock some muzzle loading rifles. One in PATENT BREECH which the breech plug and nipple seat are cast in one block. This has an up-turned hook on its rear which engages a slot in a separate upper tang. typical of the percus- series. Of Muzzle Loading Terms Glossary — The 171 pow- receptacle which holds the priming and previous der. A "low" explosive suitable for gunpowder. in this country. etc.

cylinder and a single barrel. for record. lock. in its SLING to fire a single bore. barrels. It had the manually-operated pan cover of the matchlock. In the nineteenth century. —A small telescope. for measuring one charge of bird shot. A coarse. with pushed down the bore against the ball is powder charge. nitrate. trigger fires rifles. to which a sling loops on a shoulder attached. — A wrench from SPERM OIL — SPANNER SERPENTINE POWDER — The first crude black gunpowder. SMOOTH-BORE RIFLING — The spiral grooves in a rifle's bore. non-uniform meal. encased in nitrated hog's intestine. — The — cover. usually 20 power. lamps and for gun oil. the true except that frizzen and pan cover were two separate pieces. SNAPHAUNCE flintlock. Must be washed out before using as patching. etc. SIGHTING SHOT RE-ENTRY MATCH —A SHOT POUCH OR FLASK a barrel this cuts the rifling grooves — Two metal SLING SWIVELS may be arm. allowed to fire in which the shooter more than one score —A REVOLVER — One is —A RIFLE and with grooves cut —A RIFLE SAW wooden guided in a spiral motion. Switzerland even put them on some issue mili- SPRING. with a barrel that unscrews to accept the load in the breech end. Colt and Remington were leading manufacturers of these arms. short. rifled. often of leather. improve accuracy by imparting a spin to the which the bore of which projectile. SET TRIGGER ger is — A mechanism "cocked" so that a slight Oil Once a favorite for the sperm whale or cachalot. a rifle above the joint between the a side-by-side double gun or rifle. used for examining the target from the firing point. This eliminates all "creep" or "drag". SNAIL SALTPETER — Potassium not artillery piece. handgun with a multi-chambered REVOLVING RIFLE container. at a time. SIZING with the above type of mechanism. FLAT tary spring used in early firearms. the arm. RIB SIDE PLATES adjust sights. SPOTTING SCOPE which a rear trigtouch on the front in for cocking a wheellock. end of and mechanically — A combustible cartridge for percussion revolvers. in SHOOTING BENCH rifle from a Of Muzzle Loading Terms Glossary I. for bird shot. ket or rifle. at the beginning of a match.Appendix 172 — PYRITES LOCK An improvement over a matchwhich iron pyrites fell against a steel frizzen. — Any small-arm or is often seen of base for a per- on higher-grade guns in- stead of a drum. — Similar to its successor. one box side of a patch SINGLE-ACTION —A revolver which must be man- give — An additive to certain cloth materials. on each — SKIN CARTRIDGE strip of steel — A shoulder firearm designed projectile. QUEEN ANNE PISTOL —A fUntlock. — The "water-drain" type cussion nipple. to "get the range" dope with wind. SEAR SPRING — The small spring which actuates the sear. — RAMROD which the The rod. —A solid bench for shooting a rest. usually with- out a fore-end. OR "KICK" — The original type of . in Plates A non-scoring shot. and the outside mechanism of the later miquelet. file-like cutter at the Drawn through rod. SEAR — The and hammer lock part which engages the tumbler until release by trigger pressure. generally of hickory. but formerly only as a help in carrying the pieces on a long march. before corning was developed. to them "body". — A graduated measure on SHOT DIPPER a wooden handle. — The leather or web strap on a military mus- Now used as an aid in aiming. ually cocked for each shot.

bore was grooved without any a string used to catch sparks to linen. — One with SPUR TRIGGER GUARD lower — A "pipe" or THIMBLE ramrod. strip storage. — Occasionally an — Now spiral. holding the barrel in the stock. short tube for holding the the butt plate. of the buttstock at the bottom of — The metal rifle butt. drawn around all and measured. — The several variations of this. The pioneer used for placing the ball The main wooden portion shortest string highly flammable substance. — A small forward position. for specially-modified rifles. lengthwise. Through the years. where excess lead was removed by the cut-off plate. slip of — A metal strap set into the bottom of the stock. during the on the principle of a toy repeating cap —A TRIGGER SPRING the trigger to its TUBE LOCK metal dovetailed into the bottom of a barrel. especially an octago- SWAGING mechanism of next to the butt plate. STRIKING A BARREL of a firearm. — The metal bow which guards against accidental trippings of the trigger. wood not use a cleaning patch. inserted directly into the . there have been barrel over the other. usually breakable "clay pigeons". Originally "tricker". The won. in which the hammer crushed a fulminate-filled vent. with a special double-handed striking STRING MEASURE — A plug inserted in a keep out dirt today. copper tube. Sometimes trigger assembly is attached to it. fused with a spiral spring. Some half of the and some only measuring group size. to bring them to the exact diameter and shape desired. It TRIGGER PLATE furnished the etc. TRAJECTORY The gun muzzle during Seldom used flint. and the Civil ma- the flint in position. Today. The early obsolete. era. hole. TOMPION a fhntlock STRAIGHT CUT RIFLING fire the camp. TENNON used in pioneer days flight. mainspring which STIRRUP flax support the second finger and give better control of a hair trigger. small lever by which a firearm fired. the edge of a flat into a slot in the lock plate. The vertical like curve of a bullet's involving the center — projects these targets into the — Double-barreled barrels of many rifles. to control lateral motion of the trigger. distances totaled. to hook on a its —A way down part STEADY PIN — — short wooden rod — The corner TOE PLATE — The Kentucky fits The knob on little pivoting some connecting main- piece locks. SUPERPOSED RIFLES on the bottom of file. 173 not to be con- SPRUE — The small flat on one side of a cast ball. sometimes not. side. Also the instrument which TRIGGER — The TRIGGER GUARD whichever barrel was uppermost. draw-filing of a barrel's exterior. air. Of Muzzle Loading Terms —A SPRING. flash to the TRAP War clamp which holds The heavy screw which clamps — The TOUCHHOLE TOW — Crude. to Do — The upper TOP JAW or other hygroscopic TOP JAW SCREW pan transmits its vent through which a flintlock unspun — flax. — Putting conical projectiles through a precise die under pressure. through which a barrel key or pin passes. before using the ramrod.. so that one lock would because it is did the trick. one early ones A shotgun contest on aerial targets. such as flintlock to ignite his tinder in TOE especially a shoulder arm. main charge. HELICAL coil spring. pioneer scoring method in which wooden plugs were inserted in each bullet ignition his terials.Appendix Glossary I. pivoted upon a longitudinal axis. spring to tumbler in STOCK A tow or charred the bore. finish nal barrel. veloped about spring which returns — A very early percussion system. de1815. a or moisture. STARTER — TINDER start a fire. TAPE PRIMER — A roll of paper tape containing fulminate pellets at regular intervals. "string measure" is done from the center with calipers. pistol.

wind. ZERO — The The small aperture of any muzzle loader. etc. held in the small of the stock by a screw. plus the detent — The TWIST —A if there is one.Appendix 174 TUBE SIGHT — Ancestor A long. V-SPRING — A flat V-shaped spring. — Central piece of the conventional lock. considered superior to an ordinary single-leaf spring. length of the barrel. will be made to . — WRIST firing — The small of the stock. or to for a rod. hammer. VENT lateral with the mainspring serving as the trigger guard. Glossary —A VERNIER SIGHT Of Muzzle Loading Terms precise. in which iron pyrites pressed against the serrated edge of a rotating wheel. With rear aperture and front pin-head. grasped by the hand. not containing optical lenses. developed in the middle 1 800's. thin metal tube. This contains the half-cock turning with the and full-cock notches. supporting the ramrod thimbles. from meet varying con- ideal sight setting at a given range. adjustable. UNDER-STRIKER LOCK the hammer underneath. — A percussion often WIPING ROD lock with which is — An adjustment (or allowance) in to —A cleaning rod used during firing. ing patch. or angle of spiral of the rifling Ronson still uses the idea. Also used for the smaller TUMBLER steel tool for cutting out shotbullet patches. rear aper- ture sight. WORM — A corkscrew tip extension of the breech plug. it allowed maximum definition of the WAD CUTTER sight picture. pitch. UNDER RIB — WINDAGE A metal rib on the underside of a half-stock's barrel. ditions of light. gun wads with a mallet. full I. WHEELLOCK — A more complex mechanism follow- ing the matchlock. through which the flame of ignition reaches the main which adjustments charge. grooves. UPPER TANG —A sighting. wipe the bore out between shots. to hold a clean- remove one stuck in the bore. often of the telescope sight.

3607 Ault Park Road. 12953 Biscayne Blvd. N. Halsted Chicago. 11715 Wm. 45212 N. 33161 Diamond Gun Miami. New N. 94530 Rd.. N. 10855 San Pablo Ave. Cal. N. Chopie Tool 4. N. Cal.. Paltz.. (Perfect Danbury Rd. 06455 Cal. 33139 Santa Ana Gunroom. Glass. Box 10628. M. 'Vancouver. W.. A. Wis. San Bernardino. Walpole. Inc. Santa Ana. Ont. Canton. H. Peterboro... O. 28201 Lyman Gun Sight Corp. 9220 111. Y... Gun B. Co. 175 . 6209 Hillcrest Ave. J. Middlefield. Y. Tulane Oak Ridge. 01730 Box 337. Squash Hollow. Riverside. 3454 N. Moore. 56093 Javelina Rifle Supply. of Historical Miami Beach. 12155 Pioneer Guns. Box 26. Conn. Hopkinton. National I. 60613 Shur-X-BuUet Co. 2. Wilton. C. Stumpfield Rd. O.. La. Fla. Schenevus. Fla. New Orleans. (Size-Ezy) 45208 Micro Shooter's Supply. 06904 (Type U) St. Miami.. R. 240 Chartres St. 337 Fisher. Inc.00) F. Boggs. 716 Dunsmuir. 65 Harvard. Cleveland. Box 1777. Requa. 1783 E. Calif. 92402 (Alox beeswax) Lenz-Prod. Co. Conn. BULLET LUBRICANTS 10915 Guns. 75205 Jerry's & Die Co. Mex. N. Fla.. Wiest. Tex. R. 14615 St.. 12561 Muzzle Guns. Charlotte. Rte. 531 Copeland. Wm.. N. Roma Place. Lube) Industrial Prod. Mass. Y. Norwood. Milford. 70130 Old West Gun Room. N.. Street. C. Box 1226. La Crosse. M. Monsey.. Cincinnati. 11338 & Co. 10952 Portsmouth. Y. Coppers Mills. Flayderman New Herb Pt. St. N. 33139 New Orleans Arms Co. O. Long Beach (Mirror-Lube) Groote Guns. N. Box 972. Columbus. 6489 Pearl Rd. 1610 Gallia Ohio 45662 Farris Diamond Pt. Bullville.. Dallas. Box 213. Cal.. Bullet Pouch. El Cerrito.. 02081 Heritage Firearms Co. 64th Charles Bannerman Sons. Ave. 92502 (IPCO Lubricant) Shop. 2 Main. 157 E. 88001 (Micro-Lube) E. Y. Mass. 60513 C.. 63101 Griffin's Glode M.. Herter's. Mo.. 54603 (Black-Solve) Cooper. 7. Calif.. Waseca. 94109 Goodman's Traders. 44708 (Clenzoil) Liquid Wrench. Las Cruces. The Gun Shop. Y. 111. L. C. Ed Howe. 10021 Street. Ohio 43205 Brick House Shop. Rochester. St. Conn. Ogden Avenue.. (Perfect Lubricant) Jackson Arms. McKercher. Fidd.. Box 14.Woodward. Lever Arms Service. A. 97202 Gold Rush Guns. Bedford. Me. 5228 Montgomery. Maverick Trading Post. Canada Alpha-Molykote Corp. 44130 1 Box 4285.R. 04341 Brookfield. Main.. Arms. Inc. Canada Locke. O. Museum N. Minn. (Catalog $1. Donnin's Arms Museum. Y. Box 35. 37830 06776 Guns & Antiques.. Conn.. Blue Point. Y. 1567 California San Francisco. Sta.. 1038 Alton Rd. 1101 Olive Louis. Stamford..D. 234 N. Inc. 1493 Dewey Ave. for Box 776.. N. Tenn. 4.II DIRECTORY OF THE ARMS TRADE ANTIQUE ARMS DEALERS Robert Abels.

Explosives Dept. Baltimore. 54603 (Black-Solve) Box 1226. 81212 Boone Mountain Trading Post. Eau S. 1360 W. Lansdowne.. Box 244... N. 48423 (finish kit) COMPONENTS Division Lead. Oshkosh. Mich. Co. 111. La Mirada. Box 1713. Fla. 54901 Van Gorden. Linspeed oil) Chopie Tool Of The Arms Trade (Silicone cloths) Birchwood-Casey Chem. Milwaukee. Ontario. 03456 Sugarload Dr. West Palm Beach. 74354 Gun-All Products.. Wampus 359. Mont. Directory (Schukra rod) 41 Riverdale Ave.. Cleveland.. 559 W. Chicago. Tillinghast. Bain and Davis Sptg. Davison. Fairpont.) Bisonite Co. Box 10628. 10701 (Ed's cold blue) Jim Brobst. Calif. Inc. W. Box 19435. Y. St.. H. Peru St. 06897 Winchester-Western. Houston. Wilton.. 01230 (G. 921 10 (WD-40) 61061 Frederick St. Sight Corp. Claire. 100th. Canon City. 12491 (44/40 gun blue) 817 E. Inc. (blues Box 333. Del. Crouthamel. 60647 Carl's Riverdale... Lynx-Line Box DuPont. 9th. 61 PI.. Box 175. Conn. 53215 (gun bags) Lehigh Chem. Roy Dunlap.... 19050 Outers Laboratories. Ann Arbor. Pcmberton.. Minn. 33480 Bill English.. B. E. & Boos. Mill Run Box 3985. 2310 N. of Texas. 10 Elson Drive. Rocket Chemical Co. Sparta. Brothers. 86301 Prescott. Middlefield. Pa. 1340 N. Conn. Wyo. Co. C. Ft. Summit. 2639 So. Wilmington. Box 568. New Haven. 260 Macedon Center Rd. 19898 531 Copeland. Dunkirk. 48227 Prod... Y. Seattle. Marlow. Oregon. Silicote Corp. Pa. Box 279. (Magic-Click) Mistic Metal Mover. 441 13 (Britc-Bore Kits) Minn. 77024 (Penetrate 113) Ed Agramonte.. Chestertown.. Milford. Yonkers. I. Wis. Princeton. Minneapolis 16. Bridgeport. oil) Detroit. & 423 Woodrow Ave. Wis.. 14048 (anti-rust Riel E. 19 Ft. Mich. Gds. 33402 (Win. Wis. Powder Keg. 7389 Lapeer Rd. Anderson. etc. Y.. 41776 Irvin L. 31st St... Mich. Box 8125. 07514 & oils) Carl Lampert Co. Y. Gun Shop. Averyville Rd. 06455 Wabasha. N. (Rig Grease) 111..) Ernst Fuller. C... Wis.. Box 657.. Mich. 3108 W. Hoppe.. Ariz.. N. 49047 Frank C... C... Saganaga Lake. Inc. (J-B Compound) & Die Co. Palm Beach. 06504 CUSTOM GUNSMITHS AND CUSTOM GUN WORK A & M Rifle Co. Canada Gordon Bess. Cumberland Falls (pen. R. 111. Flagler Gun Clinic. 59858 . Wis. 708 River St. Conn. Hercules Powder Co. Bacon Creek Gun Shop. 02915 Hobaugh.. II. 98146 Custom Guns. R. Md. Co. 90638 (Instant Blue) Geo. Atkinson. Lake Minneapolis. West Hurley. Onalaska. 3109 W. Tuscson. 15857 St. 14227 Hamburg. Conn. St. Wis. O. Box 2531. 21620 (Anderol) Liquid Wrench. 44708 Forty-Five Ranch Enterpr. SanGabriel. Pa. Bradford. 19133 J. Conn. Philipsburg. 111. (Gun Guard) New Method Mfg. Pa. Glen A. N. slugs) Remington-Peters. 85719 441 1 S. 31 labs. Ariz. A2 Conv.. 28201 Gun Products.. 54656 Box 264.. 111.. 16701 (gun blue) Numrich Arms Co. 61356 Mitchell Chemical Co. 706 S 23rd St. Box 120. Las Tunas Dr. 06602 Ann Arbor Arms Inc. Vitt Jet-Aer Corp. Main. 54701 Williams Gun Sight. Wash. Benson. Charlotte. Box 3rd. Rubber Co. Philadelphia. 3630 Woodale. Miami. Del. Co. Clenzoil Co. S.. Y. 19 E. Sta. N. Pa. oil) Rig Products Co. 55981 (shotgun Lane. Wis. Laramie. (Gunslick kits) Philip R.. Ky. Wm. Minn. Colo. 165 3rd Street. 84.. Buffalo. LaCrosse. Tex. Calif.. 23 Rice Prod. James C. 60627 Chicago Gun Center. 7742 W. 8th Street. 14331 Clark St. 82070 Rd. Riverside. Mass. Lowell Rd. O. Minn. Dowagiac. 5390 Napa San Diego. Great Barrington. Okla. Calif. Marys. Armitage. N.Appendix 176 CLEANING & REFINISHING SUPPLIES Rusteprufef Arms Research Shooters Specialties. Corbin. Paterson. 910 Market Wilmington. 19899 60502 Lyman Gun Meyer Bros. Canton. N. N. Fla. 55416 (Anderol. Box 1080...

08629 Trenton. Parkersburg. RRl. 111. 54923 Mastra Co. 626 Kingsley McDaneld Inc. G. 18337 Williams Hodgdon. 12315 Newburgh. Canada St. 48150 M.. H. A. Penguin Assoc. 01741 (racks) Colorado Springs. 86326 Robert U.. R. Milford. Mich. 90221 Mills Custom Gun 3. 111. 33155 New Mfg. Joy. Elizabeth. also) Schuetzen CASES. 77037 N. Houston. Loves Park. N. West Hurley. Woodland Rd. Ga. GUN Fla. Safety Gun Case Co. City. Inc. 26143 I. Mich. Colo. Weisz.. 250) & Dr... H. 08560 Gun Works. 52 Sauve Rd.. 08857 (45-70) The Gun Shop. A. Y. 61348 Pa. Piatt Br. Specialties.. Osborne. Star Route. 02021 2 Wilkinsburg. Duffy. Harold E. Belton. Ernest Tichy. Box Saf-T-Case. 61401 (list 500) R. Compton. EllwoodEpps. 365 (list Stocks. 12419 (list Gun Works.. Galesburg. E. Va. 111. Calif. MacFarland. 37. Bratton. 19341.. 7389 Lapeer Rd. 360 N. Alaska 99502 4936 Ammo Service.. 75205 Keokuk. Battles. N. Marlow. 1060 N. 54935 St. 401 N. Tillinghast. Wellington. Banks. Peterson Gun Shop. Box 508. Box Box 10512. Buddy Schoellkopf.. 111. Williams Lane. 80909 Skinner's 828 N. Marietta. San Antonio. 32757 (ML Rifles. Pa. Mass. 18091 75207 Dallas. 1226 AND RACKS (single rack) George Schielke. Romig. Box 1-A. Marek. Inc.. Pa. S. Canton. 1201 E. Shawnee-Mission. Amer. 0. Pa. Marquette Fond Du Lac. Dallas. 3510 Fenton Rd. Rifle Co. Mich. Powder Keg. Ore. Rte. Foster Hill. Holland. Coopers Mills. Natl.. Milhoan W. James C. Huntington. Prairie Rd. Alaska 99801 37064 Gun 32216 7710 W. Cole. Fla.. Rt. J. N. 148 Fordyce GUN PARTS. W. Cottonwood. Gussman. J. 80 King Ed Howe. Wood Dutton's. 22210 C. J. 1. Wis. 48423 T. Walterville. Kolpin Bross Co. Me. Henderson... Box W. Oregon 97489 McCormick's Custom Gun Bluing.. ANTIQUE St. Tex. 61111 Wheeler. Franklin.. 8. 14 Bouton PL.. Tex. Wells. 156. Box 18. 66202 Colorado Springs. Calif. Miss.. West Hurley. Grand Ave. Box 31 1. E. Mt. O. 03456 500) Artistic Box 776. 539 Hidden Valley Dr. 60610 Coladonato Bros. Anchorage. Box 38. 263 Kurtz Rd. R. Rapid City. Box B. Mich. Southgate. Tenn.. N. N. 90015 Moore. of Guns. 215 Magyar. International Chas. 19365 rifles) Pretto Cabinet Co. E.. 6209 Hillcrest Ave. W. San Mateo. 49046 (rust blueing) Box 6208. 1. N..) Norman S. Davison. Inc. Dallas. Box 1510. 61260 St. 11743 Ward Koozer. Directory Of The Anns Trade 111 Huckleberry Gun Shop. 61240 Perry Spangler. 04341 Jackson Arms. E. Stock & Barrel. 2104 Superior.. Ore. Miami. Juneau. Maspeth. Ellsworth. Protecto Plastics. 457. Tex. Ella Wyatt's Custom Gunshop. R. Denver. Mass. 15221 Livonia. Berlin. 11378 Numrich Arms Co. Rt.. CABINETS Chicago. 6937 54th Ave. 1220 Los Angeles. Titusville. Colo. Rt. Mich.. 49676 (Obsolete Win. 910 Fairmont Ave. Dora. Wis. . A. 401 N. Rosencrans Ave. Walnut. Cleveland. Box Oregon Sight Co. N. 111. Kosciusko.. Mazzola. 80902 J. Pachmayr Gun Works. 80226 S. 44114 97. Jacksonville. 97106 (cannons) Thomas I. Box Inc. Van 30. Clinton.... Hazleton. M. L. Flint. Wind Gap. 42.. Gunmakers. Box 568. 97219 Monfort. 10440 Kingsbury Rd. Tex. Canada 500) Reel Foot Ave. 145. Kans. Fla.. Ont. Oglesby.. Delton. Portland. Box 13155. 12491 Robert Patton. Ste.. C. National Sports Co. & Son.. Tex. 111. Box Philomene. Inc. Union Quebec. Rt. Coal Valley. Washington Crossing. (new Kentucky Suter's House 2. Lucas. Old Ridge. Box 23. 67473 Miller Bros. 32 Garfield Ave. Calif. Annex Johnson's Kenai Rifles. \ .. Va. (list DEALERS IN COLLECTORS' CARTRIDGES Dixie C. Colo. Tejon. Ariz. Edw. P.. 49424 94401 (antique) Traders.. Y. Box 231. Tenn. Y.Appendix II. J. Patten. Gun Shop. 78213 Main St. Carlisle. Verner. 50 Hiway. Arlington. Lock. Pa. Mich.. Kans.

Y. Waterbury. 90001 (pen oiler) Continental Worlds. 1545 Hoyt. Fullerton. Perrine Karl A.. Montrose. N. 46176 (muzzleloader) 1 Susanville. Co. K. Penn Colorado School of Trades.. Racine. Mo.. 48237 (Reamers) 689 Bergen Blvd. Century Arms Co. Y. 36702 Flaig's Union H.E. Ruta Ct. SERVICES Houston. NewYork. 110 2nd Monett. drifts) Lea Mfg. Colo. Lodge. Worth. 07657 Replica Arms Co. & Co. Calif. No. 19135 (contour gauge) 100 Main Klamath Falls. Behn 1 San Antonio. 76110 & Sharpe Mfg. W. 66061 Solingen Cutlery. 101 1 60607 (Handee Kasenite Co. York. 06720 Marker Machine Co.. Y.. Box rifles) Intercontinental 111. Ramona. San Francisco.. 689 Bergen Blvd. 15202 Box 22066. 111. 167 Mission 1 St. la..Appendix H. Co. Neise. Main & Gun Works. 92065 Co. Co.. 95832 Olathe. Co. 77018 94103 Calif. Elk Rapids. Alamo Heat Treating Co. Ala. 10927 W. 61920 Frank Mittermeier. H.. N. Oak Park... N. Pa.. Armament 2704 N. 330 St. I. 08904 P 125 Smithland Pike. Box 640. St. W.. 49228 Roderick Arms & Tool Corp. 55 60639 Sacramento.. Adrian St. Kingston. S. 91020 50171 St. Bob 90064 Chicago. 96601 Penn. 3318 W.. 60645 ("Kentucky" GUNSMITH Adams & Nelson Co. Culver City. N. Lassen Junior College. Philadelphia.. Box 1659. Tex. Hackensack.. Inc. Central. City.. 60645 Navy Arms Co. Arms Box 306. Atlas Arms Corp. 96130 Institute. 1 1 Portland.. Inc. 1845 Randolph Cal. 350 Broadway.. St. Third. 87 Wurzburg. 05478 Gun SUPPLIES. Sonora.. American New St. 07430 J. 3577 E. Inc. Dremel Mfg.. Richland Arms Co. S. GUNSMITH SCHOOLS Pittsburgh.. 53403 (grinders) 07606 GUNS. 238 E. Tremont. Box Benet Arms Co.. Conn. Chicago. Pico.. 321 BHssfield. Kans. Oreg. 5602 Roosevelt Ave. 45750 Service Arms Los Angeles. 97222 Ind. Inc. Calif. St. N. 07657 Tingle. Chicago. 111. Ft. Vt.... 10465 Numrich Arms. 10502. 12491 Powder Horn.. Cal. Ridgefield.. Trinidad.. 3 King (surface hrdng. Retting. Prairie Rd. Pa. Denver. 2420 28th Wis. & C Tool Co. Inc. 78220 Calif. 90230 American Import Co. N. Precision Pk. Calif. Selma. Mich. 353 Covington. 1281. Edelstaal.G.. (reamers) W. West Hurley... Albans. 812 Ohio River Blvd. 1567 California. Ind.. Benrite Co.. Co. Cal. Y. Brownell's. 94109 Dixie Trinidad State Junior College. Piscataway. Millvale. 3318 Chicago. N. Y. O. N. Colo. Mich.. grinders) St. Elliott. Chicago Wheel Co. 10022 W. Woodside. J. J... Box 8904. Aurora Mahwah.. J. Box 380... 15209 Los Angeles. N. Y. Clymer Mfg. 3-5 Federal St.. Ridgefield. 4125 W. Colo..... 07657 J. 697 Fifth Ave. Armite Labs. Powder Horn. Waffen-Frankonia. West Hurley. Germany Navy Arms 111. 111. W. U. R. 6700 Rowland Ave. N. Craig.. N.. J. Box 458. 11377 St. 65708 Schuetzen Gun Works. 08854 Martin B. Christy Stoeger N. Colo. Products. St. Box 927. Y. Box 785. 95370 Bridgeport. Monroe Grace Metal Prod. P. Mich. Box 426. Pa. Devon. N. Inc. J. 1 1029 Washington.. Calif. Directory Of The Arms Trade 178 Numrich Arms Co. Conn. Marietta. Tex. Simmons Spec. Pa.. Devon. 49629 (screw drivers. Alley Supply Co.. -made Piscataway. 330 Perrine St.. Gunsmith School. comp. Calif. & Mfg. 80909 Street. Inc. 1 700 Rogers Rd.. Oregon Technical Montezuma. Ridgefield. 857-57th F. Charleston. 111. Inc.. N. Chicago. Box 67.Y. . 10013 B-Square Co. San Francisco. Brown Mars Equipment Corp. Oreg. TOOLS... 1226 Springs. 14241 W.. 06601 Tenn..) 689 Bergen Blvd. 02852 Arms. St. Shelbyville. 1 Mile Rd. Co. Tex. Philadelphia.. Centennial Arms Corp..

George Elliason. 618 S. Conn. 306 S..) 131.. Inc. Rd. Ore. Jewell.. 802 So. E. Co. 1 120 Superior. 48219 Monrovia. W. 29 Co. Fla. Portland... 14200 W. Calif. Olsen Knife Co.. Mich. Webster Groves.. Pa. P.. S. Minn.. 20 Russell Blvd. Ft. Montebello. 16701 Gerber Legendary Blades.. Tex.... 19301 Sight Co. 01331 L. Inc. 72nd S. Del. Haven. 17695 Fenton. R. LOAD TESTING & CHRONOGRAPHING Custom 3354 Cumberland Ballistics Lab. Primrose Ave.. Detroit. Tampa. P. S. Merit Gunsight Co. 10013 St. 90640 B-Square Eng.. John W. 91016 Edward H. (flasks) York. Freeport. Biffle.C. 33612 Bianchi Holster Co. 94563 HOLSTERS & LEATHER GOODS Burton Arms Co. 46176 Stone Mountain... 242 Harbor Blvd. 9882 E. Los Angeles.. 931 N. Anaheim. 99223 Portland. 17 Orinda Highway.. Clarkson Denver. 9525 W. 92802 S. N. Box 46566. Calif. Mich. Calif. Shooting Assoc. 12514 Wilmington. O. HUNTING KNIVES. St. Sportsmen's Equipment Co. W. Co. Orinda. 3056 Frontier PL. Maynard P. Box 1988. L.. N. 94605 Monadnock Way.... 5408 90015 4104 Market Jules Reiver. Box Kennon's. Cal. Portland. Cahf.Y. Case S. Topanga. 63 1 19 Twin City Steel Treating Co. Washington. Grand. 1220 S. Frielich.. O. Pa. Vanguard Arms Corp. Clinton Comers. 3006 Bibb St. Gore Ave. Myres Saddle Co. Mass. Clinton. 1309 Olympic Blvd. Calif. Box J. Calif. Wis. Tandy Leather Box Gladstone. Shreveport. Don Hume. Mich. & Dewey. Original Sight Redfield Gun 94002 Exchange Co. Directory Shaw's. 92114 C. Miami. 179 Box 42072. 6144 Oakland. Galeton. 71 Canal Boston.. Okla. Tex.. Ore. 48423 Lee E. 2109 Carroll PI. 06455 Marble Arms Corp. Maine 04032 6588 Federal SanDiego. 87106 R. 49837 351. 60176 Blvd. Hi-Lo Herman H. Middlefield.. Michigan.. 12581 7860 C. D. Y.. 06405 St. Sights. 79988 O. Box 9776. Arms Co. Lakewood. Bo-Mar Tool New & Mfg. CaUf.. Lyndon Station. Los Angeles. T. Ind. Box 11281. Box St. Starret Co.. Davison.Appendix II. Mich. Calif. 1 1 14 Minneapolis. 1024 Cherokee Colo. 415 Calif. Box 574. Mont. New Jurras Co. Mich. San Angelo.. PaoH. . 59823 Wilton Tool Corp. First Ave. 16922 Belmont.. Box 245. 76902 HANDGUN ACCESSORIES Hutton Rifle Ranch. Dr... D. 1315 S. R& (grip caps) Pachmayr. Conn. Morseth Sports Equipment. Womack. Ga.. Bean.. La. (vises) Woodcraft Supply Corp. 90290 (daily fee range also) John Dangelzer.. Buehler. Texas Germania (Protektor Prod.. Fla. 396 Broome S. Bohlin. Williams Gun Sight Co. 90046 (45 single-actions) 111. 74354 George Lawrence Co. 97204 Basil Tuller. 80210 St. 76110 59800 North Ave. Stanfordville. Calif. Shelbyville... Irving Pk.... Worth. Calif. Knives.. Highland Ave. Heiser Saddlery Lyman Gun Sight Corp. 80227 York and Cantrell.. 3rd. METALLIC SIGHTS Southwest Cutlery & Mfg. Mass. Y. Colo. 55415 Buck Knives. Bonner.. Randall-Made Knives.. 93662 Shooters Service (cases) 163. M. Ypsilanti.. 1655 Of The Arms Trade Euclid Ave. El Paso. Orlando. 49329 Wilson Arms Co. Fort Worth. 02114 Wright Gun & Tool Co. Pa. Box 524. 90038 Denver 4. 29899 (cases) SanDiego. Coshocton. L. Hollywood. Albuquerque. Athol. 7 Joy Howard City. 7389 Lapeer Rd. W. Ore. 30083 Selma. Schiller Park. M Chronograph Serv. N.. Manning.. Bradford. Box 364. St.. Bloomsburg. 547 Ivanhoe. 97242 Hunt Turner. 1623 Euclid. Box 792. Stony Creek..O. 48197 Tyrol Sports Sanderson Custom Pistol Stocks. Wash. Colo. Branford. Pa. N. AXES AND HATCHETS True-Temper. Calif. Co. Micro Sight Co. HANDGUN Inc. N. Inc. 32802 Ruana Knife Works. 17815 St. Tex.. 92103 GRIPS Inc.. Cleveland. Mo. St.

17268 Olathe. Ind. Chronograph. Worcester. 06108 NRA Oregon. American Optical Co... 111. Co. 44106 The Gun Case. Chrome Hearing Protector. Arms Trade Street. 269 Herbert St. 62002 Rifle Rests. Lining. 06450 Bore Lamp.. E. Bob Lane Branford. 111. R. 76110 1 NRA Targets.. Sta. 01550 Hearing Protector.. Co. Mass. Service. Pa. Box 84... 124 J. ITCC. 205 2nd E. Ann Arbor Arms. Mass. Rig Prod. Madison. Buffalo. 60262 Box 279. 02905 Malvern. Pa.. Bangor. 195 O'Connell. Ashland. Erie Bedding Ann Kit. Galeton. 91750 Calif.. Webster Sq. Jewell 2125 D. Bluing. Directory Of The II.Appendix 180 Simmons Gun Specialties.. American Craftsmen. Glendale. Long Beach. 5. Mass. Epoxy Rd. Calif. 92303 St.. Avtron. 19023 Breech Plug Wrench. Chicago. Box 333. 2155 Demington Dr. 60614 G. 61920 Bbl. Los Angeles. Stoppler.. St. Fenwal. 242 Harbor Blvd. Calif. Mass.. Grand Ave.. 90015 Box 4261. Spacetron. Custom 700 Rodgers Rd. Y. Swaine Machine. Chronograph. Box Hearing Protector. Calif... 01721 Kit. Pa. 19135 RIG.. Tex.. New York.. 53 Copeland Ave. N. E. 400 Main St. ElMonte.. Sonora. Box 426. 56093 Riverside. Bel Air. 722 Bolivar.. Cal.. 111. 49286 Ear-Valv. 54603 San Francisco.. 66061 Long Beach Blvd. B-Square Co. Collingdale.. Cal. Worth. Etc.. Stokes Eng. Main. 01721 Bedding Kit. Edwards. 1426 Walton Ave. 90025 Recoil Pads. 2293 N.. Scoring Plug. 91302 Recoil Reducer. Clybourn... Beecher. 14217 Resin Div. Graco Pharm.. 2nd A. Meriden. Broadview. Hearing Protector.. Ann 71108 Ann Arbor 13400 N. 20784 Recoil Pads. Box 25. Hearing Protector. Inc.. 53703 Bore Collimator. Eder Inst. La. 19355 111.. 7735 Garrison. Kit. 10409 Meech. Inc. Tex. 360 Franklin Worcester. Pa. Md. Conn. H. 516 Burnside. Chronograph. Cleves. 1340 N.0. Box 82. La Crosse. Ray-O-Vac. St.. Calif. Yattsville. Bunch. Central Ave. Charleston. Nipple Wrenches. Box 331. Firearm Ident. 01601 84. Calif.. Kans. Mass. Gun Bedding 0.. Main. Tecumseh. Alley Supply Co. 1 1320 Burbank Blvd. Hartford. Co. La Verne. 172 W. 400 Main Barrel Bedding... Ashland. W. Alton. Southbridge.. Pa. P.. Johnson's. 21014 Folding Cup.. David Clark Co. Resin Div. Sterling-Fleischman Inc. Calif. Womack. Chronograph. Cleveland. Box 8904. L. Providence. Trius Prod. 1 94022 1281. 94105 Powder Flask Co. Calif. 5290 W. Wis.44115 1. Conn. St. Los Angeles. Pa. Inc. Arbor. 77018 Rifle Rest Sandbags.. 29 Germania. Inc. I. Color Hardening.. Wisler Western Target Co. Inc. Powder Flash Repair. Mich. Grand. Conn. Los Altos Hills. Inc... Pachmayr Gun Works. Washington. . 12645 La Cresta Dr. Co.. B. 1230 S. Pa. Wis. Herter's. H. Borescope. Co. Philadelphia. Inc. Calif. 91733 Chronograph. Chronograph. 10459 Blvd. 95370 Leather Rest-Bags. Curtis Safety Prod. Sigma Eng. Main St.. 60155 J. Davison. Powder Marker Mach. Micro-Sight Co. Ave. Flasks... Chopie Tool & Die Co. C.. Box Ft. 06405 White Co. Alamo Heat Treating Co. G. Arms Distr. Penna. H.. 91601 (bi-ocular) Williams Gun Sight Co. 1008 MacDade Miniature Guns. Wingert. J. 7389 Lapeer Rd. 45002 Distress Flares.. Mich.. Waynesboro. Recoil Pads. Bisonite Co. Hollywood.. N. 16922 Borescope. Co. Belmont. O. Tuller. Houston. Sanitizer bath. Box 458.. 4117 Sherman. 1220 S.. Mich. Box 10502. 48423 Shreveport. O. MISCELLANEOUS Adhesive Flannel. 1 1035 Maplefield. Arbor. Co. Cal. Forest City Prod. 638 Irvine Dr. Minn. Mundy.. S. Kit. 94002 Rifle Rests. B. Jaguar Contour Gauge. Chrondek Electronics. 2124 Meriwether Marsh Coulter Co.. Supreme Prod. 111. Penn. Bedding Box 333. Cleveland. Mershon Co. Md. Bullet Trap. 212 E.. Cleveland Hgts. Mich. 44105 Chronograph.Y. Waseca. Inc.. No. Fenwal.

Mass. 65583 Oklahoma Gun Works. 59901 Wyomissing.. 1037 Broadway.... Las Tunas Dr. John Schneider. Kalispell. Mo.. 337 Fisher. Al Petersen. Target Patches. 559 W. Conn. (Loctite) Hensley & Gibbs. 97533 . 50 Hiway. Saskatchewan. St. Southgate. 4616 W. PI. Trophies. Wis. 86301 Mahtomedi. Patten. Walpole. Spokane. 91776 Shooting Coats. 76110 Ft. SanGabriel. Amos. J. Murphy. la. Calif. Hodgdon. P. Dinsmore... Co. Shooting Ranges. 535 W. Box 18..W. Saugerties. Katz San Lorenzo. Brooklyn. Bedord. 5628 Winchester. 5013 Aldrich Ave. 84117 Box 17347.. 53187 & Co... Royal Oak.. 53094 Taxidermy. O. 63103 90049 Summit. N. Grip Caps. 19610 Silver Gun Dom Enterprises.. 140 Commonwealth. Denver. Pa. 55021 145. Gds. Colo. 33612 Larry S. 94030 Box 14. Gopher Shooters Supply. Canada Dyer. West.. 355 Burlington Rd. 2. Lincoln. 214 N. 48730 Shop. Industrial Prod. 611. Inc. (Fitz Flipper) PISTOLSMITHS Flambeau Alamo Heat The Gun Box 10502. Colo. Mass. Wis. 181 Salute Cannons. 20th. 60636 Pachmayr Gun Works. Kans. 60621 16866 Cooper Engineering. Co. Box 1713. 7860 Lakewood. 20th & Prosser. Time Products Co. Box 972. Shop. Groote. Tex. W. Prescott.. Cascade Cartridge. Waynesville. 15417 Telegraph Rd. Walterville. Inc. Krause.. Colo. 80227 Riverside. Chicago.. Shooting Coach. 10-X Mfg. 60502 Mo. Riverside. F. P.. Dos Moines. Inc. Colorado Springs. Seattle. Grand Ave. N. 111. Pa.. Grand Ave. R.O. Bill 12568 Rt. 415 Monroe. 44105 Inc. Minneapolis. City. Oreg. Shooting Equip.. 612 E. Tex. Gun Milford. Minn. Jack Atcheson. 7710 Hulme Firearm Ariz.. B. 37064 Franklin.. B-Square Eng. Los Angeles. Pa. Co. Mass. W. R.Appendix Arms Trade Directory Of The 11. Mitchell's. Riverhurst. 50309 Carpenter's Shooting Glasses. Rt. 111.. Minn. Millbrae. Baraboo. 202 S 124th. 111. 6626 Stick-on Aperture. 77008 Cooper-Woodward. P.. 02081 Bain & Davis Sptg.. Calif. Cleveland.. 06904 Anchor Butte. Worth. Box 246. Tyrol Sports Arms. 98168 Target carrier. 19003 Target. 966 Meekr Ave.. 92502 (Perfect Lube) Division Lead Co.. Alloys. Product Masters Mfg. C. Van W. Colo. Stamford. Mich. Box 448. 55021 Taxidermy. Plastics. Tenn. Idaho 83501 Taxidermy. Tex. 503 Midwest Bldg. Rt. Minn. 60546 Target Stamp. Y. Smith's Snapp's Gunshop. D. St. K. Mac's. 55430 111. Gun Works. 59th St. S. Box 539. W. E. Box Fuller 21. 53913 Kale W. folding. 1220 S. 2309 Hancock Ave. Avtron Mfg. 02763 Pa.. Tampa. Faribault. Belding Taxidermy.. 18337 Ardmore. Y. 90015 REBORING AND RERIFLING A & M Rifle Co. Foster Hill.. Box RELOADING TOOLS AND ACCESSORIES Target holder. 100 S. Container Development Corp. Wash. Houston. & Co. 111. 48067 R. Lake Salt City.. 551 15 B. Faribault. 18401 Via Jose. Ackley. Washington. Pa.. Les' Shooting Glasses. Watertown. M. Oreg. Louis. Clifton. Clinic.. Box 428. Treating. Naval Co. Box 11281. 7742 Attleboro Falls. Blackinton 80120 Alpha-Molykote Corp. Doylestown. N. Fitz Grips. 18901 O. H & H Sealants.. 66202 (IPCO wads) Box 83. Littleton.O. 1 1222 (chilled shot) 10409 Meech Ave. Brownsville. Fla. 2109 Carroll Los Angeles.. Jewell. Box 486. H. Knopp Bros. Box 232. 97489 Gun Shop. 1. Philipsburg. Shawnee Mission. 61st 3985 Lucas. Glanzer Shooters Supply. New Jersey Taxidermy. Y. Box 246. Box 5 1 1. Mich. Inc. 201 N. Wis. Box 660. (NBRSA-type) Mon. 60650 Grip Caps. Waukesha. George Elliason. 77018 PI. Inc. East Tawas. 01730 Serv. Calif. Co. 81 802 Lynn. Noble Chicago. Mont. Box 49797. 65 Harvard. & Mull. Silver Springs. Lewiston. Wash.. 4. Plattekill.. Chicago. Wolff Co. 80203 Trophies. Alaska 99572 Ward Koozer. 1226 Prairie Rd. Calif. Bonanza Sports. Minn. Robert G. 3rd. Cooper Landing. Box 10. Okla. Rt. Houston. Utah. Calif. Jonas Bros. Calif. Pa.. 80909 Schuetzen St. 32..

Wyo. 06455 Box 831. Middlefield. Oroville. 07019 Powd-R-Hom. Calif. 44111 Box 729. 85021 R & K Plastic Industries Co. Mont.. Mich. Y. J. Salt Lake City. York.. Bend. Pacific 7628 San Fernando.. N... Cody.. Inc. J. 12th Street. (leadwire) P. 55101 Pacific Of The Arms Trade (cold-formed bbls. 14602 Bausch Conetrol. 59858 Gunmakers. E. Douglas. Cashmere. Charleston.C.. 79915 St..... Hurley. Tex.. 26844 Realist. St. East Hwy.. St. 06405 (cartridge boxes) RGBS. Lyman Gun National Lead Co. 1 14 Starr Rd. Directory L. 2121 Stampede Ave.. Mo. 53051 Gun Sight Co. Prescott.... Christy New Haven. 5504 Big Tyler Rd. 5th. N. Maynard Kesselring 3753 Lawrence Ave. Y. Pa. Tex. Box 324. Inc.O. 68504 W. 84117 Apex 1713. 10016 Leupold & Stevens Portland. Ackley. Box 250. 35201 (reticles) Oreg. Conn. Co. Gun J. Inc. W. Seguin.... Wash. 13045 Rifle Heber. Y. Paul. 86301 Box 17347. 3802 W. Tex. Hartford. Pasadena.. 7125 El Paso. Inc. Glenwood.. Perth Amboy. PaoU. Livonia. N. Pa. So. 80210 W. 875 Sacramento. O. Box P.. Ohaus Scale Corp. rings) Babcock Gun Blvd. E. 15209 1... G. Box 49751. 17 Orinda Highway.5th Ave. Douglas. P. Calif. 97459 (SAS) E. Box 5082. Erie. 59902 Denver. Calif. Kalispell.. Clinton Corners. Y.. N. So. OPTICAL EQUIPMENT Continental Rochester Lead Works. N.. C. Mont.. 98815 York.. Branford. 1315 S. Box 364. Box 337. N.. 92101 Star New Webster Scale Mfg. Rte. Ariz. Los Angeles. Ut. 12514 Bliss Titus. Hobaugh. 97213 Marble Arms Co. Ogden. Y. 06502 Numrich Arms. 95831 Gun Box 4495. Chicago. Box 106. 5627 Euclid. 53027 Sight Corp. Fla. West Hurley. Firearms International.. Scientific Lubricants Co. Phelps Reloader Inc. H. II. Orinda. RIFLE BARREL MAKERS A & M Rifle Co. 59901 M. & Lomb Optical Co. 12491 Original Sight Exchange Co. Megal Dr. 25312 Redfield Wm. Calif. 98233 2425 W. Minn. 33870 Whit's Shooting Stuff... R. N. 4837 Kerby Hill Rd. 418 10th Ave. 3551-5 East Pittsburgh. 468 Park Ave. MOUNTS. Neb. Calif. Wis. 91352 Rifle Co. W. Rt.. Oreo. E. 91107 Redding-Hunter.... Orange. Shooters Accessory Supply. 60625 T. Lincoln.. Lee Engineering. Rochester SAECO. Clarkson G. Paddock. 82633 Numrich Arms. Wyo. 1048 S.. 150th St. Pa. Wash. Utah. Va.. K. Kuharsky Bros. 1050 Commerce Ave. D. Buehler. San Bernardino. 75222 Ruhr-American Corp. Hwy. 350. Marlin Firearms Co. 6445 San Fernando Rd. Phoenix. Box 188.. Gun Works. 68504 Premier Reticles. Wilson. 95965 Ranch. 1 120 Superior Gladstone. N. Kansas City. Glendale. Y. Augusta. Lee. Mich. 19301 Sight Co. Calif.. Perry... 56334 111. SanDiego. 90049 Javelina Products. Stony Creek. Birmingham. Philipsburg. N. Inc. Pasadena. 1589 Payne Ave. Minn.. 94563 New 78155 Arms Corp. Sebring. Union. 79 Willow Street. 48150 (Antique) Intern'l Les' Gun Shop. Leitz.) Conn. Ariz. Washington. 15214 H. 8. Flaig's. N. 91201 2. Conn. Menomonee Falls. 8305 Sovereign Row. 93 W. Calif. Machine Works. Colo. Ala. . Box 2123. Calif. 3270 SCOPES. Y. P. 92402 (Alox beeswax) Lachmiller Eng.. J. N. Cortland. N. Prescott. Mont.. W.. R. #55. Paul Browning Arms. 12491 SS & D. 64130 Wilson Arms. D.O. Foothill Blvd. Box J. ACCESSORIES. E. 20022 Dallas. 123 South. Millvale. 16288. Sharon. St. N. 635 Rochester. 3891 W.. Nauman. Inc. Ariz. Kalispell. 86301 Rotex Mfg. Instruments. Bushnell & Co. 10022 (claw mtg.. St.Appendix 182 JASCO. Neb. Box 657. Cal.. Va. John Unertl Optical Co. Box 511. 1. Cleveland. Calif. Watts. Ut. 07083 Sight Co.. Pa. Box 4004. 697 .. Rt. Weaver Co. 57th St. Box Shop. Inc. L. Co. Industrial Ave. Sun Valley. 12315 Newburgh Rd. 49837 St. 639 Bushnell Bldg. Burlington... Y. Lincoln. Wis. Box 4495.




Of The Arms Trade

Trap Co., 1436 E. Davis,
Arlington Hts., 111. 60005

Detroit Bullet

National Target Co., 7050 Spring
Washington, D. C. 20012


N. W.,

Product Masters, 5013 N. Aldrich, Minneapolis
Minn. 55430 (stands)
Sheridan Products, Inc., 1234 13th,
Racine, Wis. 53403 (traps)

X-Ring Prod.


Co., Outers Lab., Onalaska, Wis. (traps)




confusion exists as to standard bore and
many of the muzzle loading arms
available today. From several sources we've assembled
here as much bore/bullet information as we could lay
our hands on. Due to manufacturing tolerances, wear,
and other factors we can't control, any particular gun
may differ somewhat from the values given here. When
that happens, some deviation will be required. In genbullet or ball size of


though, these figures are accurate and correct.




Chamber Diameter

Make & Model

Replica, 1860





Bore, Ball


Bullet Dimensions

We can't say that one chart or rule is right and the others are wrong. FFG .69 Whitneyvllle .570" to .575" .570" to . FFG 40 gr. That isn't serious since black powder is a forgiving propellant.575" .535" 75 gr.54 Halls Carbine Diameter Powder Charge . You'll eventually want to adjust charges for best results in your particular gun any way.575" Model 1855 Fayetteville.58 U.575" 1855-61-63 . FFG Rifle . 1812-1821-1831-1840-1842 .535" 75 gr.680" 70 gr.54 . FFG 60 gr.570" to .58 Plymouth Navy .577 English Enfield Rifle .58 Powder Charge Muskets Models 1808- 1804-1814-1817 U. FFG Remington Zouave .535" 35 gr. though. FFG 60 gr. STANDARD MUZZLE LOADING CHARGES jor original guns Ball Diameter Type and Caliber . Actually. We acknowledge that some of the information here conflicts with.562" 70 gr.69 U. so these are good to start with.54 U.680" 80 gr.S. FFG . Some shooters load conservatively. Mississippi Rifle . FFG . FFG . Richmond. Musket Models 1821-1840- 1842.575" 60 gr. Civil War Rifles Models Bros.S.S.680" 75 gr. they are all pretty much right. or at last differs from.POWDER CHARGE DATA There are more powder charge recommendations for muzzle loaders than one cares to consider.570" to .S. that contained elsewher in the book.S.69 U. Rifles . others love loud noises and large charges of powder. rerifled from smooth bore . that the charge data given in this appendix is saje in guns in good mechanical condition. .56 Colt Root Rifle .58 U. Cook Columbus and other Confederate Civil War Muskets .54 U. Springfield Pistols . Pistol Models 1819-21- 26-36-42 Ball Type and Caliber .. FFG . FFFG . along with several rules of thumb concocted by various individuals. FFFG .S.570" to 60 gr.S. We can say.

Do not attempt to use these loads in hand-held firearms! . Powder Charge Data BELGIAN SHOTGUN PROOF CHARGES Every Belgian percussion shotgun goes through a thorough proof testing. Also shown is the Belgian proof charge using black powder and one lead ball that is 6/lOths millimeters less in diameter than the bore.Appendix IV. In addition the barrel is stamped underneath with the true size in millimeters. which is not marked on the barrel and the diameter in millimeters. This number is normally about Vi inches from the breech on the underside of the barrel. This chart 1 shows the gauge of the gun. On a double this is sometimes different on left and right barrels.

Appendix IV. Powder Charge Data SHOTGUN LOADS Convert Drams to Grains from Weight Tables 189 .


Ball weight Powder weight Velocity . Also. velocities will be consistent if all other factors are kept reasonably projectiles. tests that — uniform. Such considerations as fit of the ball. and must be treated separately. American black powder of today is far more uniform than that of Civil War days. Obviously. and some foreign percussion caps are much hotter than any manufactured in this country. Patched round balls are the most From common have been conducted with modern black powder in guns of conventional design.V BLACK POWDER VELOCITIES Many factors influence the velocities of muzzle loading guns besides the mere ratio of weights of powder to lead. Another important one is efficiency of ignition. pistols. The following by various Ball weight chart indicates velocities produced ratios of bullet to powder weight. the data in the table to follow has been generated. Any factor which alters breech pressure has a direct influence on muzzle velocity as well. thus. whether the bore is clean or dry. conical bullets and other deviations will invalidate the table. tightness after patching. roughness of the bore. fouled or oiled all have measurable effects on velocity. shotguns and slug rifles obtain quite different velocities than patched ball rifles.

Black Powder Velocities .192 Appendix V.

then in Read right from bardown from powder charge. The barrel was then shortened 2" and the test was repeated. were eliminated same reason. The barrel was successively shortened round balls of Charge Weights Barrel in in 2" steps until at 20" muzzle blast became objection- able and the tests were terminated. shown where the two columns Grains of duPont The heavier charges the shorter barrel lengths for the FFFg intersect. Beginning with the barrel 40" in length. 5-shot strings were fired with the charges shown across the top of the following chart. The results rel length. Black .40 caliber extensively on Powder Dixie Velocities 193 percussion rifle was tested modern chronograph equipment. Patched proper diameter were used. . Velocity is are charted below.Appendix A V.


because of the failure bled. the drum tight and the nipple tight and clear. Don't assume an old gun is unloaded check it intend to shoot. the breech plug must be tight. If the priming charge does not expel the bullet. until it has been dismantled to permit an examination of its interior. The first firing will have moved the ball up the barrel Don't store your mold or swage without a bullet in generously oiled. Don't smoke while handling black powder. powder guns. If you must so your guns. of tively Don't use smokeless powder in any amount in black some unknown operator to heed advice akin to the foregoing." Actually the steels available to the old gun makers were of unknown and unascertainable quality and analysis. of Don't shoot any piece until it has been proved safe by proper proof testing. Don't hurry. It is liable to crack and split. to examine the piece until sufficient time has elapsed to be reasonably assured that a latent spark is not active. Don't believe the saying "They don't put the stuff into them today that they did years ago. Grandad was lucky if it drove one tack from the rest position at 25 yards. The barrel must be free and clean. then use a measure. Don't buy a gun without a receipt stating the piece is authentic and is them are loaded. on a misfire. Don't shoot any piece until you've ascertained there no foreign matter in the barrel. reprime with sufficient FFFFG. see American Rifleman of December 1959. especially if the price is substantial. this time ram the ball back against the powder before firing. out hole. Steel making techniques had not then advanced to the point that impurities were removed nor could quality be controlled. The barrel will heat unevenly from the sun's rays thus causing non-uniform expansion which in turn will cause thus permitting a sufficient 195 . Don't store your guns in a basement. For any accuracy at all. its case if you value the finish on in it. Don't prime the pan of a flinter or cap a percussion arm until the arm is pointed at the target which you is Don't believe the old Kentucky which belonged to Great Grandad drove a tack at any range every shot. Don't buy an old gun. Don't engage a target shooter in conversation when he is firing for record or while he is loading. and found safe. it Don't prime the clean-out or nipple hole to expel when the main powder charge has not been poured into the barrel without fitst ramming the ball flush against the priming load. Don't point any gun. at anything you don't intend to shoot. unless accompanied by VPI crystals or paper. Don't store or carry your gun a bullet distance. or re-rifled. Don't handle the equipment of others without spe- — cific — permission. many Don't as a matter of curiosity. even though you know posiit is unloaded. That is. particularly a sheep lined case. Perspiration contains acids and salts which cause rust to form rapidly. Don't place your finger in the muzzle of a barrel while examining the piece. Don't permit your rifle or pistol to remain in the hot sun between relays or from one relay to a later one. A brand new rifle of modern steel components blew up at the Friendship Shoot 1959. tinker or fool with another's sights at any time. Don't pour powder direct from the flask or horn into a just fired barrel wipe it first. it probably will need to be freshed out BUT. All basements when store as represented to be. Don't allow a powder horn to remain in the sun for extended periods. artificial heat is absent are damp. This is the cardinal rule for safety in gun han- NO dling exceptions to this rule. an unlined canvas Canvas will deface finishes. For a detailed account of this premise.— — MISCELLANEOUS MUZZLE LOADING INFORMATION MUZZLE LOADING DON'TS additional priming charge to be inserted thru the clean- Don't shoot an old gun until it has been disassemexamined. Don't store any gun for any period of time in a case. wipe them inside and out at frequent intervals.

a barrel can be selected to suit a previously-chosen weight. 6 Pounder 3. at considerable is While most of the shooting done these days is with new-production replica or look-alike guns.67" iron 84" 1750 lbs.850 yds. No booze or no is shade or cover with a canvas or blanket.523 yds.800 yds.00 lbs.830 yds.00 lbs. 1. any point in the interest in muzzle-loading artillery. 10 pdr.700 yds.75 lbs. 10.60 lbs. 2.90 lbs. 12 pdr Whitworth 2. 1. 12.15" steel 70" 700 lbs. 2. 6. 2.40 lbs. 1. Barrel weight needs to be known before ordering.00 lbs. The major proportion of the weight is concentrated in the barrel.663 yds.072 yds. 12 pdr.40" bronze 75" 1920 lbs. 1. 3" Armstrong 3.72" steel 84" 1000 lbs. 3" Armstrong 3" Ord.00 lbs. 3. ramming VI.504 yds.00 lbs. then load for Don't get careless Muzzle Loading Information muzzle loading shooting. 2. 43" OCTAGON BARRELS MEASURED ACROSS THE FLATS WEIGHTS OF Cal.00 lbs. 12. 1. Wiard 2. Clean it first with a patch or two.00 1. How. 0.100 yds. 0.90" bronze 65" 1318 lbs. 1. Or.850 yds. 1.750 yds. 1. 6 pdr. 12.62" bronze 66" 1227 lbs. procedures of Listed below are the essential characteristics of the more widely-used Civil War artillery pieces. 12. 1. 8.75" steel lbs. 20 pdr Parr. 3. Wiard 3. 4. 5. 9.850 yds. 1. 1. on the other hand.— Parrot use of the tables below.00 lbs. we can compare the results of Don't pour powder into a barrel which has been oiled for storage. 24 pdr How.56" steel 56" 600 lbs.65" bronze 60" 884 lbs.00" iron 74" 890 lbs. Nap. 1. 3. rifles 4.50 lbs. 3.40" steel 59" 800 lbs. shooting.000 yds.00" steel 76" 996 lbs.00" steel 58" 790 lbs. 1. 6. 2.Appendix 196 inconsistent points of impact not in use. 12 pdr.62" bronze 78" 1757 lbs. 1.50 1.30 lbs. 9.— Howitzer Parr. Don't drink intoxicants if you intend to shoot and don't shoot if you have been drinking. 2. When it muzzle bend your body over the Don't when shooting. There a bullet into a charged barrel. and caliber barrel can easily be determined.— Napoleon How. FIELD ARTILLERY OF THE CIVIL Bore Diam. When planning to build or have built a new rifle. James 3. 12 pdr. 12 pdr.00 lbs.00 lbs.67" bronze 60" 875 lbs. 3. 2.322 yds.619 yds.00 lbs.00 lbs. 2. and you can't weigh the barrel until it's at hand. 20. 10 pdr. 1.50 lbs.50 lbs. 25. 1. information on Civil-War period guns is always of interest.00 lbs.00 lbs. By calculating lbs. 1.50 lbs. then snap a cap to burn oil out of tube. Blakeley 3.25 lbs.00 lbs. its weight can be a bit of a problem.25 lbs. 24. Having it at hand. James 4. 10. 1. 12.25 lbs. 12.00 lbs.00" iron 69" 816 lbs. 6. gun 4. How. 2.50 lbs. 6.10 lbs.900 yds. 6 pdr.00 lbs.75 lbs. Miscellaneous modern cannon-shoots.62" bronze 53" 788 lbs. 24 pdr. 1.800 yds.00 lbs. 104" 1092 lbs.— Pounder Nap.800 yds.00 lbs. Material WAR Length Weight Weight of Powder Range at of tube of tube projectile Charge 5 degree elev. store it in the on the target. 2. 1.30 lbs. 1. . 1.00 lbs. 32 pdr.00" steel 83" 918 lbs. 12 pdr. 18.60 lbs. 2. size. the weight of a given length. 12. Whitworth 12 pdr Whitworth 2. Pdr.62" bronze 78" 1750 lbs.32 13/16 7/8" 15/16" 1-1/8" . 1. Par.200 yds.

The same is true. The dimensions . all other factors being equal.6 3.8 3.4 4.9 3.Appendix VI.54 2. The correctly bit of a problem to sizes are not fit entirely Modem nipples generally measure .3 3. The tap sizes shown are suitable for freshing- out or recutting threads for the screw sizes listed opposite.175" .5 .40 2. 7D.2 3.8 4.6 3. Cal.3 3. others will fit only by forcing.170" .44 2.9 3. 83 and 85. If the cap that you are using must be forced on your nipples.9 Eley No. F4-25 .48 2.9 3. 27.4 2.6 3. with percussion caps. 82.3 2.34 2.4 given below are averages.6 4.7 3. 26 and 84. 25.60 1. 1055 German .9 2. 57P.2 3.7 3.22 2.177" Handloaders know that some makes and models of primers produce greater velocity than others.5 3.170" F4-12 (Dixie) .42 2.206" 1-1/8 a perfect fit isn't always obtained.195" .8 4.6 4.32 2.8 2.3 2. 12 Alcan .7 4. and matching screws are readily available.153" . .190" . and 63.3 No.9 4.1 3.3 2.8 3.4 3.4 2. to a degree.1 2. . plus-or-minus .1 3. 10 X 24 tap: No.190" Screw hole threads are often stripped or rusted out and must be recut to place the gun in good shooting condition.6 3.168". 24.3 Diameter Lengtii .0 3.5 2.170" .167-8" caps will be a snug fit on some nipples.1 No.1 No.0 2.4 2.5 No. 12 Remington .167" .163" tapered to .2 Eley No. 1075 German . 58P.2 3.0 2. 3/16 X 24 tap: No.62 1.0 4. 58.7 3. 2.2 2.9 3.56 2.5 4. 10 Alcan .8 3.30 2. 12 X 24 tap: No. 3. grind standardized.175" .2 No. 59 and 57.8 2. The .24 2. 6 X 40 tap: No.1 3. The fit is not always perfect.170" .1 3.200" .1 2.5 .168" .172" .5 3.4 3.0 4.4 .6 4. 8 X 32 tap: No. 23.0 4. 11 Winchester .4 4. 10x32 tap: No.3 3. 11 Remington .220" . 27. 7/8 15/16 1" 1-1/16 . 24R. This is confirmed by the results of test firing tabulated below. 34.0 4.0 2. 4.38 2. but acceptable new threads can be cut. .9 4. from top to bottom. 60. Miscellaneous Muzzle Loading Information WEIGHTS IN OUNCES PER INCH OF OCTAGON BARRELS MEASURED ACROSS THE FLATS 197 Percussion cap can be a on a nipple.0 No.1 3. .7 3. 11 Belgium .7 3.26 2.8 No.9 4.36 2. F4-21 .4 Inside . 8 X 36 tap: No. 1 screw.2 3.6 No.5 4.1 4.7 Eley No.0 3.170" . 22.46 2. 66.6 3.52 1. 55 and 54 screws.6 4. 66.3 No.5 4.4 or polish the neck of the nipple to reduce the diameter and allow the cap to fit better.1 3. 68.178" . 12 X 28 tap: No. 88 and Gate catch screw. and are sufficient to show .7 3.5 .3 2.5 3.1 3.58 2.4 3.4 why .178" .178" .4 2.28 2.002".7 4.50 2. 11 Italian .


Some minor replacement parts. numerals and design on metal legible. mechanically inoperative. metal rusted. wood slightly scratched or bruised. cracked or repaired where broken. 199 . bore condition disregarded for collectors firearms. numerals and design on metal partly obliterated. original metal surfaces edges sharp. VERY GOOD — All none to 30% smooth with all numerals and design on original parts. FINE All original parts. cracked or broken. condition standards listed below much more CONDITION STANDARDS FOR ANTIQUE FIREARMS FACTORY NEW — All original parts. 100% orig- inal finish. POOR Major and minor parts replaced. scratches. numerals and design on metal and wood. sharp lettering. wood refinished. are always on the Since black powder shooters seem make any particular previous chapter. over 80% finish. over 30% original finish. inside and inal out. principal lettering. numerals and design on metal and — wood. fine bore. in perfect condition in every respect. clear lettering. metal deeply pitted. unmarred wood. in fair working order or can be easily repaired and placed in working order. in good working order. orig- sharp lettering. cleaned or reblued. minor replacement parts may be required. vigorously cleaned or reblued. FAIR Some major parts replaced. bruised. minor marks in wood. generally undesirable as a collectors firearm. may be lightly pitted all over. numerals and design obliterated. There isn't to be said about it except that the follow- for original arms for either show or shooting. major replacement parts required and extensive restoration — — needed. wood scratched. good bore. EXCELLENT — AU original parts. rounded edges of metal and wood. original finish. the may be useful. bruises or GOOD — minor cracks repaired. principal lettering.TABLES This appendix has been set up as a sort of potpourri of miscellaneous useful information that didn't to fit in ing information is too valuable to leave out. bruised. metal. principal lettering. metal smoothly rusted or lightly pitted in places. wood badly scratched.


but the table below is more simply used. Read off 1850 in the left column and opposite you'll see the value 7.Appendix VII. and the result is 760 fp. Tables It's often convenient to know how much energy your bullet is developing as it leaves the muzzle. or from your own tests.60 by bullet weight. TABLE OF BULLET ENERGY 201 . Simply multiply this figure by the bullet weight in grains to get energy in foot-pounds. this is easily computed. you're shooting a 100 grain ball at 1850 fps.60. Opposite will be seen the energy per grain of weight for any bullet. When velocity and bullet weight are known. 100. Multiply 7. simply lay a straightedge across the table under the correct velocity reading. Having determined the velocity from Appendix 5. This is the energy of that bullet at the muzzle. For example.

Tables . Energy Per Grain Energy Per Grain Velocity in fps 2350 of Bullet Weight Continued Velocity in fps of Bullet Weight VII.Appendix 202 TABLE OF BULLET ENERGY.

Contains data on more than 800 gunsmiths and 500 cutlers and edged whether voice or veteran. reprint ed. 1957. by R. The $9. Comprehensive survey of firearms development and ornamentation by leading makers in Europe and the U. 1967. charts and tables for available.. Pa.. A 416 Jr. 1660-1830.95. II: 352 pp. 1962-64. illus. illus. Nonte. Harper & Bro. I. Thomas Y. when she was America's foremost city. N.. 2964. 384 pp. 1967. Over-all coverage of methods and equipment for AMERICAN FIREARMS MAKERS. of THE AGE OF FIREARMS. B. of Philadelphia arms and of relating to the industry are included. 44. Introduction by Homer S. BASIC A graphic history of firearms. from Powder to Target. New York. Rifle Musket Model 1855. $1. 220 illus.Y. II. illus. ARMS MAKERS OF PHILADELPHIA. of 1909.50. illus. Paper- tool makers. Prepared by a museum expert with excellent illus.. Arco Publ. $3.. Martin's Press. 190 pp. Shumway. scholarly-developed DOCUMENTS ON U. revised and enlarged ed. commentary by Col. M. illus..00. G.. Co. illus. pp.BOOKS for the MUZZLE LOADER PAMPHLETS & BOOKLETS for the MUZZLE LOADER PERIODICALS for the MUZZLE LOADER BOOKS FOR THE MUZZLE LOADER Lists 2100 makers of American long and short arms from the Colonial period to the end of the 19th century. elegantly and profusely illus.. reloading ammunition for sporting firearms. A ammu- SHOOTER'S BIBLE RELOADER'S GUIDE. making ammunition no longer which has become too expensive on the commercial market. MARTIAL ARMS. Middlefield. $2. 1956 and 1960. Vol. L. Co. ANTIQUE PISTOLS. this book offers valuable new information.95. Powley. by Geo. 12 color plates.50. Stackpole Books. 146 pp..S. by A. $9.50. by S. Ray Riling Arms Books Co. a knowledgeable English col- IN COLONIAL AMERICA. Vol.95. 1953.. 350 pp. York. Shooter's Bible. New York.. 56 A reprint of the very scarce original work 1965. Pa. A.Y.. by H. Well-organized account of arms and equipment used in America's colonization and exploration. Carey. 192 pp. Hackensack.. Peterson.98. pp..A. S. I: 303 pp. Hay ward. by Ronald Paton. a Pictorial History.00 large color plates Commentary on each by ballistics. N. Pa. THE ART OF THE GUNMAKER. F. Out of print.C. Harrisburg. Phila... by F. study of the arms industry in old Philadelphia documents bound. 1500-1660. 32 pp. 7 full $2... HOME GUIDE TO CARTRIDGE CONVERSIONS. Mann. Crowd 2967.. $15. $27. through the Revolutionary period. 1690-1900.... COLLECTING page illus. a muzzle loader equipped with the Maynard primer. Alexander. By Geo. particularly interesting for the average person with an interest in arms. Steindler. W. Phila. Many illus. Crown. 1963. by Robert Held and Nancy Jenkins. Lewis. Lyman Gunsight Corp. LYMAN HANDBOOK NO. BALLISTICS THE BULLET'S FLIGHT. new. plus 64 pp. St. Latest edition of a favorite reference for nition handloaders. lector. but offered from limited stock by Ray Riling.C. New York. Vol. $8.. of instructions... 1965. $7. 203 . or show many examples of pistol-maker's art in England and U.. Conn. S. One of the best works on basic known and $15. the 1526-1783. R. The first issue rifle of musket caliber.00.. Vol.95. reissue by Ray Riling. 300 pp.75. $18. by J. illus. ARMS AND ARMOR C. Pa.

ters Over 600 firearms binding in slip Handsomely designed. 278 pp.. WAR COLLECTOR'S ENCYCLOPEDIA.00 Comprehensive survey of Civil War arms. 1962.50. accoutrements. Harrisburg.S. Accurate. 1962. with THE EVOLUTION OF THE COLT. and historical data. 384 pp. by Don Myrus. 1650-1850. $2. THE COMPLETE BOOK OF GUN COLLECTING. illus. from flintlocks of the 18th Century centerfires. for museums.Y. This excellent work admirably and line drawings. illus. $1. COLLECTORS' GUNS. $17..44-40. and CIVIL work on its subject.. Pictures the fine Colt arms of the publisher from Foundation Press. Pa.50.50. Co. uniforms. A illus. Kauffman. with numerous of illus. Co. War tographs of the various models.. Account of duelling practice in Great Britain. A. of firearms. N. Simmons. N.95.. Stackpole Books. 94 pp. 464 pp. interesting the Civil VIII. postage. with the story of its maker and procurement by the C. Q. procurement procedures. A. EARLY AMERICAN GUNSMITHS. compilation of records of the men and the arms they made through the subject period. Albaugh III. illus. 272 pp. Highly recommended. N. Indispensable to the collector and student of these arms and their period. 111.. work on Colt guns. with data on various types of pistols. ordnance material. 1967. $24. 292 pp. 1964. Pa. $20. Answers hundreds of questions for the beginner. A reprint of the Stackpole original by by Crown THE COLLECTING OF GUNS. Shumway. Inc. 1966. Blackmore. Pa. Albaugh and Edw. illus..50. Separate chap- EARLY PERCUSSION FIREARMS. makers and dealers. ography is are recalled.00. Every known true Confederate pistol and revolver is described and illus. Includes listing of C. are given. Coward-McCann i960. J. and 83 plates of photographs.. authoritatively covers the subject in every detail. A detailed account of development of British miliarms at the acme of the muzzle-loading period. Stackpole Books.. F.50. 1957. 1967. Identifies arms. $4. case. Calif. London. Includes a Colt bibliography.. H. B. R. 54 pp. 112 pp.00. Morrow & Co. Herbert Jenkins..Y. Inc. illus. 128 pp. illus. FAMOUS GUNS FROM THE SMITHSONIAN COLLECTION. Santa Ana. illus. imitations. H. by James E. by Wm.. by Lewis Winant. World 1962. York. 350 illus. — — illus. Harrisburg. Aledo. and E.C. regular ed. COLT FIREARMS FROM illus. Inc.. Bowman. parts. over 400 illus. Serven. Inc.A. W. $12. Sutherland. York. Chapel. erate items. fakes... A.... Geo. identification data. Important information on replicas. 398 pp. $17. Stackpole Books. by Wm. $15. Pa. ed. historical data. Wilson. 1964. Arco Publ. Lustyik. $2. Much new information. $8.. Francis A. illus. their makers. paper covers. 1850-1864. $3. currency. N. N. patents. Books.50. by J.95. in summary most carbines of booklet form. as well as ammunition. 63 pp. $5. WAR GUNS. Contains much heretofore unpublished information on the arms and associated material of the Confed- CONFEDERATE HANDGUNS.Appendix 204 BRITISH MILITARY FIREARMS 1650-1850. Atkinson. The fascinating story of firearms hand cannon to the photographs and Peacemaker — from the early — with over 200 rare 1836. Over 230 illus. 125 illus. CIVIL Pamphlets and Periodicals eracy. by Charles E. A cover major categories and aspects of collecting.95. writers. patents. Arco Publ. and collectors of Union and Confed- students.. Simmons. by Jas. 272 pp. New York. by H. Roads..50. A new and massive compendium Publishers. and a bibli- included.. by Wm. .98. of gun lore for serious collectors by recognized experts. 144 pp. information on replicas and fakes. appendices and index. Co. 222 pp.. L. (incl. work on Civil War relics.50. Wm.. Kansas City. DUELLING PISTOLS. the by H. Harrisburg..C. Harrisburg. Inc.. by A. North and South... illus.. etc. Lord. is a reference for the advanced collector and student of firearms. 1965. and Memorable duels their users. $12. Edwards. 1963. Lists of manufacturers and vendors. history of early percussion firearms ignition from Forsyth to Winchester .. illus. by C. drawings and pho- percussion to cartridge. Many patent drawings. Serven. Inc. $12. Wide Gun Report. and cartridges from some of the finest collections here and abroad. illus. Arco Publ. The finest of "Famous Guns" series. 1962. New York.. Hugh Benet III. E. $7. and CONFEDERATE ARMS. All models in use are covered. THE BRITISH SOLDIER'S FIREARM. L. Y.50. Mo. 296 pp. It covers hand cannon of the 14th century to arms of the present day. Most complete and reliable good period. 1963. tary CIVIL WAR CARBINES... Harrisburg. New York...00. A reference by Pa. color plates).. Stackpole Books. 1959. N.. 1964. deluxe Reprinted by Crown. 5th edition of a comprehensive much by R.. 332 pp. Jr. W.. Stackpole Books. Pa. $3.

. London. Publisher. the later cartridge derringers. Publisher. & Kegan Paul Ltd. 1959.Y.C. $7. Peterson. parts.. 2nd W. $25.00. illus.. 1964. by Pa. 128 pp. Arco Publ. $15. 281 pp. 395 Hill Publ.Y. by John G. illus. N. but obtainable from Ray Riling. with FROM FLINTLOCK TO 1914. many unusual weapons of Some copies of the second (and best) from Ray Riling. $5. MENT. N. firearms and gives detail of interest to collectors.C.. 200 pp. Describes and illustrates HINTS TO RIFLEMEN. new 5th ed. illus.. ed. City. sub-models. W. $8. 286 pp. From the origin of firearms through each ignition form and improvement to the M-14. . well $15. 1965.000 U. Routledge pp. N. for Martin's Press. 2. Books.Y.. Pa.95. 1955. Numerous models of each type are shown. with histories of their makers. slip case.50. the 1851 Colt by Carl P.Y. by James E. $2.50.. by H. 207 $30. FIREARMS. 1717-1938. $2. A. New Milford. revolver. Chapel.Appendix VIII. 300 pp.. 281 pp. Distributor.S. first publ. 1966. From Greek Inc. 112 pp. illus. Shields.C. by Charles E. by J... $10.. 1963.S. FIREARMS CURIOSA. S. Don A. this 1st vol. illus. Pamphlets and Periodicals 205 FAMOUS GUNS FROM THE WINCHESTER COL- GUNS ON THE EARLY FRONTIERS. covers hand. Bowman. Press. GUNSMITHS OF OHIO. history of various systems. of collectors' arms and related history. St. by Courtlandt Canby. shoulder. 7th rev.. are reproduced. A HISTORY OF WEAPONRY.45. Press. illus. illus. percussion. N.Y. The gems of the hand and shoulder arms in the great collection at New Haven.C. of Calif. the caveman's club to the fire to the M-14 rifle. A concise coverage. from ICBM. with illustrations and descriptions of Ohio guns. Berkeley.C... Drawings by Daniel D. Scribner's Sons. Pa. exhaustive study of over 2400 Ohio gunmakers. and the magazine arms of today.. Conn. A HISTORY OF FIREARMS..00. Conn. 243 Miss. Coward-McCann. $3. Coward-McCann. An arms collector's American military arms history of the development of — flintlock. and edged weapons. Flayderman & Co. Shumway. and a new index and bibliography complete this valuable book.50.00. etc. Chas. by Lewis Winant. by H. is in prepillus. Swayze. 1961.Y. An entertaining and colorful summary of the development and use of firearms.. N. Dillin. by N. The values book most widely used by arms collectors.. this rev. London. giving biographical data only. It is a history of firearms from colonial times to the years of the Western fur trade. 220 pp. Shumway. illus. Co. Cleveland. Hawthorne Books. Feaser. by W. FRENCH MILITARY WEAPONS. Vol. 134 192 pp. issue available 1864 edition. from earliest times to with emphasis on artillery. $4. $6. Geo. Carman. Vol. 1958 and later.00.S. 1967. L. con- versions to metallic cartridge..C. by John Morrow. Fully indexed. brought up to A date by the publisher.. the latest ed. coupled with an extensive story on Deringer's imitators. An aration. 1952. W. New Hope. 1938 as Notes A A HISTORY OF FIREARMS. markings.98. 144 pp. $8. Gluckman. N. Robert Halter. ed. $5. first publ.95. New York. Editor. 1957.. long arms.. Excellent illus. illus.C.Y. and for. Bibliography. A collector interest. MUSKETS. first major Navy effort devoting its entire space to There are 198 photos of models. 1 Yazoo Co. Y. valuable reference work. England. of this classic work. Over 70 illustra- tions. $10. Hutslar.. etc. Collector's guide to U. to which Use of the Rifle has been reprint of the original Practical Directions for the added. T. 398 pp... 1964. The pp." Original illus. York. J. 1965.... by Col.50. profusely illus.00. by H. ammunition and artillery... G. Ml. N. W.. HENRY DERINGER'S POCKET E. THE FLINTLOCK. Putnam's Sons. with 1964-1965 values. now out of print. Crown Publ. much IDENTIFYING OLD U. Univ. 1961. GUN COLLECTOR'S HANDBOOK OF VALUES. illus. 2nd reissue. Gun pp.50. 1962. Hicks. illustrated. described and THE KENTUCKY RIFLE.50. ed.C. Holland ORIGIN AND DEVELOP- ITS by Torsten Lenk... 1962. Calif. illus. 1967. P. Stackpole Books. 487 pp. RIFLES & CARBINES. variations. Pa. 57 pp.00. Harrisburg. Describes nearly 3. illus.. L.00. I. LECTION. profusely on French Ordnance. Hay ward. illus. An excellent and complete account of this famous maker. 1967. '5 COLT NAVIES. by Howard Ricketss. Geo.Y. Publ. York.50. Jr. $9. PISTOL. First English-text version of the 1939 Swedish work termed "the most important book on the subject. N. Paper $2. Russell. Parsons. 3rd reissue. This format replaces the original clothbound book. Out of print. documentary material. N.

54 pp. on the prin- models of Canadian mil. $8. paperbound. N. Thomas Nelson & Sons... Colby. with deshowing their art work.C.. Pamphlets and Periodicals "must" for the collector. $25. Yorktown. Wilson. A complete history of the Manhattan Firearms Mfg. York. Walker & Co. through the facts and details of the Remington firm Shumway. use. 166 pp. Pa. Pa. Ont. A long list.. by Geo. The only book on powder flasks and no other is likely to be attempted — — — — SAMUEL COLT'S NEW MODEL POCKET PIS- G. Riling's book contains much valuable material on firearms and their history.. development.S. Geo.C. report. THE MANTONS: GUNMAKERS. illus. 31 pp. Reprint of classic essay on European military small arms of the mid-19th century. THE RIFLED MUSKET. Scholarly study of the American flintlock work is a in included. illus. Schon. Paper covers. Part Two treats of the contract muskets. L.00. 1964.. domestic.50. 302 pp. Co. illus. text plus MILITARY ARMS OF CANADA. 2966.00. illus. Priv. illus. Some reproduced material. publ. by facsimile reprint by W. piler. 3rd pro- rifle North Carolina between 1750 and 1850. it is one of the most important and desirable books on rare Colt arms. R. 60 plates. Arms Soc.. rifles and machine guns through the years. Available only from Ray Riling. $ 20 illus.. pistols. $1. Valuable and informative. Pa.. 199 pp. Shows U... Robt. Peterson. by C. V. Shumway. $15.. Gatling.. patents. Dresden. small arms. 1958. $7. MASTER FRENCH GUNSMITH'S DESIGNS re- produced in facsimile with preface notes by S. 48 pp. L. N.600 specimens. USA.. E..50. Pa. $50. A review of 35 fine American long rifles. LONGRIFLES OF NOTE. 1855. Capt. with serial numbers. 293 R. N." is almost wholly illegible.00. REMINGTON HANDGUNS." with detailed classification data and descriptions. illus. Keogh. Hist. by Upper Canada Museum Restoration Serv. etc. In addition to its tremendous amount of information on flasks foreign. pole Books.. L. Stackpole Books. Books. 15 pp. Walker York. 43 pp.. Booklet cont. detailed history of mechanically-rotated cylinder firearms in Europe and the U. $4. New York. Taylerson. Gives charmakers. Phila. by Waldo E.. Gorgas. 22 pp. N.. A historical saga woven into first-rate Americana tive material. tion. 520 large (SVi" x 11") pages.Y. Well-illus. 1967. 1863 and 1864. Karr. Back. F. Geo. 1950. 300 $2. $2. 1966. — SAMUEL COLT PRESENTS. Greenberg. $2. $10.. Fuller and basically an account of the muskets whose model dates fell within the Civil War years 1861. trans. by Claud E. repair. illus. illus. Smith. 1961.C.50.Y..00. Meuse. by C. REVOLVING ARMS. 1953. well researched work of ance to the serious collector. Fuller. showing and describing nearly 1. O. with information on its history. $2. and others of the British gunmakers. Bivins.Y. N. Crown. and its products from its inception to dissoluA scholarly. plus descrip- MANHATTAN FIREARMS. The standard reference on Remington pistols. Halter. 1967. $8.. Shumway. Coward-McCann.. reprinted 1965. pp. 250 pp. Well-documented account of the Ufe and work of John and Joseph Manton..Y. Study of America's first successful breech-loader patented 1848. by John 150 pp. 1943. by W. Nutter.. as is much of an 1860 Ordnance Dept. but other types of revolving guns are included. first import- and their products..S. including Confederate arms and the Vulcan. Harrisburg. by J.. 1965. and Co. Grancsay.. Showing and describing a profusion of rare and super-rare museum-quality Colt arms exhibited at the Atheneum. MUSKET TO Ml 4. of guns. by W. B. etc. and C.00. York. Keith Neal and D. An enlargement of their fine first edition. Conn. Pa. 138 pp. $10.... Eureka. 250 full-page illus. illus. THE POWDER FLASK BOOK. quantities produced. S. "The story of the 1855 Root model revolver. . the Karrs have added 12 new illustrations and considerable text material. $3. Biographical data on all known gunsmiths of the region is duced this great VIII.Y. Paper covers. A RIFLED INFANTRY ARMS. Manton New Harrisburg. by Harold L. Va. illus. comWadsworth Atheneum. 6 authoritative articles cipal J.. 1963.00. W.50 The authoritative work of the late Claud E.50. West Hill. pp. 90 pp.. illus.206 Appendix LONGRIFLES OF NORTH CAROLINA. 1967. Morrow.50. Hartford. 1956. Stack1958. profusely illus..C. by acteristics of each. is included. and operation. @ $15.95. Primarily on handguns. 1960. H. TOLS. 128 pp. Jr. ed. THE SHARPS RIFLE. illus. Originally published in a limited ed. tailed illustrations THE REMINGTON HISTORICAL TREASURY OF AMERICAN GUNS.49. by Ray Riling. illus. by A.C. notably Bartlett & Gallatin's "Digest of Cartridges. and other multishots.

50. Packed with official data... it clearly reproduces the very full-page plates of illus. Burrell. N. Pa. H. illus. Simon & Schuster. SINGLE SHOT MARTIAL PISTOLS.C. N. AND CARBINES. 500 copies only. C.Y. by C. $4. L. and artillery. 175 pp. 1967. . The models from 1799 to 1917 are fully described and identified.C. 88 pages of fine plates. Written and produced for the serious student of arms a reference work of the first magnitude. London. Wallack. An illus. 1959. SmithWashington. A by full page.. J. and 11 color plates. by Col.95. and vicinity.C. by Shelley Braverman. C.95. W. Ltd. . Harrisburg. 1954. illus. pictorial history of arms with complementing narrative.00.D. $5.. Hicks.. $10. York. This timely work brings graphic and textural clarity to the arms used by our forefathers. 1962. 1964. In addition. Tunis. covering exercises with musket. Son.. Ed. by R. Rogers.C. WEAPONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION.00. plus appendices and 29 plates. including arms of secondary classification and of contract makers. in line and halftone plus full color frontis. A new prtg. Brown traces the origin of the text matter an the early engravers. Nesmith. Pa. American Rifleman. Privately printed for the author in Hong Kong. RIFLES A. ed... Blackmore. L. plus 52 sonian Institution. Jas. Excellently illustrated with photographs. R.95. The story of weapons used by the British soldier throughout the ages and the many developments in personal arms during the course of history. illus. Funk & Wagnalls. over 150 Describes in detail all single illus. K. by Col.00. Facsimile reproduction of an important early American militia drill manual. M. D. well-illus. by Col. E. well-illus. repairs FIREARMS.. 1965....C.) Geo. 1939. Hicks & pp. A II. 44 illus. a large book.E. by D. $22. The Stackpole Co. Pamphlets and Periodicals SMALL ARMS AND AMMUNITION THE IN UNITED STATES SERVICE. armed forces and by military units of the states. S. THE FIREARMS ENCYCLOPEDIA. N. Books.25. Scribner's Sons.. etc. The color plates depict accurately the picturesque uniforms and accoutrements of elite militia corps of Phila.00. 1966. Coward-McCann THE AMERICAN RIFLEMAN MAGAZINE. Foreword by Keith Neal." for edge issue. 259 Inc. by J. Books.C. by E. Athens.. S. each numbered and signed by the author and by H. N. U.50. compiler. U. . LaCanada. — scarce "Digest of Cartridges for Small Arms . Vol. A definitive guide. pp. P. Lewis. $1.Y. plus appendices. $10. by H. Guide to guns of all types. H. 1960. Stackpole — Text material scanty.50. World Publishing Co. balHstics. full pictorial history of single-shot martial pistols the artist. and list of gunmakers and inventors included. incl. Gluckman..Y. Fine photographs of museum-quality arms. The most authoritative book on this subject. $6. Paper covers. color each plate suitable for framing.. E. WEAPONS OF THE BRITISH SOLDIER. $20. Seeley Service & Co. Dutton. pistol. powder horns. B. $13. $8. S.C. 1963. K. 1965. 530 pp.. WEAPONS. $4.00.207 Appendix VIU. by B. E. UNDERHAMMER GUNS. $7. Covers over-under arms countries.. $7.. by Anne S. pistols. ammunition. 1962. 1964. U. in Philadelphia in 1824. frontis.. $25. long arms. Calif. shot martial pistols used by the U. limited to 50 signed and numbered copies. Michigan.. N.. figures of is all and patent drawings. A full account of an unusual form of firearm dating back to flintlock days. Unpaginated. Pa. indexed collection of firearms information in . 447 pp. Baxter. diagrams. paperbound.. Moore. 153 pp. valuable tool for location of material published in those years. Galesburg. Shumway. 2nd printing 1960. sword. ed. Both American and foreign specimens are included..Y.75.. Arcadi Gluckman. Firearms history from its beginnings to recent times. SUPERIMPOSED LOAD FIREARMS 1360-1860. MARTIAL AND SEMI-MARTIAL SINGLESHOT PISTOLS.. 352 pp. Intro. (First publ.Y. J. N. the first time. $7. Pa. Covers every article in the 1951-1960 issues of The and Subject Index. and adjustments. MUSKETS. gilt THE SOLDIER'S MANUAL. Kalman & C. Burrell. 1960 rev. Harrisburg.. It covers the subject from the beginning until after the Civil War. 108 pp.50. $11. 250 pp. 1776-1956. 216 MILITARY FIREARMS. and related topics. N. Patterson. 63 pp. 320 pp.S...95. Chapel. Harrisburg.Y. Full leather. Stackpole Books. U. UNITED STATES MARTIAL PISTOLS AND REVOLVERS. Covering 180 years of America's hand and shoulder weapons.Y. Logan. accoutrements of every description are covered. A dependable and useful work of prime importance in its field.50. M. Coverage: from the first tied stone thrown A by pre-historic man to super bombs. 338 pp. by Maj.. THE ANATOMY OF FIREARMS. well illus. 1160 pp. limited to 2500 copies. by Warren E. $12. Illus. 3rd printing.S. Author Wesley R. N. 249 pp.00. R. Chas. compiled and publ.

Y. profusely illus. steam. Blackmore. StebBooks. by W. with chapters on each type of data on selection.. with some 8500 illustrations. H. $2. and operate the small arms of most nations.. R. 57.. Grosset & Dunlap. Duelling with M.95. strip. N. by Harold L. L. Haven. A thoroughly interesting work for the collector and an inspiration to the engraver. Inc. Va.Y. at large that by Charles T.000 items described.. 1961. al.. Border Patrolman for over 30 years. $4. Arlington. drawings. SHOTGUNS & by Larry Koller. 1967. 76: The American Soldier 1775- 1781. Mead & Co.. Greenberg. history and of the events in which they played a part. by Bradford Angier. HOW TO DEFEND YOURSELF. by R.. A BIBLIOGRAPHY. Stackpole Books.C. illus.. rev. and L. by Malloy. D. B.50. illus. Stack- pole Books. New 1042 halftone and line illustrations. The only book that shows in pictures and detailed how to load. including many exploded drawings. Thousands of illus.. N. $30.. $7. also covered. 269 pp. David McKay. . Guns 132 pp. Hunter. HOW TO WEEK. N.Appendix 208 looseleaf form. FREE FOR THE EATING. where to go and how to achieve freedom and comfort on today's frontiers. L. with only minutes of instruction... well illus.00 A by Bradford Angier. Pa. All successful discovery of a new aerial shooting technique. $2. Paper covers. both contemporary and modern.Y. $5. Popular account of firearms in U. 192 pp.J. rifle. Peterson. 1947. and listing. by Will Bryant. N.. 114 pp.50. Wilson. SKETCH BOOK Smith.00. AND YOUR HOME.. Stackpole illus. pp.J. R. SMALL ARMS OF THE WORLD.95. 20 line drawings. illus.S. 1966.. Books. Harrisburg. Garden 242 pp. $6. H. Harrisburg. Designed for parents and teachers who want to develop safety conscious firearms-users.Y. GUNS AND RIFLES OF THE WORLD. Harris- burg. 1962. N. Quanto. $3. Pa. novices preferred. 1967. illus. A good summary of shooting methods. 1965. electric guns.. Guns and gear of the peace officer. by Howard York. alike. et HOW TO SHOOT Inc. The Viking Press. Rihng. to use them. . A. 157 pp.. Klinger and R. Over 25. 1966. 1959.C. $4. Pa. by the author. Harrisburg. their turies.. La. Hackensack. 1965. 1967.50. John J. illus. 290 will Pamphlets and Periodicals almost anyone.95. Showing a wide variety of designs. .95. and enlgd. Modern-day homesteading explained by an expert. 96 pp. New York. 107 pp. Garden City. $20. 8th ed.95. One of the finest books to come out of England. YOUR PACK. etc.. pp. NO SECOND PLACE WINNER. SHOOTING MUZZLE LOADING HAND GUNS.95. Covers laws of self-defense. & Co. A by illus. Basic firearms fundamentals for beginner and ex- City.Y. YOUR FAMILY. Paperbound. by Bradford Angier.95. illus. and patterns compiled from a study of clothing and equipment used by the American foot soldier in the Revolutionary War.00. 723 pp. L.. sights. GUNS AND SHOOTING. N. Pa. N. 352 Doubleday A most satisfying history of firearms chrono- logically presented. Doubleday.. Complete guide to firearms and accessories. profusely illus. $6. Teaneck. Aside from its practical usefulness to students of military arms.50.00. Wilder. Harrisburg. and operation.S. illus. their romance development and use through 10 cen- lore. FIREARMS ENGRAVER. setting tection. Covers firearms from the handgun to air. by Wm. $5. by Henry M. 1966. up home pro- ON LIVE IN THE WOODS $10. outdoorsman's handbook on equipment. $17. initials and monograms and ever-so-many portions of collectors' arms. The only book available for the public advocates their ownership of firearms — and much else. publisher. A 434 1951. 53 pp. $3.. SHOOTER'S BIBLE. by Mike Jennings. about Lucky McDaniel and his surprisingly Massachusetts. ammunition from 1420 HOME IN to 1950. fit. publ. bins. 1966. An craft.. ably discussed by a U. notes.. by Geo. 576 pp. HANDGUNS. RIFLES. profusely illus. (Box 4072). with pertinent comment and anecdote.. 1959. TEACHING KIDS TO SHOOT. and a first-class shooter with handgun. NIMSCHKE.00.C. of books and printed material on arms and selected PAGEANT OF THE GUN.25. handguns is including hand- guns. 160 pp. Discusses and illustrates 100 wild plants and 300 ways one which VIII. 2964. 1965.. pp. $17.. let hit flying targets Stackpole Books.50. Jordan. $5. 307 pp. 191 pp. Sketches. illus. GREAT AMERICAN GUNS AND FRONTIER FIGHTERS. woodand camping techniques. Pa. storehouse of stories on firearms. No. Dodd. $3. pert arm and INSTINCT SHOOTING. it is of prime importance to collectors and shooters. Stackpole Books. . illus. Shreveport.

HASTINGS TO BER- HOW LIN. . 479 pp. Textbook on repair and alteration of firearms. Cowher. Stackpole Books. illus. $6.. ing. Crown plates. Comprehensive work on conventional techniques. incl. $6. 1965. use rative cartridges. illus. CHECKERING AND CARVING OF GUN STOCKS.C. $10.. new print- $9. illus. A thorough dependable concise work with helpful shortcuts. J. by L. of a after.) $21. Harrisburg. 1959. first Smith. by author at Bellmore. $6. 66 Lister. continues to be the best on HANDGUNNER'S GUIDE. London.. Paper illus. handy and useful work professional with many for the collector or the helpful procedures shown and described on antique gun repair. Paper cov- 122 pp. 238 pp.95. illus. serve as a guide to novice or expert.C. illus. Barnes. $10. Stack- pole Books. McCrory.. Stackpole Books. Pa. Harrisburg. Harrisburg. Dunlap. by Chic Gaylord. with basic data on those of the past. paper bound. 2961.. 1962.95. 530 pp. and enlarged. H. Primarily on the infantry weapons of today. 758 pp.. L.95. 303 S. Remains one of the best coverages for the amateur. 1961.A ppendix VIII. Johnston. Indiana. Stackpole Books. Harrisburg. concise text on chemical coloring methods for the gunsmith and mechanic. by Roy Harrisburg.50. 1964. $3. revolvers. AND BARREL. Shreveport. INTRODUCTION TO MODERN GUNSMITHING. Washington. N.. B. $9. in 1946. illus.00.00. 1966. etc. Rev. WEAPONS AND TACTICS. Pa.. Pa. including drawing and firing for speed and accuracy.95.. McGrory. Excellent examples of the gun engraver's art to PROFESSIONAL GUNSMITHING. illus. giving correct procedures for every step in preserving firearms.50. How to Build your Own. Barnes & Co. Valuable to rifle owners. profusely illus. Newell. G.. and professional's handbook on the and application of protective and decocoatings on gun stocks. pp. machine guns. much sought- dependable work. Macfarland. illus.. Chapel. Angier.E. MacFarland. Prudhomme. illus. W. 220 pp.. recent advances in the field.. 68 pp. From choosing a handgun to the psychology of gunfighting.. GUNSMITHING. repair. Reprint of Holland Press. Assn. Books.. N. A Reprint in facsimile of an official prime source on military rifles. Up-to-date reference for all gunsmiths on care.. F. profusely illus.. its subject. Pa. 526 pp. E. COMPLETE GUIDE TO GUNSMITHING.. rifle. illus.Y. Amateur's selection. 151 pp. STOCK ers. pp.C. $6. 1961. Co.Y. 1961 This rev. by A. operation. $3. $2. Stackpole Books. 176 pp. 1965. 1962. N. shooters. by Monte Kennedy.. by R. New by Ronald York. Gun Care and book on all details of hobbyist and professional. Hastings House... 1962. by H. Y. Pa.50.. MODERN GUNSMITHING. Martin's Press. Pamphlets and Periodicals 209 TEXTBOOK OF SMALL ARMS. 150 pp. 1966. Selection of tools. by R. $13. balHstics. H. 1950. 714 pp. Publ. Buy with Book of Rifles and both are $19..Y. Wantagh.. C. H.00. Rev. Publ. St. edition. A workshop manual on how to fabricate a flintlock rifle..00.. $4.Y. Harrisburg.. Pa. Also some information on pistols and percussion locks. by E. of a comprehensive gunsmithing for the FIREARMS BLUEING AND BROWNING. A.95.95. Pa. Hunley. Written for the average artisan with home or small shop facilities. techniques and a directory of engravers is by W.R.. GUNSTOCK FINISHING AND CARE. A workshop manual for collectors and gunsmiths.50. A useful. La. THE MODERN KENTUCKY RIFLE. and tells gunflints. 1966. known earlier as Repair. BOOK OF PISTOLS & REVOLVERS. NMLR ANTIQUE FIREARMS: THEIR CARE. bayonets. 320 pp. N.. ed. $12. loading Publ.. $7. grenades. by Clyde Baker. this encyclopedic reference. E. by Jac Weller. publ. illus.. (some in color. make and powder horn. enlarged by 3 chapters and additional illustrations. Stackpole Books. Stackpole Books. Harrisburg. 2nd rev. New York. N. and covers. D. H. many by W. LOCK.00. 427 1929. enlarged clothbound ed. GUNSMITHING SIMPLIFIED. Pa. 24 fig.00. by R.. and practicing gunsmiths. A illus. Stackpole Books. $6. D. covers the building of a muzzle- to target pistol.. . E. GUN ENGRAVING REVIEW. swords. 1960. 107 pp. by C. 175 pp. illus. Howe. with detailed notes on equipment and commercial gunshop given... and modification of firearms sights and related topics.95. Harrisburg.95. REPAIR how AND RESTORATION. illus. by H. 473 pp. Mc Crory. an official British publ. $4.C.00.

and for Books. plus specialized articles by over 60 outstanding contributors. incl. Harrisburg. illus. stalking. by Dr. An exhaustive work on the study of guns. Tracking. Complete and detailed information on all cartridges rifles for African game. A delightful work covering historical development. the raw materials. Two eminent authorities give complete.. by J. Trefethen. $7.C. Pa... illus. $6. design. Anderson. N. 3rd illus.50. 248 pp.. Angier. Chapters on stocks and sights complete a dependable volume.. 421 pp. Harrisburg. Doubleday. illus. 241 pp. Conn. A experience. Y. knew it.Y. Random 1964. Pa. by Bert Popowski. $5. accurate. by types and makers.. PISTOL Roper. diagrams. Harrisburg. A. 1958. A SPORTING CHANCE . G. Stackpole Books. An exhaustive treatise on pistol and revolver shoot- From ing. by Clyde Ormond. $6. 371 pp.50.95. York.. Illus. edited by Vlad Evanoff. Practical selection of damentals.50. Stackpole Books.. Inspiring reading for those desiring to get away from the commonplace. Harrisburg. N. and useful data on all phases of camping and travel in primitive areas. Calif. based on study of Detailed study of revolvers. design. sights and accessories. 256 by W. 1958. illus.95. 380 pp. AFRICAN RIFLES AND CARTRIDGES.. by Philip B. An impressive companion to the author's book on H.. GUNS AND AMMO FOR HUNTING BIG GAME.. N.95. SHOOTING. A MODERN ENCYCLOPEDIA. 196L New pp. illus.. Part 20 experts on by contributed lore rabbit to elk. Garden City. H. of hunting in the U. with each weapon covered. A massive work covering every detail of every sort Canada and Mexico.S. P. by Eimcr Keith. N. COMPLETE BOOK OF HUNTING. LIVING OFF THE COUNTRY.. all calls. and in some respects surpassing the Press Co...00. PISTOLS. N. 19th-century British and U.. 324 pp. popular work on handgun shooting.. Pa. 1967.. $20.95. 1952. Book Co. by Wm. F. etc. Ltd. 83 pp. drawings and fullcolor plates. Buchele. Stack- pole Books. 1964. Knopf. A great amount of worthwhile material by the author of The Rifle Book. Macmillan Co. $6. Los Angeles. $3. ed. THE RIFLE BOOK. Guns and ammunition. 833 pp. Part 11 is on birds. Tayler- pp.. illus. target to trick shooting as the late "Fitz" Limited stock available from Riling. well-illus.Y. 71 illus. $7. 251 pp. Crown son.. $4. to Hunting game from and how to stay variations and uses.50.00. from quail Practical methods moose. illus. 1961. 338 pp. 500 copies. $12. is on game animals. $10. THE NEW HUNTER'S ENCYCLOPEDIA. illus. Pa. by Publ.S. $4.. definitive work. 1959. F..Appendix 210 AND REVOLVER SHOOTING. 467 pp.50. Y. and shoot- photos.. 1966. of attracting game..C. etc... by one who hunted there 30 years.00. which covers actions.95. Petersen Publishing Co.. includes the arms and ammunition. 140 pp. L. equipment. ed.Y.. edited by Leonard Miracle and James B. it by 1959. bow-hunting. F. Dutton & Co. with 2047 photos. 4th ed. patent records. by Jack O'Connor. 7th printing. profusely illus. $12. $7. RECREATING THE KENTUCKY RIFLE. ammunition. Pa. 1865-1888. N. Highly recommended. Shumway. Stack- pole Books.. $24. M. Stackpole Books. Funk & Wagnalls Co. HUNTING SECRETS OF THE EXPERTS. clothing. 1 hunters" tips are discussed. illus. E.. Mannix. Whe^n purchased with a companion book "Mister Rifleman (both books boxed)..Y. 1966. Pa. ON YOUR OWN IN THE WILDERNESS. rifle through its every . covers in great detail every facet of the pistol rifles. A type of Pamphlets and Periodicals VIII.C. Hartford. profusely illus. ammunition and techniques. out-of-print until recently. Harrisburg. THE RIFLE IN AMERICA. 1131 pp..50.C. Sharpe.. N. ing techniques are covered. 1952. Fitzgerald. N. illus. York. game habitats. $3. THE BIG GAME RIFLE. 306 pp.. Geo.. Harrisburg. and the basic fun- latter. 1965. 1930. tools and supplies for making Separate folded plans included. 384 pp. 1962.. from choosing a rifle to equipment for the hunt based on the author's 50 years' HOW TO HUNT DEER AND SMALL GAME.. it many in its THE REVOLVER. Whelen and B.95.00. Stackpole Taylor. using artificial decoys and & Harper Bros.95.50. Books. Pa. In a simple and entertaining manner the author explains how when emergency to live off nature alive in the arises woods... Ronald by B. by D. $4.C.C. Angier. 292 W. 1948. CALLING ALL GAME. P.Y. 1967. Stebbins.Y. House (Knopf). A. $17. by Col. with 50 Unusual methods of hunting the exotic species from hounds to falcons. by Jack O'Connor.50T Encyclopedic coverage on the illus.. rifle. $5. by John 431 pp. information for hunters. T. Publ..

216 pp. Free from National Reloading Mfgr's. N. by Percy Stanbury and G. 30 Carbine.. 291 Chapel. 303 Lee.00..00. The Ml Hartford. Barnes & pp. FIELD. 1 about junior program with short instruction course. everything right.S. L. and Canada. Cases & Pistol Boxes.S. 1963. including gun ammo. NATIONAL SHOOTING PRESERVE DIRECTORY —Up-to-date of small listing U. how to help him. Free. N.A ppendix Pamphlets and Periodicals VIII. 1917 Rifle. SKEET AND TRAPSHOOTING. 15^. 25 ea. Barclay.ea. 2 Wapiti. illus.Enfield. SLOO. 4 answering the neophyte's questions about reloading. Free. Free. HANDBOOK ON SMALL BORE RIFLE SHOOT- accessories. 1962. A JOINT RESOLUTION— A TRAP OR SKEET FUNDAMENTALS— Handbooks 4-page statement by the National Police Officers Assn. new (25 copies issued to each without charge. by C. aiming. $5. Co. phase of usefulness minor errors is it in the 111 America. 4 agement of —Brochure listing able to sportsmen's clubs. illus. Conn. All are described in an order Civil War form pamphlet available from the NRA. 25^ ea. illus.. Military Rifles and Small Arms. 50<' ea. 10<* ea. Where to find him. history and voicing their stand against ill- planned restrictive BASIC PISTOL gun laws. RemodRemodeling the U. Free. 75f Deer Hunting. each in bulk. 20 important rules of gun safety. what the beginner should know about detail marksmanship. Free. equipment. 30 High Street.S. types. Though not without most extensive coverage on the subject. 32-page booklet information on the sport. Handbook on learning the skills. Percival Marshall & Co. 2 pp. London. eling the Rifle. outlining the role of firearms in U. 03A3. with data on guns & equipment and competition shooting at all types of clay targets. by E. $5. copies free. more properly Extensive biblio. Bibliography included.) 25^ ea. Under the heading of "Range Plans" are 15 booklets priced from lO^ to $1. A useful work on shotgun shooting. etc. Herbert Jenkins. care 1 HUNTER SAFETY INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE— HOW TO CONDUCT AN NRA Hunter Safety Course. Metallic Sights. etc. Free. 25^- firing positions. U. girls. 8 pp. booklet.S. complete WHAT EVERY PARENT SHOULD KNOW WHEN 1 basic pistol courses. fire- 2 necessary rundown on America's most popular hunting target. explicit diagrams to start beginners 1 A BOY OR GIRL WANTS A GUN— Straightforward parents. E.. $1. arms or arms types. and how of riflery for boys and why. Remodeling the HOW TO BE A CRACK SHOT— A to leaflet 14-page booklet becoming an out- standing shot. of the rifle. SHOOTING FOR BEGINNERS. . 4 HANDLOADING MADE EASY—A detaling off Free. Free. PAMPHLETS & BOOKLETS 10 Commandments of Safety — A leaflet listing the preserves in the EVERYONE—The SHOOTING'S FUN FOR most game 1 when.Y. ic rifle MARKSMANSHIP—Textbook for courses. 2 affiliated junior club NRA HUNTER SAFETY HANDBOOK—Textbook for students. 25^' 2 BASIC RIFLE 1 f' specific available are: Sighting In. $1.00 ea. 3 FOR THE YOUNG HUNTER— A outdoor movies avail- THE GUN LAW PROBLEM— Information arms mancalled this FREE FILMS with answers to the 15 questions most frequently asked by MARKSMANSHIP—Textbook for bas- THE ELK — 125-page explaining fundamentals of these two sports. 1964. report on the Hunting and game animal. legislation.95. 3 FUNDAMENTALS OF CLAYBIRD SHOOTING— A Single NRA BOOKLETS— Ranging these are articles 39-page booklet explaining the basics of Skeet and Many diagrams. Revised ed. where..75.00. how to hunt him. Books. Racks. Ml 903 Springfield Duck Hunting. Carlisle. 74 pp. 4 trap in non-technical terms. by two eminent British writers. ING — 80-page in tells CLAY PIGEON MARKSMANSHIP. Rifle. 2 HUNTING AND SHOOTING SPORTSMANSHIP— A 4-page brochure defining the "true sportsman" and giving information on the outdoor JUNIOR RIFLE HANDBOOK— Information the NRA Free. London. field. with pictures and diagrams. Gun Cabinets. Cal. Free. Telescopic Sights. marksmanship.C. $1. and the National Shooting Sports Foundation. Titles the 45 Automatic. Assn.. 1 THE COTTONTAIL RABBIT— 56-page about giving fundamental on from 12 to 36 pages. 2 and Concise introduction to British techniques customs in shotgunning for game birds. 25^.

C. D. Antique and their history.. $2. 20036. 18 Washington. 72 pp. Riverside. 160 pp. 72 members).C.. Rd. Occasional articles on small arms. 1960. Washington. DEUTSCHES WAFFEN JOURNAL Journal-Verlag Schwend GmbH. NRA. $3. McCall St. ea.00 ($2.00 NRA. England. $6. covers 77 guns.C. NRA ILLUSTRATED SHOTGUN HANDBOOK— 50 covering every phase of smoothbore shootexploded views of many shotguns.. NRA FIREARMS HANDLING HANDBOOK— 21 major on the proper usage of most types of articles small arms available to civilians. NRA.. 1964. Inc. NRA members). Schwabish Hall. ($2.00 ($2. Washington.50 to NRA members).. Conn. N. National Rifle Assn. ARGOSY Popular Publ.80 yr. W4.75 to NRA members).00 yr. D.A. THE AMERICAN RIFLEMAN articles plus 18 briefs covering every phase of metallic and shotshell PERIODICALS NRA.50 to NRA mem- bers). African hunting and animal life covered. — Dept.50 members). 176 pp. ARMY Assn. hunting and fishing articles. 62024 NRA HUNTERS HANDBOOK— 51 major pieces. $5.W. Dayton 1. etc. $3. C Bridgeport. Washington. Dept. including NRA members). Washington.00 ea. Postfach yr. needed to establish a club with clay bird shooting cilities. Washington.50 to NRA members). Dept.W.75 NRA to NRA GUN COLLECTORS HANDBOOK— 20 ture articles listing of all on fea- phases of gun collecting. articles of Over 340 pp. Vol..S. $2. 1960 and 1964. illus.. $5.C. 10^' ea. YOU AND YOUR LAWMAKER— A 22-page citi- zenship manual for sportsmen. 1 C Conn. NRA ILLUSTRATED INTERNATIONAL SHOOTING HANDBOOK—. Vol..50 ($1 .I. 24 pp.00 ea. NRA. Germany. THE FIELD The Harmsworth Press W. Madison Ave. 1959. showing how they can support or combat legislation affecting shooting and outdoor sports. illus.00 articles ing. D. D.. NRA. with index. illus.50 yr.C. Washington.. NRA. of the U. NRA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS HANDBOOK— to 150 queries and replies on guns and shooting. 224 C arms high inter- $3. 20036 3 Remington Arms Company. 80 pp. VOLUMES AND II — Articles describing the assembly I and disassembly of various arms..50 ($3.. D. and than 100 muzzle loading clubs.C.. 20036.C. ($1. Illustrated with exploded view and supplementary drawings. 10^ 1 HANDBOOK— A WINGSHOOTER'S let fa- IN THE lists more 24-page book- of information useful to both beginning and veteran shotgunners... Washington. ington.50 ea. plus 35 shorts on every phase of shooting. N. for black powder burners... D. WHERE TO SHOOT MUZZLE LOADERS — U. 1961.. Publ. D. 1962.. NRA. $2. Wash- $4. 383 36. 06602 4 Olin Mathieson Conservation 111.75 ($1. Wash.50 to NRA members). $2. 1959. D. $24. shorter ones.50 ($3. D. D. 1964.50 to FIELD & TIDE Box 2621.00 yr. illus. Hart- Conn. National Shooting Sports Foundation. 340. ballistic charts and tables. articles NRA.Y.C.50 ($1. D. 1529 18th Ave.50 to etc.1 212 NRA FIREARMS ASSEMBLY HANDBOOK. .. $5.. Free from Poly-Choke. training methods. 1075 Post Road.00 yr. 87 guns.00 modern arms. $3. descriptions of firearms and ammunition. D. NRA Washington. articles of all kinds. Washington.C. 48 all pp. pp. So. 06878 2 National Rifle Association of America. 46 pp. MAJOR ARTICLES DETAILING SHOOTING UNDER ISU rules.C. 0. 1959. 1964.. $3. East Alton. II. 224 $4. Pamphlets and Periodicals NRA FIREARMS & AMMUNITION FACT BOOK— START A GUN CLUB— All of the basic information 352-page book of questions and answers. ($1. I. N. ($2. 128 pp. 8 Stratton St. Ltd. illus.C. NRA SHOOTERS GUIDE— 40 est shooters of to all kinds. New York Warren Page on firearms plus Co. plus a important museums.00 to NRA members).. reloading. Wash- Illus. Inc.. 48 Kearsney $4. 1600 Rhode Island Ave. 50<. NRA.C. $2. London Hunting and shooting FIELD & STREAM Henry Holt & major illus.. D.00 to NRA SHOOTING HANDBOOK— 83 ington.Appendix VIII. ford. Africa. technical aspects.. NRA yr. NRA. Durban.S.. members).. 1961. Washington. Army.. Books. NRA RELOADING HANDBOOK— 122 pp. Fire- articles. 1600 Rhode Island Avenue. D.

Texas. Inc. 11101.. Publishing Co. Ind. 212 Linwood Bldg. Canada.. THE HANDLOADER MAGAZINE Dave Wolfe Pub. City.00 2 yrs.Y.Appendix Pamphlets and Periodicals VIII. Game shooting and firearms articles. Popular Science Pub. $3. Transportation Bldg.00 p. Sidney.. The sporting goods trade journal.. Nebraska.00 yr. GUN WORLD THE SHOTGUN NEWS 116 E.00 yr.Y. Decker. 17. SHOOTING TIMES Peoria Journal-Star. Shelbyville... Los Guns. 45365.60 yr. N..00 foreign. 05851.O. New yr... $5. Montreal 2. Regular gun and shooting articles. INTERNATIONAL SHOOTING SPORT Union Internationale de Tir. U. skeet articles. 63166. Corp. Bisley wood. R..00 GUNS & HUNTING Leeds. Germany. Holbom. yr.. hunters and shooters. Rates on application.S. 61614. $5. $3. 213 FUR-FISH-GAME A. $3. 47021. Articles for the F. Books. yr. Firearms and Stanco Sports Library. Maidenhead. Box 3482. advanced shooters.50 yr. Louis. Berks. Brook- National Rifle Assn. $6. P. yr. 355 Lexington Ave.00 yr. $4.. P. Scores. Columbus.00 yr.A.Y.. National Skeet Shooting Assn. shooting. out of Canada. Washington.. 261 Fifth Ave. THE SKEET SHOOTING REVIEW Peoria.. England. yr. "Gun Rack" column by M. black powder shooter. $3. $5. Inc. averages. and possessions. N.. THE SPORTING GOODS DEALER 2018 W. 2608 Inwood Rd.. Sample copy 50^'. Washington. New 16. Canada.00 yr.). NATIONAL RIFLE ASSN. Peoria. Public..Gun ads of all kinds. D. England. Box 150... So. $6. 43209.00 hunting articles.O. St. 757 Third Avenue. hunting.. Horsforth.00 yr. 10017. Central Park Ave..I... Snell Publishing Co. 315 22314..Q.S. GUNSPORT Westport Publishing. 111.00 yr. O. .00 yr. yr.00 yr.00 Occasional articles on small arms... $3. For the International target shooter. 1475 Metcalfe St.C. 20006. 68601.R. Braywick Rd. Surrey. New York PRECISION SHOOTING Precision Shooting. Technical York Pub. technical ballistics articles.50 Canada. 111. to members.. collector. For the hunting. $7. SAGA articles. Gun collecting..00 yr. Vt. Main St.p.50 yr. Co. $5... GUNS REVIEW Ravenhill Pub. For N. Dallas. Box 111. N. OUTDOOR LIFE GUNS Guns Magazine... extra. JOURNAL(British) Camp.. Co. $4.Y. MUZZLE BLASTS National Muzzle Loading Rifle Assn. p. $6. $3. Dr.S. 40 Great James St. 8150 N.00 Co. For the gun collector.00 Calif. and Blvd. Va. yr. Inc. L. N. World Wide Gun Report.00 ing and hunting articles. Arms column by Jack O'Connor. $4. $6. THE GUN REPORT Angeles 28. Harding Pub. Columbus. $5. Calif.. shooting. Inc. O.B.00 yr. Mo.00 yr. 62 Wiesbaden-Klarenthal. Box 277D.00 yr. Tabloid paper on guns. Ltd. Co. yr. Aledo. Klarenthalerstr. Alexandria.00 yr. $5. (BR. shoot- York. Articles for gun collectors. ORDNANCE GUNS & AMMO 5959 Hollywood Peterson Pub.). For the GUN WEEK Sidney Printing & Publishing Co. THE JOURNAL OF THE ARMS & ARMOUR SOCIETY $6. Inc. Inc. England. $5. postage $1. 2878 E.. 111. Box 1500. Skokie. H. War Memorial Gun ads plus articles on every gun activity. American Ordnance Assn. P. For collectors and shooters. THE SHOOTING TIMES (ENGLAND) Braywick House.. Waahsington Ave. foreign. London WCl. reloading and shooting enthusiast.. $4. Covina.. 75235. Lyndonville. Badillo. U. 3030 Northern Blvd. Journal of the ROD AND GUN IN CANADA Gambi Maco all Rod and Gun GUNS AND GAME and general $4. England. $5. 91722..00 Low Hall Road. $6. 111. Co. $4. Wilkinson (Secy.

00 yr. of Rec. $1.. B. -r^O .00 2 yrs. Victoria. Co. New York 19. C. All other countries. $4. averages.. 46207 $7. Poss.I. Ind. trapshooting articles... Greenwich.00 yr. $5. Pamphlets and Periodicals WILDLIFE REVIEW plus hunting and fishing articles. Fawcett VllI.00 yr.00 yr. 33 Great Neck Rd. N. Pete Brown on firearms Conn..S. N. and Canada. $7. Indianapolis.. and Con- servation.Y. 57th St. Guns and hunting covered internationally. WORLD ROD & GUN TRUE Publ. 1100 Waterway Blvd. Fawcett Bldg. & Wildlife Branch. Inc. Parliament Bldg. Scores.Y.. Books. at 8th Avenue.Appendix 214 SPORTS AFIELD The Hearst Corp. 11021. U. Dept. Fish TRAP & FIELD Review Pub. Great Neck.. 06830 $5. L.....00 yr.

Fuller Hatch . Hatcher Muzzle Blasts. Ackerman Muzzle Loading Cap Lock Rifle. Grant Small Arms. George & Browning. The. The. & Smith Edwards Underhammer Guns. Smith & Bellah Book Book of Rifles. Logan U. Angier Firearms Bluing Firearms Encyclopedia. Hawthorn Small Arms of the Worid. The. The. (various) Hatcher's Notebook. Rifles Muskets & Carbines. Smith Story of Colts Revolver.S. Collectors Handbook (various) of Values. The Plains Rifle.BIBLIOGRAPHY American Rifleman. The. The. (various) Americans and Their Guns. Roberts NRA Illustrated Shooting Handbook. R. Chapel Digest. The. Hanson in American Remington Firearms History. Trefethen & Serven of Pistols & Revolvers. Roberts & Waters Cartridge Conversions. The. O. Peterson Guns Gun Gun & Ammo Magazine. (various) Guns Magazine. (various) Muzzle Loaders Little Library. Rifled Musket. The. Lustyik War Guns. The. The. Smith Breech Loading Single Shot Rifle. Nonte War Carbines. Edwards Dixie Gun Works Catalog Civil Civil English Pistols & Revolvers. Fuller Single Shot Rifles.



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