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Effective Educational

Institution Management

This lecture discusses the research and


development on effective educational institution
management.
Characteristics of effective educational institution
and effective educational institution
management are discussed.
Learners are also introduced to the dimensions
and indicators of effectiveness.
To achieve effectiveness, several crucial
components for effective management are
introduced and the unit ends with suggestions on
ways to improve educational institutions.

By the end of this lecture, you should be able to:


1. Identify the characteristics of effective school
management.
2. Discuss factors that can bring about an effective
educational institution.
3. Describe components needed for effective
management and effective organisation.
4. Explain approaches of leadership for effective
institution.
5. Apply leadership styles in simulated and workrelated situations.
6. Demonstrate an awareness of the importance of
effective educational management.

Introduction
This lecture will introduce the salient points related to
effective educational institutions. An effective
educational institution is intrinsically linked with
effective management. Let us begin with effective
management.
There are two crucial elements for effective
management. One is leadership and the other is
management. These two elements are blended together
in the management of educational institutions.
By the end of this lecture, you should be able to explain
the importance of leadership and management in the
development of an effective educational institution.

Characteristics of effective educational


institutions management
Effective institutional management is crucial to achieve an effective
educational institution. Effective educational institutions have several
key determinants as identified by Sammons, Hillman and Mortimore
(1995). An effective educational institution:
Has professional leadership.

Has shared vision and goals.

Is a learning environment.

Concentrates on teaching and


learning.

Is purposeful in teaching.

Has high expectations.

Has a positive reinforcement.

Has a monitoring progress


mechanism.

Recognises pupil rights and


responsibilities.

Has a home-school partnership


programme.

Is a learning organisation.

Input criteria for effective


educational institutions
Two pre-requisites are identified as pertinent for an effective educational
institution. One is effective leadership, and two is effective management.
The integration of management and leadership is therefore essential.
Everard, Morris and Wilson (2004) have convincingly discussed in-depth
how to achieve effective school management. They suggested that the
blending of leadership and management in educational organisations will
lead to effectiveness.
Effectiveness here refers to educational institution effectiveness in providing
the relevant education to students, learning and maintaining members,
(teachers and staff ) performance to achieve organisational goals.

There are eight components of activities:


strategic thinking

manage projects

manage quality

manage resources

manage information

manage activities

manage and lead


people

lead direction and


culture

The integration of leadership and management requires


several abilities:
the thinking abilities

the task abilities

the people abilities

Effectiveness is dependent on these abilities.

1. Strategic thinking requires thinking abilities, comprising six


categories of thinking including innovative thinking, crisis
management thinking, marketing thinking, critical reflective
thinking, system thinking, and forward thinking.
2. Lead direction and culture of the organisation emphasises
on people activities that comprise six elements such as
create values, talk vision, celebrate success, life values,
promote challenge, and taking risks.
3. Managing resources involves task abilities. It involves six
components of resource management including secure
finances, energy efficiency, effective use of resources,
careful use of financial resources, good use of physical
facilities, and effective targeting.
4. Managing projects requires task abilities comprising
activities such as plan projects, contribute to plans,
contribute to closure, coordinate projects, run projects, and

5. Managing information focuses on task abilities including


establish systems, facilitate meeting, provide information,
act on information, interpret information, and take
decisions.
6. To manage quality, leaders need to possess task abilities,
comprising six components; implement systems, monitor
compliance, audit quality, advice and support, promote
benefits and continuously improve.
7. To manage activities, task abilities are required. These
comprise the following steps: manage activities, maintain
activities, improve performance, review operations, change
activities, and improve activities.
8. Another important activity is to manage and lead people.
This requires the people abilities and there are six
categories that leaders have to focus. These include: Inspire
shared vision, develop trust and respect, manage self,

Dimensions of school
effectiveness
The dimensions of school effectiveness
are multidimensional (Sergiovanni,
Kelleher, McCarthy and Fowler 2009). These dimensions which can be
categorised into four categories are summarised with examples as shown by
the following table.
No
.

Dimensions

Examples of measurement of effectiveness

1.

Productivity

School accomplishment in examination results

2.

Quality

The level/indicator of quality of examination results

3.

Growth

School present status as compared to previous


Situation

4.

Leadership/management
skills

Ability of school leaders to perform school-centred

5.

Training and development


emphasis

Efforts and resources devoted to developing


members talents

6.

Achievement Goal
emphasis
and new goals
attainmentEmphasis
dimensiononofachievement
school effectiveness
tasks

Table below explains the dimensions of school


effectiveness
with regard to the importance of integration.
Table: Internal integration dimension of school
effectiveness

No
.

Dimension

Examples of measurement of effectiveness

1.

Efficiency

Students learn significantly more for a given


cost, thus achieving cost-effectiveness.

2.

Absenteeis
m

The rate of absenteeism among teachers,


students and school workers.

3.

Turnover

Voluntary transfer or terminations of students,


teachers and workers.

4.

Teacher job
satisfaction

Teachers feeling with the job outcomes.

No
.

Dimension

Examples of measurement of effectiveness

5.

Student
satisfaction

Students feeling with the learning


experience in the school.

6.

Motivation

Willingness of teachers, students and


workers to perform at their best.

7.

Information
management
and
Communicatio
ns

Completeness of information, efficiency of


information dissemination and accuracy of
information critical to the school
effectiveness.

8.

Shared
influence

Participation of the school members in


decisions making that affects the school.

The following table gives examples of cultural patterns


that exist in schools.
Cultural patterns dimension of school effectiveness
No
.

Dimension

Examples of measurement of effectiveness

1.

Morale

The feelings of teachers, students, parents and


others with regard to the schools traditions and
goals.

2.

Cohesion

Level of willingness among teachers and


students to like each other, work together and
communicate to foster relationships.

3.

Planning and goal Engagement of members in planning and


setting
setting goal for the future of the institution.

The following table gives examples of cultural patterns


that exist in schools.
Cultural patterns dimension of school effectiveness
No
.

Dimension

Examples of measurement of effectiveness

4.

Internalisation of
organisational
goals

Parents, teachers and students acceptance of


schools goals

5.

Stability

School ability to maintain structures, functions


and resources regardless of situations.

6.

Achievement
emphasis

Emphasis on achievement and new goals

Schools are expected to have the capability to adapt to external changes and the
dimensions relevant to this are shown in the Table below:

External adaptation dimension of school effectiveness


No.

Dimension

Examples of measurement of effectiveness

1.

Flexibility/adaptat
ion

School ability to respond to external changes.

2.

Readiness

School readiness to successfully perform


certain specific tasks.

Utilisation of the
environment

School ability to interact with its


environment and acquire the necessary
support and resources for effective
functions.

4.

Evaluation by
external
entities

Perceived assessments about the school


performance given by the community,
individuals, other organisations, and
environment.

Overall, the above dimensions of


effectiveness suggest that schools have
critical responsibilities that require the
school leaders to perform their roles and
functions at their best.
In addition, these dimensions indeed
demand the integration of teachers, school
leaders, students and parents.

Activity
You are required to comment on the following
vision statement.
To become a reputable school in the country.
Spend about 30 minutes to discuss this vision
statement.

_______________________________________
_____________________________

Factors affecting effective schools


Two factors can be identified:
1. Job satisfaction among teachers and staff.
2. Students academic achievement.
With regard to the first factor, a descriptive study was
conducted by Tan Chor Ter & Soaib (2010) to examine job
satisfaction among teachers teaching in Chinese primary
schools in Hulu Langat, Selangor. Two of the research
objectives were; to
1.Identify the level of teachers job stress and their level of
job burnout; and to
2.Identify the factors causing stress.
More than 180 teachers responded in the survey through selfadministered questionnaire.

The findings show that on a scale of 1 to 5, (low to high),


the level of stress was moderately high (min = 3.45),
while the level of job burnout was also moderately high
(min = 3.5).
There were several factors causing the stress including
increased paperwork, exam orientation, students
disciplinary problems, pressures from parents, teaching
workload, and extra- curricular activities. However, the
teachers felt they are satisfied with their job due to
several reasons such as having a sense of satisfaction
with better students achievement, security of job, and
good leadership practices shown by their head teachers.

The results on job burnout, nevertheless, require


further attention so that teachers job burnout can
be reduced.
Feeling exhausted, tired, bored, angry, and
thinking about early retirement has to be
addresses because if no appropriate actions are
taken, the expectation to make the schools
effective schools will be hampered.

School Based Management


System

WHAT IS IT?
School-based management (SBM) is a strategy to
improve education by transferring significant decisionmaking authority from state and district offices to
individual schools.
SBM provides principals, teachers, students, and
parents greater control over the education process by
giving them responsibility for decisions about the
budget, personnel, and the curriculum.
Through the involvement of teachers, parents, and
other community members in these key decisions, SBM
can create more effective learning environments for
children.

School Based Management


School-based management can be viewed
conceptually as a formal alteration of
governance structures, as a form of
decentralization that identifies the individual
school as the primary unit of improvement and
relies on the redistribution of decision-making
authority as the primary means through which
improvements might be stimulated and
sustained. (Malen, Ogawa, and Kranz, 1990, p.
290)

WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES?


Allow competent individuals in the schools
to make decisions that will improve learning;
Give the entire school community a voice in
key decisions;
Focus accountability for decisions;
Lead to greater creativity in the design of
programs;

Redirect resources to support the goals


developed in each school;
Lead to realistic budgeting as parents
and teachers become more aware of the
school's financial status, spending
limitations, and the cost of its programs;
and,
Improve morale of teachers and nurture
new leadership at all levels.

WHAT IS NECESSARY WHEN


IMPLEMENTING SBM?
SBM must have the strong support of school staff.
SBM is more successful if it is implemented
gradually. It may take 5 years or more to implement
SBM.
School and district staff must be given
administrative training, but also must learn how to
adjust to new roles and channels of communication.
Financial support must be provided to make training
and time for regular staff meetings available.
Central office administrators must transfer authority
to principals, and principals in turn must share this
authority with teachers and parents.

What is the Difference Between


School Management and Governance?
Governance implies legal authority to set
policies, hire and fire personnel, set budgets,
etc. Associated with governance is the coercive
power to collect taxes, pass laws, and restrict
behavior.
Management is the delegation of the authority to
implement policies and programs. Authority is
derived from government, and can be removed
without directly consulting constituency.
What would be examples of school-based
management vs. school-level governance?

What are the Potential Benefits of School


Based Management (or government)?
Increased flexibility provided to school to match
reform to needs of the students (interests of
parents).
Solicit input from school staff increasing the
motivation of the staff, and development of more
effective curriculum /teaching methods, etc.
Ability to shape the budget and staff to match
goals of schoolprovides incentives for staff to
perform (since they can be removed).
* Does accomplishing objectives depend on how
decentralization is implemented?

Key Issues in Developing SBM


Decentralize to whom?
* Principals
* Teachers
* Parents (students)
* Other community members

Is management by a council including different


types of members?
How should be members be elected?

Key Issues in Developing SBM


Decentralize what?
1) Planning: most common, and least threatening to district
(development of school based plan).
2) Curriculum: selecting basic curriculum, textbooks, types
of staff
development.
3) Budgets: School council is given authority over the
budget:
Content of the budgets: Can make allocation decisions for some
percent of the budget. Edmonton (Canada) has been using schoolbased budgeting system for 25 years. 80% of budget is controlled
by schools.
Size of the budget: Can school supplement district budget with its
own revenues?

4) Personnel: Largest part of budget. Can school council (or


principal) hire and fire staff, or decide on merit pay increases?
5) Information: What information will be provided to council
members to help make decisions? Does the school council have
a staff? What training is provided council members?
6)Accountability system: What power does school district maintain
over schools?
-- Impose legal requirements on personnel, security, confidentiality from state
or federal government.
-- Ultimate government authority on budgets, hiring and firing, curriculum,
assessment, and school policy.
-- Rewards and sanctions: does the district administration use rewards or
sanctions to control
schools?
*provide more budgetary flexibility to successful schools
*remove principal and/or staff of unsuccessful schools

-- Impose legal requirements on personnel,


security, confidentiality from state or federal
government.
-- Ultimate government authority on budgets,
hiring and firing, curriculum, assessment, and
school policy.
-- Rewards and sanctions: does the district
administration
use rewards or sanctions to control schools?
*provide more budgetary flexibility to successful
schools
*remove principal and/or staff of unsuccessful schools