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Close Quarters Marksmanship/Battle

(CQM/CQB)

August 2006

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Subject

Page
3
3

Basic Program Implementation


Close Quarters Marksmanship
Fundamentals of Close Quarters Marksmanship (CQM)
Firing Stance and Ready Position

4
4

Movement

Aiming Techniques

Shot Placement

Trigger Manipulation

Preliminary Instruction

Reflexive Shooting

Target Discrimination

Range Example Layout

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Close Quarters Battle (CQB)

12

Principles of CQB

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Fundamentals of CQB

13

Initial Actions to Clear a Room/Building

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Composition of Clearing Team

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Breaching

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Actions outside point of entry

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Actions upon entering Room/Building

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An effective unit marksmanship program reflects the priority,


emphasis, and interest of commanders and trainers.

1. BASIC PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION


Knowledgeable instructors or cadre are the key to marksmanship performance. All
commanders must be aware of maintaining expertise in marksmanship
instruction/training.
a. Instructor-Trainer Selection. Institutional and unit instructor-trainers are
selected and assigned from the most highly qualified soldiers. These soldiers must
have an impressive background in rifle marksmanship; be proficient in applying
these fundamentals; know the importance of marksmanship training; and have a
competent and professional attitude. The commander must ensure that selected
instructor-trainers can effectively train other soldiers. Local instructor-trainer training
courses and marksmanship certification programs must be established to ensure
that instructor-trainer skills are developed.
b. Cadre-Trainer. Cadre-trainer refers to a marksmanship instructor-trainer that
has more experience and expertise than the firer does. He trains soldiers in the
effective use of the rifle by maintaining strict discipline on the firing line, insisting on
compliance with range procedures and program objectives, and enforcing safety
regulations. A good instructor-trainer must understand the training phases and
techniques for developing marksmanship skills, and he must possess the following
qualifications.
(1) Knowledge. The main qualifications for an effective instructor-trainer are
thorough knowledge of the rifle, proficiency in firing, and a thorough understanding
of this pamphlet and supporting manuals.
(2) Patience. The instructor-trainer must relate to the soldier calmly, persistently,
and patiently.
(3) Understanding. The instructor-trainer can enhance success and
understanding by emphasizing close observance of rules and instructions.
(4) Consideration. Most soldiers enjoy firing regardless of their performance
and begin with great enthusiasm. The instructor-trainer can enhance this
enthusiasm by being considerate of his soldiers feelings and by encouraging firing
abilities throughout training, which can also make teaching a rewarding experience.
(5) Respect. An experienced cadre is assigned the duties of instructor-trainer,
which classifies him as a technical expert and authority. A good instructor-trainer is
alert for mistakes and patiently makes needed corrections.
(6) Encouragement. The instructor-trainer can encourage his soldiers by
convincing them to achieve good firing performance through practice. His job is to
impart knowledge and to assist the soldier so he can gain the practical experience
needed to become a good firer.
2. CLOSE QUARTERS MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING
Close Quarters marksmanship training provides the individual soldier with the ability
to quickly and effectively engage targets at ranges less than 25 meters. A soldiers
ability to successfully identify, discriminate, and engage targets during Close
Quarters Battle (CQB) is essential for soldier survival and mission accomplishment.
Although normally associated with urban operations, CQM techniques are also used
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during operations in restrictive terrain such as clearing a trench line, the final assault
across an objective during an attack or raid, or when fighting in dense vegetation or
during periods of limited visibility. Close Quarters marksmanship instruction consists
of four components: Phase I, reflexive firing training (blank fire day and night); Phase
II, target discrimination; Phase III, marksmanship qualification (day and night live
fire); and Phase IV, automatic firing familiarization.
3. CONDUCT OF CLOSE QUARTERS MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING
Close Quarters marksmanship requires individual infantrymen to be trained to
standard in reflexive firing, target discrimination, and on all necessary basic rifle
marksmanship (BRM) fundamentals prior to semi-annual qualification. An
explanation of the base level proficiency requirements is provided with each course
of fire. As a minimum, infantrymen should be qualified on their individual weapon
within the previous six months.
4. FUNDAMENTALS OF CLOSE QUARTERS MARKSMANSHIP
During CQB, there is little or no margin for error. Too slow a shot at the enemy, too
fast a shot at a noncombatant, or inaccurate shots can all be disastrous for the
soldier. There are four fundamentals: proper weapon ready positions and firing
stance, aiming technique, aim point, and trigger manipulation constitute the act of
reflexive shooting. This method of shooting is the only way for the clearing team
members to consistently succeed without excessive casualties. Mastery of these
fundamentals is key to the soldiers ability to survive and accomplish his mission in
close quarters. All CQM- and CQB related training should begin with a review of the
principles of safe weapon handling assume the weapon is always loaded and
never point the weapon at anything you do not intend to destroy.
a. Firing Stance and Ready Positions. Regardless of the ready position used,
soldiers must always assume the correct firing stance to ensure stability and
accuracy when engaging targets. The two weapon ready positions are the low
ready and high ready.
(1) Firing Stance. The feet are kept approximately shoulder-width apart. Toes
are pointed straight to the front (direction of movement). The firing side foot is
slightly staggered to the rear of the non-firing side foot. Knees are slightly bent and
the upper body is leaned slightly forward. Shoulders are square and pulled back,
not rolled over or slouched. The head is up and both eyes are open. When
engaging targets, the gunner holds the weapon with the butt of the weapon firmly
against his shoulder and the firing side elbow close against the body
(2) High Ready Position. The butt of the weapon is held under the armpit, with
the barrel pointed slightly up so that the top of the front sight post is just below the
line of sight but still within the gunners peripheral vision. The non-firing hand
grasps the hand guards toward the front sling swivel; the trigger finger is outside of
the trigger well. To engage a target from the high ready, the gunner pushes the
weapon forward as if to bayonet the target and brings the butt stock firmly against
the shoulder as it slides up the body. This technique is best suited for the lineup
outside of a building, room, or bunker entrance.
(3) Low Ready Position. The butt of the weapon is placed firmly in the pocket of
the shoulder with the barrel pointed down at a 45-degree angle. The non-firing
hand grasps the hand guards toward the front sling swivel, the trigger finger is
outside of the trigger well. To engage a target from the low ready, the gunner brings

the weapon up until the proper sight picture is achieved. This technique is best
suited for movement inside of buildings.

Low Ready

High Ready

(4) Movement Techniques. Soldiers must practice moving with their weapons
up until they no longer look at the ground but concentrate on their sectors of
responsibility. Soldiers must avoid stumbling over their own feet. The low ready
method is the best method to use when moving or turning. To execute a left turn the
soldier places his firing foot forward, shifts all his weight to the firing foot, and pivots,
bringing the non-firing foot forward to complete the turn. To turn to the right the firing
foot is to the rear, the weight is evenly distributed between the feet, and the body
pivots on both feet. To turn to the rear, the firing foot is forward, the weight is placed
on the firing foot and the body pivots.
(5) Kneeling Position. Although short-range engagements generally take place
from the standing position, a soldier may be required to engage targets from the
kneeling position. The kneeling position is generally used when correcting a
weapons malfunction.
b. Aiming Techniques. Four aiming techniques are used during CQB. Each has
advantages and disadvantages and the soldier must understand when, how, and
where to use each technique.
(1) Slow Aimed Fire. This technique is the slowest but most accurate. It
consists of taking a steady position, properly aligning the sight picture, and
squeezing off rounds. This technique should only be used to engage targets in
excess of 25 meters when good cover and concealment is available or when the
need for accuracy overrides the need for speed.
(2) Rapid Aimed Fire. This technique utilizes an imperfect sight picture. When
using this technique the soldier focuses on the target and raises his weapon until
the front sight post assembly obscures the target. Elevation is less critical than
windage when using this technique. This aiming technique is extremely effective on
targets from 0 to 15 meters and at a rapid rate of fire.
(3) Aimed Quick Kill. The aimed quick kill technique is the quickest and most
accurate method of engaging targets up to 12 meters. Experienced soldiers may
use the technique at greater ranges, as they become familiar with it. When using

this technique, the soldier aims over the rear sight and places the top 1/2 to 3/4 of
an inch of the front sight post assembly on the target.
(4) Instinctive Fire. This is the least accurate technique and should only be
used in emergencies. It relies on instinct, experience, and muscle memory. The
firer concentrates on the target and points the weapon in the general direction of
the target. While gripping the hand guards with the non-firing hand he extends the
index finger to the front, automatically aiming the weapon on a line towards the
target.
c. Aim Point. Short-range engagements fall into two categories based on the
mission and hostile threat. Most short-range engagements will be decided by who
hits his target with the first round first. During this type of engagement it is more
important to knock the enemy soldier down as quickly as possible than it is to kill
him immediately. During this type of engagement soldiers must aim at the lethal
zone (center mass) of the target as in regular rifle marksmanship. Although shots
to the center of the target may prove to be eventually fatal, they may not
immediately incapacitate the enemy. During CQB a shot that does not immediately
incapacitate the enemy may be no better than a clean miss. Because of this, and
the possible presence of military equipment or protective vests, soldiers must be
able to not only engage soldiers in the lethal zone but also to engage them with
incapacitating shots.
(1) Lethal Shot Placement. The lethal zone of the target is center mass
between the waist and the chest. Shots in this area maximize the shock of the
round. Due to the nature of CQB, soldiers must continue to engage targets until
they go down.

Lethal Zone

(2) Incapacitating Shot Placement. The only shot placement that guarantees
immediate and total incapacitation is one roughly centered in the face, below the
middle of the forehead and the upper lip, and from the eyes in. Shots to the side of
the head should be centered between the crown of the skull and the middle of the
ear opening, from the center of the cheekbones to the middle of the back of the
head.

Incapacitation zone aim points


d. Trigger Manipulation. Short-range combat engagements are usually quick,
violent, and deadly. Due to the reduced reaction time, imperfect sight picture, and
requirement to effectively place rounds into threat targets, soldiers must fire
multiple rounds during each engagement to survive. Multiple shots may be fired
either through the use of a controlled pair or automatic weapons fire.
(1) Controlled Pair. A controlled pair is two rounds fired in rapid succession.
The soldier fires the first round and allows the weapon to move in its natural arc
without fighting the recoil. The firer rapidly brings the weapon back on target and
fires a second round. Soldiers must practice the controlled pair until it becomes
instinctive. Controlled pairs should be fired at single targets until they go down.
When multiple targets are present the soldier must fire a controlled pair at each
target, and then reengage any targets left standing. Rapid, aimed, semiautomatic
fire is the most accurate method of engaging targets during CQB.
(2) Automatic Fire. Automatic weapons fire may be necessary to maximize
violence of action or gain fire superiority when gaining a foothold in a room,
building, or trench. When properly trained, soldiers should be able to fire six rounds
(two three-round bursts) in the same time it takes to fire a controlled pair. The
accuracy of engaging targets can be equal to that of semiautomatic fire at 10
meters with practice. The key to firing a weapon on automatic is to squeeze the
trigger, not jerk it.
(a) For the majority of soldiers, fully automatic fire is rarely effective and can
lead to unnecessary noncombatant casualties or fratricide. Not only is fully
automatic fire inaccurate and difficult to control, but also rapidly empties
ammunition magazines. A soldier who finds himself out of ammunition with an
armed, uninjured enemy soldier during CQB will become a casualty unless a fellow
soldier intervenes.
(b) Controlled three-round bursts are better than automatic fire but they are
only slightly faster and not as accurate or effective as rapid, aimed, semiautomatic
fire.
(3) Failure Drill. To make sure a target is completely neutralized, soldiers should
be trained to execute the failure drill. A controlled pair is fired at the lethal zone of
the target, then a single shot to the incapacitating zone. This type of target
engagement is particularly useful when engaging targets wearing body armor.
5. PRELIMINARY MARKSMANSHIP INSTRUCTION
As with all other forms of marksmanship training, PMI must be conducted to
establish a firm foundation on which to build. Soldiers must be taught, and must
understand, the fundamentals of CQM described in paragraph 4. Blank fire drills are
conducted to ensure a complete and through understanding of the fundamentals as
well as to provide the trainers with valuable feedback as to the level of proficiency of
each soldier. It is important during this training to emphasize basic force protection
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issues such as muzzle awareness and selector switch manipulation. Soldiers must
be drilled on these areas to ensure that future training and performance during
combat situations is done in the safest manner possible. The risk of fratricide or
noncombatant casualties is greatest during CQB. Preliminary marksmanship
instruction should include, at a minimum, the following tasks.
a. Weapon Ready Positions and Firing Stance. Ensure that each soldier
understands and can properly carry his weapon.
b. Moving with a Weapon. Ensure that the soldier can move at a walk, run, and
turn left, right, and to the rear as well as move from the standing to kneeling
position and the kneeling back to the standing position.
c. Weapons Malfunction Drills. Ensure soldiers instinctively drop to the kneeling
position, clear a malfunction, and continue to engage targets. This drill can be
performed by issuing each soldier a magazine loaded with six to eight rounds of
blank ammunition with one expended blank round.
d. Target Engagement Drills. These drills teach soldiers to move from the ready
position to the firing stance, emphasizing speed and precision movements. Soldiers
must be observed to ensure that the finger is outside the trigger well and that the
selector switch remains on the safe position until the weapon is raised to the firing
position.
This is a force protection issue and must be drilled until all soldiers can perform to
standard.
6. PHASE I, REFLEXIVE FIRE TRAINING
Reflexive fire training provides the fundamental skills required to conduct short-range
marksmanship. It involves the practical application of all four of the fundamentals of
CQM. All soldiers must receive a go on the task Conduct Reflexive Firing, before
proceeding with training. Reflexive firing should be conducted as refresher training
as often as possible to insure that soldiers skills are always at the highest possible
level. This perishable skill must be constantly reinforced.
a. Reflexive Firing Targets. Targets can be locally purchased or manufactured
by the unit (bowling pin targets). E-type silhouettes may be painted as shown.

b. Range Setup. The range must be at least 25 meters in length with identification
marks at the 5-, 10-, 15-, and 25-meter distances. Each lane should be marked in a
way that prevents cross firing between lanes. A lane safety-coach is assigned to
each lane to observe and evaluate the soldiers performance as well as ensure the
safe conduct of firing. The tower or line safety gives all firing cues.
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c. Conduct of Training. Each soldier will conduct a dry-fire exercise and a blank
fire exercise prior to conducting the live-fire exercise. The dry-fire and blank-fire
exercises will give the soldier the repetition needed to successfully engage targets
quickly and accurately. Soldiers start at the 25-meter line at the low ready facing
the targets. The soldier is then told the engagement position (for examples, facing
left, turn right) and, once in position, is given the cue to fire. The soldier must, on
cue, assume the proper firing position and stance, place the selector lever on semi,
use the correct aiming technique for the targets distance, and engage the target.
After engaging the target the soldier will continue to cover the target to reinforce
firing until the threat is eliminated. Rounds fired after the time standard will be
scored as a miss. The number of rounds fired after the time standard will be
subtracted from the total number of hits the soldier has scored. The soldier will be
evaluated on a GO/NO GO basis based on the standards in the training and
evaluation outline (T&EO) and scoring table. Soldiers must complete blank fire
iteration before being allowed to live fire.
(1) Each soldier will identify and engage the proper targets at ranges from 5 to
25 meters from the stationary position, while turning and walking. Soldiers must
score a GO on the familiarization firing tables before attempting to qualify.
NOTE: All rounds must impact on the E-type silhouette. Hits are defined as being in
the lethal zone (bowling pin).

Familiarization Table Stationary

Familiarization Table Moving

7. PHASE II, TARGET DISCRIMINATION TRAINING


Target discrimination is the act of distinguishing between threat and non-threat
targets during CQB. During CQB, there is little or no margin for error. A shot at a
noncombatant or friendly soldier, or slow inaccurate shots can all be disastrous.
Target discrimination is an inescapable responsibility and must be stressed in all
situations regardless of mission. It is essential that this training be aimed at instilling
fire control and discipline in individual soldiers. The first priority is always the safety
of the Infantryman.

a. Target Discrimination Targets. Target discrimination is best taught using two


or more E-type silhouettes with bowling pins painted on each side of the silhouette
(such as brown side and green side). The instructor calls out a color for the shooter
to identify on the command READY, UP or at the whistle blast. The shooter
quickly scans all targets for the color and engages using a controlled pair. This is
the standard that all Infantrymen train to. It will effectively train Infantrymen to
accomplish missions under the expected ROE.
(1) Alternative methods include using multiple E-type silhouettes with different
painted shapes (squares, triangles, and circles). The instructor calls out a shape for
the firers to identify. On the command READY, UP, or at a whistle blast, the
shooters quickly scan all three targets searching for the shape and engage using
the controlled pair technique. This is repeated until one shape is mastered.
Subsequently, a sequence of shapes is announced, and the firers engage
accordingly.
(2) Another variation is to paint a series of 3-inch circles on the E-type
silhouettes. The instructors call out which circle to engage (for example, top left)
and firers react accordingly. Marksmanship is emphasized using this technique.
(3) Another technique for training is to use pop-up targets (electrical or pull
targets).
(4) A good technique for teaching soldiers target discrimination is to have them
focus on the targets hands. If a target is a threat, the first and most obvious
indicator is a weapon in the targets hands. The soldier must mentally take a flash
picture of the entire target because an armed target could possibly be a fellow
soldier or other friendly, which is why soldiers train on uniforms (green or brown
silhouettes). This level of target discrimination should not be trained until soldiers
are thoroughly proficient in basic CQM and CQB tasks.
b. Range Setup. The range must be at least 25 meters in length and each lane
should be at least 5 meters wide. Each lane should have target holders and should
be marked in a way that prevents cross firing between lanes. A coach/safety is
assigned to each lane to observe and control the soldiers performance. The tower,
lane safety, or senior instructor gives all firing commands.
c. Conduct of Training. Each soldier must complete a dry-fire exercise and a
blank-fire exercise before moving on to the live-fire portion. Regardless of the type
of target used, the following method will be used to conduct training. The soldier will
begin all engagements facing away from the target, which requires the soldier to
identify and discriminate, and reinforces skills used during reflexive firing training.
The soldier will be given a target description and, on the command READY,
begins to scan for the target. On cue (Up, voice command, or whistle blast), the
soldier will turn toward and engage the target.

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Range Layout Example

25M Individual shoot


lanes

Left and right shoot lane

Sample Range Layout

2
Stor
y

2
Stor
y

2
Stor
y

Door
Clearing
Lane
Shotgu

Squa
d
Shoot
Hous

Squa
d
Shoot
Hous

Squa
d
Shoot
Hous

Villag

Villag

Villag

Squa
d
Shoot
Hous

Squa
d
Shoot
Hous

Squa
d
Shoot
Hous

CQM

CQM

CQM

CQM

CQM

CQM

Practice CQM Lanes

Squad shoot house Lane

Village lane with 2 story

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CLOSE QUARTERS BATTLE


CLOSE QUARTERS BATTLE TECHNIQUES
A large portion of combat in built-up areas takes place at very close quarters, often
between small groups of combatants within the confines of a single room. Because
of this, individual combat actions can flare up quickly and be over in a matter of
seconds. Success or failure is often determined by life or death decisions made and
actions taken almost instinctively by individual soldiers and small teams as they
encounter different situations in each new room. One of the complexities often is the
intermixing of enemy with civilians in the same building, often in the same rooms.
Employing close quarters combat techniques is often the most effective means of
achieving victory while minimizing friendly losses, avoiding unnecessary civilian
casualties, and conserving ammunition and demolitions for subsequent operations.

1. CLOSE QUARTERS COMBAT


Close quarters combat techniques do not replace battle drills. They are techniques to
be used when the tactical situation calls for room-by-room clearing of a relatively
intact building in which enemy and civilians may be intermixed. These techniques
involve increased risk in order to clear a building methodically, rather than using
overwhelming firepower to neutralize all its inhabitants. Certain close quarters
combat techniques, such as methods of movement, firing stances, weapon
positioning, and reflexive shooting, are useful for all combat in confined areas. Other
techniques, such as entering a room without first neutralizing known enemy
occupants, are appropriate in only some tactical situations. Generally, if a room or
building is occupied by an alerted enemy force that is determined to resist, and if
most or all civilians are clear, overwhelming firepower should be employed to avoid
friendly casualties. In such a situation, supporting fires, demolitions, and
fragmentation grenades should be used to neutralize a space before friendly troops
enter. In some combat situations, however, the use of heavy supporting fires and
demolitions would cause unacceptable collateral damage. In other situations, enemy
are so intermixed with civilians that ANA forces cannot in good conscience use all
their available supporting fires, and room-by-room clearing may be necessary. At
such times, close quarters combat techniques are most appropriate.
2. PRINCIPLES OF CLOSE QUARTERS COMBAT
As in all other military operations, battles that occur at close quarters, such as within
a room or hallway, must be planned and executed with care. Units must train,
practice, and rehearse close quarters combat techniques until each fire team and
squad operates smoothly as a team. Each member of the unit must understand the
principles of close quarters combat and the part his actions play in their successful
execution. The principles of close quarters combat are surprise, speed, and
controlled violent action.
a. Surprise is the key to a successful assault at close quarters. The fire team or
squad clearing the room must achieve surprise, if only for seconds, by deceiving,
distracting, or startling the enemy. Sometimes stun or flash grenades may be used
to achieve surprise. These are more effective against a non-alert, poorly trained
enemy than against alert, well-trained enemy.

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b. Speed provides a measure of security to the clearing unit. Speed lets soldiers
use the first few vital seconds provided by surprise to their maximum advantage. In
close quarters combat, speed does not mean haste. It can best be described as
careful hurry.
c. Controlled violent action eliminates or neutralizes the enemy while giving him
the least chance of inflicting friendly casualties. Controlled violent action is not
limited to the application of firepower only. It also involves a soldier mind-set of
complete domination.
Each of the principles of close quarters combat has a synergistic relationship to the
others. Controlled violence coupled with speed increases surprise. Hence,
successful surprise allows increased speed.
3. FUNDAMENTALS OF CLOSE QUARTERS COMBAT
The ten fundamentals of close quarters combat address actions soldiers take while
moving along confined corridors to the room to be cleared, while preparing to enter
the room, during room entry and target engagement, and after contact. Team
members must
a. Move tactically and silently while securing the corridors to the room to be
cleared. Carry only the minimum amount of equipment. Rucksacks and loose items
carried by soldiers tire them and slow their pace, and cause noise.
b. Arrive undetected at the entry to the room in the correct order of entrance,
prepared to enter on a single command.
c. Enter quickly and dominate the room. Move immediately to positions that allow
complete control of the room and provide unobstructed fields of fire.
d. Eliminate all enemy within the room by the use of fast, accurate, and
discriminating fires.
e. Gain and maintain immediate control of the situation and all personnel in the
room.
f. Confirm whether enemy casualties are wounded or dead. Disarm and segregate
the wounded. Search all enemy casualties.
g. Immediately perform a cursory search of the room. Determine if a detailed
search is required.
h. Evacuate all wounded and any friendly dead.
i. Mark the room as cleared, using a simple, clearly identifiable marking in
accordance with the unit SOP.
j. Maintain security at all times and be prepared to react to more enemy contact at
any moment. Do not neglect rear security.
4. INITIAL ACTIONS TO CLEAR A BUILDING
a. The unit isolates the building using direct or indirect fires before the lead
element moves to the breach point. The unit
(1) Covers mounted avenues of approach with anti armor weapons.
(2) Covers dismounted avenues of approach with automatic weapons.
b. The unit suppresses enemy fires and neutralizes suspected and likely enemy
positions as the breach and clearing teams move into position. The unit obscures
the movement of the breach and clearing teams to the building by using smoke.
c. Breach and clearing teams secure a foothold in the building. Teams move along
covered and concealed routes and enter at the highest possible level of the

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building. The unit shifts fires to other floors or buildings as the clearing teams enter.
If possible, clearing teams clear hallways and rooms from the top of the building
down.
5. COMPOSITION OF THE CLEARING TEAM
Close quarters combat clearing techniques are designed to be executed by a fourman team. Because of the confined spaces typical of building- and room-clearing
operations, units larger than squads quickly become unwieldy. When shortages of
personnel demand it, two- and three-man teams can conduct room-clearing
operations, but four-man teams are optimum. Using fewer personnel greatly
increases the combat strain and the risks to the participants.

TL

AR

GN

RM

6. BREACHING
a. An integral part of close quarters combat is the ability to gain access quickly to
the room to be cleared. Breaching techniques vary widely based on the type of
construction encountered and the types of munitions available to the breaching
force. Techniques range from simple mechanical breaching to complex, specialized
demolitions.
b. Demolitions are often needed to defeat barriers that are more elaborate or to
produce a desired effect to aid the initial entry.
c. Mechanical breaching is not addressed here, but it is an assumed capability
within all units. Whether or not to take the time to defeat weak barriers, such as
doors or windows, by means of crowbars, saws, sledgehammers, or axes is a
decision that must be made based on the conditions of METT-TC. Mechanical
breaching should always be planned as a backup to an explosive breach.
7. BREACH POINT
Clearing team members must approach the breach point quickly, quietly, and in
standard order. This approach preserves the element of surprise and allows for quick
entry and domination of the room.
a. The order of movement to the breach point is determined by the method of
breach and the intended actions at the breach point. The members of the fire team
are assigned numbers 1 through 4, with the team leader always designated number
3. If one member of the clearing team is armed with the RPK rather than an AK-47
rifle, he should be designated number 4. A soldier carrying an SVD should not be
on the clearing team.
b. The standard order of movement through the breach is 1,2,3,4 unless the team
leader changes the order based on the tactical situation. The clearing team must
always be alert. Team members provide security at the breach point and to the
rear, laterally down corridors, and upward if near stairs or landings. The two basic

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techniques for moving down hallways are shown in Figure #1. Hallway intersections
are dangerous and should be approached with cautiously as shown in Figures #2
and #3.
(1) The serpentine technique is used in narrow hallways. The number 1 man
provides security to the front. His sector of fire includes any enemy soldiers who
appear at the far end of the hall or from any doorways near the end. The number
2 and number 3 men cover the left and right sides of the number 1 man. Their
sectors of fire include any soldiers who appear suddenly from nearby doorways
on either side of the hall. They cover the number 1 mans flanks. The number 4
man, normally carrying the RPK, provides rear protection against any enemy
soldiers suddenly appearing behind the clearing team.
(2) The rolling-T technique is used in wide hallways. The number 1 and number
2 men move abreast, covering the opposite side of the hallway from the one,
they are walking on. The number 3 man covers the far end-of the hallway from a
position behind the number 1 and number 2 men, firing between them. Once
again, the number 4 man provides rear security.

Figure #1, Hallway clearing techniques

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Figure #2, T-shaped hallway intersections clearing positions.

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Figure #3, Hallway intersection clearing positions and


sectors of fire.

8. INDIVIDUAL MOVEMENT AND WEAPONS CONTROL


As in all combat situations, the clearing team must move tactically and safely.
Individuals who are part of a clearing team must move in a standard manner, using
practiced techniques known to all.
a. When moving, team members hold their weapons with the muzzle pointed in
the direction of travel. They keep the butt of the rifle in the pocket of their shoulder,
with the muzzle slightly down to allow for unobstructed vision. Soldiers keep both
eyes open and swing the muzzle with their head so that the rifle is always aimed
where the soldier is looking.
b. Team members avoid flagging, or leading, with the weapon when working
around windows, doors, comers, or areas where obstacles must be negotiated.
Flagging the weapon gives advance warning to anyone looking in the soldiers
direction, making it easier for an enemy to grab the weapon. Soldiers must keep
their weapons under control at all times.
c. Team members should keep weapons safe (selector switch on SAFE and index
finger outside of trigger guard) until a hostile target is identified and engaged. After
a team member clears his sector of all targets, he returns his weapon to the SAFE
position.

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d. If a soldier has a malfunction with his weapon during close quarters combat, he
should immediately drop to one knee and conduct immediate action to reduce the
malfunction. Once the weapon is operational, there is no need to return to the
standing position to engage targets unless the soldier must move to another firing
position. Valuable time is saved by resuming target engagement from the kneeling
position. When other members of the team see a soldier drop to one knee, they
know immediately that he has a malfunction and that they should engage targets in
his sector.
9. ACTIONS OUTSIDE THE POINT OF ENTRY
Actions outside the point of entry must be quick and well rehearsed. The doorway or
breach point is a dangerous position. The clearing team is focused on entry and
could be surprised by an enemy appearing unexpectedly in the corridor.
a. Clearing team members positions relative to the door are important, as are
their weapons carry positions. Team members stand as close to the entry point as
possible, staying in a crouched position. They hold their weapons in either the highcarry or the low-carry position. They ensure the muzzle is not pointed at another
team member.
b. All team members must signal one another that they are prepared before the
team enters the room. The last man taps or squeezes the arm of the man in front of
him, and each one passes this signal along. Team members avoid the use of a
verbal signal, which may alert the enemy and destroy the element of surprise.
c. All individual equipment that is carried must be selected carefully and prepared
properly to ensure that it is quiet and not cumbersome. Essential items only should
be carried during close quarters combat. All team members should wear protective
vests and helmets. Additional protective equipment, such as gloves, kneepads, or
goggles, may be worn, depending on the situation and the units level of training.
10. ACTIONS UPON ENTRY
The entire team should enter the room as quickly and as smoothly as possible and
clear the doorway immediately.
a. The door is the focal point of anyone in the room. It is known as the fatal
funnel, because it focuses attention at the precise point where the individual team
members are the most vulnerable. Moving into the room quickly reduces the
chance that anyone will be hit by enemy fire directed at the doorway. The sequence
of movements described below is shown in Figures #4 through #13
b. On the signal to go, the clearing team moves through the door quickly and
takes up positions inside the room that allow it to completely dominate the room
and eliminate the threat. Team members stop movement only after they have
cleared the door and reached their designated point of domination.
(1) The first man to enter moves in as straight a line as possible toward the
corner for which he is responsible. He may then turn and move deep into the far
corner of the room. The size of the room, any obstacles in the room such as
furniture, and by the number and location of enemy and noncombatants in the
room determine the depth of his movement, see Figure #4.

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Figure #4, Path of #1 man center and corner door.

(2) The second man enters and moves toward the corner in the opposite
direction, following the wall, but not directly against it, see Figure #5.

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Figure #5, Path of #2 man, center door and corner


door
(3) The number 3 man (team leader) buttonhooks inside the room at least 1
meter from the door, but between the number 1 man and the door (Figure #6).

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Figure #6, Path of #3 man center door and corner door.

(4) The squad leader can either use the number 4 man (normally the Automatic
Rifleman) as rear security at the breach site, or he can have him enter with the
remainder of the team. If he enters, the number 4 man moves in the direction of
the number 2 man and buttonhooks in the same way between the number 2 man
and the door, see Figure #6.
c. To make close quarters combat techniques work, each member of the team
must know his sector of fire and how his sector overlaps and links with the sectors
of the other team members. Team members do not move to the point of domination
and then engage their targets. They engage targets as they move to their
designated point. However, engagements must not slow movement to their points
of domination. Team members may shoot from as short a range as 1 to 2 inches.
They engage the most immediate enemy threats first. Examples of immediate
threats are enemy personnel who
(1) Are armed and prepared to return fire immediately.
(2) Block movement to the position of domination.
(3) Are within arms reach of a clearing team member.
(4) Are within 3 to 5 feet of the breach point.

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d. Each clearing team member has a designated sector of fire that is unique to
him initially but expands to overlap sectors of the other team members.
(1) The number 1 and number 2 men are initially concerned with the area along
the wall on either side of the door or entry point. This area is in their path of
movement, and it is their primary sector of fire. Their alternate sector of fire is the
wall that they are moving toward, sweeping back to the far corner.
(2) The number 3 and number 4 men start at the center of the wall opposite their
point of entry and sweep to the left if moving toward the left, or to the right if
moving toward the right. They stop short of their respective team member (either
the number 1 man or the number 2 man).
e. While the team members move toward their points of domination, they engage
all targets in their sector. Team members must exercise fire control and
discriminate between hostile and non-combatant occupants of the room. Shooting
is done without stopping, using reflexive shooting techniques. Because the soldiers
are moving and shooting at the same time, they must move using careful hurry.
They do not rush with total disregard for any obstacles. Figure #7 shows all four
team members at their points of domination and their overlapping sectors of fire.

Figure #7, Points of domination and sectors of fire.

f. When full four-man teams are not available for room clearing, three-man and
two-man teams can be used. Figures 8 and 9 show the paths, points of domination,

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and sectors of fire for a three-man clearing team. Figures 10 and 11 show the same
thing for a two-man team.

Figure #8, Points of domination and sectors of fire for a


three-man team.

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Figure #9, Points of domination and sectors of fire for a


three-man team.

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Figure #10, Points of domination and sectors of fire for


a two-man team.

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Figure #11, Points of domination and sectors of fire for a


two-man team.

Marksmanship and training are keys to success in close


quarters battle. The soldier that shoots first, hits first will
routinely be the victor in the close fight.

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