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higher SECONDARY

SCHOOL
……place………….
(AFFLIATED TO C.B.S.E)

LOGO

SESSION

:

2014-2015

CHEMISTRY- INVESTIGATORY PROJECT
ON

Study of effect of Potassium
bisulphite as a food preservative

Submitted to
Submitted by


Chemistry Teacher,
….
CLASS 12,
Class-12,
Section-A
“Intelligence plus character - that is the goal of
true education.”

CERTIFICATE

is the bonafide work of the student done under the guidance and supervision of Mrs. to you. NAME: REGISTRATION NO./Mr…. always.SCHOOL LOGO This is to certify that the project work titled “Study of effect of Potassium bisulphite as a food preservative” submitted by NAME (class XIIth PCM group) in partial fulfilment of the credit for the chemistry project evaluation from “SCHOOL” . as a project report. you know that we feel like saying ‘I love you’. dear GOD. Rather than saying “thank you” to you. . Chemistry Teacher during session 2014-2015. : DATE: INTERNAL EXAMINER SUBJECT: CLASS: PLACE: EXTERNAL EXAMINER ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Our project can never begin without you.

except for quotations . and Mr… who gave support to us and library which provides all useful books related to this project. Special thanks to our Principal. Thank you very much. Project team Success is not final. you are the real foundation of the project done by us. our Vice Principal and our chemistry teachers.We must say thanks to our parents who provided us sufficient money and help in making of this project. teachers who really showered constructive feedbacks and suggestions without which this project would not have been in present form. Mrs/Mr …. Next on our thank list are our friends. Mr…. failure is not fatal DECLARATION We hereby declare that the project work entitled “Study of effect of Potassium bisulphite as a food preservative” submitted to the “SCHOOL. PLACE” is a record of original work done by us.

" INDEX SL. Project team "The ladder of success doesn't care who climbs it. TOPIC PAG E NO./Mr… ".and summaries which have been duly acknowledged. under the guidance of "Mrs. 1 OBJECTIVE 1 2 INTRODUCTION 2 3 AIM 4 4 APPARATUS REQUIRED 5 5 MATERIALS & CHEMICALS 6 6 THEORY 7 7 PROCEDURE 8 . The project has not been accepted for any credits based on investigatory projects previously.N O.

EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION OF SUGAR EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION OF KHSO3 10 10 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE 11 11 12 12 EFFECT OF TIME RESULTS.CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS 13 BIBLIOGRAPHY 14 14 NOTES 14 8 9 9 13 OBJECTIVE The objective of this project is to study the effect of Potassium bisulphite as a food Conditio preservative ns under various conditions. Concentrati on Time Temperatur e .

INTRODUCTION Growth of microorganisms in a food material can be inhibited by adding certain chemical substances. However the chemical substances should not be harmful to human beings. In our country. two chemical preservatives which are permitted for use are: 1. Such chemical substances which are added to food materials to prevent their spoilage are known as chemical preservatives. Benzoic acid(or sodium benzoate) .

Potassium bisulphite on reaction with acid of the juice liberates Sulphur dioxide which is very effective in killing the harmful micro-organisms present in food stuffs and thus prevents it from getting spoilt. squashes. The Manitoba Agriculture. fruit juices. HSO3–(aq) + H+(aq) H2O(l) + SO2(g) The advantage of this method is that no harmful chemical is left in the food. This is not used for preserving coloured food materials because Sulphur dioxide produced from this chemical is a bleaching agent. squashes and jams sodium benzoate is used as preservative because it is soluble in water and hence easily mixes with the food product. sodium benzoate is commonly used for the preservation of food materials. Potassium bisulphite is used for the preservation of colourless food materials such as fruit juices. apple and raw mango chutney.2. Sulphur bisulphite) dioxide(or potassium Benzoic acid or its sodium salt. Food and Rural . For the preservation of fruits.

It is also an additive for homemade wine. In spray form. it may help prevent foods from discolouring or browning. Sulphites are common preservatives in smoked or processed meats and dried fruits. yeast and bacteria in foods. At different concentrations and . Potassium bisulphite is found in some cold drinks and fruit juice concentrates. ii.Initiatives reports that this product works to prevent the growth of mould. AIM The aim of this project is to study the effect of potassium bisulphite as food preservative. At different temperatures. i.

iii. For different intervals of time. APPARATUS Conical flasks Beaker Requiremen ts Peeler (100 ml) Glass Bottles Pestle and mortar .

Glass rod MATERIALS AND CHEMICALS Balance Knife Potassium Bisulphite Requireme nts Sugar Fresh Fruits .

These changes may be checked by adding small amounts of potassium bisulphite. The effectiveness of KHSO3 as preservative depends upon its concentration under different conditions which may be determined experimentally.THEORY Food materials undergo natural changes due to temperature.It improves shelf-life and safety by inactivating spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. #4. taste.It does not change organoleptic (smell. etc.) and nutritional attributes. An ideal method of food preservation has the following characteristics: #1. texture. #2. time and enzymatic action and become unfit for consumption.It does not leave residues. #3. colour.It is cheap and convenient to apply and .

4. PROCEDURE: 1. wash them thoroughly with water and peel off their outer cover. temperature and time.It encounters no objection from consumers and legislators.#5. 2. 3 . Mix with sugar and colouring matter. It may be used to study the effect of concentration of sugar and KHSO . Grind it to a paste in the mortar with a pestle. Take fresh fruits. 3. The material so obtained is fruit jam.

Mix contents thoroughly with a stirring rod.5 gm NO Few Few Some More Change Change Change Change Change RECORD: Result: The increase in concentration of sugar causes fast decaying . jam taken sugar KHSO3 1 I added 100 gms 5. I. of No. 6. of Wt. Add 0. 3. Close the bottle and allow them to stand for one week or 10 days at room temperature. Add 5.5 gm Observations (Days) 2 3 4 5 Few More Change Change III 100 gms 15. Bottle Wt. 4.Put 100 gms of fruit jam in each bottle. Take three wide mouthed reagent bottles labeled as I II III. II and III respectively. 2.00 gms 0. 10.0 gms of sugar to bottle No. of Wt.(A)Effect of concentration of Sugar: 1. Observe the changes taking place in Jam every day.0 gms and 15. 5.5gm NO NO NO Few Change Change Change Change NO NO Few Some Few Change Change Change Change more II 100 gms 10.00 gms 0.0 gms.00 gms 0.5 gm of KHSO3 to each bottle.

0gm no no no no few III 100 gms 5. RECORD: Result: The increase in concentration of KHSO3 increase more time of preservation (C)Effect of temperature: – . Mix the contents thoroughly with a glass rod. 2.0 gm and 3.00 gms 1. Add 5. 3. II. Take bottles labeled as I. of No.0 gm no no no no no all the bottles at room temperature for about 10 days and observe the changes everyday. of Wt. Add 1. jam taken sugar KHSO3 added e Observations (Days) 1 2 3 4 K 5 e p I 100 gms 5.(B)Effect of concentration of KHSO3 :– 1.0 gm of KHSO3 to bottle No. I. 2. III.0gm no no no few some II 100 gms 5.00 gms 3. Bottle Wt. 4. 6. II and III respectively. Put 100 gm of Jam in each bottle.00 gms 2.0 gm of sugar to each bottle.0 gm. of Wt. 5.

.0 gm of KHSO3 to bottle No.0gm gms II 100 gms 10. (D)Effect of time: – 1.00 2. III in a thermostat at 50˚C. I.0 gm gms III 100 gms 10. of Wt. RECORD: Bottle Wt. Observe the changes taking place in the jam for 10 days.00 gms 2. II and III respectively.0 gm of sugar and 2. bottle No. Add 10. Take 100 gm of Jam in three bottles lebelled as I. Mix the contents thoroughly with a stirring rod. 4. jam sugar KHSO3 Observations (Days) taken 1 2 3 4 5 No No No No No change change change change change No No No No Slight change change change change change No No Slight Some Some change change change change more added I 100 gms 10. I in the refrigerator at 0˚C. II and III. II and III.00 2. Take three bottles and label them as I.0 gm change Result: The increase in temperature causes faster fermentation of jam. II at room temperature (25˚C) and bottle No. of No.1. 3. Keep bottle No. 2. of Wt.

Note the changes taking place in each bottle and record the observations. Keep bottle I for 7 days. I No ****** ****** II No Taste ****** changes III No No Unpleasant smell develops RECORD: Result: With increase of days. we can conclude that KHSO3 acts as a viable food . 4. 3. To each bottle add 25 g of Jam and 1 g of potassium bisulphite. 7 Observations(Days) 14 21 Bottle No. RESULTS. bottle II for 14 days and bottle III for 21 days at room temperature. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS From the experiment. the quality of the jam deteriorates.2.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Reference books: . But increase in concentration of sugar content in the food material causes fast decaying. it can trigger lung irritation and asthma. Though potassium bisulphite is a good food preservative (class II preservative). On passage of time. Also. the experiment shows that rate of fermentation of food stuffs is directly proportional to temperature conditions. So.preservative whose increased concentration can increase time for preservation. even in the presence of KHSO3. our suggestion is that the usage of food preservatives must be reduced to the extent possible. the food gets spoiled.

org www.co.D. NCERT CLASS 12 CHEMISTRY BOOKSPART I.nic.in www.ncert.com NOTES .livestrong.wikipedia. II  CONCISE INORGANIC CHEMISTRY BY J.google.in en.LEE  NCERT LABORATORY MANUAL CLASS 12 CHEMISTRY Reference websites:     www.