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BY: SHIVAPRASAD.P (080922004)






Department of Mechanical Engineering, Manipal Page 1


1. Introduction.

2. Principal stress trajectories (Force flow lines).

3. Balanced design.

4. Criteria and objectives of design.

5. Strength based design.

6. Rigidity based design.

7. Impact based design.

8. Design for Tension and Compression Strength

9. Designing for Stiffness

10. Conclusion.

11. Reference.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Manipal Page 2


Product design deals with the human activity of converting new ideas into reality for the
fulfillment of the mankind. Safety is a very important consideration in product design. Whether
the people paying for the accidents are the consumers, distributers, the manufactures or the
insurance companies, it is the consumer who suffers. Hence the machine must possess the
essential strength that will not lead to accidents, in case of functional failures.

Strength is the characteristic of the machine component defining the maximum force it can
bear. The load is the actual force imparted to the component, when the machine operates. The
strength of the components may vary, because of uncertainties in the material properties and
finishing processes. Sometimes the load even exceeds the estimated load, which may lead to
functional failure of the machine or accidents. This can be avoided by providing extra strength to
the component as a margin of overloading which is termed as factor of safety. Factor of safety is
the ratio of strength to load. If a component is given a very large factor of safety, the excess
strength leads to more material wastage. So a better engineering practice is to obtain an accurate
evaluation of the strength and the load, and to use small factor of safety. To support a load with
the least amount of material, lines of force should be allowed to flow directly between points of
external forces. Geometry of the component is also altered to keep the strength uniform
throughout, in order to get a balanced design.


Machines are designed to transmit forces such that effective work can be done. The ability of
machine element to carry external load is its strength. The line of forces can be imagined to flow
from the point of application of force to the end of the product.

In pure compression and pure tension applications, the forces flow smoothly and straight
through the part. Components carrying pure compressive force or pure tensile force are quite
efficient in utilizing the strength of the material. If the force flows in curves, there is usually
bending applied to the member. Maximum shear stresses exist in planes at 45° to the lines of
force. In Strength of Materials terminology, force flow lines are termed principal stress

Example: 1) Flow of lines of force from the hammer to the punch. They pass
along the length of the punch and come out at the tip. Since the stress is inversely
proportional to cross sectional area, there is maximum stress at the tip of the punch
where area approaches to zero. Therefore to avoid failure of the punch the maximum
stress should be less than the yield stress.

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2) The curved section of the C-clamp is subjected to
bending and axial tension, whereas at the jaws are subjected to
only compressive load. The force flows from the curved beam
to the screw. The failure of C-clamp may be due to
compressive yielding of jaws, bending failure in curved
section, shear failure of screw threads. These sections are
designed for enough strength to prevent each mode of failure.

3) To support a load with the least amount of material, lines of force should be allowed to
flow directly between points of external forces. Direct lines of force do not cause any bending
and result in the shortest physical length of a load-carrying member. It is clear by the illustration
of two types of chairs as shown in the diagrams below. Fig.(a) depicts the chair design and
Fig.(b) illustrates force flow. The chair with direct force-flow is more efficient than the chair
with curved force-flow. Force-flow visualization is a good technique for understanding how
forces are transmitted through components and assemblies.

Fig. (a) Fig. (b)

Bending can be decomposed into tension and compression and shear must occur between tension
and compression on a flow line as in case of bolted assemblies.

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In order to prevent failure, the strength of a member has to be greater than the induced stress
in the member. However, a member member with excessive strength wastes material. E.As far as
possible, the safety factor should be kept uniform throughout each machine element for a
balanced design. The component of a machine having the lowest safety factor is the critical
element. In C-clamp the curved portion is the critical element as it is subjected to bending stress
and has highest bending moment. Doubling or tripling the strength at the jaws or anvils will not
improve the clamp as a whole. A balanced design without excessive over strength
strengt would result if
the safety factor for every component in the machine were the same.

The above figure shows two cantilever beams both of which have the highest bending
moments at the fixed ends which are the critical elements of the beams. If the stresses at the
fixed ends are less than the strength of the material, the beams will not fail. Due to their smaller
stresses, other elements in the uniform beam have larger safety factors than the critical element.
The uniform m beam is, therefore not balanced in stress and strength. The width of the tapered
beam decreases correspondingly with the bending moment which decreases linearly from the
fixed end to the point of application of the force. The tapered beam with uniform safety
sa factors is
thus a balanced design. They can bear same maximum external load. Yet, the tapered beam saves
half the volume of the material required for uniform beam.

Similarly in case of a punch, balanced design to increase the yield strength of the material
towards its tip is usually achieved by heat-treating
heat treating the tip of the punch. By doing this the yield
strength Sy is made inversely proportional to cross sectional area. i.e; Sy =

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The criterion is that the strength of the material must be larger than the induced stress, σ,
anywhere in the machine, especially in the critical elements. The design for strength means same
as designing against yielding and fracture.

To prevent yielding, Sy > σ

To prevent fracture, Sult > σ

Where Sy is the yield strength and Sult the ultimate strength.


This design criterion is applied in machine tool design and instrument design. The stress level
involved is very low and there is no danger of failing by fracture. Cast iron is used extensively in
machine tools because of a high modulus-to-strength ratio.

Rigidity in structures is important in the prevention of vibration. It is an important factor in the

design of consumer products. This factor favors the use of low-strength, high-modulus materials.


When load is applied at short instant of time on an object is called as impact load. During
impact can create momentarily peak stress in the bodies. Impact design and shock proofing is
most important in the case of automobile bumpers, automobile safety devices, power tools,
watches, electrical and electronic products. Impact is also the foremost factor in designing boxes
and containers for packaging.

In an impact situation, the controlling characteristics of a structure is product of strength and

deflection i.e. energy storage capacity also known as resilience. Impact Energy is given as one-
half the product of the maximum force and maximum deflection

Impact Energy = ½ Fmax * δmax

Material toughness: RESILIENCE:

The energy that a unit volume of material absorbs is given by area under the stress-strain
curve. The elastic part this energy capacity is called the modulus of resilience, R. Mathematically
ௌ೤ మ
expressed as
. The energy capacity up to the fracture the fracture point of a material is
the toughness. An impact with more energy than the toughness of the material causes fracture.

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Impact strength plays important factor while choosing composite materials. Adding micro
glass beads to plastics will increase the ultimate strength and decrease the elongation. The
toughness of the material may be lowered. Such a material is not suitable for an application
where impact strength is needed.



Uniform distribution is usually the ideal stress

stress distribution. In such a case, the design is
balanced and the material is fully utilized. If the stress is uniform, the energy capacity of the
object is equal to the toughness of the material multiplied by volume. In most practical situations,
end connection sand geometric arrangements prevent perfectly uniform stress distribution


Many materials are stronger in compression. Glass rods and concrete bars will fail in tension
if bending loads are applied. The
The ratio of compressive strength to tensile strength is: 3.5, for cast
iron; 5 for glass; and 10 for concrete. Noticeable exceptions are materials with oriented grain or
molecular structures
tructures such as steel cables, nylon fibers, natural fibers, and glass fibers. Such
materials are stronger in tension than in compression.

Stability is the major

ajor advantage of tension members. A slightly curved member will straighten
out under a tensile load. Compression members are unstable and may buckle. Long members ate
unstable and may buckle. The stability of long and slender compression members depends oon the
elastic modulus, E, rather than on the. Material yield strength, Sy, As far as stability goes high
strength steel members is not superior to low
low-strength steel members.

FIG: Design of end plates

of steel and cast iron.
A concave end-plate
plate for pressure cylinder experiences compressive stresses and may fail due
to buckling. A convex end-plate
plate is under tensile stress and may fail if the material in the plate
has a low tensile strength. Therefore, a steel end plate should be made convex. If cast iron is

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used, the concave shape is preferable as shown in. The choice of the shape depends on the
strength-to-stiffness (elastic modulus, E) ratio of the material.


In addition to being strong enough to resist the expected service loads, there may also be the
added requirement of stiffness to ensure that deflections do not exceed certain limits.

When an initially straight beam is loaded, it becomes curved as a result of its deflection. As
the deflection at a given point increases, the radius of curvature at this point decreases. The
radius of curvature, r, at any point on the curve is given by the relationship:

r = E*I/M
Above equation shows that the stiffness of a beam under bending is proportional to the elastic
constant of the material, E, and the moment of inertia of the cross-section, I. Selecting materials
with higher elastic constant and efficient disposition of material in the cross-section are essential
in designing beams for stiffness. Placing material as far as possible from the neutral axis of
bending is generally an effective means of increasing I for a given area of cross-section.

The stiffness of components under bending is proportional to the elastic constant of the
material (E) and the moment of inertia of the cross-section (J). Selecting materials with higher E
and efficient disposition of material in the cross-section are essential in designing such
components for stiffness. Placing material as far as possible from the neutral axis of bending is
generally an effective means of increasing I for a given area of cross-section.

A successful design should take into account the function, material properties, and
manufacturing processes. The relationship between material properties and design is complex
because the behavior of the material in the finished product can be quite different from that of
the stock material.

Product Design and Manufacturing by A.K.Chitale and R.G.Gupta, Prentice Hall India, 1st
Edition, Second Print,1999.
Material Selection For Engineering Design by Mahmoud.M.Farag, Prentice Hall, 1st

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Manipal Page 8