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Ratio and Proportion Scribd

# Ratio and Proportion Scribd

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This is a book on basic concepts and higher thinking skill concept on Ratio and Proportion. This will be very helpful to all the students preparing for various competitive exams. Best of Luck!
This is a book on basic concepts and higher thinking skill concept on Ratio and Proportion. This will be very helpful to all the students preparing for various competitive exams. Best of Luck!

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07/01/2013

# RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio : The ratio of two qualities a and b in the same units, is the fraction a/b and

we write it as a:b. In the ratio a:b, A is known as the antecedent and b is known as the consequent. Ex: The ratio 5:9 represents 5/9 with antecedent=5 , consequent=9 Proportion: The equality of two ratios is called proportion. If a:b=c:d, we write a:b::c:d and we say that a,b,c and d are in proportion. Here a and b are called extremes, while b and c are called mean terms. Product of means=product of extremes Thus, a:b::c:d or (ππ Γ ππ) = (ππ Γ ππ)

Compounded Ratio Ratios are compounded by multiplying together the antecedents for a new antecedent, and the consequents for a new consequent. Ex- Find the compounded ratio of the following ratios3:4, 2:3, 4:5 and 3:8 Sol:
4Γ3Γ5Γ8 3Γ2Γ4Γ3

The required ratio = 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. Sub-duplicate ratio of (a:b) is οΏ½βππ: βπποΏ½. 7. Triplicate ratio of (a:b) is (ππ3 : ππ 3 )
3 3

8. Sub-triplicate ratio of (a:b) is οΏ½ βππ: βπποΏ½. 9. Reciprocal ratio of a : b is b : a 10. Inverse Ratio of a:b is b:a.

Important terms: Fourth proportional: If a:b::c:d, then d is called the fourth proportional to a,b and c. Third proportional: If a:b::b:c, then c is called third proportional to a and b. Mean proportional: Mean proportional between a and b is SQRT(a*b). Compounded ratio: The compounded ratio of the ratios (a:b), (c:d),(e:f) is (ace:bdf). Duplicate Ratio: If the given ratio is (a:b) then its duplicate ratio is (ππ2 : ππ 2 ).

=

20

3

.

Important Properties: 1. Invertendo. If a : b :: c : d then b : a :: d : c

2. 3. 4. 5.

Alternendo. If a : b :: c : d then a : c :: b : d Componendo. If a : b :: c : d then (a +b) : b :: (c +d) : d Dividendo. If a : b :: c : d then (a -b) : b :: (c -d) : d Componendo and Dividendo. If a : b :: c : d then (a +b) : (a -b) :: (c +d) : (c -d) i.e., a/b = c/d => (a +b)/(a - b) = (c +d)/(c +d) 6. If a/b = c/d = e/f = ..., then each ratio = (a +c +e +...)/(b +d +f +...) Which is same as ( pa + qc + re +. . . )/( pb + qd + rf + . . . ) i.e a/b = c/d = e/f =(a +c +e +...)/(b +d +f +...) = ( pa + qc + re +. . . )/( pb + qd + rf + . . . ) = ( pna + qnc + rne +. . . )1/n/( pnb + qnd + rnf + . . . )1/n where p, q, r, etc. are constants such that all of them are simultaneously not equal to zero. Some important terms used:

1. Ratio of equality : If the antecedent is equal to the consequent in a ratio then the ratio is known as the ratio of equality. Eg β 6:6 2. Ratio of greater inequality : If the antecedent is greater than the consequent in a ratio then the ratio is known as the ratio of greater inequality. Eg β 11:6 3. Ratio of less inequality : If the antecedent is less than the consequent in a ratio then the ratio is known as the ratio of less inequality. Eg β 6:11 Proportional Division The process by which a quantity may be divided into parts which bear a given ratio to one another, is called proportional division and the parts are known as proportional parts. For Example : Divide the quantity βaβ in the ratio x:y:z then First Part = π₯π₯
+π¦π¦+π§π§ π§π§ π₯π₯ π¦π¦

Second Part = Third Part = π₯π₯

+π¦π¦+π§π§ π₯π₯

+π¦π¦+π§π§

Γ ππ

Γ ππ

Γ ππ

VARIATION: 1. We say that x is directly proportional to y, if x=ky for some constant k and we write π₯π₯ π¦π¦

2. We say that x is inversely proportional to y, if xy=k for some constant and we write π¦π¦ π₯π₯

1

Solved examples:
1. Divide 121 into 3 parts such that the ratio of the three numbers is 2:4:5. Sol: Ist part =
4 2+4+5 5 2

IInd part =

2+4+5

IIIrd part =

2+4+5

Γ 121 = 44

Γ 121 = 22

Γ 121 = 55

2. If a:b = 4:5 and b:c = 3:7. Find a:b:c? Sol: a:b = 4:5 b:c = 3:7 Now, we will equalize the value of b in both the ratios Thus, we get a : b = (4 : 5) x 3 b:c = (3 : 7) x 5 Thus we get, a : b = 12 : 15 b:c = 15 : 35 And hence the answer is a: b: c = 12:15:35. 3. Find the fourth proportion to 3,5,6. Sol: Let is the fourth proportion to 3,5,6.

Thus by definition we get 3 : 5 :: 6 : x On solving β ππ

ππ

Hence, the fourth proportion to 3, 5, 6 is 10. 4. Find third proportion to 4,16. Sol: Let the third proportion to 4, 16 be x. Then, according to the definition we get, 4 βΆ 16 βΆ : 16 βΆ π₯π₯ ππππ
16 4

= ππ ππ ππππ

ππ = ππ

Γππ ππ ππππ

ππ = ππππ

Hence, the third proportion to 4, 16 is 64.

=

16 π₯π₯ ππππ

π₯π₯ =

16 Γ16 4

= 64.

5. Find three numbers in the ratio of 1 : 2 : 3, so that the sum of their squares is equal to 350. Sol: Let the numbers be x, 2x and 3x. Then we have, = 350 ππππ 14π₯π₯ 2 = 350 ππππ π₯π₯ 2 = 25 ππππ π₯π₯ = 5 π₯π₯ 2 + (2π₯π₯)2 + (3π₯π₯)2 = 350 ππππ π₯π₯ 2 + 4π₯π₯ 2 + 9π₯π₯ 2

Hence the required numbers are β Ist part = x = 5 IIIrd part = 3x = 3 Γ 5 = 15. IInd part = 2x = 2Γ5 = 10

6. Find mean proportion between 9 and 36. Sol: Let the mean proportion be x. Then according to the question we get β 9 βΆ π₯π₯ βΆ : π₯π₯ βΆ 36 ππππ π₯π₯
9

Hence the mean proportion between 9 and 36 is 18 or -18. 7. 3A=4B=5C then A:B:C? Sol: Let 3A=4B=5C=k then we get

=

36 π₯π₯ ππππ

π₯π₯ 2 = 9 Γ 36 ππππ π₯π₯ = (18) ππππ (β18)

8. If 0.75 : x :: 5 : 8, then x is equal to: Sol:
0.75 π₯π₯ π΄π΄

: π΅π΅: πΆπΆ = : : = 20: 15: 12 ππ
ππ ππ 3 4 5 π΄π΄

= , π΅π΅ = , πΆπΆ = ππ
3 ππ 4 ππ

5

=

5 8 ππππ

0.75 Γ 8 = 5π₯π₯ ππππ π₯π₯ =

6 5 ππππ

π₯π₯ = 1.20

9. The salaries A, B, C are in the ratio 2 : 3 : 5. If the increments of 15%, 10% and 20% are allowed respectively in their salaries, then what will be new ratio of their salaries? Sol: Let A = 2k, B = 3k and C = 5k. A's new salary = B's new salary = C's new salary = Therefore, οΏ½
10 115 100

10. If Rs. 782 be divided into three parts, proportional to βΆ Sol: We are given the proportion as βΆ
1 2 2 3

23ππ 33ππ 10

:

120 100

110 100 ππππ

5ππ = 6ππ ππππ

3ππ = ππππ

2ππ =

33ππ 10

23ππ 10

: 6πποΏ½ = 23: 33: 60 βΆ

3 4

= 12 οΏ½ βΆ
1 2

1 2

2 3

2 3

Now according to the question the first part will be =

11. Two number are in the ratio 3 : 5. If 9 is subtracted from each, the new numbers are in the ratio 12 : 23. The smaller number is? Sol: Let the numbers be 3x and 5x. Then,
3π₯π₯β9 5π₯π₯β9

= ππππ. 204

6+8+9

βΆ οΏ½=
3 4 6

βΆ

3 4

, then the first part is:
12 2

Γ 782 =

βΆ

24 3

βΆ

36 4

23

6

Γ 782

=6βΆ8βΆ9

=

12 23 ππππ

23(3π₯π₯ β 9) = 12(5π₯π₯ β 9 ππππ 9π₯π₯ = 99 ππππ π₯π₯ = 11

12. In a bag, there are coins of 25 p, 10 p and 5 p in the ratio of 1 : 2 : 3. If there is Rs. 30 in all, how many 5 p coins are there? Sol: Let the number of 25 p, 10 p and 5 p coins be x, 2x, 3x respectively. Then, sum of their values = ππππ. οΏ½ Now, according to the question25π₯π₯ 100

The smaller number = (3 Γ 11) = 33

60π₯π₯ 100

+

Hence, the number of 5 p coins = (3 x 50) = 150.

= 30 ππππ π₯π₯ =

10Γ2π₯π₯ 100

+

5Γ3π₯π₯ 100

30 Γ100 60

οΏ½ = ππππ.

= 50

100

60 π₯π₯

13. In a partnership, two men invest \$2000 and \$3000. If the net profit of \$13500 at the end of the year is divided in accordance with the amount each partner invested, then the man who invested more gets? Sol: The ratio in which each of them invested is Now the second man invests more. The amount of profit who invested more =
2000 3000 2+3 3

14. 24-carat gold is pure gold. 18-carat gold is 3/4 gold and 20-carat gold is 5/6 gold. The ratio of pure gold in 20-carat gold to pure gold in 18-carat gold is? Sol: The amount of pure gold in 20 carat gold is 5/6 gold. The amount of pure gold in 18 carat gold is 3/4 gold. Now the ratio of pure gold in 20 carat gold and 18 carat gold is 5 5Γ4 20 10 = = =6= 3 6Γ3 18 9 4

Γ 13500 =

= .
2 3

3 5

Γ 13500 = \$8100

15. The ratio of Science and Arts students in a college is 4:3.If 14 Science students shift to Arts then the ratio becomes 1:1.Find the total strength of Science and Arts students. Sol: The ratio of Science and Arts students is 4:3. Now when 14 Science students shift to Arts then the ratio becomes=
3π₯π₯+14 4π₯π₯β14

Now according to the question: 4π₯π₯β14 = 1 ππππ 4π₯π₯ β 14 = 3π₯π₯ + 14 ππππ π₯π₯ = 28
3π₯π₯+14

16. A certain amount of money is to be divided between A and B in the ratio 3:1.But because of a miscalculation A received 1/14 of the total money additionally. Find the ratio in which they divided the money. Sol: Let the money to be divided be Rs. 28. Now, the original shares for A and B should be Rs. 21 and Rs. 7 respectively. Now, according to the questionA received 1/14th of the total adiitionally. So he got ππππ.
1

Now, the total strength of Science and Arts students = 4π₯π₯ + 3π₯π₯ = 7π₯π₯ = 7 Γ 28 = 196

17. The value of a diamond is proportional to the square of its weight. It is broken into three pieces whose weights are in the ratio 3:2:5. Find the loss incurred due to breakage if the value of the original diamond is Rs.20,000. Sol: Let the original weight of the diamond be 10x. Now, when it is the three parts will have the weights 3x, 2x and 5x. According to the question20000 ππππ π₯π₯ 2 ππ = 200 ππ(10π₯π₯)2 = 20000 ππππ 100π₯π₯ 2 ππ = 20000 ππππ π₯π₯ 2 ππ = 100 Now when the diamond breaks-

Now the changes ratio in which they divided the money for A:B =

14

Γ 28 = ππππ. 2 extra.
21+2 7β2

=

23 5

.

The price will be = ππ(3π₯π₯)2 + ππ(2π₯π₯)2 + ππ(5π₯π₯)2 = 9πππ₯π₯ 2 + 4πππ₯π₯ 2 + 25πππ₯π₯ 2 = 38πππ₯π₯ 2

18. Two numbers are in the ratio 5:6.If 22 is added to the first number and 22 is subtracted from the second number then the ratio of the two numbers becomes 6:5.Find the sum of the two numbers. Sol: Let the numbers be 5x and 6x.

Thus the loss incurred = Rs. (20000 β 7600) = Rs. 12400.

On putting value of kx2 from above we get the final price as = 38 Γ 200 = ππππ. 7600

Now according to the question1st number becomes 5x+22 and the 2nd number becomes 6x-22. Now the new ratio =
5π₯π₯+22 6π₯π₯β22

According to the question β

19. The ratio of two numbers is 5:6.If a number is added to both the numbers the ratio becomes 7:8.If the larger number exceeds the smaller number by 10, find the number added. Sol: Let the two numbers be 5x and 6x. Now according to the question β 6x-5x=10 or x=10. Now when a number βnβ is added is added to both then the new ratio is given by β 5π₯π₯ + ππ 7 = ππππ 8(5π₯π₯ + ππ) = 7(6π₯π₯ + ππ) ππππ 40π₯π₯ + 8ππ = 42π₯π₯ + 7ππ 6π₯π₯ + ππ 8 ππππ

11π₯π₯ = 110 + 132 ππππ 11π₯π₯ = 242 ππππ π₯π₯ = 22 Now the sum of the two numbers = 5π₯π₯ + 6π₯π₯ = 11π₯π₯ = 11 Γ 22 = 242.

5π₯π₯ + 22 6 = or 5(5π₯π₯ + 22) = 6(6π₯π₯ β 22) ππππ 25π₯π₯ + 110 = 36π₯π₯ β 132 6π₯π₯ β 22 5

Thus, we get that the number added to both the numbers was 20. ππππ

8ππ β 7ππ = 42π₯π₯ β 40π₯π₯ ππππ ππ = 2π₯π₯ ππππ ππ = 2 Γ 10 = 20

20. Salaries of Ravi and Sumit are in the ratio 2 : 3. If the salary of each is increased by Rs. 4000, the new ratio becomes 40 : 57. What is Sumit's present salary? Sol: Let the salaries of Ravi and Sumit be 2x and 3x respectively. Now according to the question β 2π₯π₯ + 4000 40 = ππππ 57(2π₯π₯ + 4000) = 40(3π₯π₯ + 4000) 3π₯π₯ + 4000 57 ππππ

114π₯π₯ + 228000 = 120π₯π₯ + 160000 ππππ 6π₯π₯ = 68000 ππππ 3π₯π₯ = 34000

Now, Sumitβs preseny salary = Rs. (3x+4000) = Rs. (34000 + 4000) = Rs. 38000 21. The sum of three numbers is 98. If the ratio of the first to second is 2 :3 and that of the second to the third is 5 : 8, then the second number is: Sol: Let the three number be a, b and c. Now, a : b = 2 : 3

b:c = 5:8 Now, a : b : c = 10 : 15 : 24 Now, the second number =

22. A and B together have Rs. 1210. If of much amount does B have?

10+15+24 15 4

15

( Refer to Q2. Above) Γ 98 =
15 49

A's amount is equal to of B's amount, how

Γ 98 = ππππ. 30
2 5

Sol: Let A and B have the amounts x and y. 4 2 π₯π₯ = π¦π¦ ππππππ π₯π₯ + π¦π¦ = 1210 15 5 So we get,
3 2

Now according to the question β

23. Two numbers are respectively 20% and 50% more than a third number. The ratio of the two numbers is: Sol: Let the third number be x. Then, first number = 120% of x = Second number = 150% of x =
120π₯π₯ 100 π₯π₯

= π¦π¦ and

2

3 π¦π¦

+ π¦π¦ = 1210 ππππ

5 2 π¦π¦

= 1210 ππππ π¦π¦ = ππππ. 484

Therefore, the ratio of first two numbers = οΏ½

150π₯π₯ 100

=

=
2

3π₯π₯

6π₯π₯ 5

6π₯π₯ 3π₯π₯ 5 2

:

οΏ½ = 12π₯π₯: 15π₯π₯ = 4: 5

24. Seats for Mathematics, Physics and Biology in a school are in the ratio 5 : 7 : 8. There is a proposal to increase these seats by 40%, 50% and 75% respectively. What will be the ratio of increased seats? Sol: Originally, let the number of seats for Mathematics, Physics and Biology be 5x, 7x and 8x respectively. Number of increased seats are (140% of 5x), (150% of 7x) and (175% of 8x). Therefore the required ratio = ( 140% ππππ 5π₯π₯ βΆ 150% ππππ 7π₯π₯ βΆ 175% ππππ 8π₯π₯ = 140 Γ 5 βΆ 150 Γ 7 βΆ 175 Γ 8 =2βΆ3βΆ4

25. The ratio of the number of boys and girls in a college is 7 : 8. If the percentage increase in the number of boys and girls be 20% and 10% respectively, what will be the new ratio? Sol: Originally, let the number of boys and girls in the college be 7x and 8x respectively. Their increased number is (120% of 7x) and (110% of 8x). Therefore the required ratio = 120% ππππ 7π₯π₯ βΆ 110% ππππ 8π₯π₯ = 120 Γ 7: 110 Γ 8 = 21 βΆ 22

26. A sum of money is to be distributed among A, B, C, D in the proportion of 5 : 2 : 4 : 3. If C gets Rs. 1000 more than D, what is B's share? Sol: Let the shares of A, B, C and D be Rs. 5x, Rs. 2x, Rs. 4x and Rs. 3x respectively. Then, 4x - 3x = 1000 Or x = 1000. B's share = Rs. 2x = Rs. (2 x 1000) = Rs. 2000. 27. If 40% of a number is equal to two-third of another number, what is the ratio of first number to the second number? Sol: πΏπΏπΏπΏπΏπΏ 40% ππππ π΄π΄ = ππβπΏπΏππ,
2 5 100 40 2 3 ππππ

π΄π΄ = π΅π΅ ππππ π΄π΄ βΆ π΅π΅ = 5 βΆ 3 π΄π΄

=

2 3 π΅π΅

2 3 π΅π΅

28. In a mixture 60 litres, the ratio of milk and water 2 : 1. If the this ratio is to be 1 : 2, then the quantity of water to be further added is: Sol: Quantity of milk = 60 Γ litres = 40 litres
2 3

Quantity of water in it = (60- 40) litres = 20 litres. New ratio = 1 : 2

Let quantity of water to be added further be x litres. Then, Now, π€π€πππΏπΏπΏπΏππ
40 ππππππππ

Or 20 + x = 80 or x = 60 Therefore, Quantity of water to be added = 60 litres.

20+π₯π₯

=

=

1 2

20+π₯π₯

40

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