Shakespeare and His Work –

Handouts GK13 NW 08/9

Shakespeare and His Work - Handouts GK13 NW 08/9

His Works

Some facts about his works What genres of books did he cover? What are the most important works? Are there any rumours about the authorship? Some facts about his works

William Shakespeare is considered by many to have been the greatest writer the English language has ever known he covers different genres of books he published not only forceful tragedies like “Romeo and Juliet”, but also funny comedies like “As you like it” created 154 sonnets and several major poems most of his works had been written between 1585 to 1610, but the exact dates and the chronology of the plays are unknown scholars have often noticed four periods in Shakespeare’s writing career 1. First period was until 1595; he produced mainly comedies influenced by Romans and history plays Second period took place from 1595 to 1599; at that time he authored his greatest comedies and histories like “Julius Caesar” Third period proceeded from 1600 to 1608; this period is also called “tragic period”, because he recorded basically tragedies Fourth period happened from 1608 to 1613; in this term he published primary tragicomedies/romances

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His Works [Alexandra, Fiona, Hedda, Lena S, Mona]

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Shakespeare and His Work - Handouts GK13 NW 08/9 ►

What genres of books did he cover?

Comedies: ▪All's Well That Ends Well ▪As you like it ▪The Comedy of Errors ▪Cymbeline ▪Love's Labours Lost ▪Measure for Measure ▪The Merry Wives of Windsor ▪The Merchant of Venice ▪A Midsummer Night's Dream ▪Much Ado About Nothing ▪Pericles, Prince of Tyre ▪Taming of the Shrew ▪The Tempest ▪Troilus and Cressida ▪Gentlemen of Verona ▪Winter's Tale Histories: ▪Henry IV, part 1 ▪Henry IV, part 2 ▪Henry V ▪Henry VI, part 1 ▪Henry VI, part 2 ▪Henry VI, part 3 ▪Henry VIII ▪King John ▪Richard II ▪Richard III Tragedies: ▪Antony and Cleopatra ▪Coriolanus ▪Hamlet ▪Julius Caesar ▪King Lear ▪Macbeth ▪Othello ▪Romeo and Juliet ▪Timon of Athens ▪Titus Andronicus Poetries: ▪The Sonnets (154) ▪A Lover's Complaint ▪The Rape of Lucrece ▪Venus and Adonis ▪Funeral Elegy by W.S

What are the most important works?

Comedies: ▪ Twelfth Night Viola, shipwrecked in Illyria and assuming that her brother Sebastian has died in the wreck, henceforward masquerades as Cesario, a man, to gain a position at Duke Orsino’s court. Orsino sends her to bring his love Olivia a message, but Olivia dislikes the Duke. Instead she falls in love with Viola. Now Sebastian appears because he was unharmed in the wreck. Later on, Viola’s true identity is revealed because of the similarities between Viola and Sebastian. Now, Olivia falls in love with Sebastian and Viola confesses her love for the Duke. ▪ A Midsummer Nights Dream ▪ Much Ado Nothing ▪ As you like it Tragedies: ▪ Hamlet Prince Hamlet is visited by his father’s ghost and ordered to avenge the murder of his father by killing King Claudius, his uncle. After struggling with many questions, including whether the appearance of the ghost was real and the revenge was right, Hamlet is killed like almost all the other main characters. ▪ Macbeth ▪ Romeo and Juliet Histories: ▪ Julius Caesar After his friend Cassius persuaded Brutus to join a conspiracy to kill Julius Caesar, whose power seems to be growing too much for Rome’s good, Brutus fails to convince the people that his reasons were adequate. He and Cassius eventually commit suicide as they noticed that Rome is (in their opinion) lost. ▪ Henry IV ▪ Henry VII

His Works [Alexandra, Fiona, Hedda, Lena S, Mona]

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Shakespeare and His Work - Handouts GK13 NW 08/9 ►

Rumours about Shakespeare’s authorship
Many eminent authors and politicians believe that it wasn’t Shakespeare who wrote the books, plays and poetries that are officially penned by him First theory: The works attributed to William Shakespeare of Stratford-uponAvon were actually written by another writer or a group of writers The most popular theory in the 20th century connected with another writer was that Shakespeare's works were written by Edward de Vere (17th century: Earl of Oxford) Another reasons for doubting: Shakespeare never published any of his plays Besides that, the majority of his plays were first published seven years after his death Furthermore, many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy during his lifetime Nevertheless, authorship doubters find it difficult to believe that a 16th-century commoner with no university education, could be so well-versed in English language and literature (enormous vocabulary of approximately 29,000 different words) Moreover, authorship doubters believe there are concrete signs proving that the actor sometimes known as Shaksper of Stratford was responsible for the literary works that were attached to Shakespeare In addition, Shakespeare borrowed ideas for his plays from other playwrights Finally, there aren’t manuscripts of Shakespeare's plays in his own hand writing

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Signature of William Shakespeare
Sources: ►www.malaspina.org ►www.wikipedia.org ►http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakespeare ►http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakespeare_authorship_question ►http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakespeare%27s_life ►http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronology_of_Shakespeare%27s_plays ►http://www.william-shakespeare.org.uk/facts-about-william-shakespeare.htm ►http://absolu+teshakespeare.com/trivia/authorship/authorship.htm

His Works [Alexandra, Fiona, Hedda, Lena S, Mona]

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Shakespeare and His Work - Handouts GK13 NW 08/9

His life
Where he lived and his daily life - His date of birth isn't exactly known. The 23rd April, 1564, is just taken because he died the same day in 1616 and it is told that kids in Elizabethan England should be christened three days after birth - but in reality, this 3-day-rule has never existed - Shakespeare had eight brothers and sister - but who where they? - Historians aren't sure if he really visited grammar school because there are no lists of pupils - but because of his father’s high status in society it can be assumed - We don’t’t know the place and the date of his marriage with Anne Hathaway but the marriage license report is dated on 27th November, 1582 - The date of birth of his children Hamnet and Judith are not noted, just again the dates of christening. - Hamnet died at the age of eleven years, the funeral was on 11th August, 1596 - but when did he die exactly and mainly why? - A man named Richard Quiney asked Shakespeare for credits - who was he and why did he do this? - Shakespeare had a second daughter who later was the wife of Roberts Quiney's son Thomas - what was her name and when was she born? - The "lost years" 1584 - 1592: nearly no information about him - During the "lost years" he moved to London - when and why? - In London, he made his career - how could he do this? Did he have good relationships to famous persons who helped him? - Besides, he worked as an actor - how did he get the idea to act in plays? - In the dedication in his 154 sonnets, Shakespeare mentioned "Mr. W. H." and "the only begetter" - who are these? - The cause of his death isn't clarified - historians estimate typhus - Shakespeare might have written the lines on his tomb himself - It isn't clear if he wrote all his pieces himself => His pieces known today are only fragments of the original works and were mostly reconstructed from the later memories of the participating actors => He worked together with other (famous) writers => He needed help because of otherwise not meeting a deadline or a lack of time => Shakespeare lived in the countryside - how could a man living there with a (perhaps) not so good education and a (probably) not so well-known actor write pieces with such an encyclopaedia knowledge? - Near his housing, a pipe was found with rests of cocaine and marijuana - so perhaps Shakespeare took drugs…? => Nearly no information about his private life!

His Live [Adrian, Anne, Catharina, Elina, Karolina]

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Shakespeare and His Work - Handouts GK13 NW 08/9

Important dates in his life The official date of Shakespeare’s birth is unknown, but in most documents it is said that Shakespeare was born on 23.04.1564. Sure is only the date of his baptism – it was on the 26.04.1564. The place of birth is Stratford – upon – Avon. In 1582, Shakespeare is 18 years old, he married Anne Hathaway and just one year later their daughter Susanna was born. Her baptism was on 26.05.1583. In 1585 the twins Judith and Hamnet were born. They were baptized on 02.02.1585. Hamnet died in the age of 11 in 1596. The years between 1584 and 1592 are called the “lost years”, because there is no information about what Shakespeare done in that time. As a rich and well – known person Shakespeare returned to Stratford – upon –Avon in 1610. There he died on 23.04.1616. It is supposed that the reason for his death was typhus, but this is not sure.

His Live [Adrian, Anne, Catharina, Elina, Karolina]

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Shakespeare and His Work - Handouts GK13 NW 08/9

Shakespeare’ s Theatre

1. Flag - apparent for all London; black flag for tragedy, white for comedy, red for history 2. The “Heavens” – represents sky and heaven, so it was blue with golden stars, also protected actors from too much rain or sun 3. Tiring House - dressing, storage and resting room; main entrance and exit for actors 4. Upper Stage - used for balcony and bedroom scenes 5. Galleries – three covered seating sections 6. Main stage – where the main action of the play took place, audience could sit around or sometimes up on the stage 7. Inner Stage – used mostly for indoor scenes; with a curtain that could be closed or opened for scene changes 8. Open Yard – audience paid one penny for standing here by rain or sun and is involved in the play by cheering, shouting, … 9. Support Pillars - wooden, but painted like marble; it supported the roof and was used by the actors to observe other characters in asides 10. Trap Door – used as descend or rise for actors, who played ghosts, witches, … ; cellarage underneath was referred to as hell 11. Entrance – gatherers collected one penny per performance from each person at the single entrance 12. Brick Foundation – Globe was built on wet, marshy land, so the foundation has to be of brick
His Theatre [Annika, Christian, Joscha, Lena B., Nina] 1

Shakespeare and His Work - Handouts GK13 NW 08/9

Differences between apron stage and picture frame stage

Shakespeare: apron stage
open building, round shape seats groundlings(standing)

today: picture frame stage
closed building room without windows audience is seated

result
refer to everyday life

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direct contact make jokes to fascinate groundlings talk to the audience

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no curtain

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stage separated by a curtain orchestra pit big stage

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rather small stage

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not many actors at one time plays act in natural light

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no electrical equipment

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huge stage machinery artificial light shifting of scenery is time-consuming

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hardly any props or scenery shifting of scenery is no time indication of time and place of action in the spoken words only

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many scenes in one act

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realistic settings possible

spoken word is very important

His Theatre [Annika, Christian, Joscha, Lena B., Nina]

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Shakespeare and His Work - Handouts GK13 NW 08/9

The role of playwrights in that era
were from ordinary backgrounds (lower middle class population) for example son of bricklayers, leather workers,… supported by noble patrons were darlings of the audiences (like footballer or media celebrities of today) and they behaved like the stars they thought themselves to be were critics of the church, the politics and the society at that time some drank too much alcohol, a few went headlong into political danger, a few were killed, a few lost their health, some became poor famous playwrights: Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Kyd, William Shakespeare, Francis Beaumont,…

sources: - http://www.geocities.com/trichard_ca/Globe.html - http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globe_Theatre - http://www.papertoys.com/globe.htm

His Theatre [Annika, Christian, Joscha, Lena B., Nina]

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Shakespeare and His Work - Handouts GK13 NW 08/9

The Elizabethan World View
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named after Queen Elizabeth I. who reigned from 1558 to 1603 change of awareness in this period of time:
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no more doubts that the earth should be a globe and not a disk also more and more compunctions that the earth should be the center of the universe

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the Catholic Church, which exert a powerful influence of the politics, has a limited power because of the effect of Martin Luther (1517: 95 thesis) the Renaissance and thus the humanism gains influence way of thinking based on the idea, that the order of the universe (macrocosm) is reflected in every single thing (microcosm) people of this period…
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… were obsessed with perfection which you only could find in the higher regions of anything … felt threatened by chaos and disorder (e.g. madness, civil war,…) … were afraid of changes in general

The great chain of being: The chain of being is a hierarchical system in the order of the universe. On the top stands God and under him the angels. Both consist only of "spirit" whereas humans have "spirit" but also "matter". So they stand beneath God and the angels because the more spirit and less matter the higher an object stood. Nevertheless humans were the link between earth and living space of the "spirits" because they were on the highest degree on earth but on the lowest at the "spirits". On the degree after humans were animals, then plants and on the lowest degree inanimate objects like stones or the four elements. Altogether they believed that a microcosm reflected the structure of the world, the macrocosm. So for example the sun governed the planets, the king ruled over his subjects and the parent over his child. But if there had been a disorder in one of these systems, it would have been in all systems. You see this also in Shakespeare’s works. So for example in "King Lear". Here is a disorder because the daughters of "King Lear" ruled over him and so also his subjects ruled over him. The disorder is also reflected in the nature because there was a raging storm and in the mind of "King Lear" because he lost his reason. The humans in this time were afraid of any disorder that could happen because it was always bad, like wars or illnesses.
Elizabethan World View [Alena, Joschi, Malin, Malte, Sinje] 1

Shakespeare and His Work - Handouts GK13 NW 08/9

The four humours: The theory about the four humours is very old. Already the three famous Greek philosophers Hippocrates, Plato and Aristotle said that the body consists of them. They meant that if the earth consists of four elements the body will have to do the same. This is an example for the theory that the microcosm reflects the macrocosm. If the humours are in balance you will be healthy and have the perfect temperament.

Humour

Body substanc e

produce Elemen Qualities d by t

Complexion and Body type

Personality

Sanguine

blood

liver

air

hot and moist

amorous, happy, red-cheeked, generous, corpulent optimistic, irresponsible red-haired, thin corpulent violent, vengeful, short-tempered, ambitious Sluggish, pallid, cowardly Introspective, sentimental, gluttonous

Choleric

yellow bile

spleen

fire

hot and dry cold and moist cold and dry

Phlegmatic phlegm

lungs

water

Melancholi gall black bile c bladder

earth

sallow, thin

The wheel of fortune: The wheel of fortune is fickle because the wheel turns, if God wants it to do it. It describes how the power of humans and/or a king is withdrawn. The wheel is called a tragedy and it is regarded as part of the real world. Humans try to seize the wheel into the spokes to stop it. The wheel is turned after a formula that says: The first stage is ascending in the wheel. Then one concerned at the point, thus in the strongest place of power, and then the crash follows. As last stage one is then under the wheel. The wheel describes also the alternation of the luck. People said that somebody is a fool, if he thinks only of ascending.

Elizabethan World View [Alena, Joschi, Malin, Malte, Sinje]

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Shakespeare and His Work - Handouts GK13 NW 08/9

The connection of the world view with Shakespeare’s pieces:

1. Example: Macbeth Summary: - Macbeth, a relative of the Scottish King Duncan and a successful military leader, meets three witches who predict him that he would become the next king. - Macbeth kills King Duncan and becomes the next king because Duncan´s sons Malcom and Donalbain flee into exile. - Macbeth kills everybody who could become dangerous for him. - He locates the three witches again and they predict him that no man born by a woman could harm him. This makes him feel save. - But finally Malcom is able to kill Macbeth because he was born by caesarean. He becomes the next king.

Reference to the world view: - Witches: the witches represent in this age darkness, chaos and conflict, they were seen as worse than rebels (in Macbeth they are against the king) - Destiny: Macbeth follows his destiny because he does what the witches predict him - Nature: the chaos which is caused by the murder on the king is reflected by the chaos in nature

2. Example: Hamlet Summary: - Hamlet is the prince of Denmark - The king, his father, is killed by Hamlet’s uncle Claudius - Hamlet manages to kill his uncle and to rebuild the old order in the kingdom even though he is killed himself in the fight against Claudius Reference to the world view: - Wheel of fortune: the "good king" Duncan is killed by the "bad king" Claudius. The murder is the act of passion which disturbs the balance and turns the wheel of fortune. Claudius is now on top of the wheel. To rebuild the balance there must be another act of passion. Hamlet kills Claudius and the wheel turns again. - Chain of being: the macrocosm influences the microcosm. So when the "good king" is killed the whole population is badly affected.

Elizabethan World View [Alena, Joschi, Malin, Malte, Sinje]

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Shakespeare and His Work - Handouts GK13 NW 08/9

annotations: awareness compunctions subjects bile spleen red-cheeked sallow generous irresponsible vengeful ambitious sluggish - Bewusstsein pallid - Zweifel cowardly - Untertanen introspective - Galle gluttonous - Milz fickle - rot-wangig spokes - blass cesarean - freigiebig - verantwortungslos - nachtragend - anspruchsvoll - faul - blass - feige - beschaulich - gefräßig - unbeständig - Speichen - Kaiserschnitt

references: http://www.school-scout.de/auszug/4005/william-shakespeare-das-elisabethanischeweltbildhttp://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisabethanisches Weltbild http://www.kheper.net/topics/typology/four_humours.html http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/ren.html en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humorism http://unterrichtsmodule-bw.de/index.php?id=56&tx_umo_pi1%5BshowUid %5D=94&cHash=2fb6f7be26

Elizabethan World View [Alena, Joschi, Malin, Malte, Sinje]

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Shakespeare and His Work - Handouts GK13 NW 08/9

The Elizabethan Age:
(annotations at the end)

Why is this period called Elizabethan Age?
Because of Queen Elizabeth I., who reigned between 1558 -1603 The period of her reign is also called Golden Age This time was the height of the English Renaissance and saw the flowing of English poetry and literature This was also the time during which Elizabethan theatre flourished William Shakespeare and many others composed plays that broke free of England’s past style of plays and theatre It was an age of research and expansion abroad In England the Protestant Reformation became the national way of thinking of many people It was a short period of largely internal peace between the English reformation and the battles between Protestants and Catholics and the battles between parliament and the monarchy Parliament wasn’t strong enough to challenge royal absolutism The centuries long conflict between France and England was largely suspended for most of Elizabeth’s reign, also because England has been expelled from their last outposts an the European continent This drained both the English budget and economy that had been so carefully restored under Elizabeth’s clever guidance English commercial and territorial expansion would be limited until the signify of the Treaty of London the year following Elizabeth’s death England during this period had a centralised, well-organised and effective government, largely a result of the reforms of Henry VII and Henry VIII Economically, the country began to benefit greatly from the new era of transAtlantic trade The Elizabethan Age is viewed so highly because of the contrasts with the periods before and after

The Basis structures of politics and society
Politics: This section covers Tudor and Elizabethan laws passed during the 16. century. These were important dates and details of laws which effected the everyday lives of Elizabethans. The most important Elizabethan laws and assignments were that in 1558 Elizabeth used contrasts between France and Spain and Philipp of Spain‘s proposal to set 10 years of peace with the mainland; she turned down the proposal afterwards, in 1559 the Queen Elizabeth's Second Act of Supremacy cancelling laws passed during Queen Mary’s reign and completing the crowns influence on the church as well as on the kingdom, that in 1570 English seaman sailed into Spanish territory , which led to a war with Spain, in 1574 the Sumptuary Laws ,which were installed by rulers to limit the expenditure of the people; such laws might apply to food, furniture, jewellery and clothing; these laws were used to control behaviour and ensure that a specific
Elizabethan Age [Caroline, Christoph, Cora, Rinat, Stephanie] 1

Shakespeare and His Work - Handouts GK13 NW 08/9

class structure was maintained, in 1588 the destruction of the Spanish Armada England became the ruling Protestant world force and sea power, in 1601 the Poor Law Act, which formalized earlier practices making provision for a National system to be paid for only by recovering property taxes that means that poorer people had to pay less taxes, because they had less property(it was a collection of laws, that were worked out from 1563-1601) and that in 1604 the war against Spain ended with England‘s victory Society: Society in Elizabethan England was changing and the number of poor people living in miserable poverty was increasing Views on the poor changed throughout this period beginning with a bitter attitude towards the poor ,but defusing towards a more caring approach There were a number of reasons for poverty and the increasing numbers of the poor in Elizabethan England, which were for example the changes in religion Generally speaking the social system kept being a class system, because of the exchange of the different classes The Elizabethan Period was the age of the Renaissance, of new ideas and new thinking The introduction of the printing press during the Renaissance, one of the greatest tools in increasing knowledge and learning, was responsible for the interest in the different sciences and inventions and the supernatural; the new ideas, information and increased knowledge about science, technology and astrology led to a renewed interest in the supernatural including witches, witchcraft and ghosts

Shakespeare and Politics
Every actor and playwright had to be in a playing company, which were under control of noblemen Shakespeare was from 1585-1592 in both of the two most famous playing companies called “Lord Chamberlains Men” and “King’s Men” Shakespeare had known that it was dangerous to write about politics Plays were censored The Catholic religion was not accepted - Queen Elizabeth was constantly in fear of Catholic plots Shakespeare knew of the strict laws prohibiting any explicitly religious or current political events being represented on stage Shakespeare knew people who had been arrested and tortured - friends and family members In 1583 William Arden, a relative of Shakespeare, was indicted for plotting against the life of the Queen Arden protested his innocence only admitting to adhere to the Catholic faith but was executed at Smithfield on 30th December, 1583

Elizabethan Age [Caroline, Christoph, Cora, Rinat, Stephanie]

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Shakespeare and His Work - Handouts GK13 NW 08/9

annotations: Flowing- das Fließen, flourished- blühte auf, expansion- Ausdehnung, suspendedeingestellt, expelled- ausgewiesen, outposts- Außenposten, restored- ausgebaut, proposalHereitsantrag, rulers- Fürsten, expenditure- Ausgabe, behaviour- Benehmen, ensuregarantieren, maintained- aufrechterhalten, destruction- Zerstörung, formalized- offiziell machen, provision- Bereitstellung, recovering- eintreiben, property- Besitz, defusingentschärfen, approach- Annäherung, printing press- Druckerpresse, noblemen- Adlige, censored- zensiert, prohibiting- verbieten, explicitly- deutlich, current- aktuell, arrestedverhaftet, tortured- gequält, indicted- angeklagt, admitting- anerkennen, adhere- angehören, executed- hingerichtet Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Shakespeare http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabethan_age http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-era-sitemap.htm

Elizabethan Age [Caroline, Christoph, Cora, Rinat, Stephanie]

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