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Jocelyn Lash PROJECT OUTLINE I. Introduction: Geomorphology is the scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them. In the past, data about landforms was physically collected by use of aerially obtained photographs, topographic maps and transit and level instruments, such as theodolites and Philadelphia rods. II. Methods of data collection prior to implementation of GIS  Ancient Egypt: harpedonaptai (rope stretcher)  Used knotted rope, plum bob and 3-4-5 angles  Used to re-establish boundaries after floods  Used to create perfect 90 degree angles at the bases of the Great Pyramid of Giza  Used to build the pyramid in perfect North to South orientation  England, 1620: Gunter's chain  100 links (7.92 inches), 10 brass rings  Brass rings used as unit of measure  Total length 66 ft  Determine number of rings between points to ascertain distance been two points  Theodolite  1571: Only measured horizontal angles  1576: Addition of tripod and compass  1771: Addition of optical meter to measure parallactic angle  Distance  1925: Addition of dividing engine and ability to measure horizontal and vertical angles III. Methods of data collection with implantation of GIS:  GPS  Handheld receivers  Trilateration of satellites  Vertical and horizontal position  Determine position of samples, forms or events  Position error: as much as tens of meters  Uses     Recording GPS receivers  Stationary  Anchored to benchmarks  Measure changes in horizontal and vertical position  High precision (mm-scale)  Uses and limitations LiDAR  Active  Remotely sensed  Collected via airplane, satellite and surveyor lasers  Ultraviolet, visible, or near infrared light is emitted at an object or atmosphere  Atmospheric and topographical information is derived from back scatter  Uses and limitations  U.S. Geological Survey Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR Radar  Active  Remotely sensed  Radio waves emitted at objects or atmosphere  Reflected waves provide topographical and elevation data  Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)  Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (inSAR)  Uses and limitations  Mapping coastal changes Landsat  Passive  Satellite imaging  Measures light reflected off terrestrial features  Collects data about lithology, hydrology and vegetation  Based on wave lengths  Uses and limitations  Active tectonics, near Saroubi fault, along Konar fault, in NE Afghanistan V. Conclusion  How the data derived from the GIS applications can all be tied together for visual analysis. Sources: http:// nsights_from_DEM_derived_geomorphic_indices_and_drainage_analysis._Geosci_Front