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Chromium (Cr

)
Dana Shafer

Conversion between forms

1,2

1959:

1st discovered to be an essential
trace nutrient 1,2
Forms: oxidation states -2 to +6 2
Form in food (and form most relevant to
humans): Trivalent chromium or
Chromium III (Cr3+) 1
◦ Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6+) is Organic form
found in earth crust4

Cr6+reduces to Cr3+ 4 ◦ Vitamin C does this within the cell . +3 is not (works at cell membrane)  +6 known to be carcinogenic when inhaled 1  Potentially carcinogenic via water supply 10  Causes skin ulceration topically When taken orally and there is a reducing agent present .10 Form in the environment: Hexavalent Chromium or Chromium VI (Cr6+) 1 ◦ Inorganic form and the use in manufacture and man made4 ◦ Chromium VI is more soluble  3-5X better absorbed than 3+  +6 is absorbed INTO the cell.4.Hexavalent (Cr ) 6+ 1.

so AI is used1 Male (19-51) AI: 35 µg/day 50+ AI: 30 µg/day 2 Female (19-51) AI: 23 µg/day 50+ AI: 20 µg/day 2 Pregnancy: 29-30 µg/day Lactation: 44-45 µg/day 2 .Adult Requirement1.2 Data is insufficient to set EAR to calculate DRI.

4 Small intestine1. soft tissue. kidneys.Absorption 1. spleen. muscles (heart).2.2 ◦ 4-6 mg of Cr stored in body2 Carrier-mediated system (low intake) 2 Passive diffusion (high intake) 2 . pancreas. bone 1.4 Generally Low 1 ◦ Inorganic: low (<5%) 2 ◦ Organic: high (15-25%) 2 Can increase with exercise1 Storage: Liver.4 ◦ Primary: jejunum (most active site)2.

trauma (urine) 4 . bile4 Normal 24 hour rate: 0.4 Primary: Urine (absorbed Cr) Unabsorbed Cr: Feces² Small Amounts: Hair.Excretion2. perspiration. exercise.22 µg/day Increases: ◦ Diabetics ◦ After oral load of glucose (in a healthy person) ◦ Stress.

Transport2 Inorganic Cr ◦ In blood w/ transferrin  Cr competes with Fe for binding sites Via albumin and plasma globulins Lipoproteins .

” ◦ Insulin stimulates the movement of chromium from blood into the insulin-dependent cells ◦ results in binding apo-LMWCr to chromium (forming Chromodulin) ◦ apo-LMWCR binding to insulin receptor activates the tyrosine kinase ◦ Tyrosine Kinase activates GLUT receptor and uptake of glucose LMWCr ability to activate insulin receptor tyrosine kinase depends on its chromium content.Chromodulin (LMWCr) 11 LMWCr: Low molecular weight chromium-binding substance (Chromodulin) “May amplify insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity in response to insulin. .

2000.Proposed mechanism for the activation of insulin receptor kinase activity by chromodulin in response to insulin.130:715-718 ©2000 by American Society for Nutrition . Vincent J B J. Nutr.

Binds to apochromodulin (LMWCr) to form chromodulin 2. Cr3+ transported to the cell via a chromium-transferrin complex 1.Simplified Process:2 1. 4. 3. Active chromodulin attaches to insulin receptor (mediates the effects of insulin) and tyrosine kinase is activated GLUT carriers Take up glucose . At cell membrane Cr3+ is released 2.

Assessment2.4(reflects only food intake) Tissue levels ◦ High when infection ◦ Decrease with age2 .4 Blood serum2 ◦ Concentration in blood not well regulated Urine: NOT indicator of status 2.

2.4.5 Symptoms of deficiency: seen in parenteral Nutrition ◦ Impaired glucose utilization/impaired plasma glucose removal = increased need for insulin1  Causes glucose intolerance  Inability to reduce blood glucose levels after a meal and throughout the day 2  High blood glucose levels promote increased insulin production  As Blood glucose increases .5 Rare4.hyperinsulinemia occurs 2 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Unplanned weight loss1 Impaired growth4 Peripheral neuropathy1 Brain disorders4 Decreased longevity and fertility4 Increased plasma free fatty acids1  Cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels increase2 ◦ Mild risk factor for syndrome X  Increase risk of heart disease2  Increase aortic plaque 4 .Deficiency1.

lactation. insulin action is low creating high blood glucose (similar to a diabetic condition) ◦ Cr supplements will not treat or cure diabetes ◦ Most diabetics are not Cr deficient Infection. pregnancy. and stressful states (ex: physical trauma) increase chromium loss5 Older adults are more susceptible to chromium deficiency . exercise.Diseases / conditions related to decreased nutrient intake or impaired metabolism Possibly Diabetes ◦ But not cause and effect of chromium alone… Supplements are not recommended for management of type 2 diabetes 3 ◦ When Cr is low.

3 ◦ data insufficient/limited due to poor absorption 1 Toxicity levels ◦ Cr3+: low toxicity up to 1000 ug per day  High dose chromium picinolate caused chromosomal and organ damage ◦ Chromium salts: strong oxidizing agents/carcinogens  Used for alloying and tanning and for rust and corrosionresistant paints  Workers exposed to inorganic Cr6+ (easily absorbed by cells)  Symptoms: Eczematous dermatitis. hepatitis . lung cancer. gastroenteritis. ulcerations of the skin.Tolerable Upper Intake Level3 Upper Limit: No UL1. nephritis.

Individuals susceptible to negative effects of excess chromium1 Patients with preexisting renal and liver disease ◦ Due to poor excretion ◦ Limit Cr intake for these people .

aortic lipids.Primary Functions4 Function Important relationships Cr works with insulin via GTF to regulate uptake of glucose by cells via insulin receptor Cr forms complex with insulin and insulin receptors to facilitate the response of insulinsensitive tissues CHO metabolism GTF . DNA) Bond between Cr to nucleic acid is tighter/holds together stronger than other metal ions Brain Function Stimulates fatty acid and . triacylglycerols.Cr improves tolerance Lipid metabolism **(remember that insulin also facilitates the uptake of lipids and FA into cell)** Decreases cholesterol (LDL). plaque formation (decreases coronary artery disease) Protein metabolism Insulin: amino acid uptake by animal tissue Increases amino acid incorporation into heart protein and muscle tissue *GTF: glucose tolerance factor Nucleic acid metabolism (genes.

Food Sources 1. 3 . whole grains. brewers yeast.3 Infants: human milk1 Grains must be unrefined.7µg Other food sources: Cereals (high bran). liver.3 *Table 12.5µg Waffle 1 waffle = 6.9 in book Food2 Content Broccoli 2 c = 11. Chromium is lost during food processing. wine. nuts.2. cheese 1. whole grains. beer.0µg Turkey Ham 3 oz = 10.4µg Grape Juice 1 c = 7.

Bioavailability 1 Most Cr compounds: soluble @ normal stomach pH ◦ Cr is broken down/denatured by HCl in stomach Less soluble hydroxides can form if pH increases GI tract and ligands pH are important for mineral absorption When pH changes. absorption will change .

ntr dense foods3 Increase urinary excretion (CHO stimulate production of insulin)1 Decreases storage3 High levels of phytate1 Decrease absorption Picolinate4 Increases absorption Iron8 Chromium competes for one of the binding sites on the iron transport protein. Amino acids9 Enhance absorption . transferrin. Diets high in simple sugars (35% or more or TTL kcals) 1 and low in whole.5.8.4.Nutrient Interactions1.9 Vitamin C (acidic)1 Increases absorption and is required for reduction of Cr 6 to Cr 3.3.

14.15 Hemochromatosis  The excessive iron in hypothesized to interfere with the transport of chromium  thereby contributing to the diabetes associated with this condition  Supplemental chromium may be helpful TPN (total parenteral nutrition) ◦ Cr supplementation added to TPN solutions  To prevent deficiency and diabetic symptoms ◦ Relationship between reduced sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin and Cr deficiency14.15 .Disease states which require supplemental nutrient support or restriction1.

1.6.13.8. impaired glucose tolerance. and Type II diabetes.15 Diabetes ◦ Investigation of possible relationships between chromium status and insulin resistance.Disease states which may require supplemental nutrient support or restriction1.15 ◦ Potential for Prevention:     CVD Deficiency causes insulin resistance 6 Type 2 (management and glycemic control) 13 Gestational Diabetes ◦ In supplementation studies – no clear effect .

and urine Beta-blockers (such as atenolol or • propanolol) 5 Corticosteroids Insulin • Nicotinic acid Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) Prostaglandin inhibitors (such as ibuprofen. famotidine. and aspirin) increase ◦ Aspirin: prostaglandin inhibitors Increase ◦ Cr levels in blood.Drug Interactions1 Medications • • • • • • • • • • Antacids Interaction Cr • Decrease and other drugs that absorption and retention change stomach pH • Enhance Antacids and other drugs that change stomach pH1 Corticosteroids5 H2 blockers (such as cimetidine. lansoprazole. indomethacin. and rantidine) Proton-pump inhibitors (such as omeprazole. pantoprazole.absorption and urine increase 1 5 . piroxicam. tissue. nizatidine. naproxen. and esomeprazole)5 1 ◦ Decrease Cr absorption and retention Gastrointestinal excretion5 Cr levels in blood. rabeprazole. prostaglandins tissue.

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