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Electric Machines

D P Kothari

I J Nagrath

**Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited
**

NEW DELHI

McGraw-Hill Offices

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Electric Machines

1

**CHAPTER 2: MAGNETIC CIRCUITS AND INDUCTION
**

Note Unless otherwise specified, leakage and fringing are neglected.

2.1 A square loop of side 2 d is placed with two of its sides parallel to an infinitely long conductor

carrying current I. The centre line of the square is at distance b from the conductor. Determine the

expression for the total flux passing through the loop. What would be the loop flux if the loop is

placed such that the conductor is normal to the plane of the loop? Does the loop flux in this case

depend upon the relative location of the loop with respect to the conductor?

Solution

2d

At distance r from conductor

H=

I

A/m

2p r

I

b –d

dr

r

µ0I

T

B = m0 H =

2π r

2d

**Flux passing through elemental strip
**

df = B dA =

m0I

¥ 2d dr

2p r

b

b+ d

Fig. P2.1

Ê m Id ˆ dr

=Á 0 ˜

Ë p ¯ r

f=

Hence

=

m 0 Id

p

b+d

Ú

dr

r

b-d

m 0 Id

Êb + dˆ

ln Á

Wb

Ë b - d ˜¯

p

If conductor is normal to the plane of the loop, flux through loop is zero, independent of its relative

location.

2.2 For the magnetic circuit of Fig. P2.2, find the flux density and flux in each of the outer limbs and the

central limbs. Assume mr for iron of the core to be (a) • (b) 4500.

Solution

Mean flux path

A

0.5 A

1000

turns

1 mm

5 cm

30 cm

f1

10 cm

B

Fig. P2.2

30 cm

Core thickness = 5 cm

40 cm

f2

2 mm

5 cm

2 Solutions Manual

(a) mr = • . The corresponding electrical analog of magnetic

circuit is shown in Fig. P2.2(a).

Ni = 1000 ¥ 0.5 = 500 AT

R g1

f2

f

2 ¥ 10 -3

=

= 0.6366 ¥ 106 AT/Wb

4 p ¥ 10 -7 ¥ 25 ¥ 10 -4

R g2 =

f1 =

f1

A

R g2

Ni

1 ¥ 10 -3

= 0.3183 ¥ 106 AT/Wb

4p ¥ 10 -7 ¥ 25 ¥ 10 -4

R g1

B

500

= 0.785 mWb

0. 6366 ¥ 10 6

Fig. P2.2(a)

B1 =

0 . 785 ¥ 10 -3

= 0.314 T

25 ¥ 10 -4

f2 =

500

= 1571 mWb

0. 3183 ¥ 10 6

B2 =

157 ¥ 10 -3

= 0.628 T

25 ¥ 10 -4

f = f1 + f2 = 2.356 mWb

B=

2 . 356 ¥ 10 -3

= 0.471 T

50 ¥ 10 -4

**(b) mr = 4,500. The corresponding analogous electrical circuit is given in Fig. P2.2(b). Effect of air-gaps
**

on iron path length is negligible.

f2

f1

A

f

Ni

R c2

R c3

R g2

R c1

R g1

B

Fig. P2.2(b)

lc1 = lc2 = (40 + 5) + 2 ¥ (30 + 5 + 2.5) = 120 cm

R c1 = R c2 =

120 ¥ 10 -2

= 0.085 ¥ 106 AT/Wb

4 p ¥ 10 -7 ¥ 4 , 500 ¥ 25 ¥ 10 -4

lc3 = 40 + 5 = 45 cm

Electric Machines

R c3 =

4p

¥ 10 -7

3

45 ¥ 10 -2

= 0.016 ¥ 106 AT/Wb

¥ 4, 500 ¥ 50 ¥ 10 -4

R eq = [(R c1 + R g1) || (R c2 + R g2)] + R c3

R c1 + R g1 = 0.6366 + 0.084 = 0.7206 ¥ 106

R c2 + R g2 = 0.3183 + 0.085 = 0.4033 ¥ 106

È 0.7206 ¥ 0.4033

˘

+ 0.016 ˙ ¥ 106 = 0.2746 ¥ 106 AT/Wb

R eq = Í

+

(0.7206

0.4033)

Î

˚

f=

500

= 1823 mWb

0. 2742 ¥ 10 6

B=

1. 823 ¥ 10 -3

= 0.365 T

50 ¥ 10 -4

f1 = 1.823 ¥

B1 =

0 . 653 ¥ 10 -3

= 0.261 T

25 ¥ 10 -4

f2 = 1.823 ¥

B2 =

0. 4033

= 0.654 mWb

1.1239

0 . 7206

= 1.17 mWb

1.1239

1.17 ¥ 10 -3

= 0.468 T

25 ¥ 10 -4

**2.3 For the magnetic circuit shown in Fig. P2.3, calculate the exciting current required to establish a
**

flux of 2 mWb in the air-gap. Take fringing into account empirically. Use the B–H curve of

Fig. 2.15.

20 cm

200 turns

Ac = 5 cm ¥ 4 cm

0.1 cm

f = 2 mWb

15 cm

20 cm

Fig. P2.3

4 Solutions Manual

2.0

Crgos*

1.8

B(T)

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.05

0.1

0.2 0.3

0.5

H(kAT/m)

*Cold rolled grain oriented steel

1

2

3

5

Fig. P2.3(a)

Solution

**Taking fringing into account empirically
**

Ag = (5 + 0.1) (4 + 0.1) = 20.91 ¥ 10–4 m2

Bg =

2 ¥ 10 -3

= 0.957 T

20 . 91 ¥ 10 -4

Hg =

0. 957

= 7.616 ¥ 105 AT

4p ¥ 10 -7

**ATg = 7.616 ¥ 105 ¥ 0.1 ¥ 10–2 = 761.6
**

Bc =

2 ¥ 10 -3

=1T

20 ¥ 10 -4

**Corresponding Hc is obtained from B–H curve of Fig. 2.15
**

Hc = 0.06 kAT/m = 60 AT/m

ATc = 60 ¥ 55 ¥ 10–2 = 33

1

(33 + 761.6) = 3.973 A

200

2.4 A steel ring has a mean diameter of 20 cm, a cross-section of 25 cm2 and a radial air-gap of 0.8

mm cut across it. When excited by a current of 1A through a coil of 1000 turns wound on the ring

core, it produces an air-gap flux of 1 mWb. Neglecting leakage and fringing, calculate (a) relative

permeability of steel, and (b) total reluctance of the magnetic circuit.

Solution

lc = p ¥ 20 – 0.08 = 62.75 cm; lg = 0.08 cm; Ag = 25 cm2

i=

Rg=

0 . 8 ¥ 10 -3

= 0.255 ¥ 106

4 p ¥ 10 -7 ¥ 25 ¥ 10 -4

F = 1000 ¥ 1 = 1000 AT

f = 1 mWb

Electric Machines

5

(a)

R (core) = (1 – 0.255) ¥ 106 = 0.745 ¥ 106

(i)

(b)

R (total) =

1000

¥ 103 = 1 ¥ 106

1

(ii)

From (i)

0.745 ¥ 106 =

62. 75 ¥ 10 -2

4 p ¥ 10 -7 ¥ m rc ¥ 25 ¥ 10 -4

\

mrc = 268

2.5 The core made of cold-rolled silicon steel (B–H curve of Fig. 2.15) is shown in Fig. P2.5. It has a

uniform cross-section (not iron) of 5.9 cm2 and a mean length of 30 cm. Coils A, B and C carry 0.4,

0.8 and 1 A respectively in the directions shown. Coils A and B have 250 and 500 turns respectively.

How many turns must coil C have to establish a flux of 1 mWb in the core?

A

C

B

Fig. P2.5

**Solution NAiA = 250 ¥ 0.4 = 100 AT
**

NBiB = 500 ¥ 0.8 = 400 AT

B=

1 ¥ 10 -3

= 1.695 T

5. 9 ¥ 10 -4

**Corresponding H from B–H curve of Fig. 2.15 is
**

H = 0.5 kAT/m = 500 AT/m

(AT)net = 500 ¥ 30 ¥ 10–2 = 150

= (AT)A + (AT)B – (AT)C

or

(AT)C = 100 + 400 – 150 = 350

NCiC = 350 \ NC = 350

2.6 In the magnetic circuit shown in Fig. P2.6, the coil F1 is supplying 4000 AT in the direction indicated.

Find the AT of coil F2 and current direction to produce air-gap flux of 4 mWb from top to bottom.

The relative permeability of iron may be taken as 2500.

6 Solutions Manual

F¢2

50 cm

50 cm

Ac = 40 cm2

20 cm

2 mm

F1

Solution

2.6(a).

**The equivalent electric circuit is shown in Fig.
**

lc1 = lc3 = 0.5 m

0. 5

¥ 2, 500 ¥ 40 ¥ 10 -4

4p

4

= 3.98 ¥ 10 AT/Wb

R c1 = R c3 =

R c2 =

4p

¥ 10 -7

¥ 10 -7

4000 AT = (Ni)1

Fig. P2.6

f1

f

(Ni)2

R c2

R c1

20 ¥ 10 -2

¥ 2 , 500 ¥ 40 ¥ 10 -4

= 1.59 ¥ 104 AT/Wb

Rg=

f2

A

R c3

Rg

B

Fig. P2.6(a)

2 ¥ 10 -3

= 39.79 ¥ 104 AT/Wb

4 p ¥ 10 -7 ¥ 40 ¥ 10 -4

f = 4 mWb

(AT)AB = f (R c2 + R g)

= 4 ¥ 10–3 (159 + 39.79) ¥ 104 = 1,655

f1 =

4 , 000 - 1, 655

= 58.9 mWb

3. 98 ¥ 10 4

f2 = f1 – f = 58.9 – 4 = 54.9 mWb

1, 655 + ( Ni ) 2

= 54.9 ¥ 10–3

3. 98 ¥ 10 4

**1,655 + (Ni)2 = 2,185 or (Ni)2 = 530 AT
**

2.7 For the magnetic circuit shown in Fig. P2.7, the air-gap flux is 0.24 mWb and the number of turns

of the coil wound on the central limb is 1000.

Calculate (a) the flux in the central limb and (b) the current required. The magnetization curve of

the core is as follows:

H (AT/m)

200

400

500

600

800

1060

1400

B (T)

0.4

0.8

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

Electric Machines

10 cm

10 cm

2 cm

Air gap, 1 mm

2

1

2 cm

15 cm

2 cm

4 cm

2 cm

B

2 cm

Core thickness = 3 cm

1.4

1.2

1.0

B(T)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

200

400

600

800

H(AT/m)

(a)

1000

1200

1400

Fig. P2.7

Solution

Bg =

0 . 24 ¥ 10 -3

= 0.4 T

( 2 ¥ 3) ¥ 10 -4

Hg =

0. 4

= 31.83 ¥ 104 AT/m

4p ¥ 10 -7

Bc = Bg = 0.4 T (no fringing)

From the B–H data given, H1 = 200 AT/m

(AT)AB = H1l1 + Hglg

= 200 ¥ (2 ¥ 10 + 15) ¥ 10–2 + 31.83 ¥ 104 ¥ 1 ¥ 10–3 = 388.3

7

8 Solution Figure P2.5 (AT)total = (AT)AB + 64.8(a) Equivalent Electric Circuit of Fig.31 T f2 = 1.8 The magnetic circuit shown in Fig. 8 = 0.786 mWb fc (central limb) = 0. P2.8.786 = 1.24 + 0. P2. 000 2.5 cm ¥ 3 cm.5 = 452. f = 0. Find the relative permeability of the medium. P2.5A Ac = 15 cm2 500 Turns 100 cm Ac = 7.5 A in the coil produces an air-gap flux of 0. 1 mm.5 cm2 25 cm B Fig. A current of 0.855 T 4 ¥ 3 ¥ 10 -4 Hc (central limb) = 430 AT/m ATC (central limb) = 430 ¥ 15 ¥ 10–2 = 64.31 ¥ (2 ¥ 3 ¥ 10–4) = 0. P2.18 .3 + 64. The magnetic path from A to B via each outer limb is 100 cm and via the central limb 25 cm (air-gap length excluded).8 has a coil of 500 turns wound on the central limb which has an air-gap of 1 mm.453 A 1.026 mWb Bc (central limb) = 1. The cross-sectional area of the central limb is 5 cm ¥ 3 cm and each outer limb is 2.35 mWb A 0.8 Solutions Manual For the left limbs H2 = (AT) AB 388.35 mWb. 3 = 1. 026 ¥ 10 -3 = 0. P2. f1 f2 A f Rg R c1 R c3 R c2 B Fig.8(a) gives the electric equivalent of the magnetic circuit of Fig.8 i= 452.5 = 388.109 AT/m = l2 35 ¥ 10 -2 From the B–H curve given B2 = 1.

82 f1 = 1 ¥ 16 ¥ 10–4 = 1. P2. Given: H (AT/m) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 B (T) 0 0.28 Hc .18 1.612 2.5 = 0.Electric Machines R c1 = R c3 = R c2 = Rg = 4p 9 100 ¥ 10 -2 1061 ¥ 10 9 = AT/Wb mr ¥ m r ¥ 7.8 1.000 AT/m (From graph of Fig.9 A cast steel ring has an external diameter of 32 cm and a square cross-section of 4 cm side. Inside and across the ring.27 1.9(a) shows the sketch of the cast steel ring.82 439.0 1.77 Bc + 2.6 0. H1 = 1. 5 ¥ 10 4 ¥ 10 -7 25 ¥ 10 -2 0 .82 = 795.32 Solution Figure P2.11 0.5305 ¥ 106 AT/Wb 4p ¥ 10 -7 ¥ 15 ¥ 10 -4 Ni = f(R c1 || R c3 + R g + R c2) Ê 0.6 mWb ATC = (AT)AB = 439.9(b)) 32 cm dia. a cast steel bar 24 ¥ 4 ¥ 2 cm is fitted. Cross-section = 4 cm ¥ 4 cm A f1 fr B1 = 1 T fc r AT 14 cm 24 cm ¥ 4 cm ¥ 2 cm Air gap equivalent of 1 mm B (a) Fig. the butt-joints being equivalent to a total air-gap of 1 mm.9(a) (AT)AB = AT1 = 1.000 ¥ p ¥ 14 ¥ 10–2 = 439.82 = Bc ¥ 1 ¥ 10–3 + Hc ¥ 0. Calculate the ampere-turns required on half of the ring to produce a flux density of 1 T in the other half.35 ¥ 10–3 Á + + 0. B1 = 1T.32 0. P2.133 = ¥ 109 AT/Wb mr 4 p ¥ 10 -7 ¥ m r ¥ 15 ¥ 10 -4 1 ¥ 10 -3 = 0.133 ¥ 109 ˆ 500 ¥ 0.28 4p ¥ 10 -7 439.5305 ¥ 106 ˜ m m Ë ¯ r r mr = 3.531 ¥ 109 0.

82 + 540.471 Æ H = 120.39 ¥ 8 ¥ 10–4 = 0.628 Æ H2 = 145.1(a) as a starting point: B1 = 0.277 2 . Using the solution of 2. Solution The B–H curve as per the data is drawn in Fig.6 0.45 = 54 ATg1 = 500 – 108 – 54 = 338 B1 (new) = 440 ¥ 4 p ¥ 10 -7 = 0. P2.22 1.0 0.2 = 174 B = 0.39 Hint This problem can be solved by the graphical-cum-iterative technique.34 Æ H1 = 90.14 0.2 B(T) 1.212 2 ¥ 10 -3 ATg2 = 500 – 174 – 54 = 272 B2 (new) = 272 ¥ 4p ¥ 10 -7 = 0.36 0. Hl = 120 ¥ 0.9(b) Intersection of the above straight line with B–H curve gives Bc = 0.10.912 mWb Br = 1. 212 ¥ 0.342 1 ¥ 10 -3 B(new) = 0.312) mWb = 1.2 = 108 B2 = 0.8 0.98 Total AT = 439.6 + 0. P2.10 Solutions Manual 1.4 1.98 = 980. 342 = 0.4 0. Find the flux and flux densities in the three limbs of the core. H2l2 = 145 ¥ 1.66 1. 2.00 1. 912 ¥ 10 -3 = 1195 T 16 ¥ 10 -4 From graph.2 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 H(AT/m) (b) Fig.312 mWb fr = f1 + fc = (1. H1l1 = 90 ¥ 1.32 1.8 2. H (AT/m) 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 B (T) 0.10 In Prob. fc = 0.2 the B-H curve of the core material is characterized by the data given below. Hr = 1230 AT/m \ ATr = 1230 ¥ p ¥ 14 ¥ 10–2 = 540.39 T.

337 H1 = 70 H2 = 120 H = 95 B H1l1 H2l2 Hl = = = = (0.2 = 144 95 ¥ 0.342 B1 = 0.317 T 2 (Almost converged) 2.437 1 ¥ 10 -3 B1 = 0.43 = 40.4 1. The inner diameter of the ring is 20 cm and the outer diameter is 25 cm.277 H1 = 70 H2 = 95 H = 83 H1l1 = 70 ¥ 1. An air-gap of 1 mm length is cut across the ring. and (c) total reluctance of the magnetic circuit and component values.2 = 114 Hl = 83 ¥ 0.45 = 38 ATg1 = 500 – 84 – 38 = 378 B1 = 378 ¥ 4p ¥ 10 -7 = 0.237 B2 = 0. 634 = 0.2 B(T) 1.85 373 ¥ 4p ¥ 10 -7 = 0.212 B2 = 0. its thickness being 2 cm.237 2 ¥ 10 -3 ATg2 = 500 – 114 – 38 = 348 B2 = 348 ¥ 4p ¥ 10 -7 = 0.2 = 84 120 ¥ 1.10 B1 = 0.6 0. B= .4 0 . P2.0 0.8 0.234 2 ¥ 10 -3 ATg1 = 500 – 84 – 43 = 373 B1 = ATg2 = 500 – 144 – 43 = 313 B2 = 313 ¥ 4p ¥ 10–4 = 0. Find (a) magnetic field intensity in the magnetic material and in the air-gap (b) relative permeability of the magnetic material. The ring is wound with 500 turns and when carrying a current of 3 A produces a flux density of 1.Electric Machines 11 1.337 T 70 ¥ 1.2 0 50 100 150 200 AT/m 250 300 350 400 Fig.437 B4 = 0.2 T in the air-gap.4 0.11 A ring of magnetic material has a rectangular cross-section.437)/2 = 0.237 + 0.2 = 84 H2l2 = 95 ¥ 1.

2865 J .909 ¥ 106 = 2.3 Wfc = 1 5 ¥ 10 -4 ¥ 22.500 AT Bc = Bg = 1.549 ¥ 10 ¥ 1 ¥ 10 ¥ 11.5 ¥ 2 ¥ 10–4 = 0.5 ¥ 106 AT/Wb the magnetic ring of Prob. Figure P2. 2 = 9. 5 ¥ p ¥ 10 -2 ¥ ¥ (1. Refer to Fig.16 1 mm 11. 3 = 0. 238.6 ¥ 10–3 = 0.16 AT/m (b) \ (c) (a) 10 cm mr = 1. Find the following: Inductance of the coil energy stored in the magnetic material and in the air-gap rms emf induced in the coil when it carries alternating current of 3 sin 314 t.5 cm 2.2)2 2 4p ¥ 10 -7 = 0. 238. 5 ¥ 10 -4 ¥ 2 ¥ 2 .2 ¥ 2.9) = 1.12 Solutions Manual Solution tic ring. P2.238.592 ¥ 106 + 0. the exciting current is again 3 A. 2 = 1.549 ¥ 105 AT/m 4p ¥ 10 -7 5 500 ¥ 3 = 9. 5 ¥ 10 ¥ 10 -7 = 1.6 mWb l = Nf = 500 ¥ 0.11 gives the sketch of the magne- 3A Ni = 500 ¥ 3 = 1.2 T (no fringing) Wfg = 1 5 ¥ 10 -4 ¥ 10 -3 ¥ (1.238. f = BA = 1.25 cm + Hc ¥ 2p Bc m0mr 12. 2.11. 2.1H 3 i Bc (b) –3 Hc = = 2.2 T (no fringing) (a) Hg = 1.5 cm Fig.12 For (a) (b) (c) Solution Thickness = 2 cm N = 500 Wfc = Aclc Ú 0 A l Hc dBc = c c m0 m r Bc ÚB c dBc = 0 1 Ê Ac lc ˆ 2 B 2 ÁË m0 mr ˜¯ c mr (as determined in Prob.11 R total = R g + R c 4p 1 ¥ 10 -3 2 p ¥ 11. 3 = = 0.1635 J Bg = Bc = 1. 3 ¥ 2 ¥ 2.11.3 WbT L= l 0.25 ¥ 10–2 \ Hc = 771.2)2 2 4p ¥ 10 -7 ¥ 1. P2.3 4p ¥ 10 -7 ¥ 771. 25 ¥ 10 -2 + 4 7 4 p ¥ 10 ¥ 1.

500 ¥ 20 ¥ 10 -4 0 .033 ¥ 10–3)2 ¥ 0.033 ¥ 10–3)2 ¥ 0. 492 ¥ 10 6 (1/2) f2 R (1/2) ¥ (2.5 ¥ 10-3 ˆ i= Á ˜¯ sin 314 t 200 Ë = 1.13 Assume that the core of the magnetic circuit of Fig. 492 ¥ 10 6 mr = • R total = R g = 0.111 ¥ 106 = 0.3 sin 314 t dt dt = 94.5 ¥ 10–3 sin 314 t total Ê 0. 381 ¥ 10 6 .787 J • ﬁ Rc = 0 R g = 0.2 cos 314 t V 2.23 sin 314 t A (c) If \ L = N2 P = ( 200 ) 2 = 0.381 ¥ 106 AT/Wb L= ( 200 ) 2 = 0. P2.381 ¥ 106 = 0.492 ¥ 106 AT/Wb 200 ¥ 5 = f R total f= or Let Wf Wf (core) Wf (air-gap) mr R total = = = = = f= 200 ¥ 5 = 2. 381 ¥ 10 6 Wf (air-gap) = (1/2) ¥ (2.033 mWb 0 .381 ¥ 106 AT/Wb 200 ¥ 5 = 2.312 J Wf (core) = 0 (as R c = 0) (b) N R = 0.5 sin 314 t mWb in the air-gap? (c) Calculate the inductance of the coil.625 mWb 0 .105 H 0 .3 has mr = 2500.492 ¥ 106 ¥ 0.381 ¥ 106 AT/Wb 4 p ¥ 10 -7 ¥ 20.0813 H 0 .1 ¥ 10 -2 = 0.38 ¥ 106 = 1. What will be these values if mr = •? (b) What will be the excitation current to produce a sinusoidally varying flux of 0.23 J (1/2) ¥ (2.111 ¥ 106 AT/Wb ¥ 2.Electric Machines 13 dl d = 0.625 ¥ 10–3) ¥ 0. 91 ¥ 10 -4 R total = 0. (a) Calculate the energy stored in the core and in the air-gap for an excitation current of 5 A. What will be the inductance if mr = •? Solution (c) e= (a) Rc = Rg = 4p ¥ 10 -7 70 ¥ 10 -2 = 0.

14 has a magnetic core of relative permeability 1600 and is wound with a coil of 1500 turns excited with sinusoidal ac voltage.6 ¥ 10–3 imax = 0. P2. 439 2.239 ¥ 106 4 p ¥ 10 -7 ¥ 5 ¥ 10 -4 R (total) = 0. as shown. Calculate the maximum flux density of the core and the peak value of the exciting current. 6 6 = = 1. 2.14 Solutions Manual 2.439 ¥ 106 Fmax = imax ¥ 1500 = 0.2 ¥ 106 4p ¥ 10 -7 ¥ 1600 ¥ 5 ¥ 10 -4 Rg = 0.15 mm f = 50 Hz 20 cm Cross-sectional area = 5 cm2 Fig.4 0. P2.6 ¥ 10–3)2 ¥ 0.15.439 ¥ 106 Ë 2¯ 2 = 0.15 The material of the core of Fig. 44 ¥ 50 ¥ 1500 Bmax = 0. What is the peak value of the energy stored in the magnetic system and what percentage of it resides in the air-gap? f i + 200 V E 0.2 T 5 1000 ¥ 5 ¥ 10 -4 Rc = 20 ¥ 10 -2 = 0.4 T in the core in the indicated direction? % of energy in air-gap = . What current (with direction) should coil 1 carry to establish a flux density of 1.14 The magnetic circuit of Fig.176 A 1 2 1 W(peak) = ÊÁ ˆ˜ fmax R (total) = (0.15 wound with two coils as shown.15 ¥ 10 -3 = 0.079 J 0. Coil 2 carries a current of 2 A in the direction shown. P2.439 ¥ 106 ¥ 0. is sheet steel (B-H curve of Fig. 239 ¥ 100 = 54.14 Solution E ª V = 200 = 4.6 mWb 4.44 ¥ 50 ¥ 1500 ¥ fmax or fmax = 200 = 0.

16 The flux in a magnetic core is alternating sinusoidal at a frequency of 600 Hz. P2.463 A 400 2.4 T. Hint: (see page 46–47) . Hc (from Fig.15 Solution Bc lc ATnet AT2 ATnet 585 AT1 = 1.15) = 450 AT/m.17 The core-loss (hysteresis + eddy-current loss) for a given specimen of magnetic material is found to be 2000 W at 50 Hz. 2. = 2 ¥ (20 + 10) + 2 (25 + 10) = 130 cm = 450 ¥ 1. I1 = Pe = ke f 2 B m2 \ \ 2 2 Pe Ê 800 ˆ Ê 15 ˆ = Á ˜ Á ˜ Ë 600 ¯ Ë 2 ¯ 15 Pe = 15 W 2. Compute separately hysteresis and eddy current losses at both the frequencies. The maximum flux density is 2 T and the eddy-current loss is 15 W.Electric Machines 15 f Thickness 5 cm 10 cm 20 cm 400 turns 800 turns 2 25 cm 10 cm 10 cm 10 cm Fig.5 T.3 = 585 = 800 ¥ 2 = 1600 = AT1 (opposition to AT2) – AT2 = AT1 – 1600 = 2185 2185 = 5. the frequency of the supply is raised to 75 Hz resulting in a core loss of 3200 W. Keeping the flux density constant. Find the eddy-current loss in the core if the frequency is raised to 800 Hz and the maximum flux density is reduced to 1.

200.16 Solutions Manual Solution PL = Pe + Ph = ke f 2 B m2 V + kh f B mn V = k e¢ f 2 + k h¢ f (since Bm constant) PL = k e¢ f + k h¢ f For PL = 2. f = 75 Hz (1) 3200 = 75 k e¢ + k h¢ 75 75 k e¢ + k h¢ = 128 3 (2) Solving Eqs (1) and (2) k e¢ = 8 0. Ph = k h¢ f = 1. Ph = k h¢ f = 2.733 W Pe = k e¢ f 2 = 600 W. f = 50 Hz 2000 = 50 k e¢ + k h¢ 50 or 50 k e¢ + k h¢ = 40 PL = 3.600 W .7 W. 75 k h¢ = 104 = 34.67 3 At f = 50 Hz \ At f = 75 Hz Pe = k e¢ f 2 = 266.000.1067.

LV suffix 2 z 1 = r1 + j xl1 = (0.629) W 2 Similarly 230 ˆ Z (LV) = z 1¢ + z 2¢ ÊÁ (0.0104 + j 0.036 m2 B max 15 3.137 + j 0.1 .01) Ë 1100 ˜¯ = (0. 629 = (0.1 W 100 ¥ 10 -3 0 . Find the equivalent winding resistance.33 = 18 12 12 (i) (b) V1 ª E1 = 4.006 + j 0.44 f N1 fmax or fmax = V1 12 = = 0.229) W Z (HV) = z 1 + z 2¢ = (0.006 W and a leakage reactance of 0.237 + j 0.4) + (0.5 T.1 + j 0. 44 ¥ 50 4. from (i) we have or Similarly. 50 Hz transformer has an HV winding resistance of 0.006 + j 0. Calculate (a) the number of primary and secondary turns. Solution (a) emf per turn = 12 V V2 V1 = = 12 V N2 N1 Also V1 = 2200 V. reactance and impedance referred to the HV and LV sides.0275) W Since pu value is the same whether referred to HV or LV side.Electric Machines 17 CHAPTER 3: TRANSFORMERS 3. V2 = 220 V Therefore. referring it only to HV winding. The LV winding has a resistance of 0.01) = (0.44 f N 1 f max 0.7 A 100 kVA. 054 = = 0. Solution HV suffix 1.33 = 183 (turns cannot be fractional) 12 12 N2 = 220 V = = 18. 1100/230 V.054 Wb 4.1 W and a leakage reactance of 0.4 W.019 + j 0.4) W z 2 = r2 + j xl2 = (0.01) W Ac = Ê 1100 ˆ z 2¢ = a2(r2 + j xl2) = Á Ë 230 ˜¯ 2 (0.052) pu 12 .006 + j 0.01 W. 50 Hz transformer is approximately 12 V.1 The emf per turn of a single-phase 2200/220 V. Convert these to pu values. 237 + j 0 .1 + j 0. N1 = V1 2200 = = 183. we get: ZB (base impedance referred to HV winding) ZB(HV) = z pu (HV) = (kV) 2B (MVA) B = (11) 2 = 12. and (b) the net cross-sectional area of core for a maximum flux density of 1.

0104 + j 0. 90 V Compute all the parameters of the equivalent circuit referred to the HV and LV sides of the transformer. 110 V SC test. 2200/110 V transformer when tested gave the following results: OC test.28 ¥ 10–4 2 = 0.529 W 100 ¥ 10 -3 0. measurements on the HV side: 808 W.052) pu 0.94W 1.828 ¥ 10–4 VL . measurements on the LV side: 400 W.5 = 0.5 = 3. 0275 = (0. 10 A.G12 ) 0. Ê 1ˆ Gi(HV) = 0. Zpu (LV) = lH 9.0196 + j 0.8 A 50 kVA. 23) 2 = 0.5 A.93W VH 2.28 ¥ 10–4 –3 lOL 4. Equivalent Circuit Referred to LV Side Solution OC Test (LV side) 10 = 0. 20. P3.946 W R= NH 2200 = 20 = NL 110 Equivalent circuit referred to HV side Transformation ratio. 529 = Zpu(HV) (notice) 3.923 W ( 20.865 ¥ 10–3 W 3.0331 (a) Equivalent Circuit Referred to HV Side Fig.091 110 400 Gi = = 0. 5 808 = 1.8 lL 0.39 W 20.0848 SC Test (HV side) Z= 90 = 4.828 ¥ 10–4 0.0848 (b) Equivalent Circuit Referred to LV Side Equivalent Circuit Referred to HV Side.808 ¥ 10 W I L¢ lOH V H¢ V L¢ 0.0331 (110 ) 2 y0 = ( Bm = y02 .0331 ¥ Á ˜ Ë 20 ¯ = 2. 5) 2 X = (Z2 – R2)0.091 ¥ Á ˜ Ë 20 ¯ 2 Ê 1ˆ Bm(HV) = 0.18 Solutions Manual Similarly ZB = (LV) = ( 0.

10(b)) IL(HV) = Gi = 150 = 37. Determine the input power and power factor when the transformer delivers 10 kW at 200 V at 0. For equivalent circuit referred to LV side Ê 1ˆ R(LV) = 1.926 310 ¥ 10 –6 Fig.02) IL¢ 6.10(a) pf. the input being 150 W at 0.078 kW Reactive power loss in series reactance = (6.156 + 1.273 = 310 ¥ 10–6 Active power loss in series resistance = (6.154 kW Reactive power loss in shunt susceptance = (2025)2 ¥ 310 ¥ 10–6 = 1. the voltage drops in the total leakage reactance and the total resistance are.808 ¥ 10–3 W 2 Ê 1ˆ X(LV) = 3. 50 Hz transformer is operated at no-load on rated voltage.23 + j 8.946 ¥ Á ˜ = 9.5 ¥ 10–6 cos q0 = 0.9°A ZB(HV) = (kV) 2B (MVA) B = 22 = 200 W 20 ¥ 10 -3 (2 + j 4) W V L¢ = 2000 V VH \ Z (HV) = (0. respectively.923 ¥ Á ˜ Ë 20 ¯ 2 = 4.271) = 10.10(b) ZL .8 Fig. Q0 = 10 tan cos–1 0. 8 62.25)2 ¥ 2 = 0.6) = 2025 V Parameters of the magnetizing branch (Fig. q0 = 83.271 kVAR Input power = (10 + 0.865 ¥ 10–3 W Ë 20 ¯ 3.25 (2 ¥ 0.12 power factor. P3. P3.25 –36.5 ¥ 10–6 ¥ 8.25 A 10 P0 = 10 kW.5 ¥ 10–6 = 0.25)2 ¥ 4 = 0. 2 and 1% of the rated voltage.8 = 75 kVAR VH = 2000 + 6.8 pf lagging to a load on the LV side.1° Bm = Gi tan q0 = 37.10 A 20 kVA.5 ¥ 10–6 ( 2000 ) 2 lc (HV) 2025 V 37.Electric Machines 19 R(HV) and X(HV) have already been calculated above.156 kVAR Active power loss in shunt conductance = (2025)2 ¥ 37.154) + j (7. P3.02) ¥ 200 = (2 + j 4) W Load on transformer = 10 kW at 200 V and 0. 2000/200 V.01 + j 0.01 + j 0. When it is operating at rated load. 5 = 6.8 + 4 ¥ 0. Solution Z pu = (0. IL = 10 ¥ 10 3 = 62.078 + 0.5 + 0. lagging current drawn by load.12.5 A 200 ¥ 0.

753 lagging.5 Complex power input (sending end) = (250 + 4.95 kV (b) Primary voltage of transformer V1 = 60 ¥ 103 + 5.11 Load of 250 kW at 0.8 pf leading at 6 kV IL = I L¢ (HV side) = 250 = 52.6) = 59.7 kV Active power loss = (5. V = 60 ¥ 103 + 5.6) = 58.11 A single-phase load is fed through a 66 kV feeder whose impedance is 120 + j 400 W and a 66/6.4 + j 1.6) kVA .8) = 250 – j 187. 08 = 5. 23 3.4 + j 1. 10 . (a) Compute the voltage at the sending end of the feeder.5 W.6 kV transformer of equivalent impedance (referred to LV) 0.8 – 550 ¥ 0. 926 = 0.4 + j 1.20 Solutions Manual Real power input = 10.21 A 10 (a) Sending end voltage. P3. (b) Compute the voltage at the primary terminals of the transformer.21A. (c) Compute the complex power input at the sending end of the feeder. 8 52.21)2 ¥ 160 ¥ 10–3 = 4.34 – j 172.5) ¥ 102 W = (40 + j 150) W pf = cos tan–1 (120 + j 400) W (40 + j 150) W IL = 5. 0.23 kW 8.92) = (254.8 leading power factor and 6 kV. The load is 250 kW at 0.34 kW Reactive power loss = (5.5) W referred to HV side = (0.21)2 ¥ 550 ¥ 10–3 = 14.5 + 14.92 kVAR Power received = (250 – j 250 tan cos–1 0.21 (160 ¥ 0.21 (40 ¥ 0.8 pf leading V V1 Feeder 60 kV Load Transformer Fig.8 – 150 ¥ 0. Solution Impedance of 66 kV feeder = (120 + j 400) W Equivalent impedance of transformer referred to LV side = (0.34) + j(–187.08 A 6 ¥ 0.

325 ÁË 2400 + 2400 ˜¯ 3 = 7. On the secondary side the number of turns between A and B is 600 and between B and C is 400 turns. P3. Further. 6 = 0.. Find the primary current. i. 2400 W ÊN ˆ 2400 = Á 1 ˜ Ë N2 ¯ 2400 W 2 60 N1 \ = 40 = 6.325 N2 (b) For maximum power transfer.827 leading 254. the secondary impedance should be equal to the internal resistance of source. voltage drop across load VL = V V 2400 W (Resistive load) Fig. The primary voltage is 2 kV. Solution IL = 6. (a) Determine the turn-ratio required to ensure maximum power transfer by matching the load and source impedances (i. a load of 200 –45° W is connected between A and B. 34 3. (b) Find the load current. P3.12 An audio-frequency ideal transformer is employed to couple a 60 W resistance load to an electric source which is represented by a constant voltage of 6 V in series with an internal resistance of 2400 W. for maximum power transfer. voltage and power under the conditions of maximum power transfer.474 V 6.325 ¥ VAC = 1000 ¥ 2 = 10 kV 200 10 I L1 = ––0° = 1 –0° A 10 .e. The transformer supplies a resistor connected between A and C which draws 10 kW.12(a) (a) 60 W load When referred to primary. pf = cos tan–1 Solution 2400 W N1 : N 2 IL 60 W VL Fig.12(b) Ê 6 ¥ 2400 ˆ 1 ¥ = 0.474 ¥ 7.75 mW 3. that between A and C being 1000.. by increasing the 60 W secondary impedance to 2400 W when referred to the primary).91 = 3.Electric Machines 21 172.e.14 An ideal transformer has a primary winding of 200 turns.91 mA 2400 Load power = 0.

05 W Find the transformer loading which will make the primary induced emf equal in magnitude to the primary terminal voltage when the transformer is carrying the full-load current.12 – j 2. P3.25 W and Xeq (HV) = 5 W and a lagging load is being supplied by it resulting in the following meter readings (meters are placed on the HV side).12 – j 2.22 Solutions Manual 600 ¥ 2 = 6 kV 200 6 ¥ 1000 = = 3 ––45° A 2000 – 45∞ VAB = I L2 I BA = IL1 + IL2 = 1 + 3 ––45° = 3.15 X1 = 0.6° (0. I1 = I1 = 16 A.02 A 3.12) + 400 ¥ 1 = 2272 – j 1272 2272 .2 W.6° lagging I 1 = 16 ––38.j 1272 = 11. 400/80V transformer Req (HV) = 0.12 A I CB = IL1 = 1 + j 0 l L1 A 2000 –45° 600 l1 B 200 2kV 10 kW lL2 400 C Fig. P3.25 + j 5) = 347 – j 89.25 W r2 = 0. X2 = 0. Neglect the magnetizing current.15 A 5 kVA. P1 = 5 kW For this condition calculate what a voltmeter would read if connected across the load terminals. .04 W V L¢ 400 V P1 = 5 kW 352 ¥ 80 = 70. Assume the exciting current to be zero.78 400 ¥ 16 \ f1 = 38.6° V L¢ = 400 –0° – 16 ––38. \ Primary current.16 A 25 kVA.12 W 5 W l1 = 16 A Fig.36 – j 6. Solution 5 ¥ 1000 cos f1 = = 0. 50 Hz transformer has the following data r1 = 0.14 Secondary AT = 60(3. 230/115 V.36 200 \ I1 = 13. V1 = 400 V.4 V V L¢ = 352 \ VL = 400 3.9 0.

6) 56 .8 – 10 ¥ 0. assuming that the voltage applied to the transformer remains unchanged.7 –f1 A 230 230 – 108. P3.016 230 –0° 23 0. Find the HV terminal voltage and % voltage regulation.6) 182 = 22018 V. 50 Hz.16 W I1(fl) = or \ x 2¢ = 4 ¥ 0.1 ZL2 = ÊÁ Ë 100 ¯ Ë 100 ¯ 10.2) = 227.12 Solution Transformation ratio = r2¢ = 4 ¥ 0. (Suffix ‘1’ stands for HV and ‘2’ for LV.7 –30.858 leading f1 = 30.545 (8 ¥ 0.Electric Machines 230 =2 115 Referring to the 230 V side 0.545 (8 ¥ 0. (b) Consider the transformer to give its rated kVA at a pf of 0.12 cos f1 + 0. 7 ¥ 0.8° cos f2 = 0. Will it be different for the conditions under part (c)? (e) If the load in part (b) gets short-circuited.7 (0.04 W. % Regulation = ¥ 100 = 2.17 The resistances and leakage reactances of a 10 k VA.) (a) Find the total leakage impedance referred to: (i) the HV side and (ii) the LV side.4 V. (d) Consider the core loss to be 80 W.05 = 0. 79 = 19.6 pf = cos f1 = 0. (c) Repeat (b) for a pf of 0.66 + j 0. % Regulation = ¥ 100 = 0.2 sin f1) = 230 tan f1 = –0. 36 = 2256.05 W Each quantity is referred to its own side of the transformer.2 0.16 V 2 = 230 – 108.04 ¥ 100) + j(5 + 0. 9 ¥ 108.8 + 10 ¥ 0.8 leading.04ˆ˜ + j ÊÁ + 0.200 + 4.9° f2 = 30.8 lagging to a load at rated voltage. Solution \ Load = a= 2200 = 10 220 (a) ZL1 = (4 + 0.04 = 0.9° + 6.57 kW 1000 3.2 = – 0.545 A 2200 VH = 2.9° = 37. x1 = 5 W and x2 = 0. Find the efficiency under the conditions of part (b).9° 0.12/0.56 2200 (c) VH = 2200 + 4. find the steady-state current in the HV lines.05 ¥ 100) = 8 + j 10 4 5 + 0.9° ¥ (0.05ˆ˜ = 0.2 W 230 V 25 ¥ 1000 = 108.08 + j 0.08% 2200 (b) I L¢ = .2 V2 Fig. 2200/220 V distribution transformer are as follows: r1 = 4 W r2 = 0.79 leading 227.9 ––6. 000 = 4.

RLV = 0.707 pf leading when delivering full-load current with the primary (0. 25 ¥ 4. and (iii) 0.25 A V = 2000 V \ f = 90° – 63.05 W x2 = 0. find the load power factor for which the regulation is zero. 2000/200 V.18 p – q + sin–1 IZ 2 2V q = tan–1 X/R q = tan–1 4 = 63.18 V1 = V –AOD = sin–1 IZ 2V –OAD = D p – sin–1 IZ 2 2V I p IZ + q ˆ˜ f = p – ÊÁ .4° – 0. With the help of a phasor diagram.3 W LV winding r2 = 0. (ii) upf.05 + 3/100 = 0. single-phase transformer has the following parameters: HV winding r1 = 3 W x1 = 5.19(a) . (iii) 0.9 leading 3.8 pf lagging (ii) upf.4° = 28.4°. P3.5 = 4. 8 ¥ 10 = 97% 80 + 165.8 pf lagging.19 A 20 kVA.545)2 ¥ 8 = 165. assume that the load power factor is varied while the load current and secondary terminal voltage are held fixed. P3.24 Solutions Manual (d) Pi = 80 W Pc = (4.sin -1 Ë2 ¯ 2V = where IX 90° O 90° q IR f F V2 = V A Fig.08 W V1 V2 XLV = 0. C (e) ISC(HV) = IZ Solution The phasor diagram is drawn in Fig. P3.08 + j 0.103) W voltage held fixed at 2 kV. 47 = 90° – 63.3/100 = 0.05 + 5. 8 + 1000 h will be same for the condition of part (c) h = 2200 = 171.4° + sin–1 6.25 W 10 ¥ 0. Solution We will refer transformer impedance to the LV side.103 W The circuit model is drawn in Fig. I2 = 20 ¥ 1000 = 100 A 200 Fig.2° lead 2 ¥ 2000 \ pf = 0. 3.19(a).18 For Problem 3. 25 10 ¥ 0.79 A | 8 + j10| 3.707 pf leading (b) Calculate the secondary terminal voltage at: (i) 0. Z = (22 + 42)0.05 W (a) Find the voltage regulation at (i) 0.47 W 2 I = 6.10.

103 ¥ 0.8 log/0.103 ¥ 0.103) W 200 = – 0.20 Solution (a) V1 = 200 V Ii = 200 = 0. (a) An open-circuit test is conducted by applying 200 V to the LV side. Calculate the power input.58 = 187.103 ¥ 0) = 8 V 8 Voltage regulation = ¥ 100 = 4% 200 (iii) Voltage drop = 100 (0.08 ¥ 0.20.15 W 0.707 lead) V2 V2 = 200 – 12.5 A 400 I0 = 0. 58 Voltage regulation = ¥ 100 = 6.08 + j 0.6 W Vsc – Fig. Im = . keeping the HV side open.707 – 0.19(b).447 lag.8 + 0. P3.63 V \ V2 = 200 – (–1. power factor and current drawn by the transformer.58 V 200 V \ 25 100 A (0.20 The approximate equivalent circuit of a 4 kVA.5 \ P0 = ( 200 ) 2 = 50 W 800 200 = 0.4 W + + V1 800 W V 2¢ 400 W – Isc = 10 A 0.08 ¥ 0.25 A 800 I 0 = 0.58 12.6) = 12. P3. Calculate the voltage to be applied to the transformer and the power input and power factor. (i) Voltage drop = 12.56 A cos f0 = 0.19(b) (iii) Voltage drop = –1.25 + j 0. 63 ¥ 100 Voltage regulation = (0.4 V (ii) Voltage drop = 8 V \ V2 = 200 – 8 = 192 V Fig.63 V -1. P3. referred to the LV side is shown in Fig. 3.63) = 201.707) = –1. 200/400 V single-phase transformer.Electric Machines (a) (i) Voltage drop = 100 (0. P3.6 W 1.815% (b) The circuit model is drawn in Fig.29% 200 (ii) Voltage drop = 100 (0.6 V 3. (b) A short-circuit test is conducted by passing full-load current from the HV side keeping the LV side shorted. 0.20(a) Fig.08 ¥ 1 + 0.

P3. Solution Approximate condition for zero voltage regulation IR cos f – IX sin f = 0 R or tan f = X \ cos f = cos tan –1 R X X For maximum regulation tan f = R Maximum value of voltage regulation IR cos f + IX sin f I ( R 2 + X 2 ) IZ =± = = Z ( pu ) V2 V2 Z V2 3. 6 = 0. Solution OC test (LV) 1.352 lag.066 yo = = 0. Also show that the magnitude of maximum voltage regulation equals the pu value of equivalent leakage impedance. OC test (LV) = 240 V. 284 W. determine the maximum efficiency and the upf load at which it occurs.71 = 17. supplying a load at upf.5 = 0. 8.352 = 60.0022 ( 240 ) 2 Bm = [(0. 8.23 The following test results were obtained for a 20 k VA.4° W VSC = 10 ¥ 1. (a) When the transformer is operated as a step-down transformer with the output voltage equal to 240 V. such that the terminal voltage observed on reducing the load to zero is still 240 V.71 –69.0022)2]0.20(a)). 50 Hz.5 V.0044)2 – (0.26 Solutions Manual (b) Referring to HV side and neglecting the magnetizing branch (see Fig.1 ¥ 10 ¥ 0. supplied at 240 V.6 + j 1.08 VHV (rated) = 0.21 A 20 kVA. 1.08 ¥ 2000 = 160 V = VSC 3.08 W ( 8. What voltage must be applied on the HV side to circulate full-load current with the LV shorted? Solution Z HV ( W ) IHV (rated) = 0.2 W 3. PSC = 17. 34 ) 2 .6 W. (b) Determine the pf of the rated load. Ifl (HV) = 4 ¥ 1000 = 10 A 400 Z = 0.4° = 0.6 = 1. 2000/200 V transformer has name plate leakage impedance of 8%. 34 R= 284 = 4.22 Derive the condition for zero voltage regulation.08 V HV (rated) ZHV (W) IHV (rated) = 0.34 A.1 V pfSC = cos 69.066 A.0038 SC test (HV) Z= 57.0044 240 Gi = 126.89 W. 126. 5 = 6. 2400/240 V distribution transformer. SC test (HV): 57.

24 In a 25 kVA.8% at full-load upf. single-phase transformer is 98. Solution Pi = 350 W. 8 + Pi + 1/ 4 Pc.805 leading 5.98 at 20 kVA at upf. (b) Determine the load for maximum efficiency and the iron and the copper loss in this case. 3 13.fl (i) 0.08% 25 ¥ 1000 ¥ 1 + 350 + 400 (i) h(1/2fl. 2000/200 V transformer.935 400 Load for max h = 25 ¥ 0.5% 25 ¥ 1000 ¥ 1 ¥ 1/ 2 + 350 + 1/ 4 ¥ 400 350 = 0. the iron and copper losses are 350 and 400 W respectively.37 kVA 183.6 W 20 ¥ 1000 = 8. (a) Calculate the efficiency on upf at (i) full load (ii) half load. 8 500 ¥ 1000 ¥ 0 . 37 ¥ 1 = 98.33 A 2400 = (8.fl (ii) Solving Eqs (i) and (ii).fl Load at max efficiency = 20 ¥ h max (upf) = 126.fl = 8079 W hmax = (c) k = 4071 = 0.985 = 500 ¥ 1000 ¥ 0 .9% 1000 ¥ 1000 ¥ 0.fl = 400 W cos f = cos tan–1 (a) h(fl.988 = 1000 ¥ 1000 1000 ¥ 1000 + Pi + Pc.8 pf leading and 98. we get (a) Pi = 4071 W (b) Pc.935)2 ¥ 400 = 350 W 3. 71 = 98. upf) = 25 ¥ 1000 ¥ 1 ¥ 1/ 2 = 96. 71 + 2 ¥ 4071 3.71 8079 1000 ¥ 1000 ¥ 0. During the day it is loaded as follows: .27 A transformer has its maximum efficiency of 0. 08 = 0.08 = 283. 50 Hz. 55 3. 37 ¥ 1 ¥ 2 ¥ 0. (b) full-load copper loss and (c) maximum efficiency at upf.935 = 23.3 W Ifl(HV) = Pc. 110/220 V.33)2 ¥ 4. Determine: (a) iron loss.55 W (a) Pi = 126.1266 (b) Voltage regulation = 0% 4 .5% at half full-load at 0. upf) = 25 ¥ 1000 ¥ 1 = 97.Electric Machines \ 27 X = 5. 6 = 13. Pc.14% 13.385 kVA Pi = 350 W Pc = (0. (b) k = Solution 0.25 The efficiency of a 1000 kVA.

22 kVA.6 6 hours : 10 kW at pf 0. È Ê 22. È Ê 12. Determine its voltage-ratio and the kVA rating. 3. 0. 6 h. P3. Mark on the diagram. 12 h. 20 ¥ 1000 ¥ 1 = 0. 200/500 V. 10 ¥ 6 = 60 kWh (output).5 ˆ 2 ˘ 200 Í1 + Á ˜ ˙ ¥ 6 = 1.28 Solutions Manual 12 hours : 2 kW at pf 0. P3. hmax = Solution È Ê 3. Solution Refer to Fig. 2 ¥ 12 = 24 kWh (output).77% 204 + 6.67 kWh (loss) ÍÎ Ë 20 ¯ ˙˚ 20 kW.33 kVA.98 20 ¥ 1000 ¥ 1 + 2 Pi Pi = 200 W = Pc(20 kVA) 2 kW.8 pf.9 Find the ‘all day’ efficiency of the transformer. the magnitudes and relative directions of the currents in the winding as well as in the input and output lines when delivering the rated kVA to load.28(a) henergy (all day) = I2 = 40 A 500 V 500 V V2 = 700 V Load Input 200 V I1 = 56 A Input V1 = 200 V Fig.22 ˆ 2 ˘ 200 Í1 + Á ¥ 6 = 2.5 V1 200 I1 – I2 = 16 A Fig.9 pf.28. 0. P3. P3. 20 ¥ 6 = 1. 22.6 pf.5 kVA. as shown in Fig.8 6 hours : 20 kW at pf 0. 6 h.28 500 + 200 V2 = = 3. 82 3. 12.28(a) Load .28 A 20 kVA. single-phase transformer is connected as an auto transformer. 0.82 kWh (loss) 204 = 96. 50 Hz.33 ˆ 2 ˘ 200 Í1 + Á ˙ ¥ 12 = 2.47 kWh (loss) Ë 20 ˜¯ ˙ ÎÍ ˚ 10 kW.20 kWh (output).68 kWh (loss) Ë 20 ˜¯ ˙˙ ÎÍ ˚ 204 kWh (output) 6.

0.I1 + I 2 V1 .29. I2 1000 (a) I1 = 10 ¥ = 100 A V1 = 500 V 100 (kVA)Auto = 500 ¥ 100 = 50 1000 V2 = 400 V I2 – I1 . 263 3. 7 + PL I1 V2 = 2200 V V1 = 2000 V I1 – I2 Fig. with a constant source voltage of 2000 V. 5 + 0.30 A 20 kVA. P3. When tested as a 2-winding transformer at rated load. I2 = 20 ¥ 1000 = 100 A 200 Power output = 2200 ¥ 100 ¥ 1 = 220 kW Power transformed = 200 ¥ 100 ¥ 1 = 20 kW Power conducted = 200 kW hTW = 0. At full-load of unity power factor.V 2 100 = = I1 400 V2 \ I2 = Fig. I2 Solution Refer to Fig.97 10 ¥ 1000 ¥ 0. P3. two-winding transformer is to be used as an auto transformer.9 W Full load output as auto (0. calculate the power output. If the efficiency of the two-winding transformer at 0. 2-winding transformer is to be employed as an auto transformer to supply a 400 V circuit from a 500 V source.4 kW hAuto = 42. its efficiency is 0. P3. 5 = 99.Electric Machines I2(rated) = 29 20 ¥ 1000 = 40 A 500 -I 2 + I1 -40 + I 1 2 200 2 = = = or I2 500 5 40 5 \ I1 = 56 A 40 (kVA)Auto = 700 ¥ = 28 1000 3. 10 kVA.97 = 20 ¥ 1000 ¥ 0.38% 42. 100 Solution Refer to Fig.85 pf lagging.85 = 42.29 5 I = 125 A 4 1 (b) As two-winding transformer hTW = 10 ¥ 1000 ¥ 0.85 pf) = 50 ¥ 0. 7 20 ¥ 1000 ¥ 0.97. find the efficiency of the auto transformer. (b) Find its efficiency as an auto transformer. P3.29 A 400/100 V.30 . 85 + PL \ PL = 262. 85 = 0. I1 (a) Determine its kVA rating as an auto transformer. 2000/200 V. power transformed and power conducted.7 pf is 97%.30.

015 = 0.33 A 20 kVA. (a) Determine the auto transformer ratio a. 220 I2 = . 015 ¥ 25 = 15 kVA 0. Z2 = 0. 025 10 ¥ 1000 = 45.01 W. 0.31. (b) What per cent of the rated capacity is used in each transformer? Solution Z1 = 0.8 pf lagging connected to 200 V terminals.30 Solutions Manual \ PL = 433 W hAuto = 220 ¥ 100 = 99.015 W.2 A. 20 kVA. determine the currents in the load and the two transformer windings. 4400/220 V transformer with an equivalent impedance of 0.015 W Since the impedances have the same angle Z 1 + Z 2 = 0. (a) Find the individual load currents.8% 220 + 0. 025 SL = 0. P3. 433 3.30 I1 = 50 A \ I2 – I1 = 100 – 50 = 50 A 3. and 50 Hz transformer is connected as an auto transformer to transform 600 V to 200 V. 01 ¥ 25 = 10 kVA 0. N 1 600 = (a) a = =3 N 2 200 (b) I1 = N1 20 ¥ 1000 = 50 A 400 (kVA)Auto = V1 = 600 V 600 ¥ 50 = 30 1000 I2 N2 V2 = 200 V I2 – I1 20 ¥ 1000 (c) I2 = = 100 A 200 Fig. Assume both the impedances to have the same angle.7% 15 (a) I1 = 15 ¥ 1000 = 68. I1 Solution Refer to Fig. The two transformers are connected in parallel and made to carry a load of 25 kVA.6 A 220 15 (b) % rated capacity used in transformer 1 = = 75% 20 10 % rated capacity used in transformer 2 = = 66.31 A 200/400 V.025 W S1 = S2 = Z2 | Z1 + Z 2 | Z1 | Z1 + Z 2 | SL = 0. (b) Determine the kVA rating of the auto transformer. P3. 4400/220 V transformer with an equivalent impedance of 0.01 W is to operate in parallel with a 15 kVA.01 + 0. (c) With a load of 20 kVA.

025 + j 0.Electric Machines 31 3. The resistance and reactance of the first transformer are 3% and 6.6) 0.8 lagging power factor. 03 + j 0.175 = 0.35 Two single-phase transformers rated 600 kVA and 500 kVA respectively.05 + j 0.2 –– 30.182 From (ii).245 = 0.05 + j 0.065) ¥ 600 1000 = 0.0875) ¥ 2 = 0. are connected in parallel on both HV and LV sides. 0. P3. P3. P3.02 + j 0. V1 S1 = 600 kVA S2 = 500 kVA I1 SL = 1000 kVA.35 S2 = 500 kVA . P3.07 + j 0. 08 + j 0. They have equal voltage ratings V1 Z1 of 11 kV/400 V and their per unit impedances are (0.07) and (0.02 + l1 j 0.0728 –74° Z 2 = (0. Z 1 = 0.34 Z 1 + Z 2 = 0.9° kVA S1 = 600 kVA Fig. SL = 1000 ¥ 0. 0.16 IL Z 2 (pu) = (0. Calculate the kVA loading and the power factor at which each transformer operates. 255 = 3500 kVA 0.16 ¥ 1000 (0. 0728 As total load is increased the 1000 kVA transformer will be the first to reach its full load. rated 1000 kVA and 500 kVA respectively. Solution Refer to Fig.255 –74° S1 = S2 = Z2 | Z1 + Z 2 | Z1 | Z1 + Z 2 | SL (i) SL (ii) From (i).025 + j 0.08) ¥ 500 SL = 500 ¥ S1 = Z2 Z1 + Z 2 SL = 0.108 Z 1 (pu) = (0.015 + j 0.8 pf lagging Z1 Choose kVA base of 1000 kVA Z2 1000 I2 = 0. \ SL (max) = 1400 kVA 3. What is the largest value of the unity power factor load that can be delivered by the parallel combination at the rated voltage? Z2 I2 Solution Refer to Fig. are connected in parallel to supply a load of 1000 kVA at 0.0875) respectively.8 – j 0.34 S1 (rated) = 1000 kVA.35. 255 = 1400 kVA 0. S2 (rated) = 500 kVA IL Choose a kVA base of 1000. and of the second transformers 1.5% respectively.182 –74° ZL Fig.34 Two single-phase transformers. 268 = 584.07 = 0.03 + j 0.5% and 8% respectively.03 + j 0.

25 W per phase.9 kV ILY = IPY I LD VPY VLD = 11 kV 10:1 VLY I PD Fig. phase-to-phase is 10. P3.15° kVA = 426. Solution Refer to Fig.36. The voltage at the sending end of the feeder is held fixed at 2 kV line-to-line.75 + j 0. 50 Hz transformers is fed with power through a feeder whose impedance is 0.5 kVA at 0. P3.4 A = IPY 3 ¥ 1. 4 = 3. The input line voltage is 11 kV and the turns ratio of the transformer.8 pf V PD 11000 VPY = = 1.37 A D/Y connected bank of three identical 60 kVA 2000/100 V.64 A.705 lagging pf 3.108 ¥ 1000 (0.64 = 63 A 10 3. 268 = 426. Determine the line voltage. 05 + j 0. The short circuit test when conducted on one of the transformers with its LV terminals short-circuited gave the following results: \ IPD = VHV = 40 V f = 50 Hz IHV = 35 A P = 800 W (a) Find the secondary line-to-line voltage when the bank delivers rated current to a balanced 3phase upf load.6) 0. ILD = 3 ¥ 3. 08 + j 0.858 pf lagging S2 = Z1 Z1 + Z 2 SL = 0. Output kVA = 120 at 0. (b) Calculate the currents in the transformer primary and secondary windings and in the feeder wires on the occurrence of a solid 3-phase short-circuit at the secondary line terminals.36 Output kVA = 120 = \ 3 ¥ 1.36 An ideal 3-phase step-down transformer. .5 –– 45. phase voltages and phase currents on both the primary and the secondary sides. connected delta/star delivers power to a balanced 3-phase load of 120 kVA at 0.32 Solutions Manual = 584.9 ¥ ILY ILY = 120 = 36. 9 36.1 ¥ 3 = 1. line currents.8 power factor.8 – j 0.2 kVA at 0.1 kV = 10 10 V VLY = 1.

25 ZHV 2000 : 100 2000V (line) 40 = = 1.59 V 3Á Ë 3 ¯ 2000/100 3 (b) 3-phase short-circuit on secondary terminals F I SC = 2000 / 3 = 627.75 + j 0. Solution Refer Fig.938) = 1. 200 kVA upf 909. P3. each can handle 200 kVA.2 A 100 3 3.56 A 1. 84 ISC (transformer primary) = 627.6 pf lagging 2 kV I2 220 V.37.403 + j 1.425 V VL (line-to-line) = Ê 2000 ˆ 1900. P3. HV I1 550 V 200 kVA at 0. Of the two secondary windings.6 pf lagging.42 A single-phase.37 800 = 0.54 V . P3.56 3 = 1087 A (line current) ISC (transformer secondary) = 1087 ¥ 2000 = 12551.653 + j 0.143 W 35 3I L 33 VL D/Y Fig.42 .838 –40. Compute the primary current when the rated current in the 220 V winding at upf and the rated current in the 550 V winding is 0.1 53.42.25) + (0.653 W ( 35) 2 \ XHV = [(1.57.938 W Transformer impedance on HV side on equivalent star basis RHV = Z T = (0. Neglect all leakage impedance drops and magnetizing current.653 + j 0.25° (a) IL(HV) = 60 ¥ 1000 2000 / 3 = 52 –0° IL(R cos f + X sin f) = 57. three-winding transformer is rated at 2200 V on the HV side with a total of 250 turns.143)2 – (0.1° 363. Each transformer 0. 50 Hz.6 Fig.653)2]0.Electric Machines Solution Refer Fig.25° \ f = 40.75 + j 0. P3.188 = 1.425˜ = = 164.5 = 0.938) Z total = (0. one is rated at 550 V and the other at 220 V.

1° + 90.1∞ ¥ 0.53.9 ––53.6° A 3. 6 – .1 –0° A 0 . 55 I2 = 200 = 909.43 A small industrial unit draws an average load of 100 A at 0.34 Solutions Manual I1 = 200 = 363.6 ––53. 2 \ HV current = 90. Current in HV side due to I2 = 100 A 2000/ 3 V 10 2. 55 = 90.43. 60 kVA Y/D transformer bank.6 ––26.1° A 0 .32 A 10 200 V .1° A 2.000 V :1 3 Fig.9 ––53. 2 909.43 (a) Power consumed by unit = 3 ¥ 100 ¥ 200 ¥ 0. 22 Current in HV side due to I1 = 363.8 lagging pf from the secondaries of its 2000/200 V. 2 = 100 A 3 34.9 –0° = 162. 6 ¥ 100 = 57.7 kW 3 ¥ 100 ¥ 200 = 34. P3. Find: (a) the power consumed by the unit in kW (b) the total kVA used (c) the rated line currents available from the transformer bank (d) the rated transformer phase currents of the D-secondaries (e) per cent of rated load on transformers (f) primary line and phase currents (g) the kVA rating of each individual transformer Solution Refer Fig.6 kVA (b) Total kVA used = (c) Rated line current = 60 ¥ 1000 3 ¥ 200 = 173.9 –0° A 2.1 ¥ 0.7% 60 (f) Primary phase current = 100 ¥ 3 = 17.2 A (d) Rated phase current of D secondaries = (e) % of rated load = 173.8 W = 27. 220 = 90. P3.

66 2. 1000 kVA load 1000 Rating of each transformer = = 333.27 kV VPY(HV) = 11 = 6.2 kV. 3phase 11 kV (line-to-line) system. Y/D 2. 4 = 52.2 kV VPD(HV) = 11 kV . 2 VPY = 2.32 A 60 = 20 kVA 3 3. Specify the voltage.2 kV Turns ratio = 11/2. 66 VPD = 11 kV (c) 11 kV Y/Y 2. LV-Y (c) HV-Y.2 = 5 IPD(LV) = 1000 = 151.3 kVA (in each case) 3 11 Transf. current and kVA ratings of each transformer (both HV and LV windings) for the following connections: (a) HV-Y.4 A 3 ¥ 2. 3-phase load rated of 1000 kVA and 2200 V line-to-line.6 A 5 VPY(LV) = 1. 88 VPY = 11 = 6. LV-D Solution (a) 11 kV.6 A 2.2 kV IPY = Turns ratio = IPD = 1000 = 262. 2 VPD = 2.35 kV 3 (d) 11 kV D/D 2. 4 = 30.35 kV 3 (b) 11 kV D/Y 2.2 kV IPY = 1515 = 52. LV-D (b) HV-D. The LV terminals are connected to a 3-wise.3 A 5 VPD = 2. 2 = 127 kV 3 11 = 8.2 kV Turns ratio = 11/2. 5 = 30.Electric Machines 35 Primary line current = 17. ratio = = 2. 2 262. 2 3 VPD IPD = 1000 kVA (g) kVA rating of each individual transformer = \ IPD = 1000 = 1515 A 3 ¥ 2.3 A 8.4 A 3 ¥ 2.44 The HV terminals of a 3-phase bank of three single-phase transformers are connected to a 3-wire.5 A 3 ¥ 2.88 3 / 2. LV-Y (d) HV-D. 2 / 3 262. 2 IPD(HV) = 151.2 = 5 IPY(LV) = IPY(HV) = 1000 = 262.

(c) If the primary voltage is held fixed as in part (a).252 V1 = 1.15 + 0. Assumption To simplify calculation.08 + j 0. we shall assume that the phase angle of V3 with respect to the reference voltage V1 is 0°.2 ¥ 1 –0° = 1.075 ¥ 1 –0° = 1.15 – 0.1 – 0.2 – 0.013 + j 0.2) = 0.527 V1 = (1.89 kV .15 pu.8° X3 I–0° 3 2 V2 = 1 –0° pu V3 Fig. The D-connected secondaries supply their rated current to a balanced load at 0.0212) + j 0.8° + 1 = 1.1) = 0. X23 = 0.2 pu.45 A 3-phase bank consisting of three single-phase 3-winding transformers (Y/D/Y) is employed to step down the voltage of a 3-phase.075 pu 2 All computations are carried out in pu.08 + j 0.45.109 ¥ 220 = 243.1 + 0.1 pu.2 + 0. Short-circuit reactances on 10 MVA base : X12 = 0.08 + j 0.527) = 1.16 kV (c) Secondary load removed V 3 = (1.013 + j 0. It actually has a small angle which must otherwise be determined.98 kV (b) V 3 = (1.252) – j 0. Resistances are to be ignored. 1 X1 I1 A VA V1 X2 1––31.013 + j 0.15) = 0. (b) For conditions of part (a) find the line-to-line voltage at the tertiary terminals.85 pf lagging. The error caused is negligible.125 (1. 33 kV Tertiary 3: 10 MVA. P3.85 – j 0.014 ¥ 11 = 11. X13 = 0.45 1 (0. to what value will the tertiary voltage increase when the secondary load is removed? Solution Refer Fig.013 – j 0. The data pertaining to one of the transformers is given below: Ratings Primary 1: 20 MVA. P3.125 pu 2 1 X2 = (0.052 V3 = 1.0538 V3 = 1.85 – j 0. 11 kV. 220 kV.0212 X1 = I 1 = 1 ––31. (a) Compute the primary line-to-line voltage to maintain the rated voltage at the secondary terminals. (a) V A = 1 + 1 –– 31.025 = 1. whereas the tertiaries provide the rated current to a balanced load at upf (constant resistance).0212) – j 0.36 Solutions Manual 3.025 pu 2 1 X3 = (0. Secondary 2: 10 MVA.8° ¥ j 0.081 ¥ 11 = 11. 220 kV transmission line.

The total leakage reactance is 0. Solution Refer Fig. P3.7 W 15. 2 kV is connected to the LV terminals of this open-delta transformer.47 Two transformers.4 A 3 ¥ 0 .47. 2 Xeq HV = 0.4 W (per phase D) 3.43 kV.2 A 3 ¥ 11 2500 2000 = 1.3)2 = 6. Determine the transformer currents on the 11 kV side of this connection.06 pu. 4 ) 2 Req HV = 3. P3. RHV = = 3. 3-phase delta/star-connected transformer has on rated load an HV copperloss of 2.3 Fig.48 ¥ 10–3 ¥ (44. 11/0.5 kW and an LV loss of 2 kW.Electric Machines 37 3. 43 / 3 0. 0. each rated 250 kVA. 2 ) 2 3 ¥ ( 671. 43 500 = 15. Solution Refer Fig.6 W 3 ¥ (15.6 + 1. (a) Find the load kVA that can be supplied from this transformer connection.46. (b) A delta-connected three-phase load of 250 kVA. P3. are connected in open delta on both the primary and secondary.06 11000 = 723.46 A 500 kVA. 11/2 kV and 50 Hz. Find the ohmic values of the equivalent resistance and leakage reactance on the delta side.7 = 43. XBase(HV) = (a) Iph(secondary) = Sopen delta = = (b) 250 = 125 A 2 3 VIph 3 ¥ 2 ¥ 125 = 433 kVA 3 VIph(secondary) = 250 .48 ¥ 10–3 W.43 kV = 44. HV LV 500 kVA 11 11 kV 0.5 W (per phase D) X (pu) = 0.06 ¥ 723.8 pf.46 IPY(rated) = IPD(rated) = RLV = 500 = 671.

38 Solutions Manual Ê 11 ˆ ÁË 2 : 1˜¯ 11 kV 2 kV Fig. P3. 2 ¥ 2 = 13.48(b). Draw the phasor diagram.2 A 3¥2 72.48(b) –lA /2 . Solution Refer Figs P3. Furnace B: 800 kW at 0. P3.48(a) and P3. neglecting transformer losses.47 Iph(secondary) = 250 = 72.48 Two 110 V. single-phase furnaces take loads of 500 kW and 800 kW respectively at a power factor of 0. Iline(11 kV side) = Reference l A –lBC 2 IA A Ia 6600 V 3N 1 N2 2 3F A A Ia IC Va Va = 110 V N IB B N/2 M 45° N/2 C C Ic B N2 IBC B Vb = 110 V Fig.71 lagging and are supplied from 6600 V.12 A 11 Iphase(11 kV side) = 13.71 pf lag. Calculate the currents in the 3-phase line.12 A 3.48(a) Furnace A: 500 kW at 0.71 pf lag N1 6600 = = 60 N2 110 \ Vb 45° 3 N1 = 51. P3. 3-phase mains through a Scott-connected transformer combination.96 2 N2 IB Fig.

The phase sequence of the 3-phase supply is ABC. P3.71 + j 0.71) – 2 2 = 77. 2 IC = .71 + j 0.71) = 45∞Ô Ô ˝ With Vb as reference -1 fb = cos (0.2 A Ê I ˆ 123.93 + j 77. (a) Calculate the turns-ratio of the teaser transformer.71) = 170.71) = 45∞ Ô Ô˛ 6402 2 N2 Ia = = 123. 3-phase supply Va N2 IA Resistive load 100 B N1/2 M N1/2 C Main Vb N2 Fig.93 IB = I BC - \ IB = 182. 2 (0. supply 1000 A at a voltage of 100 2 to a resistive load. 96 51 3 1 N2 10243 Ib = = 170. supplied from 11 kV.7 (0. Teaser 1000 A A ( 3 /2)N1 11 kV.46 – j 164.Á I BC + A ˜ = –170.49 2V .71) – (0. 3-phase.2 –45° N .7 (0.Electric Machines 500 ¥ 1000 = 6402A 110 ¥ 0.46 \ IC = 182.71 – j 0. 50 Hz mains. (b) Calculate the line current IB and its phase angle with respect to the voltage of phase A to neutral on the 3-phase side.71 800 ¥ 1000 = 10243A Ib = 110 ¥ 0.49 shows a Scott-connected transformer.7 ––45° 60 N1 IA 123. series-connected as shown.49 Figure P3.71 – j 0.71) 2¯ 2 Ë = –164. Secondaries.71 Ia = \ IA = IBC = 39 ¸ fa = cos -1 (0.2 A 3.

5 = 9.5A 95 .49(a) IA 2 10. A IBC IB Va 45° IA/2 Va V N 100 2 Vb C (i) M (ii) B Fig.1 – 2 (lagging VAN by 45°) I B = I BC - Vb (iii) .40 Solutions Manual Solution Refer Fig.26 2 N2 2 2 N2 1000 ¥ 1000 A = = 10. P3.85 A = 9. P3. (a) Va = Vb = 100 2 2 = 100 V N1 V BC 11000 = = = 110 100 N2 Vb Turn ratios = (b) IA = 3 N1 3 = ¥ 100 = 95. 26 N 1 3 IBC = N2 1000 ¥ 1000 = = 9.1 A N1 110 Note V and I are in phase because of a resistive load.1 – 5.25 = 3.49(a).

6) = 6. 2200/220 V.24) = 96.75 + 0.3)2 X 197 = 231 W c) P(out) = 15 X 0.51 A transformer of rating 20kVA.50 A 15 kVA.3)2 = 4.(42. (c) Find the percentage voltage regulation.07 X 0.8 % d) Z (HV) = 112 / 6.85 lagging pf (d) Voltage regulation at full-load 0.82 / 6.76 / 2200) X 100 = -1.82A Full – load copper loss = (6.07 Voltage drop = 6. (b) What voltage must be applied on the HV side for load as in part (a).3.92 / 2200) X 100 = + 4.8 lagging / leading pf Solution: Turns ratio = 10 a) Core loss Pi = 185W b) I (FL) = 15000/2200 = 6.8 lag pf) 3.82 (3.8 ± 17.82 (4.41 % (0.42.97 ± 10.416) = 96.75 / (12.8 lag pf) = .8 pf lagging.23 Core loss at rated voltage = 95 W (a) Calculate transformer efficiency when delivering 20 k VA at 200 V at 0. 2000/200V has the following parameters: Req (HV side) = 2. 50 Hz transformer gave the following test results: OC (LV side) V = 220 V P = 185 W I = 2.76 % Voltage regulation = + (96.72 A SC (HV side) V = 112 V P = 197 W I = 6.96 X 0.94 % (0.85 = 12.65 Zeq (HV side) = 4.96)2 ) = 17. .78 R (HV) = 197 / (1.96 X(HV) = ((17.3 A Compute the following: (a) Core loss (b) Full-load copper loss (c) Efficiency at full-load 0.78)2 – (4.92V.3 = 17.75 kW PL = Pi + Pc(FL) = 185 + 231 = 416 W = 12.

8 = 16 kW PL = 95 + 265 = 360 w = (16/16.85 lagging power factor.09 A Pc(FL) = (9. It gave the following test results: OC (LV side) SC (HV side) 231 V 440 V 15.41 kW (c ) Pi = 1.52 A 100kVA.6) = 41 V HV side applied voltage = 2000 + 41 = 2041 V (c) % voltage regulation = (41/2041) X 100 = 2.65 = 265 w P (out) = 20 X 0.12)2 ) = 45.0038 respectively.36) X 100 = 97.81 (b) I1(FL) = 100/11 = 9.9 X1 = ( (48.23)2 – (2.51 + 8.2 A 9A 1.25kW Pc(FL) = 1.8% (b) Xeq = ( (4.65)2 = 3.9)2 – (17.61 = 17.0038 r2’ = (47.3 X 0.61 R1 = 8.25 kW Not measured Calculate (a) Equivalent leakage reactance of the transformer (b) Full load copper loss (c) Efficiency at full – load and half full-load at 0. Turns ratio a = 11000 / 231 = 47.(a) Pa = 95 W I2 = (20 X 1000) / 2000 = 10 A Pc (FL) = (10)2 X 2.51 r2 = 0. 11 kV/231 V transformer has HV and LV winding resistances of 8.09)2 X 17.12 Z1 = 440 / 9 = 48.66kW .0038 = 8.65 X 0.41 PL(FL) = 1025 +10141 = 2.6)2 X 0.12 = 1.51 and 0.05 % 3.6 (a) r1 = 8.3 Voltage drop = 10 X (2.8 + 3.

R1 = 0.955) = 95.46 = 952.0023 = 0. Pi = (2200)2/(5.85 = 42.25 + 0.12 k The transformer is subjected to the following daily load cycle = 4 hrs on no load.846 + 0.23 R2 = 0.846+1/4 X 0.952 = 20.24 50 8 400 50+0.846 3.952 = 51.5 + 1.38 (100/4) X 0.798 367.6 X 1000) = 846.8 = 20 8 160 20+0. 2200 V/220 V transformer has the following circuit parameters.3 w R1 = r1 + r2 = 0. Determine the all-day energy efficiency of the transformer.P(out)( FL) = 100 X 0.66) = 96.9 pf.67 90 4 360 90 + 0. 8 h on ½ full-load at upf.5 = 97.7 % Pc(1/2 FL) = ¼ X 1.46 Ii(FL) = (100 X 1000)/2200 = 45.5kW = 42.0183 R1 (HV side) = 5.8 pf.83 X2 = 0.2 % ----------------946.955kW P(out)(1/2FL) = 50 X 0.5/(42.23 + (10)2 X 0.705kW PL(1/2FL) = 1.846+1/16X0.705 = 1.19 ------------920 ------------e = 920/946.85 = 85kW (FL) = 85/(85 + 2.3 w Po Time(i) w0 Pi = Po + Pi+ k2Pc wi 0 4 0 0.5A Pc(FL) = (45.48 ----------------- .5)2 X 0.6 k Xm (HV side ) = 1. and 4 hrs on full-load at 0.0023 X1 = 1.41 = 0.53 A 100 kVA.6 % 3. 8 hrs on 1/4th full-load at 0.906 167.952 = 91.084 408.

11˚ 3.2 + j 3. I3 = 333 -53. 50 Hz transformer has a primary impedance of 1.0 . The primary is rated 2400 V and has 300 turns.1˚ = 400 + 120 – j 160 = 520 – j 160 I1 = 216.2) + (400/200)2 (0.4 + j 1. Find the primary current and its pf. A short – circuit occurs on the secondary side with 400 V applied to the primary.90˚) .89 (.6 + j 4. 200 kVA and supplies full-load at 0.4 0˚ I1 = 400 0˚ + 200 -53.6 pf lagging I2 = (400 X 1000) / 240 = 1667 A. 3-winding transformer can be considered as an ideal transformer.7 = 226. Vca = 600 X (360/200) = 1080 V Ic = (8 X 1000) / 1080 = 7. 400kVA. 200 kVA upf 0. Calculate the primary current and its power factor. the primary being excited at 600 V.8 + j7.56 An ideal transformer has 200 primary turns and 360 secondary turns.90˚) I1 X 200 = 7. Tertiary : 600 V.0) = 2. Primary : 2400V. The secondary is also tapped at 240 turns which supplies a pure inductive load of 10 kVA.55 A 50 Hz.78 A Pf = cos 68. The full secondary has a resistive load of 8 kW.725 / 68.41 X 0˚ 360 + 13.6 pf lagging. The secondary winding is rated 240 V.1˚ 0.2 and secondary impedance of 0.6 pf lag V1 I1 = V2 I2 + V3 I3 2.2 + j 3.363 lagging 3.7 -17.7 – j66.2) + (1.725 = 51. upf I2 = 1667 0˚ I3 = (200 X 1000) / 600 = 333 A.7˚ I1(sc) = 400 / 7.89 X 240 (.2 = 7.41 0˚ A Vba = 600 X (240/200) = 720 V Ib = (10 X 1000) / 720 = 13. 400 kVA and supplies full-load at UPF.7 = 226. Determine the primary current.54 A 400/200 V.2 + j 3.3.4+ j1. The tertiary is rate 600 V.0) = (1. 300turns Secondary : 240 V. Z1 = (1.7˚ = 0.

I1 = 13.34 X –j 16.67 = 21.35

(-51.3˚)

**I1 = 21.35 A, bf = cos 51.3˚ = 0.625 lagging
**

3.57 A 50 kVA, 2300 V/230 V transformer draws power of 750 W at 0.5 A at no load when

2300 V is applied to the HV side. The HV winding resistance and leakage reactance are 1.8

and 4 respectively. Calculate:

(a) the no load pf

(b) the primary induced emf

(c) the magnetizing current and

(d) the core loss component of current.

(a) No load pf = (750/(2300 X 0.5)) = 0.652 lagging

I0 = 0.5 (-49.3˚)

(b) E1 = V1 – I0 (r1 + jx1)

= 2300 – 0.5 (- 49.3˚) (1.8 + ju)

= 2300 – 0.5 X 4.39 (65.8 – 49.3˚)

= 2300 – 2.195 (16.5˚)

= 2300 – 2.105 – j X 0.623

= 2300V 0˚

(c ) Ii = 750/2300 = 0.033 A

Im = ((0.5)2-(0.033)2)

= 0.499 A

(d) I0 = 0.033 A

3.58 Two single-phase transformers operate in parallel to supply a load of 44 + j 18.6 .

The transformer A has a secondary emf of 600V on open circuit with an internal

impedance on 1.8 + j 5.6 referred to the secondary. The corresponding figures for

transformer B are 610 V and 1.8 + j 7.4 . Calculate the terminal voltage, current and

power factor of each transformer.

IA = (EA ZB + (EA – EB) ZL)/(ZAZB + ZL(ZA+ZB)

IB = (EBZA + (EB – EA)ZL / ZAZB + ZL(ZA + ZB)

ZL = 44 + j 18.6

= 47.77 (22.9˚)

ZA = 1.8 + j5.6

= 5.88 (72.2˚)

ZB = 1.8 + j7.4

= 7.62

(76.3˚)

ZAZB = 44.8 (148.5˚)

= -38.2 + j 23.4

ZA + ZB = 3.6 + j 13

= 13.49 (74.5˚)

ZL(ZA+ZB) = 6444.4 (97.40)

= -83 + j 639

ZAZB + ZL (ZA +ZB) = -38.2 + j 23.4

-83 + j 639

-----------------------121.2+j 662.4 = 673.4

------------------------EA = 600 0˚

EB = 610 0˚

EAEB = 600(1.8 + j 7.4)

= 1080 + j 4440

(100.4˚)

EBZA = 610 (1.8 + j 5.6)

= 1098 + j 3416

(EA – EB) ZL = -10(44 + j 18.6) = - 440 – j 186

EAZB + (EA – EB)ZL = 1080 + j 4440

- 440 – j 186

----------------------640 + j 4254

= 4302

----------------------EBZA + (EB – EA) ZL = 1098 + j 3416

440 + j 186

------------------1538 + j 3602 = 3917

-------------------

(81.40)

(66.90˚)

**IA = 4302 (81.40) / 673.4 (100.400˚) = 6.39(-190˚) = 6.04 – j 2.08
**

IB = 3917 (66.90˚) / 673.4(100.40˚) = 5.82(-33.50˚ = 4.85 - j 3.21

--------------------10.89 – j 5.29

-------------------IA + IB = 10.8 – j5.29 = 12.03 (-26.1˚)

Vt = (IA + IB)ZL = 12.03 (-26.1˚ X 44.77 (22.9˚)

= 538.6 (-3.2˚ )V

Vt, IA = -19˚ + 3.2˚ = 15.8˚

Vt, IB = -33.5˚ + 3.2˚ = -30.3˚

**PfA = 0.962 lag
**

PfB = 0.863 lag

Electric Machines

41

**CHAPTER 4: PRINCIPLES OF ELECTROMECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION
**

4.1 In the electromagnetic relay of Fig. 4.11, the exciting coil has 1000 turns. The cross-sectional

area of the core is A = 5 cm ¥ 5 cm. The reluctance of the magnetic circuit may be assumed to be

negligible. Also neglect fringing effects.

(a) Find the coil inductance for an air-gap of x = 1 cm. What is the field energy when the coil

carries a current of 2 A? What is the force on the armature under these conditions?

(b) Find the mechanical energy output when the armature moves from xa = 1 cm to xb = 0.5 cm

assuming that the coil current is maintaind constant at 2.0 A.

(c) With constant coil current of 2.0 A, derive an expression for the force on armature as a function

of x. Find the work done by the magnetic field when x changes from xa = 1 cm to xb = 0.5 cm

from

Ú

xb

xa

Ff dx ◊ Verify the result of part (b).

**(d) Find the mechanical energy output in part (b) if the flux linkages are maintained constant
**

corresponding to a coil current of 2.0 A.

Solution

2x

(a) R =

m0A

L(x) =

m 0 N 2 A 4p ¥ 10 -7 ¥ (1, 000 ) 2 ¥ ( 0. 05) 2

=

2x

2x

p ¥ 10 -3

2x

x = 0.01 m

L(x) =

L =

\

p ¥ 10 -3

= 0.157 H

2 ¥ 0. 01

**Field energy for coil current of 2.0 A
**

=

Wf¢ =

Ff =

1

¥ 0.157 ¥ (2)2 = 0.314

2

1

L(x)i2

2

∂ Wf¢

p ¥ 10-3 -p ¥ 10-3

∂ Ê p ¥ 10-3 ˆ

1

=

=

= i2

= –314 N

2 ∂ x ÁË 2 x ˜¯

∂x

(0.01)2

x2

**(b) Electrical energy input, DWe = (l 2 – l 1)i
**

= (L (x = 0.005) – L(x = 0.01))i2

=

p ¥ 10-3 Ê 1

1 ˆ

ÁË 0.005 - 0.01˜¯ ¥ 4

2

= 0.2 p J

5 A. find an expression for the mechanical energy output.1p = 0.005) ¥ i2 i2 = 0. 005 = 1A p ¥ 10 -3 1 ¥ 0. P4. l l2 l1 x d b c e i2 0 N f i1 i Fig.005 0.314 J (This agrees with the value obtained in part (b)) (d) DWm = 1 l (i – i2) 2 0 1 i1 = 2 A. i2 = 1.2(b) Electrical energy input DWe = Area cabd = (l 2 – l 1)i2 + 1 (l 2 – l 1) (i1 – i2) 2 Mech .1p (2 – 1) = 0. DWm = (c) Mechanical work done = Ú 1 DWe = 0.2 In Fig.005 0. P4.1p ¥ or 2 ¥ 0. 01 l 0 = L(x = 0.157 J 4 Wm = 4.5 cm. xa = 0.01 1 dx x2 0. xa = 1 cm and xb = 0. P4.2(a) Solution System i a Fig.01 Ff dx = – (p ¥ 10–3) = p ¥ 10–3 È1 ˘ ÎÍ x ˚˙ Ú 0.01) ¥ 2 = p ¥ 10 -3 ¥ 2 = 0.42 Solutions Manual Mechanical output. If this figure pertains to the electromagnetic relay of Fig.005 0.1p 2 ¥ 0.05p 2 = 0.01 cm l 0 = L(x = 0.0 A. given that i1 = 2.11.7(b) if the i-l curve ab is assumed to be a straight line.314 J 2 0. find the value of the mechanical energy output.01 = 0. 4.

Electric Machines 43 Increase in field energy DWf = Area obd – Area oca 1 1 l i – l i 2 22 2 11 Mechanical output = DWm = DWe – DWf = (l 2 – l 1)i2 + = 1 1 1 (l 2 – l 1) (i1 –i2) – l i + l i 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 (l 2 i1 – l 1 i2) 2 From Prob 4. 4.4 For the cylindrical iron-clad solenoid magnet of Fig.314 ¥ 1.005) i2 = 0. (a) Derive an expression for the force in terms of g for a constant coil current of 2.02 cm Fig. Calculate the value of the force for g = 1 and 0.471 WbT L(x) = 1 (0.471 ¥ 2 – 0.2355 J 4.314 H l1 = L(x = 0.5 = 0. .00175 Wb Solenoid g 1.25 A.4 assume that the magnetic path reluctance remains constant at a value corresponding to the linear part of the magnetization curve.01)i1 l 2 = L(x = 0.314 WbT = 0. L(x = 0.01) = 0. p ¥ 10 -3 2x L(x = 0.2 cm Plunger 5 cm dia 0.314 ¥ 15) 2 = 0.9.2 cm.157 H.005) = 0. P4. Mechanical output = MMF = 120 AT Flux = 0.1.

Kothari.2 cm. Tata McGraw-Hill.25 A.570 = 68. 05) 2 4p = 4. . 25) 2 = –1592 N (1 + 26.25 A what is the direction and magnitude of the electrical energy flow if the plunger is made to move from g = 0. 8 ¥ 10 2 ( 2.5 ¥ 102 g) ¥ 103 Reluctances of circular air-gap (g) = ¥ 10 -2 (1. 5 ¥ 10 2 g ) ¥ 10 3 (1 + 26.91 J* 2 * For derivation of this relation. 5 ¥ 10 2 g ) Wf¢ (i. while the coil current is maintained constant at 2. g) = Ff = 4 . I. Ff = - i = 2. 5 ¥ 1) 2 (b) DWe = (l 2 – l 1) io = (L(g2) – L(g1)) i 02 9.57 ¥ 103 0. 5 ¥ 10 2 g) Ê ˆ 1 1 DWe = 9.8) DWm = 1 DWe = 2. 5 ¥ 0. 71 i 2 1 il = (1 + 26 . New Delhi. 00175 Reluctance of annular air-gap = 84. 5 ¥ 10 2 g) 2 g = 0. (c) Calculate the work done on the plunger during the movement specified in part (b). 41 N2 = L(g) = R = 153 (1 + 26.P. (4.25)2 Ë 1 + 26.44 Solutions Manual (b) What is the electrical energy input to the system when g changes from 1 to 0. 1997.5 ¥ 1˜¯ = 5.25 A i = 2.053 g ¥ 105 3 Total reluctance R = 153 ¥ 10 + 4. (d) With the coil current maintained constant at 2. 4. 8 ¥ 10 2 ¥ ( 2. 2nd edn.5 ¥ 0.2 to 1 cm? Solution 120 (a) R iron = = 68. 2 ) 2 g = 1 cm. 5 ¥ 10 2 g ) 2 ∂ Wf¢ 124.156. the reader may refer to Nagrath.J.81 J (c) As per Eq. 25) 2 = –83.053 g ¥ 105 = 153 (1 + 26. 41 L(g) = (1 + 26.2 cm. p.5 N (1 + 26. 8 ¥ 10 2 i 2 =∂g (1 + 26.2 1 + 26.4 ¥ 103 g ¥ (p /4 ) ¥ ( 0. 200 ) 2 9. Electric Machines.41 Á ¥ (2.25 A 124 . and D. Ff = – 124. Ch.

x) = 2 ¥ Ff = Ff(max) = – =– 1 Ê B 2 Ax ˆ 2 ÁË m0 ˜¯ ∂W f B2 A =m0 ∂x B 2 ( saturation ) A m0 (18) 2 ¥ ( 0 . 05) = – 6. P4.81 J The electrical energy flows out of the solenoid coil. coil turns = 1000. Determine the time average force on the movable member at any fixed position of the moving member. field energy in the two air-gaps is Wf (B. assume the reluctance of the iron part of the magnetic circuit to be negligible. 4.446 ¥ 103 N 4p ¥ 10 -7 4.2(a).7 – . P4. 4. if (a) i = I cos w t (b) u = V cos w t Movable member x Cross-sectional area A Air gap negligible N i r + V Fig. Solution wf = 1 Ê B2 ˆ 2 ÁË m 0 ˜¯ In Fig.Electric Machines 45 (d) DWe = – 5. calculate the maximum force on the armature if saturation flux density in the iron part is 1.7. 05 ¥ 0.6 For the electromagnetic relay of Fig.11.8 T. 4.7 For the electromagnetic device shown in Fig. Given: cross-sectional area of core = 5 cm ¥ 5 cm.

tan -1 r ˜¯ Ë r +w L V 2 2 2 ˆÊ aˆ 1Ê V2 Ff (av) = . we get aV 2 (r 2 x 2 + a 2 w 2 ) 4. .Á 2 2 2 4 Ë r + w L ˜¯ ÁË x2 ˜¯ Substituting L(x) = a/x.8 Two coils have self and mutual-inductances of Ff (av) = - L11 = L22 = 2 (1 + 2 x ) L12 = (1 – 2x) The coil resistances may be neglected. x) = 2 N 2i Ê N m0 A ˆ Á ˜i R Ë x ¯ N2 m0A a = x x 1 L(x)i2 2 Ff = ∂ W f¢ ∂x =- Ff = - Ff (av) = - = 1 2 ∂L i 2 ∂x 1 2Ê a ˆ i 2 ÁË x 2 ˜¯ 1 2Ê a ˆ cos2 w t I 2 ÁË x 2 ˜¯ 1 2Ê a ˆ (in a direction to reduce x) I 4 ÁË x 2 ˜¯ (b) u = ri + L di dt V (jw) = (r + jwL) I(jw) or \ I(jw) = V ( jw ) ( r + jwL ) i= - 1 4 wL ˆ Ê cos Á wt .46 Solutions Manual Solution R= x m0A l = Nf = L(x) = (a) W¢f (i.

35 m If Ff is negative 0 < x < 0.e.5 = –4.2 (1 .5 Ú + 20 ¥ 0. i. x) = i 12 = (1 + 2 x ) ∂W f¢ Ff = (a) I1 = 5 A Ff = – ∂x = + i1i2 (1–2x) + -2i 12 (1 + 2 x ) 2 i 22 (1 + 2 x ) – 2i1i2 + -2 i 22 (1 + 2 x ) 2 I2 = –2 A 58 + 20 (1 + 2 x ) 2 0.. (b) l1 = L11i1 + L12i2 (1 + 2x)2 = = 2 i1 + (1 – 2x)i2 1 + 2x = 10 –2 (1 – 2x) 1 + 2x 10 l1(x = 0.e.5 J 2 l2 = L12i1 + L22i2 Energy input to coil 1 = = (1–2x)i1 + 2i 2 4 = 5(1– 2x) – 1 + 2x 1 + 2x .Ú f 0 = 0 58 2(1 + 2 x) 58 dx + 20 (1 + 2 x) 2 0. i.Electric Machines 47 (a) If the current I1 is maintained constant at 5 A and I2 at –2 A. tends to increase x.5 Mechanical work done = 0.5 J 0 Force becomes zero for 58 = 2.5 Ú dx 0 0. What is the direction of the force developed? (b) During the movement in part (a). find the mechanical work done when x increases from 0 to 0.1) ˘˙ – [10 – 2] = –3 Î2 ˚ 1 ¥ 5 ¥ (–3) = –7.5 m. If Ff is positive x > 0.35.35. tends to decrease x.9 20 1 + 2x = 17 or x = 0. what is the energy supplied by sources supplying currents I1 and I2? Solution 1 L i 2 + L12i1i2 + 1 L22 i 22 2 11 1 2 W¢f (i1.5) – l1(x = 0) = ÈÍ .5 Ú F dx = . i2.

5 m L11 = L22 = 1 L12 = 0. 5 ¥ 314 1.9 Two coils have self. 5 ¥ 314 1 Ê 100 ˆ 2 ÁË 1.5 (jw) I 1 (jw) + (jw) I 2 (jw) Solving we get I 1 (jw) = I 2 (jw) = V ( jw ) 1.5 ¥ 314 ˜¯ 3 Ê 100 ˆ Ff (av) = .5 m if: (a) both the coils are connected in parallel across a voltage source 100 cos 314t (b) coil 2 is shorted while coil 1 is connected across a voltage source of 100 cos 314t (c) the two coils are connected in series across a voltage source of 100 cos 314t.and mutual-inductances of Energy input to coil 2 = L11 = L22 = L12 = 2 (1 + 2 x ) 1 (1 + 2 x ) Calculate the time-average force and coil currents at x = 0. 5( jw ) Therefore i1 = i2 = Ff = - 100 100 cos (314t – 90°) = sin 314t 1.5) – l2(x = 0) = (0 –2) – (5 – 4) = –3 1 ¥ (–2x) – 3 = 3 J 2 4. i2.Á 4 Ë 1. x) = = 1 L i 2 + L12i1i2 + 1 L22 i 2 2 2 11 1 2 1 i2 + 1 i i + 1 i2 1 2 1 + 2x 1 1 + 2x 1 + 2x 2 Ê 1 ˆ 2 = Á i + i i + i2 Ë 1 + 2 x ˜¯ 1 1 2 2 ( Ff = ) ∂W f¢ 2 i12 + i1i2 + i22 =∂x (1 + 2 x) 2 ( ) x = 0.5 (jw) I 2 (jw) V (jw) = 0.48 Solutions Manual l2(x = 0.5 Ff = - 1 2 i + i i + i2 2 1 12 2 ( ) (a) V (jw) = (jw) I 1 (jw) + 0. Solution W¢f (i1.5 ¥ 314 ˜¯ 2 ¥ 3 sin2 314t 2 = –0.034 N .

5 (jw) I 2 (jw) 0 = 0.5 ¥ 314 ˜¯ 2 (1 + 1 + 1) sin2 314t 2 = –0.5 ( jw) I ( jw) I ( jw) = or V ( jw ) 1.10 The doubly-excited magnetic field system of Fig.Electric Machines 49 (b) V (jw) = (jw) I 1 (jw) + 0.5 (jw) I 1 (jw) + (jw) I 2 (jw) Solving we get I 1 (jw) = V ( jw ) 0. 75( jw ) I 2 (jw) = – V ( jw ) 1.and mutual-inductances of L11 = L22 = 2 + cos 2q L12 = cos q where q is the angle between the axes of the coils. 5( jw ) Therefore i1 = 1400 sin 314t 3 ¥ 314 i2 = – 200 sin 314t 3 ¥ 314 Substituting in Ff Ff = - 1 Ê 200 ˆ ¥ 2 ÁË 3 ¥ 314 ˜¯ = - 3 Ê 200 ˆ ¥ 2 ÁË 3 ¥ 314 ˜¯ Ff (av) = - 3 Ê 200 ˆ ¥ 4 ÁË 3 ¥ 314 ˜¯ 2 (4 – 2 + 1) sin2 314t 2 sin2 314t 2 = –0. i1 = i2 = i = 100 sin 314t 1. Derive an expression for the time average torque as a function of angle q.034 N 4. 4. . 5 ¥ 314 1 Ê 100 ˆ ¥ Ff = – 2 ÁË 1.034 N (c) V ( jw) = ( jw) I ( jw) + 0.15 has coil self. 5( jw ) Therefore. The coils are connected in series and carry a current of i = 2 I sin w t.5 ¥ 314 ˜¯ Ff (av) = – 3 Ê 100 ˆ ¥ 4 ÁË 1.

q ˆ ÁË 45 ˜¯ p Ê q 1 . 4. Calculate the torque of field origin if the rotor is held in position q = 45° with (a) i1 = 5 A i2 = 0 (b) i1 = 0 i2 = 5 A (c) i1 = 5 A i2 = 5 A (d) i1 = 5 A i2 = –5 A (e) Find the time-average torque if coil 1 carries a current of 5 sin 314t while coil 2 short-circuited. when the rotor is in the region of q = 45°.ˆ˜ i1i2 + Í1 + ÊÁ1 .11 In the rotary device of Fig. the coil inductances can be approximated as Tf = L11 = L22 = 2 + L12 = L21 = p 2 Ê1 .ˆ˜ ˙ i12 + ÊÁ1 .ˆ˜ 2 ÁË 90 ¯ where q is in degrees. Solution 1 1 W¢f(i1. q) = ∂ W f¢ = (–2 sin 2q – sin q)i2 ∂q = –(2 sin 2q + sin q) ¥ 2I2 sin2 w t Tf (av) = –I2 (2 sin 2q + sin q) 4.ˆ˜ ˙ i22 Ë ¯ Ë ¯ Ë ¯˚ 4 45 2 90 4 45 Î ˚ Î Tf = ∂W f¢ Ê p 2 p p 2 ˆ 180 = Ái1 i1i2 i ¥ Ë 180 180 180 2 ˜¯ ∂q p ( = – i12 + i1 i2 + i22 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) ) (independent of q) Tf = – (25 + 0 + 0) = –25 N Tf = –(0 + 0 + 25) = –25 N Tf = –(25 + 25 + 25) = –75 N Tf = –(25 – 25 + 25) = –25 N For the shorted coil 0 = L21 di 2 di1 + L 22 dt dt . q) = [(2 + cos 2q) + cos q]i2 W¢f (i1.50 Solutions Manual Solution W¢f = or \ 1 L i2 + L i i + 1 L i2 12 1 2 2 11 1 2 22 2 1 (2 + cos 2q) i 12 + (cos q)i1i2 + 1 (2 + cos 2q) i 22 2 2 i = i1 = i2 (given) W¢f (i.15. i2. i2. q) = L i 2 + L12i1i2 + L i2 2 11 1 2 22 2 È p È p q ˘ p q q ˘ = Í1 + ÊÁ1 .

x) 4( D . P4. Determine the equilibrium position of the plunger and linearize the describing equation for incremental changes about the equilibrium point.Á 25 . Assume the iron to be infinitely permeable.12 Figure P4.45 ˆ = 2 ÁË 45 ˜¯ 45 p Ê p 1 .12 shows the cross-sectional view of a cylindrical plunger magnet. R1 = ( D .04 sin2 314t Tf (av) = –9.12 Solution Reluctance of circular air gap.52 N 4.x ) = 2 Ê d ˆ pm0 d 2 m0 Á p ˜ Ë 4 ¯ Non-magnetic Sleeve . Plunger of Mass M i r t x + V Spring Constant K d – N D Coefficient of Friction B h Cylindrical Core Fig. The position of the plunger when the coil is unexcited is indicated by the linear dimension D. p 2 L11 = L22 = 2 + L12 = L21 = Ê 1 .5 ¥ ¥ 5 + sin2 314t 8 64 ˜¯ Ë = –19.Electric Machines 51 At q = 45°.ˆ˜ = 2 ÁË 90 ¯ 4 p (jw) I 1 (jw) I 1 (jw) + 2 (jw) I 2 (jw) 4 p I 2 (jw) = – I 1 (jw) 8 i = 5 sin 314t 0= \ Now \ i2 = – p ¥ 5 sin 314t 8 Hence Ê p 2 ¥ 25 ˆ p Tf = . Write the differential equations describing the dynamics of the electromagnetic system.

bx ) 2 Mechanical circuit equation (b / 2) N 2 2 d2x dx = +B + Kx i M dt ( a . 4 + b= pm 0 ( d + t ) h pm 0 d 2 pm 0 d 2 Electrical circuit equation d d ( L( x ))i ˆ˜ v = ir + ÊÁ l = Ë dt ¯ dt = Ir + L(x) di + i dL ◊ dx dt dx dt 2 N di bN 2 dx v = ir + +i a .bx dt ( a . x) = = 1 i 2 bN 2 2 ( a .bx ) 2 dt 2 (ii) Under equilibrium conditions v = V0 i = I0 di =0 dt We get from Eqs (i) and (ii) V0 = I0r (b/2)N 2 I 2 = KX0 ( a .bx a t + 2 pm 0 ( d + t )h pm 0 d where a= t 4D . R2 = Coil inductance L= L= t m 0 p ( d + t )h N2 R1 +R 2 N2 N2 = 4( D .x ) .52 Solutions Manual Reluctance of annular air gap. x1 dx = 0.bX 0 ) 2 0 Let the incremental values be expressed as v1. i1. dt x = X0 (iii) .bx ) 2 dt or (i) 1 2 i L(x) 2 dW f¢ 1 dL ( x ) = i2 Ff = dx 2 ∂x W¢f (i.

Mass M N1 r1 K A N2 B A Fig. Iron is to be taken as infinitely permeable. we get Ê N 2 ˆ di1 È b 2 NI 0 ˘ dx1 v1 = i1r + Á +Í ˙ Ë a .bx 1 ) 2 dt 2 (iv) (v) Cancelling out equilibrium terms in (iv) and (v) and neglecting the product of incremental values. P4.bX 0 ) dt 2 (vii) 4.bX 0 . D Rest Position of Armature x i2 + A r2 V2 + i1 V1 – – Armature. P4.Electric Machines 53 Substituting in (i) and (ii) V0 + v1 = (I0 + i1)r + di 1 dx 1 N2 bN 2 (I0 + i1) 2 a . L12 = N1 N 2 a( D .13 write the dynamical equation.13 For the electromagnet of Fig.13 Solution R= L11 = D-x D-x 3 + = (D – x) = a(D – x).x ) dl 1 dt d = i1r1 + [L11i1 + L12i2] dt v1 = i1r1 + .x ) a= 3 2m 0 A .bX 0 ) 2 ˚ dt (vi) ( b / 2 ) N 2 I 0 i1 d 2 x1 dx 1 =M +B + Kx 1 2 dt ( a . L22 = N 22 a( D .bX 0 ˜¯ dt Î ( a . m0A m 0 (2 A) 2 m 0 A N 12 a( D .bx 1 dt dt ( a bX 0 bx 1 ) ( b / 2 ) N 2 ( I 0 + i1 ) 2 d 2 x1 dx 1 = +B M + K(X0 + x1) dt ( a . Assume the cross-sectional area of each limb of the magnet to be A and the coupling between the two coils to be tight.x ) .bX 0 .

x ) 2 a( D .x ) dt a ( D . i2.14 B(t) = Bm sin w t Find (a) the coil voltage (b) the force of field origin as a function of time (c) the motion of armature as a function of time. Solution R= L(x) = 2( D . the air-gap flux density under steady operating conditions is i 12 + A i D Rest Position of Armature X Armature.x ) a( D .x ) dt a ( D . P4.x ) dt a ( D .x ) 2 2 ∂x a( D . P4. Mass M + K V N – Coil Resistance Negligible B Fig.x ) R .x ) dt v1 = i1r1 + (i) Similarly. N 22 i 2 N 22 di 2 N 1 N 2 i 1 dx N 1 N 2 di 1 dx + + + a ( D .x ) 2 1 2 a( D .x ) dt a ( D .x ) dt v2 = i2r2 + 1 1 L (x) i 2 + L12(x)i1i2 + L (x) i 22 2 11 1 2 22 N 12 N 22 ∂W f¢ N1 N 2 2 = + + i i i i2 Ff = 1 2 2 a( D .x ) m0A m0N2A N2 = 2( D .14 For the electromechanical system shown in Fig.x ) 2 (ii) W¢f(i1. x) = N 12 (iii) N 22 N1 N 2 d2x dx + + Kx i i i 22 = M 2 + B (iv) 1 2 2 2 2 dt 2 a( D .x ) dt a ( D .x ) dt Equations (i) and (iv) describe the system dynamics.14. 4.x ) dt a ( D .54 Solutions Manual dL 11 dx di 1 dL 12 dx di 2 + i2 + L12 ( x ) + L11 (x) dx dt dt dx dt dt = i1r1 + i1 or N 12 i 1 N 12 di 1 N 1 N 2 i 2 dx N 1 N 2 di 2 dx + + + a ( D .

Electric Machines l = NABm sin w t (a) e = dl NA Bm w cos wt dt 2 2 2 2 1 l2 1 N A B m sin wt = (b) Wf (l.4 Mw ) 2 + 4 B 2 w 2 k .x ) = m 0-1 AB 2m (D – x) sin2 wt Ff = – = (c) ∂ Wf = m -0 1 AB 2m sin2 wt ∂x 1 m -1 AB 2m (1 – cos 2wt) 2 0 d 2 x1 dx 1 1 1 -1 2 m 0-1 AB 2m – m 0 AB m cos 2w t = M +B + K(X0 + x1) dt 2 2 dt 2 X0 = m -10 AB m2 2K x can be obtained from – H (jw) = 1 m -1 AB 2m cos 2w t 2 0 1 = M ( j 2w ) 2 + B ( j 2w ) + K –tan–1 \ x1(t) = =M d 2 x1 dx 1 +B + Kx1 dt dt 2 1 ( K .m -10 AB m2 2 ( K .4 Mw = –y 2 Bw .x) = 2 L 2 ( m 0 N 2 A )/ 2( D .4 Mw ) 2 + 4 B 2 w 2 Net movement is x(t) = X0 + x1(t) cos (2wt – y) 55 .

12 ) 2 = 0. If the flux density wave in the air-gap consists of the fundamental and a 24% third harmonic. 933 5.966 ¥ 0.2 A 50 Hz. The coil span is five slot pitches. The flux per pole is 0.08 ¥ 0. It has a two-layer winding with full-pich coils of eight turns each.707 ¥ 0.966 2 For the third harmonic Kb3 = sin 90∞ = 0.015 Wb (sinusoidally distributed). 24 = 0.75% 0.0. % increase in rms value = .1 Determine the breadth and pitch factors for a 3-phase winding with two slots per pole per phase.56 Solutions Manual CHAPTER 5: BASIC CONCEPTS IN ROTATING MACHINES 5.966 = 0. Solution m=2 g = 60∞ = 30° 2 2 ¥ 30∞ 2 Kb = = 0.94 K 0.12 K rms value of phase voltage = E 12 + E 32 = K ( 0.966 sin 30∞ 2 2 sin Full pitch = 2 ¥ 3 = 6 slot pitches Coil pitch = 5 slot pitches qsp = 1 slot pitch or 30° \ Kp = cos q sp = cos 15° = 0.08 unit 3 Now E1 = K ¥ 1 ¥ 0.933 K E3 = 3K ¥ 0. Determine the induced emf (line-to-line) if the coils are connected to form (a) 2-phase winding (b) star-connected 3-phase winding.707 2 sin 45∞ Kp3 = cos 45° = 0. 933) 2 + ( 0.707 Let f 1 (fundamental flux/pole) = 1 unit f 2 (third harmonic flux) = 0. 94 .707 = 0. 6-pole synchronous generator has 36 slots. calculate the percentage increase in the rms value of phase voltage due to the harmonic. 933 ¥ 100 = 0.

81 = 534.84 2 = 617.84 EL = 436.1 B1lr = B lr 15 1 P5 57 .86 V 5.3 The air-gap flux density distribution of a 6-pole.3 sin 2q + 0.44 ¥ 0.81 V Nph = EL = 3 ¥ 308. third and fifth harmonic flux/ pole. (5.911 ¥ 50 ¥ 0.44Kb fF Nph = 4.911 3 sin (30∞/2 ) 36 ¥ 8 = 144 2 Ep = 4.3 B1lr = B1lr 3 P3 0.9) F1 = 2 4 B lr = B lr 3 1 P1 1 F3 = 0. 50 Hz synchronous generator is B(q) = B1 (sin q + 0.966 2 sin ( 30∞/2 ) 36 ¥ 8 = 96 3 Ep = 4. Find the fundamental. 2 4 ¥ 0.015 ¥ 96 = 308.15 sin 5q) The total flux/pole is 0.44 ¥ 0.966 ¥ 50 ¥ 0. 2 F 5 = 4 ¥ 0.015 ¥ 144 = 436.78 V (b) 3-phase winding m= 36 =2 3¥6 g = 30° Kb = sin ( 2 ¥ 30∞ )/2 = 0. Solution From Eq.Electric Machines Solution (a) 2-phase winding m= g= Kb = Nph = 36 = 3 2¥6 180∞ ¥ 6 = 30° 36 sin (2 ¥ 30∞ )/2 = 0.015 Wb.

(5.2 ˆ + F = F 1 + F 3 + F 5 = ÊÁ + B lr = 0.0013 Wb 3 0. chord AB 2OA sin (s /2 ) sin (s /2) = = Kb = s /2 arc AB (OA)s d B s /2 s /2 O Fig. P p Eq.2 0. Solution For a given phase spread s (usually 60°) as m tends to be large. The sinusoidally distributed flux density has a peak value of 1. Solution P= F = 120 f 120 ¥ 50 = = 48 N 125 4 B lr.015 Ë3 3 15 ˜¯ 1 \ B1lr = 0. The air-gap diameter is 6.0002 Wb 15 5.2 m.1 m and the stator length is 1. 2 It now follows F1 = 2 ¥ 0.336 Wb 2 48 .5 A 50 Hz synchronous salient pole generator is driven by a hydroelectric turbine at a speed of 125 rpm.1 T.4 Show that the limiting value of the breadth factor for the fundamental is F5 = Kb = where sin 1/2s 1/2s s = mg = phase spread and m.0133 Wb 3 F3 = 0. P5.02 = 0.9) 6. g tends to be small. (b) Find the per phase emf if the conductors are connected in a balanced 3-phase winding.58 Solutions Manual 2 0.4. 2 ¥ 0. There are 576 stator slots with two conductors per slot. as shown in Fig. 015 ¥ 15 = 0.02 = 0. A The phasor diagram of coil voltage now becomes the arc of a circle whose chord AB is the resultant voltage. 2 ¥ 0. the slots per pole per phase tends to be large. (a) Calculate the maximum rms single-phase voltage that can be produced by suitably connecting all the conductors.02 11. 1 = 4 ¥ 11 ¥ 12 ¥ = 0.02 = 0. P5. 5.4 Note: s must be expressed in radians.

638 15∞ ˆ 12 sin Ê Ë 2 ¯ Total series turns.96 ∞ 20 3 sin 2 sin \ Winding is assumed to be full-pitched. 50 Hz.Electric Machines (a) Slots/pole m= 59 576 = 12 48 180∞ ¥ 48 = 15° 576 In a single-phase connection emfs of all the coils under a pole pair are added.6 Find the number of series turns required for each phase of a 3-phase. Solution Slots/pole/phase. 10-pole alternator with 90 slots. The flux/pole is 0.16 Wb. Ep = 4.958 ∞ 15 4 sin 2 sin 576 = 192 3 Ep = 4. The winding is to be star-connected to give a line voltage of 11 kV.336 ¥ 576 = 27.720 V 5. (b) Slots/pole/phase.44 Kb fF Nph .44 ¥ 0.44 ¥ 0.44 Kb fF N = 4.638 ¥ 50 ¥ 0. 576 ¥ 2 = 576 2 E = 4.958 ¥ 50 ¥ 0. therefore g= Ê 12 ¥ 15∞ ˆ sin Á 2 ˜¯ Ë Kb = = 0.412 V N= m = 12 = 4 3 4 ¥ 15∞ 2 Kb = = 0. m= g= 90 =3 3 ¥ 10 180∞ ¥ 10 = 20° 90 3 ¥ 20∞ 2 Kb = = 0.336 ¥ 192 Nph = = 13.

96 ¥ 50 ¥ 0.60 Solutions Manual 11.9 A 4-pole. Hint: (see page 267) Solution Cross-sectional area of armature case Ê 80 .0517 = 0.44 ¥ 0.0608 = 0.1034 Wb For wave winding. A = 2 Z = 72 ¥ 8 = 576 Ea = = F NZ Ê P ˆ 60 ÁË A ˜¯ 0.42 ˆ = 32 ¥ Á ¥ 10–4 = 0. The total flux in the pole body is the sum of these two fluxes and is therefore more than the useful flux/pole. If the armature is rotated at 1000 rpm. 000 = 186 ª 180 3 ¥ 4.85 ¥ 0. The length of the armature is 32 cm.16 Nph = Conductors/slot = 180 ¥ 3 ¥ 2 = 12 90 5.85 T. find the emf available across its armature terminals.7 A dc armature is built up of laminations having an external diameter of 80 cm and internal diameter of 42 cm.16 ¥ Nph 11. Find the useful flux/pole. Some of the pole flux does not link armature coil and is called leakage flux. 44 ¥ 0. Also calculate the frequency of emf in the armature coils.04 Wb Note: Useful flux links armature coils and induces emf.0517 Flux/pole = 2 ¥ 0. 000 3 or = 4.8 A 6-pole.1034 ¥ 600 ¥ 576 Ê 6 ˆ ¥ Á ˜ = 1. with 3 conductors/slot. If the number of poles is 6.96 ¥ 50 ¥ 0. dc machine has a lap-connected armature having 60 slots and eight conductors per slot. . The emf generated is 600 V. The flux per pole is 30 mWb. wave-connected dc armature has 250 conductors and runs at 1200 rpm.787 V Ë 2¯ 60 5. The armature is wave-connected with 72 slots. 5. Solution A=2 Ea = 600 = or F NZ Ê P ˆ 60 ÁË A ˜¯ F ¥ 1. find the emf induced when the armature is rotated at a speed of 600 rpm.0608 m2 Ë 2 ˜¯ Flux through armature core = 0. 200 ¥ 250 60 Ê 6ˆ ÁË 2 ˜¯ F = 0. The flux density in the armature core is 0.

000 ¥ 4 = 33 1 Hz f= 120 120 3 5.11(b).11(a) and P5. The third case can be similarly drawn. w t2 = p /3 w t3 = 2p /3 Im/2 –Im/2 Im Im –Im –Im/2 say. The belt may a b c¢ be assumed to be a current sheet with uniform current density. P5. Sketch the resultant mmf wave at w t1 = 0. 3-phase winding.10) a¢ c 5.11 Each phase belt of a 2-pole. 000 ¥ 480 Ê 4 ˆ ¥Á ˜ Ë 4¯ 60 = 240 V NP = 1. The resultant mmf waves at w t1 = 0 .10 Trace out the variations in mmf due to a belt of A/2 current-carrying conductors representing one phase of a 2-pole. What is the peak amplitude of the mmf wave if the total current in the belt is A Fig. Resultant mmf Phase c Phase a a Phase c c¢ b a c b¢ a c¢ b a¢ c b Phase b Phase b Fig. w t2 = p /3 and w t3 = 2p /3. P5.11(a) Phase a Fig. P5. 5. 3-phase winding carrying balanced 3-phase currents can be assumed to be a current sheet with uniform density.10 amperes? (Hint: The mmf wave is trapezoidal) Solution (see Fig.11(b) Solution w t1 = 0 ia = Im cos w t Im ib = Im cos (w t – 120°) –Im/2 ic = lm cos (w t – 240°) –Im/2 current corresponding to Im in a phase belt = 1 unit (AC) and w t2 = p /3 are drawn in Figs P5.Electric Machines 61 Solution Ea = F NZ Ê P ˆ 60 ÁË A ˜¯ Z = 60 ¥ 8 = 480 Ea = 30 ¥ 10-3 ¥ 1.

Consider the time instant at which the current in phase a has its maximum value 10. 3. 60 ac/slot (ac = amp. 4 and 5 respectively. each slot having 12 conductors. 2. .12 5. the mmf wave has more stip and its shape becomes progressively closer to a sine wave.12 Phase a of a 3-phase stator at the instant of carrying maximum current has 60 A/ conductors in the phase belt. 3-phase ac winding is housed in 18 slots. P5. As SPP increases. (a) Sketch all the 18 slots on a horizontal axis.62 Solutions Manual 5. (b) Mark the maximum value of mmf wave on the sketch. Solution (a) Ampere-conductors/slot = 12 ¥ 10 = 120 MMF wave of phase a is sketched in Fig.cond) SPP = 1 30 AT 60/2 = 30 ac/slot SPP = 2 30 AT SPP = 3 60/3 = 20 ac/slot 60/4 = 15 ac/slot 30 AT SPP = 4 30 AT 60/5 = 12 ac/slot SPP = 5 Fig. Comment upon the change in the shape of the mmf wave with the number of slots/pole/phase.12. Sketch the mmf wave of the phase when the slots/pole/phase are 1. Mark the direction of currents in the conductors occupying the slots relevant to phase a. Solution The mmf waves for the five cases are drawn in Fig. P5.13. (c) Calculate the peak value of the fundamental of the mmf of phase a. P5.13 A 2-pole. Make a proportional sketch of the mmf wave of phase a only.0 A.

0166 Wb/pole 5.966 ¥ 0. Nph(series) = .14 has a stator length of 28 cm and a mean air-gap diameter of 18 cm.966 2 16 ¥ 24 = 128 3 Phase voltage Ep = 440 V Ep = 4. g = = 20°. The machine air-gap is 1 mm. find the flux/pole of the rotating flux density wave. Kp = = 0.96 18 3 sin ( 20∞/2 ) Ê 12 ¥ 18 ˆ Fal(peak) = 4 ¥ 0. 3-phase supply.44 ¥ 0.14).96 ¥ Á ¥ 10 = 220 AT p Ë 2 ¥ 3 ¥ 2 ˜¯ 5.15 The induction machine of Prob. It has a 16-turn coil chorded (short-pitched) by one slot.13 (b) Peak value of mmf wave = 180 AT 2 ¥ 180 ∞ sin (3 ¥ 20∞/2 ) (c) m = 3. 50 Hz induction motor has 24 stator slots with 2-layer winding.44 KbKp fF Nph(series) 440 = 4. 5.14 A 4-pole.Electric Machines 63 180 AT Fig. If the stator resistance and leakage reactance are assumed negligible. as calculated in Prob. The machine is delta-connected and has a 440 V. What line current will it draw when running at no-load? (Hint At no-load the machine draws only the magnetizing current to establish flux/pole.966 ¥ 50 ¥ F ¥ 128 or F = 0. 5. P5. Solution S = 24 C (coils) SPP = 24 =2 4¥3 180∞ ¥ 4 = 30° 24 qsp = one slot pitch = 30° g= Kb = sin mg /2 sin ( 2 ¥ 30∞ ) = = 0.966 2 sin 30∞/2 m sin g /2 Kp = cos f sp = cos 15° = 0.

425 ¥ 0. or = 2 ¥ 1 ¥ 10 -3 ¥ 0. 0396 Bpeak = p ¥ 0.64 Solutions Manual Solution As calculated in Prob.14.18 A 9.14) Im = = Ip(rms) = p Fm P 4 K w N ph (series) p ¥ 349 ¥ 4 4 ¥ 0. 5.994 2 Fpeak = 10. F = 0.933 (from Prob.5 3 = 11.966 = 0.26 A 5.0166 Wb/pole Pole area = 28 ¥ Bav = p ¥ 18 ¥ 10–4 = 0.6 what will be the peak value of resultant mmf/pole if the winding is chorded by one slot? Solution g = 12° qsp = 12° Kp = cos \ q sp = cos 6° = 0.419 = 0. 0166 = 0.966 ¥ 0. 658 = 349 AT/pole 3 ¥ 4p ¥ 10 -7 Now Ê N ph (series) ˆ Fm = 4 KW Á ˜¯ Im p P Ë Kw= 0.994 = 10.0396 m2 4 0. 5.419 Wb/m2 0. 933 ¥ 128 = 9.18 = 6.5 A 2 IL = 6.658 Wb/m2 2 Bpeak = 3m 0 Fm 2g Fm = 2 g B peak 3m 0 Neglecting reluctance of air-gap.368 AT/pole .16 In Problem 5.

500 rpm (set speed) P 4 NP = 1. 350 ¥ 100 = 10% 1. Therefore the number of motor poles = 4.500 rpm. 3-phase synchronous generator. 5 = 15 rpm (no-load) 4 120 ¥ 5 = 150 rpm (full-load) 4 (ii) N (rotor field wrt stator) = 1.1 ¥ 50 = 5 Hz (full-load) (d) (i) N (rotor field wrt rotor conductors) = 120 ¥ 0.5 Hz (no-load) = 0.1. (b) s(no-load) = s(full-load) = N s .1. 3-phase synchronous motor fed from 50 Hz mains is mechanically coupled to a 24-pole.19 A 20-pole synchronous generator running at 300 rpm feeds a 6-pole induction motor which is loaded to run at a slip of 5%.01 ¥ 50 = 0. 500 1.N 1 1. the nearest synchronous speed to no-load speed (1. 500 . 3-phase line.350 rpm at full-load when supplied from a 50 Hz. 485 = ¥ 100 = 1% Ns 1. 500 (c) f2 = sf = 0. 500 ¥ 24 f= = 300 Hz (gen.17 A 3-phase induction motor runs at a speed of 1485 rpm at no-load and at 1.500 rpm (no-load and full-load) = (iii) N (rotor field wrt stator) = 0 (no-load and full-load) 5. At what speed will the set rotate? What is the frequency of the emf induced in the generator? Solution 120 f 120 ¥ 50 = = 1.490) is 1. 500 . frequency) 120 120 5. Solution (a) At 50 Hz.18 A 4-pole. Find the speed at which the induction motor runs and the frequency of the currents induced in its rotor. (a) How many poles does the motor have? (b) What is the % slip at no-load and at full-load? (c) What is the frequency of rotor voltages at no-load and at full-load? (d) What is the speed at both no-load and full-load of: (i) the rotor field with respect to rotor conductors (ii) the rotor field with respect to the stator and (iii) the rotor field with respect to the stator field. Solution Ns = 300 ¥ 200 f = NP = = 50 Hz 120 120 .Electric Machines 65 5.

285 ¥ 100 = 5% 300 (c) Since the torque remains constant at full-load value when rotor resistance is doubled. Calculate: (a) the number of poles (b) the slip and (c) the slip for full-load torque if total resistance of the rotor circuit is doubled. the rotor current must remain constant.05) ¥ 1. Hence (b) slip = s = 2 ¥ 5 = 10% . Solution (a) Nearest synchronous speed = 300 rpm P = 120 f 120 ¥ 50 = = 20 N 300 300 .05 Ns = \ N = (1 – 0.20 A slip ring induction motor runs at 285 rpm on full-load when connected to 50 Hz supply. It means that the rotor voltage (sv2) must double.5 Hz 5.05 ¥ 50 = 2.000 = 950 rpm f2 = sf = 0.66 Solutions Manual For induction motor 120 f 120 ¥ 50 = = 1000 rpm P 6 s = 0. Assume the rotor leakage reactance to be negligible in the range of slips being considered.

Calculate the % reduction in the fundamental.44 Kp f Nc Kp = cos sp = cos (180˚ .534 = 2.12 cos e where e = elect. n= 5 sp/2 = 90˚/5 = 18˚ sp = 36˚ Kp(1) = Cos 18˚ = 0.2 % 5.angle.5.27 The outside diameter of the rotor of an alternation is 0.74 and the axial length is 1.150˚)/2 = cos 30˚/2 = 0.12 [sin = 1/ X 1.52 wb (b) Fr = 18000 T = P Fr P = /Fr = (2.28 A synchronous generator of 50 Hz with 6 poles has a flux / pole of 0. Each stator coil has two turns and a coil pitch of 150˚ elect.588 = 41.29 Calculate the short-pitching angle to eliminate the fifth harmonic in the induced emf of a synchronous generator.12 Cos e] /2 e = 1/ X 1./2 X 1. pole 3-phase synchronous generator has 48 slots. Calculate the coil voltage (rms).713 T (a) Flux pole = 0.74) / 4) X 1. (a) Find the flux/pole (b) If the peak value of Fr.12 = 0.14 wb/AT 5. The machine has four poles and the flux density at the rotor surface is given by 1.52 m.15 wb Ec = 4.534m2 Brotaor = 1.52 = 3. S = 48 .12 X (1+1) = 2/ d e . = 0.0.966 Therefore = EC = 4. is 18000 AT.15 Wb.966 X 50 X 2 = 64. third and fifth harmonic strengths on account of distributed windings.52 X 1000)/18000 = 0.713 X 3.44 X 0.12 Cos e Bav = 1/ X /2 /2 1.95 Reduction in fundamental = 5% Kp(13 ) = Cos 13 X 18˚ = -0. calculate the permeance/pole Rotor area of each pole = (( X 0.30 A 50 Hz. What is the corresponding reduction in the fundamental and the thirteenth harmonic? Kp(n) = Cos n sp = 0 n sp/2 = 90˚ .588 Reduction in 13th harmonic = 1.34 V 5. 8-pole.

3 kV at a field current of 10 A. Neglect saturation.91 % reduction in fundamental = 100 X (1 – 0.707/0. V = 4.522 = 0. The air-gap dimensions are: D = 6. The maximum flux density Bm = 1.707/2.83 5.3 N .2 T.245 % reduction in 5th harmonic = 75.121 = 0.16 m. SDP = 144/(3 X 12) = 4 = (180˚ X 12) / 144 = 15˚ Kp = sin(4 X 15/2) / (4 sin 15/2) = 0.707 / 2.91) = 9 Kb(3) = (sin m (3r/2))/(msinr/2) = sin3 X (3/2 X 30˚) / 3 sin ((3 X 30˚)/2) = 0.32 The phase voltage of a 50 Hz synchronous generator is 3.958 Coil span = 10 X 15 = 150˚ elect sp = 30˚ Kp = cos 30˚ = 0.958 X 0. There are 540 stator slots with two conductors per slot.31 A synchronous generator has 12 poles and 3-phase winding placed in 144 slots.866 Kw = KbKp = 0.25 m. Determine the open-circuit voltage at 50 Hz with a field current of 8 A.866 = 0.SPP = 48/(3X8) = 2. 3-phase hydroelectric generator has a rated speed of 100 rpm.168 Kv 5.3 = (60 X 8) / (50 X 10) = 3. pitch factor and winding factor. Calculate the generated voltage/phase. If (field current) 60 X 8 Dividing (ii) by (i) V / 3. S = 144. L = 1.5% 5.7% Kb(5) = (sin 3 X 5 X 15˚) / 3 sin 5 X 15˚ = -0. the coil span is 10 slots.44 Kw F Or V f X If 3.5 / 0. n = 100 rpm P = 120f/n = (120 X 50)/100 = 60 S = 540 Nc = 2 = 60 X 180˚ / 540 = 20˚ m = 540 / (3 X 60) = 3 . Determine the distribution factor.33 A 50 Hz.333 % reduction in 3rd harmonic = 66.7765 = 0. = (18˚ X 8)/48 = 30˚ Kb(1) = (sin m r/2)/(m sin r/2) = sin (3 X 30/2)/(3sin 15˚) = 0.898 = -0.

35 A 240 V dc motor takes 25 A when running at 945 rpm.25) / 60 X 1.75 Nm 5. The armature has an applied voltage of 240 V.1 .16 = 0.96 X 50 X 0. The armature resistance is 0.2 V Power developed = 621.24 .38 = 0.34 Calculate the voltage induced in the armature of a 4-pole lap-wound dc machine having 728 conductors and running at 1600 rpm.25 mwb .Kp = sin (3 X 20˚/2)/3 sin (20˚/2) = 0. what is the electromagnetic power and torque developed? Ea = nZ / 60 (P/A) Ea = [(32 X 10-3 X 1600 X 728) / 60] X 1 = 621. Ea = 240 – 50 X 0. Determine the no-load speed assuming negligible losses.29 X 180 = 11.2 X 100 / 1000 = 62.24 = 234 At no-load Ia 0 Therefore Ea = V = 240 no / n = 240 / 234 X 945 = 969 rpm 5.2 X 1000) / [(2 X 1600)/60] = 370.5 / 0. Find the flux/pole that would be necessary for this operation. Flux/pole is constant.36 A 4-pole dc motor has a lap-connected armature with 60 slots and 8 conductors/slot.38 Flux pole = 2/ X 1. The flux/pole is 32 m Wb.44 Kw f Nph(series) = 4.521 = 0.125 kV 5. If this armature carries a current of 100 A. It draws a current of 50 A when running at 960 rpm. The resistance of the armature is 0.1 = 235 V Ea = ( n Z / 60)(P/A) 240 = ( X 960 X 60 X 8) / 60 X 1 or = 31.29w Nph(series) = (540 X 2)/(2 X 3) = 180 V = 4.96 Pole area = ( X 6.12 kw Torque developed = EaIa / = (621.44 X 0. Ea = 240 – 25 X 0.2 X 0.

50 Hz.6˚ and P (permeance/pole) 1. Find the value of the resultant air-gap flux/pole. Assume effective turn ratio speed of 1440 rpm.5 = 0. (b) Derive an expression for the electromagnetic torque developed. K = JBpD2l/2P 5.5 AT = P Fr = 1. calculate: (a) the slip (b) the standstill rotor induced emf/phase (c) the rotor induced emf/phase at this speed (d) the rotor frequency in (b) and (c) (a) ns = 1500rpm slip = (1500 – 1440) / 1500 X 100 = 4% (b) Per phase rotor voltage = 400 / 3 = 231 V . 4-pole. Fr = (400)2 + (850)2 – 2 X 400 X 850 Cos 56. The machine as an axial length of l and a mean air-gap diameter of D.408 X 10-4 Wb/AT. (a) Find the peak value of the armature mmf. (a) F(peak) = J X D/2 X (2/P X /2) = JD / 2P Current in elemental strip d di = ± J (D/P)d dT = D/2 (Bp sin ) l J(D/P) d = [(JBpD2l)/ 2P] sin d T = JBpD2l/2P [ T = K[ .5. (included angle) = 123.cos ] /2+ /2+ sin d + cos ] ( + + ) /2+ /2+ ] sin d ] = K[ -cos( /2+ ) + cos + cos ( + ) – cos ( /2+ )] = K[ sin + cos – cos + sin ] = 2K sin . P5. 400 V wound rotor induction motor has a stator winding -connected and a rotor winding Y-connected. The armature carries a uniform current sheet of value JA /m causing a triangular mmf distribution as shown in the figure.408 X 10-4 X 711.40 = 711.37 In a given machine F2 (rotor mmf) 850 AT and F1(stator mmf) 400 AT.38.39 A 3-phase.1 wb 5.38 A P-pole machine has a sinusoidal field distribution as shown in Fig.

P = (120 X 50) / 1000 = 6 (b) s = (1000 – 940)/1000 X 100 = 6% (c) (i) 1000 – 940 = 60 rpm (ii) 960 + 40 = 1000 rpm (iii) 2s = 12 % n = 1000 – (12 X 1000)/100 = 880 rpm .(standstill) (c) Per phase rotor induced voltage (remaining) = 115.41 A 3-phase induction motor runs at a speed of 940 rpm at full-load when supplied with power at 50 Hz. 3-phase.04 X 50 = 2 Hz (c) Rotor speed relative to the revolving field = 6000 – 576 = 24 rpm 5.04 = 4. (a) (b) (c) How many poles does the motor have? What is its slip at full-load? What is the corresponding speed of : (i) the rotor field wrt the rotor surface (ii) the rotor field wrt the stator (iii) what is the rotor speed at twice full-load slip? (a) ns = 1000 rpm.62V (d) Stanstill rotor frequency = f = 50 Hz Rotor frequency running = 50 X 0. P = (120 X 50) / 600 = 10 (b) s = (600 – 576) / 600 X 100 = 4 F2 = 0.5 X 0. (b) the frequency of rotor currents (c) the rotor speed relative to the revolving field (a) ns = 600 rpm .04 = 2 Hz 5. Determine: (a) the synchronous speed and the number of poles.40 A 50 Hz induction motor runs at 576 rpm at full load.

Electric Machines 67 CHAPTER 6: ARMATURE WINDINGS 6.1 Draw a single-layer unbifurcated winding for a 3-phase. 4-pole machine having 24 armature slots.1 draw a bifurcated winding. 6.1 6. P6. Indicate the start of each phase. P6.5 The armature of a 3-phase machine with 16 poles and 180 slots is wound with fractional slot winding. For the basic unit determine the distribution of coil groups and phase sequence. 3¥ 4 6. if yes how? Solution pole pitch Fig.2 24 = 2 3¥ 4 36 m= = 3. Solution pole pitch = 24/4 = 6 slots Pole pitch Fig. Assume one coil-side. is it possible to have bifurcated winding? If not. odd number does not permit bifurcation as can be seen from Fig. 180 3 =3 Solution SPP = 3¥6 4 16 ¥ 180∞ = = 16° 180 180 45 S ¢ S = = = 16 4 P P¢ P¢ = 4 poles S¢ = 45 m= . Construct the winding table for one basic unit of poles.2 For the same number of slots and poles as in P6. If the number of slots is changed from 24 to 36. Clearly show the end connection if a continuous chain arrangement is used.3. why.

3) = 15 coils Phase sequence ABC Winding layout for the basic unit is shown in Fig. 3.5. 3. Angle Phase 1 0 [a] 2 16 a 3 32 a 4 48 a Slot No. 4.5 6. 6. 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Angle 4 20 36 52 68 84 100 Phase a¢ a¢ a¢ a¢ c c c Phase grouping a(4. 50 Hz. 4. P6. Draw the winding diagram with a coil span of seven slots. Angle Phase 13 12 a¢ 14 28 a¢ 15 44 a¢ 16 60 [c] Slot No.6 A 3-phase. Solution 72 2 m = 3 ¥ 10 = 12/5 = 2 (fractional) 5 72 36 S ¢ S = = = 10 5 P P¢ P¢ = 5 (basic unit) S¢ = 36 . 4. 10-pole machine has 72 slots. Angle Phase 24 8 a 25 24 a 26 40 a 27 56 a Pole-pitch 1 5 6 7 64 80 96 c¢ c¢ c¢ Pole-pitch 2 17 18 19 76 92 108 c c c Pole-pitch 3 28 29 30 72 88 104 c¢ c¢ c¢ Pole-pitch 4 Slot No. 4) = 15 coils b(4. 4 (a) A 3 (c) C¢ 4 (b) B 3 (a¢) 4 (c) 4 (b¢) 4 (a) 3 (c¢) 8 112 c¢ 9 128 b 10 144 b 11 160 b 20 124 b¢ 21 140 b¢ 22 156 b¢ 23 172 b¢ 31 120 [b] 32 136 b 33 152 b 34 168 b 42 116 c 43 132 b¢ 44 148 b¢ 45 164 b¢ 4 (b) 4 (a¢) A¢ C 4 (c) 12 176 b 3 (b¢) B¢ Fig. Construct the winding table for fractional slot winding. 4.68 Solutions Manual Slot No. 4) = 15 coils c(4.

3. 2. 2) = 12 coils 36 5 100 c¢ 6 125 b 7 150 b 13 120 b¢ [b] 14 145 b¢ 15 170 b¢ 20 115 c¢ 21 140 b 22 165 b 27 110 c 28 135 b¢ 29 160 b¢ 34 105 c¢ 35 130 b 36 155 b 8 175 b . 2. Angle Phase phase phase phase phase 30 5 a 31 30 a 69 g= Slot No. 3) = 12 3. 2) = 12 2. (2. 2. pitch 3 19 90 c¢ pitch 4 26 85 c pitch 5 33 80 c¢ 2. 2. 3. Angle phase 16 15 a 17 40 a Slot No Angle Phase 23 10 a¢ 24 35 a¢ Slot No.Electric Machines Slot No. Angle Phase a b b sequence abc pole 18 65 c¢ pole 25 60 c [c] pole 32 55 a (3. Angle Phase 10 ¥ 180 = 25° 72 Coil span = 7 slots pole pitch 1 1 2 3 4 0 25 50 75 a a a c¢ [a] pole pitch 2 9 10 11 12 20 45 70 95 a¢ a¢ c c Slot No. (3.

2 cm and 0.4 V 1. when the generator is operating at 1. (c) What is the field current required to generate 120 V on no-load. If = 3.8.800 rpm with a field current of 4. The ratio of pole arc to pole pitch is 0.500 rpm. Rf = 56.0 6.500 rpm.000 + 0. The interpolar air-gap length and flux density are respectively 1.0 3.0 (a) Plot the no-load saturation curve for 1.5 W) = 195 V .000 rpm) 260 ¥ 1.2 and OCC is translated to 1.2. P7.5 W line is drawn in Fig.000 AT/pole. calculate the compensating winding AT per pole and number of turns on each interpole.6 A. (b) From OCC n1 = 1.000 A.0 5.70 Solutions Manual CHAPTER 7: DC MACHINES 7.000 rpm. (b) Calculate the generated voltage.000 Bi ATi = ATa(peak) + l m 0 gi ATa(peak)interpolar region = 20.500 rpm.2 The no-load saturation curve for a generator operating at 1.6 A Rf = 260 = 56.5 4.800 rpm is given by the following data: Eg 8 40 74 113 152 213 234 248 266 278 If 0 0.000 = 4.7 A (d) VOC(1. when the generator is operating on no-load with a field current of 4. From the intersection of these VOC (1. If = 4.6 A. 7.865 6. 800 (c) VOC(900 rpm) = 120 V VOC(1.0 1.8 = 16.800 rpm). What is the no-load voltage.0 3. Ea ª Voc = 260 V (no-load) \ Ea(1.000 = 4.800 rpm) = 260 V at If = 4.5 1.1 A compensated dc machine has 20.800 rpm) = 240 V From OCC(1.3 T.000 ¥ 0.6 A and at a speed of 1.500 rpm? Solution (a) OCC is drawn in Fig. Solution Ê pole arc ˆ ATcw/pole = ATa(peak) ¥ Á Ë pole pitch ˜¯ = 20.5 W 4. 3 ¥ 12 ¥ 10–2 4p ¥ 10 -7 = 6. For rated Ia = 1. 000 = 144.5 2. 865 Ni = = 7 (say) 1000 7.800 rpm. when the generator is operating at 900 rpm? (d) This machine is operated as a shunt generator at 1.000 – 16. 6 56.

50 V Eg = 249 V.250 = 63 A 0 .48 A. 75 V If = 4.6 2. 7. Drawing a line parallel to the Rf -line and 25 V above it. Q¢ or If = Vt/50) .1 W. Assume that the flux is reduced by 4% due to armature reaction. \ IaRa = 25 V OCC characteristic with 4% reduction caused by armature reaction is drawn dotted in Fig.0 2.0 Fig. 3 .500 rpm 200 150 100 50 1. at a certain load at 1.2 7.2 4.0 7. we read the values of terminal voltage as (Points P¢.0 4.3 V (a) If = \ Ia = Eg . 1. P7. the data being for 1.800 rpm OCC 1. Vt and If.Electric Machines Rf-(line) 300 Eg(V) 250 71 OCC 1. Solution 25T =5A 50 Corresponding Eg = 267 V (read from OCC) Accounting for the effect of armature reaction Eg = 0. 1 A (read corresponding to points P¢.5 Eg (V) 10 38 66 96 128 157 188 222 248 259 267 275 (a) The shunt field resistance is adjusted to 50 W and the terminal voltage is found to be 250 V. Armature resistance is 0. Q¢) V = 224 V.5 5.8 1.1 IL = Ia – If = 63 – 5 = 58 A Load = 250 ¥ 58 = 14.V Ra = 256.200 rpm. 220 V.5 3.5 kW 1. Find the load supplied by the generator and the induced emf.2 1. (b) For the same field resistance and an armature current of 250 A obtain the values of Eg.0 3.0 5.200 rpm: If (A) 0 0.200 rpm shunt generator.96 ¥ 267 = 256.0 2.0 If (A) 5.0 6.4 0.3 The accompanying data are given for the saturation curve of an 80 kW.0 4.2. 000 (b) Ia = 250 A.

87 A V 250 = Load Resistance = = 1198 W 20 .0 4.04 W respectively.000 W (250 – 0. when the machine is connected for (a) long shunt (b) short shunt. Solution IL = (a) Long shunt: If = Ia = Ea = = = 200 ¥ 55 = 100 A 110 110 = 4.6 In a 110 V compound generator. shunt and series windings are 0. a diverter of resistance 0.0 lf(A) Fig.4 = 104. 87 IL 300 Rf = 50 W – line OCC 1200 rpm P¢¢ OCC with 4% reduction in flux Eg(V) 250 P P¢ laRa = 25 V 200 150 100 Q 50 Q¢ 1.0 5. 25 W and 0. Solution VIL = 5.000 0.4 Find the resistance of the load which takes a power of 5 kW from a shunt generator whose external characteristic is given by the equation V = (250 – 0.06 + 0.72 Solutions Manual 7.0 3.06 W.1 W is connected across the series field.4 7.5 I L2 – 250IL + 5.0 6. The load consists of 200 lamps each rated at 55 W. How will the ampere-turns of the series windings be changed. 110 V.04) 120.4 A V + Ia (Ra + Rse) 110 + 104.5IL). Find the total emf and armature current.4 V . the armature.4 (0. Ignore the armature reaction and brush voltage drop.5IL) IL = 5.0 2. P7. if in (a).000 = 0 Solving the quadratic \ IL = 20.4 A 25 IL + If = 100 + 4.

including the series compounding winding..06 = 120.4 0.0 1. P7.85 ¥ 0.85 A Armature circuit voltage drop = 50. If = 0.4 A Series field AT reduces to 74.6 0.4 ¥ 0. Solution Assume long-shunt compound connections. The resistance of the armature winding. Ignore armature reaction.85 A.4 2.0 EMF.Electric Machines 73 (b) Short shunt: Va = 110 + ILRse = 110 + 100 ¥ 0. V 80 135 178 198 210 228 246 The shunt winding has 1.56 = 104.04 = 114 V V 114 = = 4. 57 ¥ 100 = 71.000 turns per pole and a total resistance of 240 W. The OCC is drawn in Fig.56 A 25 Rf Ia = IL + If = 100 + 4.3 V If = (c) Now with diverter I sed = 104.57 A 0. P7.3 A 2 .3 V.8 1.7 and its intersection with Rf = 240 W line.56 ¥ 0.36 W and constant.3 V E g(V) 200 lfse = 0.7 A dc shunt generator has the following open-circuit characteristic when separately excited: Field current.2 0. = 250 240 W line 18. 4 7.1 = 74.14 Ise = (original) = Ia = 104. 56 A Ea = Va + IaRa = 114 + 104.85 = 50.3 A 150 100 50 0 1 lf(A) Fig. Find the turns per pole of a series winding that will be needed to make the terminal voltage the same at 50 A output as on no-load.4% 104. A 0. gives a no-load voltage of 200 V.7 la = 50 + 0. From the figure: I fse = 0.36 = 18. can be assumed to be 0.

000 = 50.74 Solutions Manual 0. The OCC at 0.V 289 361 410 446 475 The full-load armature current is 100 A and the ohmic drop in the armature circuit for this current is 20 V including brush drop.3 ¥ 1. 4 IL = 100 – 1.9 or 6 turns 7.27 A Power output = 403 ¥ 98.000 \ If (no-load) = 500 = 5. 6 pole. Its open-circuit magnetization characteristic when it is separately excited by its shunt field winding and driven at its no-load rated speed is given below: AT/pole 3. P7.600 + 2.4 W 6. Solution At no-load (500 V): ATf (no-load) = 6. dc compound generator is required to give 500 V on no-load and 550 V on fullload.85 ¥ Nse or Nse = 5. 400 / 3.000 ﬁ (V + 20) Rf The terminal voltage is read corresponding to point Q in the Rf -line V = 403 V If = 403 = 1.88 A 85 Nf = 6. At no-load the ohmic drop may be ignored. and its resistance is kept constant. Neglect the effects of armature reaction.000 7. The Rf -line is drawn to give 415 V at no-load.8. The armature is lap-connected and has 1. the shunt field circuit is connected across the output terminals of the machine. Determine the required number of series turns per pole.080 conductors. The fall in speed from no-load to full-load is 8%.000 Rf = ATseries V ¥ 3. The open-circuit characteristic for the machine at rated speed is given by: Armature voltage (V) 500 535 560 580 Field ampere-turns/pole 6.92 rated speed is also drawn. The generator is connected long shunt.73 = 98.9 A 250 kW.120 4.680 6.000 The field ampere-turns per pole to compensate for armature reaction are 10% of the armature ampere-turns per pole.8 A dc compound generator has a shunt field winding of 3. 415 = 233. Solution The OCC at rated speed is drawn in Fig.037 W.240 7.360 EMF. 88 .73 A 233. The shunt field winding is connected across the output terminals and has a resistance of 85 W.27 = 39. 600 = 100 ¥ 20 = 2.000 8. and the terminal voltage is 415 V. Determine the terminal voltage and power output for the full-load armature current of 100 A.800 9.6 kW 7.020 5. 000 = 1. the total resistance of the armature circuit is 0.000 9.600 turns per pole and a series field winding of 20 turns per pole.

600 250 ¥ 1.5 A 550 Ia = IL + If = 454. P7. 000 = 454.Electric Machines Rf(line) 500 416 V OCC (rated speed) OCC (0.9(b) ATf (load) 8000 10000 75 .47 A 85 ATf (fl) = 6.020 = 6.5 = 461 A Armature circuit voltage drop = 461 ¥ 0.9(a) At full-load (550 V): If (fl) = 550 = 6.5 + 6.000˜¯ f P E g(V) 400 300 ATse = 3000 200 100 2000 8000 6000 4000 10000 12000 ATf Fig. P7.600 + 2.9(b) IL = Rf-line 600 567 V 500 ATse (net) E g(V) 400 300 200 100 ATf (no load) 2000 4000 6000 ATf Fig.47 ¥ 1. 7.037 = 17 V Induced emf (fl) = 550 + 17 = 567 V From Fig.92 rated speed) 20 V Ê Vf ˆ ÁË R ¥ 3.

080 ¥ = 6.660 454. Solution 200 = 0.96 ˜¯ 0.25 A 200 Ia0 = 3 A Ea0 = 250 – 3 ¥ 0.833 A 240 Ia = 9.76 Solutions Manual Corresponding to this induced emf. 5 ¥ 3 = 5.5 ˜¯ ÁË 0.8 – 0.660 + 682 = 2.75 Ea.5 6 2¥6 Armature demagnetizing ampere-terms. and rated voltage. 200)/ 60 At full-load Ffl = 0.1 ˆ Ê 1 ˆ ¥ (a) nfl = 1. Rf = 240 W and rotational loss = 236 W.1 ¥ 8.96 ˆ Ê 45. (a) What is the full-load speed? (b) What is the developed torque at full-load? Solution At no-load ATa = 250 = 1. Determine (a) the mechanical power developed (b) the power output (c) the load torque (d) the full-load efficiency.97 ¥ 0.8 A with the motor running at 1450 rpm.833 = 8.5 = 248.93 Nm ( 2p ¥ 1.1 V 227. 250 V shunt motor has an armature resistance of 0.08 or 5 Nse = 461 7.5 V If = T0 = 248.5 = 227.fl = 250 – 45.817. the line current is 47 A and because of armature reaction.96 F0.5 W and a field resistance of 200 W. fl = 47 – 1.342 2 .1 = 199. ATse(net) = 1.25 = 45.93 ¥ ÊÁ = 86.12 A 200-V shunt motor has Ra = 0. 5 1.10 A 10 kW. the flux is 4% less than its no-load value. On full load the line current is 9.1 V developed = 199.786 kW If = (a) Pmech .142 rpm Ë 248.75 ¥ 0.75 ˆ (b) Tfl = 5.817. 342 = 5.5 ¥ 0. At full-load and rated voltage.8 Nm ¥ Ë 1 ˜¯ ÁË 3 ˜¯ 7.1 W.97 = 1.97 A Ea = 200 – 8.200 ¥ ÊÁ = 1.200 rpm and the armature current is 3 A. ATd = 6. At no-load.1 = 682 Hence ATse = 1. the speed is 1. Ia.

300 ¥ Ifg Dividing Eq. (iv) by (i) 220 + ( 200 + I fg ) ¥ 0 .300 rpm. find (c) the field current at 1. (a) Find the value of resistance to be added to the field circuit to increase the speed from 1.1 µ 1. (iii) by (i) or (c) Generator 215.Electric Machines 9. 67 (d) Input = 200 ¥ 9.3 – 100 = 33.96 kW Fig.55/1. 04 212. 600 = I ¥ 2. find the speed when the supply current is 120 A.96 = 79. when the supply current is 200 A. 55 0. (ii) by (i) Load torque = 212 + 0.67 rad/s 60 200 V 77 If 240 W 1.200 to 1.03 Nm 96.04 = 215.8 A (b) Pout = 1.65) ¥ 0. 65 1.65 A Rf2 = 133.1 If2 = 1.200 ¥ 2. 200 2 .04If2 µ 1600 ¥ If2 (ii) Dividing Eq. 3 = n 3 ¥ 1.3 µ n3 ¥ 1.8 = 1. If the machine is run as a generator to give 200 A at 220 V.04 = 212 + 0. 300 I fg ¥ 1.13 A 220 V unsaturated shunt motor has an armature resistance (including brushes and interpoles) of 0.1% 7.624 rpm Ia = 200 + Ifg Eeg = 220 + (200 + Ifg) ¥ 0.12 h (fl) = 1.1 n3 = 1.2 (i) 212 + 0.3 W Rf(ext) = 133. 04 I f 2 1. 200 212.1 Ea2 = 220 – (200 – If2) ¥ 0.3 V 215. P7.04 W and a field resistance of 100 W. 2 (iv) .04 µ 1. Solution 220 (a) Ifl = = 2.786 – 0.65 (iii) Dividing Eq. and (d) the speed when the field current is 2 A.236 = 1.04 = 212. 200 2. 2 212 .55 kW (c) n = 1450 rpm w= 2 p ¥ 1450 = 96.2) ¥ 0.2 A 100 Eal = 220 – (200 – 2.1 = 1. (b) with the field resistance as in (a).04If2 Eal µ n1If1 Ea2 µ n2If2 212.600 rpm.1 W = 16. 2 f2 1 .3 W Note No difference will be made by assuming Ia ª IL (b) Ea3 = 220 – (120 – 1.

492Igf or (d) If = 2 A Ifg = 2.7 V.Ea Ra The unknowns are n. Ea and Ia. Solution Ea = Fnz Ê P ˆ 60 ÁË A ˜¯ (i) EaIa = 4 ¥ 103 (ii) V . 08 = ¥ 1.037 + 0.75 mWb/field amp (iii) P =1 A .78 Solutions Manual 1. Flux/pole = 3.Ea ˆ 3 Ea = Á ˜¯ = 4 ¥ 10 3 Ë E a2 – 500Ea + 12 ¥ 103 = 0 500 ± 25 ¥ 10 4 . At a certain load the flux per pole is 34.038 + 1.6 ¥ 10-3 ¥ n ¥ 944 Ê 4 ˆ ¥Á ˜ Ë 2¯ 60 \ n = 436 rpm 7. h will be too low) 500 . 25.04 = 228. 200 2 .1 ng = 1.89 ¥ 10–4Ifg = 0. 4 Ia = = 8.E a 3 (iv) Substituting in (ii) Ê 500 .43 A 3 Ea = Substituting values in (i) 474.3 (rejected.474. Substituting values in (iii) Ia = Ia = 500 . Calculate the line current taken by the motor and the speed at which it will run with an applied voltage of 500 V. Z = 180.3 rpm 7.4.14 A 4-pole series motor has 944 wave-connected armature conductors. 2 212.6 mWb and the total mechanical power developed is 4 kW. (v) by (i) (v) ng 2 228.7 = 34.15 The following data pertain to a 250 V dc series motor. 8 ¥ 10 4 2 = 474.419.08 µ ng ¥ 2 Dividing Eq. Total motor resistance is 3 W.185 A Ia = 200 + 2 = 202 Ea = 220 + 202 ¥ 0.

Calculate the current drawn by the motor and the speed at which it will run.25 ¥ 10–3 nIa 60 (i) 1 ¥ 3. 25 n2 + 88. 77 250 ¥ 32. 2 ¥ 10 4 n= 2 = 810 rpm 810 = 24. the motor field is still excited at 300 V.75 ¥ 10–3Ia ¥ 180 ¥ Ia = 107.E a = Ia 1 Under steady conditions (iii) T = TL 107.4 ¥ 10–3 I a2 2p (ii) 250 . Find its speed and power output when delivering the same torque if operated with an armature voltage of 600 V.4 ¥ 10 or –3 I a2 = 10–4 n2 Ia = n 32 . Solution Ea = T= 3.e. Its no-load speed is 1.25 ¥ 10–3 32. 79 ¥ 10 4 + 291. 77 7. Solution At no-load the IaRa drop can be neglected Ia = 300 = F ¥ 1.Electric Machines 79 Total armature circuit resistance = 1 W The motor is coupled to a centrifugal pump whose load torque is TL = 10–4 n2Nm where n = speed in rpm. 75 ¥ 10 -3 I a ¥ n ¥ 180 ¥ 1 = 11. Excitation is assumed unchanged.7 A 32. When fully loaded.. it delivers a torque of 400 Nm and its speed drops to 1.16 A dc shunt motor is being operated from 300 V mains. 200 ¥ Z Ê P ˆ ÁË A ˜¯ ¥ KN ¥ 1200 60 (i) 400 = 1 P = FZIa ÊÁ ˆ˜ = KT ¥ F Ë A¯ 2p (ii) . 77 32 . 77 (iv) Substituting (iii) and (iv) in (i) 250 – n2 + n2 n = 11. 77 ¥ 1.200 rpm.8 ¥ 104 = 0 -89 ± 0 .100 rpm. 000 10 3 n– =0 1125 11. i.9n – 72. State any assumption you are required to make.

9 V Power output = EaIa = 574. 200 or Ia = 167. 6 Under new operating conditions (600 V): For same torque with no change in f.400 F1 If = = 1.6 ¥ 0. Find the speed at which it will run at this load and the torque developed.1 1. n2 210. 337)/60 .9 ¥ 167. drawing a current of 10 A from the mains.1) µ 1. 25 Another method for speed 96. But there is a change of flux/pole due to armature reaction: 230 (230 – (10 – 1.4 Nm ( 2p ¥ 1. 200 300 .1 W and a field resistance of 200 W. so that the field current remains constant.6 A Ea = 600 – 167.400 rpm.275 = 0. 35 ¥ 10 3 = 400 ( 2p ¥ n )/60 or n = 2. 9 = 2.15) ¥ 0.300 rpm 0.96 229.35 kW From Eq.6 ¥ 10–3 = 96. Ia = 167. (i) KN = 0.15 = 574.15 W 167.1 = ¥ 0. Assume that the armature reaction causes a reduction in flux/pole of 4% of its no-load value. Solution Field resistance is not changed. the motor draws a current of 200 A from the mains.80 Solutions Manual Dividing Eq.1.17 Torque developed = 210.15) ¥ 0.337 rpm 7. (ii) by (i) 400 1 60 = Ia 300 2 1. When delivering a certain load.15 A 200 (230 – (200 – 1.25 ¥ n Ra = n= 574.1) µ n2F2 Dividing. It runs on no-load at a speed of 1.6 A Since speed drops to 1. 400 or n = 1. on-load Ea = 300 ¥ 1.100 rpm.15) = 298.9 = 0.100 = 275 V 1.300 rpm A 50 kW. 230 V dc shunt motor has an armature resistance of 0.1 ¥ ( 200 .25 (F remaining fixed) 574.

3 W and series field resistance is 0.5 A. determine the new operating speed.98 13.2 W.19 25 30 .200 rpm) = 260 V Ea(actual) = 50 – 25 ¥ 0.013 Wb P 1 FZIa ÊÁ ˆ˜ Ë A¯ 2p T(Nm) 50 40 30 20 10 1 = ¥ 0.2 = or (b) T = F ¥ 1.7) ¥ 20.7 Nm 2p (c).66371 rad/s 60 If = Ia 5 10 15 20 25 30 Ea = VOC 100 175 220 240 260 275 T 3.6 ¥ 20. 70 Solution 60 F nZ Ê P ˆ (a) Ea = 60 ÁË A ˜¯ 250 – 75 ¥ 0.200 rpm shunt motor has 4 poles. 200 900 Ê 4 ˆ ¥Á ˜ Ë 4¯ 60 F = 0. 200 ¥ 2p wm = = 40p rad/s = 125.7 A 0 0 5 10 15 20 Ia (A) Fig.92 26.085 rpm 260 Ea Ia (b) T = wm 1. 7.65 From Fig.18 A 250 V dc series motor has the following OCC at 1. 1. Solution (a) If = Ia = 25 A Ea (1. 250 V.19 A 15 kW.200 rpm: If (A) 5 10 15 20 25 30 VOC (V) 100 175 220 240 260 275 Ra = 0.013 ¥ 900 ¥ 75 ¥ 1 = 139. Ra = 0. Calculate: (a) the flux/pole.6 = 235 V 1.125 kW 20. but the field flux is reduced to 70% of its value by field control. Ia = 20.7 = ¥ 40 60 or n = 1.73 65. At rated speed and rated output the armature current is 75 A and If = 1.Electric Machines 81 7. at T = 40 Nm.6. (b) the torque developed.5) = 19. (c) rotational losses.174 rpm 7. 4 parallel armature paths.26 38. 200 n= ¥ 235 = 1. P7.20 51. (d) h(e) the shaft load and (f) if the shaft load remains fixed.7 A Ê 2p n ˆ EaIa = Á T Ë 60 ˜¯ 2p n (250 – 0.3 W. (d) and (e) Input = 250 ¥ (75 + 1. Find the speed of the machine when (a) Ia = 25 A (b) the developed torque is 40 Nm. and 900 armature conductors.

14 A 0.56 – 15 = 2.56 kW 60 Net mechanical output = 15 kW Rotational loss = 17. Solution Ia = 216 A = If Ea = 600 – 216 ¥ 0.155 W.125 (f) F = 0.01 = 0. Rext = 1. 007 Ea = 250 – 107.57 = 0. 600 V dc series-wound railway track motor has a combined field and armature resistance (including brushes) of 0.155 = 566. The magnetization curve at 500 rpm is as follows: emf(V) 375 400 425 450 475 If (A) 188 216 250 290 333 (a) Neglecting armature reaction.1 rpm 400 566.7 ¥ 0.5 V (a) Ea(500 rpm) = 400 V at If = 216 A n= (b) T = 500 ¥ 566.2 = 228.14 ¥ 0.007 Wb The torque load remains the same 0.82 Solutions Manual Mechanical power developed = 139.4% 19.56 kW h= 15 = 78. (b) Calculate the full-load internal (developed) torque.57 V \ Ia = 75 ¥ 228.07 W \ 290 \ At If = Ia = 290 A.1)/60 wm 600 (c) Ra + Rext = = 2.20 A 115 kW. The full-load current at rated voltage and speed is 216 A.177 rpm 7.7 ¥ 2p ¥ 1. 200 = 17. (c) If the starting current is to be restricted to 290 A.91 W Ea = ka Fwm ka F = Ea Ea = w m ( 2p ¥ 500 )/60 Ea = 450 V at 500 rpm ka F = 450 = 8. calculate the external resistance to be added and the starting torque.007 ¥ n ¥ 900 Ê 4 ˆ ¥Á ˜ Ë 4¯ 60 or n = 2. 6 ¥ 216 Ea I a = = 1650 Nm ( 2p ¥ 708. 01 = 107.59 at If = 290 A ( 2p ¥ 500)/60 . calculate the speed in rpm at the rated current and voltage.5 = 708.

492 Nm 7. determine the internal starting torque at the starting current of 350 A. 600 V. P7.862 Nm ( 2p ¥ 600 )/60 wm (c) Ia(start) = 350 A (b) T = Ê 350 ˆ Demagnetizing effect of armature reaction = 13 ¥ Á Ë 200 ˜¯ Effective If = 350 – 37. 600 rpm dc series-wound railway motor has a combined field and armature resistance (including brushes) of 0. The magnetization curve at 400 rpm is as follows: If (V) 188 206 216 250 290 333 emf (V) 375 390 400 425 450 475 (a) Determine the armature reaction in equivalent demagnetizing field current at 206 A.21 568. The full-load current at rated voltage and speed is 206 A. (c) Assuming demagnetizing armature reaction mmf proportionate to I a2 .71 at 400 rpm From the magnetizing curve of Fig.155 = 568.7.5 = 312. Solution (a) Ea = 600 – 206 ¥ 0.5 A . (b) Calculate the internal (developed) torque at the full-load current.5 A.Electric Machines 83 T = ka FIa = 8. 07 ¥ 206 Ea I a = = 1.59 ¥ 290 = 2.5 A If If = 312. Ea = 46.2 V at 400 rpm Ea = ka fwm 2 = 37.155 W. the corresponding If = Ia = 193 A Actual lf = la = 206 A Demagnetizing effect of armature reaction = 206 – 193 = 13 A of field current 600 VOC(V) 500 400 300 200 100 50 100 150 200 lf(A) 250 300 350 Fig.07 at 600 rpm or = 378.21 A 100 kW. 7.

22 A 3kW series motor runs normally at 800 rpm on a 240 V supply.9 A 7.885 Nm 7. Estimate the speed and the current taken by the motor. or 16 K T = 800 KL (iv) Two parallel groups of two in series Coil current = Ia 2 Ia 2 (v) KL n (vi) 240 = Ke ¥ n ¥ K T Ia ¥ or Ia = KLn2 2 K T Ia = 2 From (iii) and (v) we get nIa = 32 ¥ 800 From (iv) and (vi) we get (vii) Ia 2n = (viii) 16 800 From (vii) and (viii) we get n = 951 rpm Ia = 26.23 A 20 kW. 9 .84 Solutions Manual 462 = 11.1 ¥ 350 = 3. 500 V shunt motor has an efficiency of 90% at full-load.1 at If = 312. if the coils are reconnected in two parallel groups of two in series.222 kW 0. taking 16 A. The armature copper loss is 40% of the full-load loss. the field coils are all connected in series. The field resistance is 250 W. The load torque increases as the square of the speed. Hence V ª Ea = KenIa (f µ Ia) (i) ka F = or T = KT I a2 = kLn2 (ii) 240 = Ke ¥ 800 ¥ 16 (iii) All coils in series: 2 2 KT ¥ (16) = KL¥ (800) . Assume that the flux is directly proportional to the current and ignore losses.5 A ( 2p ¥ 400 )/60 \ Ts = kaF Ia (start) = 11. Calculate the resistance values of a 4-section starter suitable for this motor in the following two cases: Case 1: Starting current £ 2If1 Case 2: Starting current (min) = 120% If1 Solution Pout = 20 kW Pin = 20 = 22. Solution Ia(Ra + Rse) voltage is assumed to be negligible.

Electric Machines PLoss(fl) = 2. 000 = 40 A 500 500 =2A 250 Ia(fl) = 40 – 2 = 38 A If = \ Ra = 888 = 0.81 Now R2 = R1 6.222 W Pc(fl) = 2.56 A 85 .64 W 1.6 R ˜¯ = 0.50 W Case 2 I2 = 1.2 ¥ 38 = 45.11W g r3 = 0.01 W g r2 = 1.4 = 888 W IL = 20 ¥ 1.6 R1 ÊI ˆ = g4 = Á 1 ˜ Ra Ë I2 ¯ I1 = 4 V R1 R1 Ê 500 ˆ ÁË 45.90 W R5 = R4 = 0.615 W ( 38) 2 Case 1 Ia = 2Ia(fl) = 76 A R1 = V = 6. 81 g r1 = 2. 81 r4 = 0.58 W I1 k=4+1=5 Ê R1 ˆ g= Á ˜ Ë Ra ¯ 1/ 4 6.615 W 1.63 W R4 = R3 = 1.015 ˜¯ 1/ 4 = 1.94 W R3 = R2 = 2. 58 = = 3. 615 1 g I2 = 4.222 ¥ 0.58 ˆ = ÊÁ Ë 0.

09 = 0. 250 V shunt motor.24 A starter is to be designed for a 10 kW.86 Solutions Manual R15 = (0.16 W 1/ 4 = 1. 779 r2 = 1. 779 r1 = 2.125 – 0.94 W 1.16 = = 3.52 W R4 = 1.125 g k–1 = or 2k–1 = 0 . as soon as the current falls to rated value.70 W R3 = 3. 46 = 1. (a) Calculate the total resistance of the starter.975 W R1 3. This motor is to be started with a resistance in the armature circuit so that during the starting period the armature current does not exceed 200% of the rated value or fall below the rated value.15 W.15 Ra R1 = . The process is to be repeated till all the resistance is cut out.85 W 1.615)1/5 Á Ë 45.615 W r4 = 0. That is.09 W 1.615) ÊÁ 500 ˆ˜ Ë 45.125 W 80 I1 Rstarter(total) = 3. sufficient series resistance is to be cut out to restore current to 200% (or less in the last step). 94 = 1.615 ˜¯ = 6.6 ˜¯ Ê R1 ˆ g= Á ˜ Ë Ra ¯ 1/ 4 4/5 Ê 6. the machine is to start with 200% of armature current and. 779 7.48 W 1. (b) Also calculate the resistance to be cut out in each step in the starting operation.779 R2 = R1 6.16 ˆ =Á Ë 0.15 = 2. 779 r3 = 0. R5 = Solution Given IL = Ia ª I1 = I2 = g= Now Also 10 ¥ 10 -3 = 40 A 250 IL = 40 A 2If1 = 80 A If1 = 40 A I1 =2 I2 250 V = = 3. The armature resistance is 0.46 W g 1.6 ¯ 4 Ê 500 ˆ R1 = (0.

14 V No load : Ea ª V = 600 IL = n0 = 900 ¥ 600 = 927.15 W R5 = 2 7.125 W 3. determine.16 W.65 A Ea = 600 – 111.3 kW PLoss (M) = 135.16 = 582.3 – 115 = 20. Resistances of various sections are computed below: R1 = 3. 78 R4 = = 0. 56 = 0.74 = 0. 39 = 0.14 speed regulation = 927.59 kW 0.65 – 6 = 111.56 W R2 = 2 R3 = 1.25 A dc motor drives a 100 kW generator having an efficiency of 87% (a) What should be the kW rating of the motor? (b) If the overall efficiency of the motor generator set is 74%. (a) the speed at no-load and the speed regulation.85 or 85% (c) P0 (G) = 100 kW Pi (G) = 115 kW PLoss (G) = 15 kW Pi (M) = 135. The shunt field resistance is 100 W and the armature resistance is 0.78 W r2 = 0.900 = 3.65 ¥ 0.6 rpm 582. 6 . (b) the rotational loss.87 hm or hM = 0.1 % 900 .39 W r3 = 0. If the motor efficiency is 85%.65 A 600 600 If = =6A 100 Ia = 117. what is the efficiency of the motor? Solution 100 (a) kW rating (motor) = = 115 kW 0.15 W r4 = 0.Electric Machines 87 which gives k = 5 ﬁ 4 sections are required. 87 (b) h = hGhM 0.125 = 156 W r1 = 1.3 kW 7. 85 70.26 A 600 V dc motor drives a 60 kW load at 900 rpm. 59 ¥ 1000 = 117. Solution 60 (a) Pin = = 70.39 W 2 0.78 W 2 0.

88 Solutions Manual (b) Total loss = 70. The resistance of the armature and field are 0.35 W Voltage drop at brushes = 2V Windage and friction losses = 150 W Iron loss at 250 V = 180 W Open-circuit characteristic: emf(V): 11 140 227 285 300 312 Field current (A): 0 1.99 kW I 2f Rf = (6)2 ¥ 100 = 3.59 – 60 = 10.2 2. (b) Also estimate the efficiency if working as a generator and delivering a load current of 152 A at 250 V. 7.2 W and 125 W respectively when hot.6 kW Rotational loss = 10.8 A PL = I 2a Ra + Vf If + VbIa + Pwf + Pio = (41.8)2 ¥ 0.27. 1000 rpm.8 + 2 ¥ 41. Armature resistance = 0. Solution \ 250 = 2A 125 Iao = 16 – 2 = 14 A If = .65)2 ¥ 0.5 lf(A) 2. (a) Estimate the efficiency of the motor when taking 152 A. P7.28 A 60 kW. the corresponding field current is If = 1.5 10 hG = 10 + 15 = 86. 250 V.35 + 2 = 266 V From OCC of Fig.27 Calculate the efficiency of a self-excited dc shunt generator from the following data: Rating –10 kW.0 1.59 kW I a2 Ra = (111.8 A \ Ia(corrected) = IL + If = 41.0 1.4 Solution 350 10 = 40 A 250 Ia ª IL = 40 A \ Ea = 250 + 40 ¥ 0.6) = 5 kW 7. P7.5 2.96% Fig.59 – (1.0 2.99 + 3.16 = 1.35 + 250 ¥ 1.5 1.0 2. 250 V shunt motor takes 16 A when running light at 1.27 Note Stray-load loss has been neglected.440 rpm.8 Ê 266 ˆ + 150 + 180 ¥ Á Ë 250 ˜¯ 300 250 EMF IL = ¥ 10 3 200 150 100 2 = 15 kW (Iron loss is assumed to be proportional to the square of the flux density) 50 0 0.

Electric Machines

89

**Pk = (Pio + Pwf + Psh)
**

= (250 ¥ 14 – (14)2 ¥ 0.2) + 250 ¥ 2

= 3,960.8 W

Assumption Stray-load loss will be ignored

(a) Motoring

Ia = 152 – 2 = 150 A

PL = I a2 Ra + Pk

= (150)2 ¥ 0.2 + 3,9608 = 8.461 kW

Pin = 250 ¥ 152 = 38 kW

\

hM =

38 - 8. 461

= 77.73%

38

(b) Generating

Ia = 152 + 2 = 154 A

PL = I a2 Ra + Pk

Pout

\

**= (154)2 ¥ 0.2 + 3,960.8 = 8.704 kW
**

= 250 ¥ 152 = 38 kW

hG =

38

= 81.36%

38 + 8. 704

**7.29 A 200 V shunt motor takes 10 A when running on no-load. At higher loads the brush drop is 2 V
**

and at light loads it is negligible. The stray-load loss at a line current of 100 A is 50% of the noload loss. Calculate the efficiency at a line current of 100 A if armature and field resistances are

0.2 and 100 W respectively.

Solution

At no-load

No-load loss = 200 ¥ 100 = 2,000 W

200

=2A

100

Ia = 10 – 2 = 8A

Pio + Pwf = 200 ¥ 8 – (8)2 ¥ 0.2 = 1,587.2 W

If =

At load

Ia = 100 – 2 = 98 A

I a2 Ra

= (98)2 ¥ 0.2 = 1,920.8 W

**Stray-load loss = 0.5 ¥ 2,000 = 1,000 W
**

PL = ( I a2 Ra + VbIa + Pst) + (Pio + Pwf + Psh)

= (1,920.8 + 2 ¥ 98 + 1,000) + (1,587.2 + 200 ¥ 2) = 5,104 W

h=

**Pin - PL 200 ¥ 100 - 5, 104
**

=

= 74.48%

200 ¥ 100

Pin

90 Solutions Manual

7.30 The Hopkinson’s test on two machines gave the following results for full-load: Line voltage 250 V;

line current, excluding field current, 50A; motor armature current 38 A; field currents 5 A and 4.2

A. Calculate the efficiency of each machine. Armature resistance of each machine = 0.02 W. State

the assumptions made.

Solution

Iag = Iam – IL = 380 – 50 = 330 A

Input to set = VIL = 250 ¥ 50 = 12.5 kW

2 + I2 )

Armature copper loss = ( I am

ag Ra

= [(380)2 + (330)2] 0.02

= 5.066 kW

Stray loss of each machine

1

(12.5 – 5.066) = 3.72 kW

2

= 4.2 A

= V(Iam + Ifm)

= 250 (380 + 4.2) = 96.05 kW

Ws =

Motor

Ifm

Pin,m

2

PLm = Pst + I am

Ra + Vlfm

= 7.658 kW

Ê 96.05 - 7.658 ˆ

hm = Á

˜¯ ¥ 100 = 92.03%

96.05

Ë

Generator

Ifg = 5 A

Pout,g = 250 ¥ 330 = 82.5 kW

2

PL,g = Pst + I ag

Ra + VIfg

= 7.148 kW

Ê

ˆ

82.5

hG = Á

¥ 100 = 92.03%

Ë 82.5 + 7.148 ˜¯

7.31 Calculate the efficiency of a 500 V shunt motor, when taking 700 A, from the following data recorded

when the motor was hot: Motor stationary; voltage drop in the armature winding 15 V, armature

current 510 A, field current 9 A at normal voltage. Motor running at normal speed unloaded;

armature current 22.5 A, applied voltage 550 V. Allow 2 V for brush contact drop and 1% of the

rated output of 400 kW for stray-load losses.

Solution

Ra =

15

= 0.029 W

510

Rf =

500

= 55.56 W

9

Electric Machines

91

**Using the data for unloaded motor:
**

Rotational loss = (V – IaRa – Vb)Ia = (550 – 22.5 ¥ 0.029 – 2) ¥ 22.5 = 12.315 kW

hM =

**Pin - I a2 R a - V f I f - V b I a - stray - load loss - rotational loss
**

Pin

**Ia = IL – If = 700 – 9 = 691 A
**

Pin = VIL = 500 ¥ 700

= 350 kW

\

hM =

**350, 000 - ( 691) 2 ¥ 0. 029 - 500 ¥ 9 - 2 ¥ 691 - 0. 01 ¥ 400 ¥ 10 3 - 12, 315
**

350, 000

= 89.7%

7.32 A 480 V, 20 kW shunt motor took 2.5 A when running light. For an armature resistance to be 0.6

W, field resistance of 800 W and brush drop of 2 V, find the full-load efficiency.

Solution

If =

Ii0

Pi0 + Pmf

Psh

Pk

=

=

=

=

480

= 0.6 A

800

2.5 – 0.6 = 1.9 A

(V – IaRa – Vb) Ia = (480 – 1.9 ¥ 0.6 – 2) ¥ 1.9 = 906 W

480 ¥ 0.6 = 288 W

906 + 288 = 1,194 W

**At full-load,
**

Pout = 20 kW

VIL = 20,000 + ( I a2 Ra + VbIa) + Pk (Pst ignored)

IL = Ia + 0.6

\ 480 (Ia + 0.6)

= 20,000 + 0.6 I a2 + 2Ia + 1,194

0.6 I a2 – 4.78Ia + 20,906 = 0

Solving,

\

**Ia = 46.42 A (taking the smaller of the two values)
**

Pin = 480 (46.42 + 0.6) = 22,569 W

hM =

20, 000

= 88.6%

22, 569

**8.24 A 3-phase hydroelectric synchronous generator is read to be 110 MW, 0.8 pf
**

lagging, 6-kV, Y-connected, 50 Hz, 100-rpm.

Determine:

(a) the number of poles

(b) the kVA rating

(c) the prime mover rating if the full-load generator efficiency is 97.1% (leave out field

loss).

(d) the output torque of the prime-mover.

(a) f = nP/120,

P = (120 X 50)/ 100 = 60

**(b) kVA = 110/0.8 = 137.5 kVA
**

(a) kw (turbine) = 110/0.971 = 113.3 kw

(d) Tpm(output) = (113.3 X 1000 X 60) / 2

X 100 = 10.82 X 103 Nm

**8.25 1000 kVA, 50 Hz, 2300 V, 3-phase synchronous generator gave the following test
**

data:

Field current (A) 40

Voc (Line)(V)

1000

Isc(A)

2000

80

1900

100

2200

120

2450

140

2600

170

2750

240

3000

**(a) Find the field current required to deliver rated kVA at 0.8 lagging pf at rated
**

terminal voltage.

(b) The OC voltage at this field current.

(c) The maximum kVAR that the machine can deliver as a synchronous condenser at

rated voltage, if the rotor heating limits the field current to 240 A.

Refer fig 8.25

Xs(adjusted) = (2300/ 3) / 1800 = 0.738

(a) Ia = (1000 X 1000) / ( 3 X 2300) = 251 A

= cos-10.8 = 36.9˚

Ef = 2300/ 3 ∠0˚ + j 0.738 X 251 ∠ (-36.9˚)

= 1328 + 185 ∠ (53.1˚)

= 1328 + 110 + j 148 = 1438 + j 148

Ef = 1445 3 = 2503 V

From Fig P – 8.2

If = 128 A

96 + j 2.8 leading.7 + 1.6 kV. Determine: (a) the phase angle of the current (b) the power angle (c) the generated emf.737 = 5.56˚ Phase angle of current = .26 A 3-phase synchronous generator feeds into a 22kV grid.27 A 6. From Fig P-8.52 Ef = 14.2 7.27 .48A kVAR(out) = ( 3 X 2300 X 548) / 1000 = 2183 lagging.26.(b) Voc (If = 128A) = 2503 V (c) At If = 240(A) (limit) Ef = 3000 / 3 = 1732 Ia = 404/0.56˚(reference grid voltage) (b) Ia = (13.52 = 13.26.9 (kV) (line) In short-circuit a field current of 80 A gave an armature current of 360 A.4˚ = 12. It has a synchronous reactance of 8 / phase and is delivering 12 MW and 6 MVAR to the system.2˚ (c) Generated emf = 14. (a) S = 12 + j6 = 13.2 6. 3-phase synchronous machine has as open circuit characteristic given by: Field current (A) 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Armature emf 5.42 X 1000) / ( 3 X 22) = 352.56 kv 8.7 7.18 3 = 24.2 A Ef = 22/ 3 X 1000 + j 8 X 352.3 6.18 kv = 10.8 lagging. When developing 400 kW of mechanical power as a motor calculate the field current for pfs of 0. unity and 0.42 ∠ 26.26 + j 2.56˚ = 12702 + 2818 ∠ 63. Determine the saturated synchronous reactance.2 ∠. 8.8 7.5 7.

1˚ = 3.32 kV Reg = (2.905 + 1.34 3 = 2.8˚ = 3. 50 Hz three-phase synchronous generator is star-connected.905 – 0.7 A = cos-1 0. 3.3 X 100) / 3.3 X 43.849 = 1. The effective armature resistance is 5 /phase and the synchronous reactance is 29.3˚ = 1.90 0.41 ∠126.056 + j 0.6/ 3 + j (9.8) = 43.81 – 0.3 = .2 kv From fig P.27 If = 115 A 0.32 – 3.707 lagging Ia(fl) = (200 X 1000) / ( 3 X 3300) = 35 A 1) PF 0.9˚) = 3.Xs(sat) = (6.81 + j 0.04 ∠ 125.58 3 = 6.8 = 36.328 W Ef = 3.305 + j 0849 Voc = 3Ef = 1.41 ∠36.905 + (5 + j 29.2 /phase.2) X 35 ∠45˚ = 1.707 leading (b) unity (c) 0.41 ∠ 53.29.8.62 X 35) / 1000 ] ∠(45˚ + 80.707 leading = cos-1 0.3 Neglecting armature loss Ia = (400 X 1000) / ( 3 X 6600 X 0.81 + 0.246 + j 0.8 leading pf Ef = 3.707 = + 45˚ Ef = 1.328 = 3.8 lagging pf Ef = 6.246 + j 4328 = 4.28 A 200 kV A.27 If = 76 A 8.7 % .905 + [(29.8˚ = 3.7) / 1000 ∠ (-36.328 Or Ef = 4.069 3 = 7.3˚) = 1.81 + 0.81 + 0.3 kV.6 + j 0.564 + j 0. At full-load calculate the voltage regulation for the following power factors: (a) 0.05 kv From Fig P – 8.6 X 1000)/ ( 3 X 410) = 9.

3 ∠ 48. 3-phase. 25˚.3 = + 21.2) PF unity Ef = 1.016 kV Reg = (4. What is the corresponding current and power factor? Zs = 0. The field is exited such that the open-circuit voltage of the machine is 25 kV.5 /phase.707 lagging Ef = 1.025 Voc = 3 Ef = 2.905 + 1.3˚) = 1.6 Voc = 3Ef = 2.90˚ Ia = (22 – 25 ∠ (-90˚)) / ( 3 X 2.5 = 2.04 ∠ 35.175 + j 1.93 8.32 3 = 4.016 – 3. Calculate the maximum load on the motor (including rotational loss) before it could lose synchronism. Its open-circuit voltage is 3.347 ∠ 84. and 35˚ (elect).51 = 219 MW = .6˚ = 0.8 respectively.813 lagging 8.905 + 0.88 kv Reg = (4.3kV/phase. The motor is synchronized to 22kV mains.6 and 4.347 ∠ 84.04 ∠80.3˚ = 1. Calculate the current.6˚) Ia = 7. 50 Hz synchronous motor is supplied from 6.29 A 3-phase.66 ∠ (-35.3˚ Pmech(max) = (25 X 22) / 2.51 ∠ 84. power factor and torque developed.905 + 1.51 ∠ 84.66 kA Pf = cos 35.25 + j 2. The per phase resistance and synchronous reactance are 0.3˚) = 7.3˚ = 1.88 – 3. .30 A 6-pole.7˚) / (4.7% 3) PF 0.905 + 0.3˚ = (22 + j25) / (4.04 ∠( -45˚ + 80.6 = 2.905 + 1.25 /phase and a synchronous reactance of j 2.82 3 = 4.3˚) = (33.3 X 100) / 3.754 + j 0.025 = 2.6 kV busbars. 4-pole star-connected synchronous motor has a resistance of 0.3) / 3. when the excitation emf lags the busbar voltage by 15˚.3 X 100 = + 47.08 + j 1.849 + j 0.

19 ∠ 59.81 – (3.81 – 3.893 = 1.81 – 2.81 – 3.81 + j 1.3 X 334 cos 2 ˚ = 3.15 ˚) = 3 X 3.9 ˚) = (0.3 X 218 cos (28.9 ˚) / (4.9 ˚ Ia = 218 A Pf = cos 28.83∠82.8 = 4.395 = 0.3 ∠ (-25 ˚)] / 4.83 ∠ 82.9 ˚ = 0.918 lagging Pmech = 3 X 3.81 – 3.613 ∠ 59.3 ∠ -25 ˚) = 3.83 ∠ 82.6 ˚) / (4.3 ˚) Ia = 453 A.395 = 1.62 + j 0.613 ∠ 59. pf = cos 23.9 ˚) = (3.83 ∠ 82.19 + j 0.9 ˚ = (1.Zs = 0.92 lagging Pmech = 3 X 3.83 ∠ 82.055 ∠ 54 ˚) / (4.9˚ = 15˚ I0 = (3.83 ∠ 82.19 ∠ 59.334 ∠ (-23 ˚) 3.3 MW = 35˚ 3.854) / (4.83 ∠ 82.83 ∠ 82.453 ∠ (-23.11 + j 1.9 ˚) = 0.3 ∠ (-35 ˚) = 3.9 ˚) = (1.9 ˚) = 218 ∠ -28.9 ˚ Ia = 334 A Pf = cos 23 ˚ = 0.854) / (4.9 ˚) = 0.7 + j 1.3 ∠ -15 ˚) / (4.3 X 218 X 0.6 + j 4.3 ˚ = 0.3 ˚) = 4.48 MW .971 = 2.6 ˚ Ia = (2.875 lagging Pmech = 3 X 3.9 ˚ .81 – 3 + j 1.1 Mw = 25˚ Ia = [3.893 = 2.81 – 3.3 X 453 cos (25 – 23.

226 = 90% b) Full-load Ia( ) = (2s X 1000) / 3 X 400 = 36.1A = .9 + j 190.866 leading pf.8 = 20kw Rotational loss = 480 + 580 = 1060 w 1.66 and 7.1) X 36. The field winding is supplied 10.166 = 22.6 – j 85.06 + 1.7 ∠ 114.06 = 21.93 = 16. The friction and winding loss is estimated to be 480 W and iron loss as 580 W.9˚ Ef = 231 + (0.9 + j 190.4 + j4) X 23.13 kw Ia = ( 16.8.6v Voc = 446.06 kw Mechanical input = 2v + 1.4 + j4 .8 ∠ (-17.6 A at 110 V. The per phase (star basis) armature resistance and synchronous reactance respectively are 0.9˚) = 231 + 7.4 + j 4 = 4. 3-phase.1 . Calculate: (a) the full-load efficiency.1 ∠ (-36.6 3 = 773.5v 8.06 kw Field loss = 110 X 10. star-connected synchronous motor has a synchronous impedance of 0. Find the voltage to which the motor should be excited to give a full-load output at 0. 3-phase synchronous generator delivers rated kVA at rated voltage at 0.6 – j 85. (b) the terminal voltage when the load is thrown off.4 = 282.31 A 25 kVA.7 Ef = 446.8˚ = 231 + 172.4 ∠47.1 ∠84.9˚) = 231 + 257.66+ j 7. 400 V. Full load output = 15 kw Armature efficiency = 93% Armature input = 15 / 0.166 kw Total input = 21.32 A 15 kW.6 = 1.13 X 36.3 ˚ = 231 + 38. 0. Assume an armature efficiency of 93%.226 kw = 20/22.7˚-36.7 = 403. a) Input = 25 X 0. Also calculate the mechanical power developed. 400 V.8 pf lagging.3 ˚) = 231 – 93.3 A = cos-1 0.806 = -30 ˚ Ef = 231 – (0.36.02 ∠ (84.6 ˚) .3∠30 ˚ .4 = 269.12 X 1000) / ( 3 X 400) = 23.

33 A 3-phase.34 A 1500 kW.063 ∠ (-36.914 ∠ (53.35 + 0.8 leading pf.9 ˚ = 6.28 – 11) / 11] X 100 = 11. Ia( ) = 1200 / ( 3 X 11) = 63 A = Isc Voc = 1580 / 3 = 912 V Xs = 912 / 63 = 14.1 ˚) = 6.8 = 490 V Mechanical power developed = 3 X 282. 50 Hz synchronous motor has a synchronous reactance of 2 /phase. 3-phase. star – .28 kv Voltage Reg = [(12. Calculate the voltage regulation at (a) 0.31 kw 8.549 + j 0.8 leading pf Ef = 6.5 0.914 ∠ 126.9 ˚ = 6. The OC voltage waith the same excitation is 1580 V/phase.8 X 23. Neglect armature resistance.801 + j 0.05 + j 0.64 % 0.17.9 ˚) = 6.35 + j 14.8 lagging and (b) 0.09 = 12.35 – 0.3Ef = 3 X 282.5 X 0.549 + j 0.731 = 7. star-connected 2300 V.914 ∠ 90 ˚ + 36.9 ˚ Voc = 3Ef = 3 X 7. The motor is supplied from a 3-phase.847 ∠ 7.8 lagging pf Ef = 6. 11 kV.35 + 0. On short-circuit a field current of 55 A gives full-load current.6 ˚) = 19.7. star-connected synchronous generator is rated ar 1200 kVA.731 = 7.94 % 8.2 ˚ Voc = 3Ef = 3 X 5.35 + 0.817 = 10.12 – 11) / 11] X 100 = .3 cos(30 ˚ .731 = 5.09 ∠ 5.731 = 5.35 + 0.12kv Voltage reg = [ (10.

3 X 1) ∠ 0 ˚ = 376.9 % .82 1.645) / (2.28 50 180 8.8 X 376.35 (a) Voc(line) = 16kv Voltage regulation = (16 – 13.8 = 15.6˚) 3 Efm = 3 X 1527 = 2645 V Pmax = (2.35 (b) If = 116 A From OCC of Fig P– 8.8) / 13.8 /phase. and (b) emf of the motor.8. Data for its OCC and ZPFC characteristics is given below: Field current (A) Open circuit 40 140 7. 1750 kVA turbo generator whose synchronous reactance is 2.3 A Vt(phase) = 13.935 X 2.17 18.8 / 3 = 7.78 Volts (line) Zero pf volts (line) 17. star-connected synchronous generator has a resistance of 2.8) = 52. When the motor is drawing full-load power.8 kV 1250 kVA 3-phase.5 ∠ 0 ˚ A Vt = (230 ∠ 0˚) / 3 = 1328 ∠ 0˚ V (i) E fg = 1328 + j 2.88 15.68 110 15. at upf.5 ∠ 0˚ = 1328 + j 1054 = 1695 ∠ 38.connected. calculate: (a) the induced emf o f the generator.97 kv From fig P.66 Find the voltage regulation o f the generator for full-load 0. Ifl = 1250/( 3 X 13.8 pf lagging.8 + 2) = 1617 kw 8.4˚ V 3 Efg = 3 X 1695 = 2935 V (ii) Efm = 1328 – j 2 X 376. What maximum power can flow from the generator to the motor with machine excitation held fixed? Ia( ) = 1500 / ( 3 X 2.1 /phase. 2300 V.68 10.25 0 13.35 A 13.5∠0˚ = 1328 – j753 = 1527 ∠ (-29.

37 Figure P: 8. Y-connected salient-pole synchronous generator has a direct-axis reactance of 0.3 = 444 V (a) Saliency ignored. (a) Find the excitation emf.4/203.8 pf lagging: (a) At what frequency is the system operating and what is the load supplied by each generator? (b) If the load is now increased by 1 MW. per phase reactance are Xd = 0.8 lagging pf.6 V 8.04 X 1000∠ (-36. Xs = Xd Ef = 254 ∠ 0˚ + j 0.2 ˚ = 73.2 X 0. (b) Find the excitation emf accounting for saliency.04 = 253.6 + 1000 X 0.36 A 440 V.9 ˚) = 254 + 40 ∠ 531 ˚ = 254 + 24 + j 32 3 Ef = 3 X 279.3 + 3 = 256.75/3 = 0.36. neglecting saliency and assuming Xs = Xd.2 = 0.8 = 484.3 or 440 v(line) Id = Ia sin V = 1000 X sin 4.04 Xq = 0. = +36.075 per phase. = 254 Cos 4.025) / (254 X 0. the armature resistance being negligible. 50 Hz. On equivalent star basis.025 (b) Ia = 1000A.873 V = 41.36 shows two generators supplying in parallel a load o f 2.2 ˚ Ef = Vt Cos + Id xd .1 ˚ = V- = 41.2 ˚ + 73.9˚(lagging) Vt = 440/ 3 = 254 V Tan V = (Vt sin + Ia Xq) / (Vt cos + Iara) = (254 X 0.12 and a quadrature-axis reactance of 0.12/3 = 0.2 3Ef = 3 X 256.9 ˚ = 4.8. what will be the new frequency and the load sharing? (c) In part (b) which should be the set point o f G2 for the system frequency to be 50 Hz? What would be the load sharing now? .1˚ .8) = 177. The generator is supplying 1000 A at 0.8 MW at 0.

8 = 100 f = 50 Hz (b) G1 + G2 = 3. find the system frequency if the system load rises to 310 MW.84 = 105 MW Frequency drop = 5/105 = 1/21 Hz/MW G = G1 + G2 + G3 = 3 X 75 = 225 MW .84 pf lagging synchronous generators with a frequency drop of 5 Hz from no-load to full-load.8 – 2.8 – G1 ------. (a) Generator rating = 125 X 0. find the no-load frequency setting of the generators.8 – 3.8 2f = 102. (c) Find the no-load frequency of the swing generator for the system frequency to be restored to 50 Hz for the load in part (b).8 + f02) – 3.8 – 51.8 f02 = 103.(iii) f1 – f2 = f Adding (i) and (ii) 2f = 102. (a) For a total load o f260 MW at 50Hz. 22 kV.(ii) (a) G1 + G2 = 2. (d) Find the system frequency if the swing generator trips off with load as in part (b).38 A generating station comprises four 125 kWA.8 2 X 50 = (51.5 Hz (c) G1 + G2 = 3.G2: f2 = 51 – G2 ---------.8 – (a1 + a2) 2f = 102. (b) With no change in governor setting as in part(a). 0.8 = 99 f = 49. at a frequency of 50 Hz. three generators supply a steady load of 75 MW each while the balance is shared by the fourth generator (called swing generator).(i) G1: f1 = 51.8 = 52 Hz 8.8 --------. the governor setting remaining unchanged as in part (a).

6 + 51.1 X 0.1pu Ra = 0 VL = 11kW Rated k VA at 0.Combined drop = 5/(105 X 3) = 1/63 Hz/MW G4 = 260 – 225 = 35 MW f = f0 – 1/43G ---------.06 .6 + f04 – 1/63 X 225 – 1/21 X 81 Or f04 = 53.68 Hz 8. Determine its generated emf.7) – 1/63 X 225 – 1/21 X 85 Or f = 48.8 pf lagging.83 Hz (d) Load = 310 MW f = 53.8 pf Eg = ? V = 1pu Cos = 0.6 – 1/63 X 310 = 48. Xd = 0.(ii) f = f4 = 50 50 = f0 – 1/63 X 225 or f0 = 53.39 An 11 kW.84 Hz (c) f = f4 = 50 Adding (i) and (ii) 100 = 53.56 Tan = (Ia Xq Cos )/(V+ Ia Xq Sin ) = (1 X 0.6 = 36.1 X 0.6pu and 0.(i) f4 = f04 – 1/21 G4 ----.08/1.6 Hz 50 = f04 – 1/21 X 35 or f04 = 51.1pu respectively and negligible armature resistance.8 Sin = 0. It is delivering rated kVA at 0.6pu Xq = 0. 3-phase alternator has Xd and Xq of 0.8)/(1+0.7 Hz (b) Load rise to 310MW = (3 X 75 + 85) G4 = 85 f4 = f Adding (i) and (ii) 2f = (53.6) = 0.9˚ Ia = 1pu = 26.

9 ohms/phase.65A Eg = V Cos + Id X Id = 1 X 0.3kV 3 Y .387 8. sp = 15˚ Therefore.65 X 0.41 A 3. it takes 5 A field current to produce full load short circuit current. Kc = cos(15˚/2) = 0. 3 phase star connected synchronous generator has full load current of 100A.522 Kd = 0.40 Compute the distribution factor and coil span factor for a 3 phase winding with 4 slots per pole per phase and with coil span of 10 slot pitch. Determine synchronous reactance per phase and voltage regulation for 0.8 pf lagging.31 + 36.8 pf lag Ra = 0.956 Kc = cos sp/2 Full pitch = 4 X 3 = 12 slot pitches Coil pitch = 5 slot pitch Therefore. Assume armature resistance os 0.Id = Ia Sin ( + ) = 1 X Sin (4. The open circuit voltage is 900 V (line to line).991 8.6 = 1.3kV.997 + 0.9) = 0.5/ 0. Given Data: 3. Under short circuit condition. If = 5A Eo =900 (L-L) p.9 /phase short circuit current .f = 0. m = 4 No of slots = 4 X 4 X 3 = 48 = (180˚ X 4) / 48 = 15˚ Kd = Sin(4 X (15˚/2)) / 4 sin(15˚/2) = 0.connected Ia = 100A.

848 + 2739521.6k X 0.6k X 100) = 0.6kV PL1 = 200kW VPL = 3810 V Itotal = 100k/ ( 3 X 6.6) Itotal = 80 – j60 Cos = 2000kW / ( 3 X 6.192 – 0.8 –j0.6k X cos X 100 = 2000kW I = 100 (0.25 V Eo = 1905.8 pf lagging so that power supplied by each machine is same.12 At 0.12)2 = ( 2605656.86 Assume PL = 1000 kW Itotal = 109.8) = 21.96 – 1905.87 PL2 = 100 kW 0.196 Xs = ( Zs2 – Ra2) = ( 5. Determine the load current of second synchronous generator and power factor of each machine.Zs = (O.523 = 2311.25 Regn = 21.6 kV.6 kV synchronous generators supply a total load of 1000 kW at 0.42 Two similar 6.25 X 0.8 pf lagging Eo = (V cos + Ia Ra)2 + (V Sin + Ia XS)2 Vt / Phase = 3300 / 3 = 1905.3A If Itotal = 100 A PL = 3 X 6.25) / 1905. when excitation of first synchronous generator is decreased so that load current reduces to 100A.25 X 0. V2= 6.34 % 8.25 X 0.8 + 100 Ia = 1905.C Voltage/ Phase) / ( S.96 volts % Regn = (2311.C Current / Phase) = (900 / 3) / 100 = 5.6 + 100 X 5. V1 = 6.92 Xs = 5.8pf lag .9)2 + (1905.8 + 100 X 0.

35) = 0. OCC If(A) 16 20 25 32 45 Voc (line)(V) 4400 5500 6600 7700 8800 SC test If = 18A for rated armature current ZPF test If = 20 A for rated armature current at rated voltage. 6.6k = 378.6k X54. Saturated synchronous reactance.65) = 0.56 = 3998 V If1 = 21 A .65 = 45.43 A 3-phase.86) + 540) = 38.6 A (4800 – 3811) / 3811 = 26 % E = ((V cos + I Ra )2 + (V sin + I X L) 2) = ((3811 X0.65 A I1 = 100-54.8)2 + (3811 X 0.6 kV synchronous generator gave the following test results.8 pf lagging and rated voltage.8 8. Determine the field current and voltage regulation when the generator is supplying rated current at 0. 2.35 Cos 1 = 500 / ( 3 X 6.6 + 300) 2) 6690493. mmf method ASA method Rated Ia = 2.5M / 6.8A Vr = 6. Ra = 0 Use the following methods and compare the results and draw conclusions: (a) (b) (c) (d) Unsaturated synchronous reactance.96 Cos 2 = 500 / ( 3 X 6.6k X45.I2 = 54.5 MVA.6kV => Vph = 3811 V By mmf metthos: From the Graph If1 = 25 A If2 = 18 A If = (252 + 182 – 2 X25 X 18 cos(90 + 36.

6 If = 34.6 = 453.86) = 1218.If2 = 18 A If = (212 + 182 – 2 X25 X 18 cos 126.3 % .9 A + 6 = 40.9 A 41 A VR = (4890 – 3811) / 3811 = 28.

1 MVA.1(a) (a) For rated voltage. 4175 4000 Air gap line ISC (A) Voc (line) 3600 3500 3000 500 2500 400 2000 1500 300 270 255 1000 200 160 500 100 0 10 20 30 f¢¢ f¢ 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 lf(A) 129 53 Fig. Solution The OCC and SCC as per the data are drawn in Fig. P8. the short circuit current is 255A. If (A): 60 70 80 90 100 110 Voc (line) (V): 2560 3000 3360 3600 3800 3960 ISC (A): 180 Find: (a) The unsaturated synchronous reactance (b) The adjusted synchronous reactance (c) The short circuit ratio (d) The excitation voltage needed to give rated voltage at full load.1 The open and short circuit tests data on a 3-phase. star connected synchronous generator is given below.8 lagging pf.6 kV. for constant If 5500 Modified air gap line 5000 4500 O. and air-gap line. 0.C.C. P8. (e) Voltage regulation for the load specified in part (d). Use adjusted synchronous reactance.92 Solutions Manual CHAPTER 8: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES 8. 3.1(a) .

Neglect armature resistance.Electric Machines \ xs (unsaturated) = 93 3600/ 3 = 8. When the machine is applying full-load current at zero pf at rated voltage.4 A Of ¢ 90 = = 1. P8.5 MVA. .8 – j 0. Determine the leakage reactance in W per phase and the full-load armature reaction in terms of equivalent field amperes. \ Voltage regulation = 4175 . Find also the field current and voltage regulation when the machine is supplying full-load at 0.1(b) (b) xs (adjusted) = 1 ¥ 10 6 Ia (rated) = SCR = (d) 3 ¥ 3.1(b) = 15.6 kV synchronous generator gave the following data for OCC at synchronous speed: If (A) 16 20 25 32 45 VOC(line) (V) 4400 5500 6600 7700 8800 With the armature short-circuited and full-load current flowing.2 A 3-phase.6) = 2078 + 741 + j 988 = 2819 + j 988 = 2987 or 5173 V (line) (e) The new field current for 5173 V (line) is obtained from modified air gap line. On linear basis we get.7 ¥ 160.4 A If = Ef Vt = 3600 = 2078 V 3 VOC (line) = 4175 V.15 W 255 3600/ 3 = 7.6) Ef = 2078 + j 7.97% 8. 2.8 – j 0.3600 3600 Fig.698 Of ¢¢ 53 la = 160.4 (0. 90 ¥ 5173 = 129 A 3600 For this value of field current when the machine is open circuited. the field current is 18 A.8 pf lagging at rated voltage. 6 ¥ 10 3 = 160. the field current is 45 A. 77W Ia = 160.7 W 270 (c) Refer to the circuit diagram of Fig. P8. 6.4 (0.

2(b) From OCC (Fig. 600 8.8 lag f = 36.2(a) R 6 Q \ xl = Full-load armature reaction.2(a) I far = 15 A I fr = 28. 600 . P8.3A lf = 41 A Ef = 4130 V laXl = 800/ 3 = 462 V 36.94 Solutions Manual 9 Solution Ia(rated) = 2. 800 = 2. P8.1. the armature leakage reactance is estimated to be 0.811 V 3 cos f = 0. P8.3 A 0 = I fr 10 P¢ 20 30 lf(A) 40 50 Fig. 600 = 30. Voltage regulation = . 8.3% 6. P8. 7 I far = 15 A VOC (line) kV 3 Ia(rated) xl = 800 V 6.11 W 3 ¥ 218. Ef = 8.3 In Prob. 600 Vt = = 3. 6 OCC 8 = 218.9° Vt = 3811 V I far = 15 A la Fig. Solve part (d) by using the mmf phasor diagram. 5 ¥ 1.15 pu.7 A S 3 Ia(rated) xl = 800 V 7 From Potier’s triangle of Fig.6.2 (a)) at If = 41 A.130 V or 7.600 V (line) 8. 000 3 ¥ 6. P8.153 V (line) æOCC æ æÆ 28.9° From the phasor diagram of Fig.2(b) I far 5 P = 15 A 4 3 2 1 Er = 4.

Calculate the field current needed for the machine to draw full-load 0. P8. 5 \ xl = and Ia(rated)x1 = 1.5 A 3 Ia(rated)x1 = 2. 3946. P8.95 Electric Machines Solution I ar f MMF diagram in drawn in Fig.65 W 3 ¥ 52.1(a) Ef = 4175 V (line) 8. I far = 27.4 A 1 MVA. (d) E r = V t + j I a xl If Ir f Er 3600 = –0° + j160. 060 = 22.3 A.3 cos 96.27° Er = 2278.8 pf leading current when operated as a motor connected to an 11 kV supply.351 V .72 –6. The ZPF test yielded fullload current at rated terminal voltage for a field current of 150 A.5 A Vt = 11. P8.060 V 2.72 V (phase). From Fig.1 A Again refer to Fig.3. 3-phase star-connected synchronous machine has the following OCC test data: If (A) 50 110 140 180 VOC(line) (V) 7000 12500 13750 15000 The short-circuit test yielded full-load current at a field current of 40 A.6 2 1 = 2265.3 MMF Phasor Diagram I far = 53.87 V (line) From Fig. P8.32 – 2 ¥ 113 ¥ 53. P8.27°)0.4(a) = 52. 11 kV.15 ¥ I fr = 113 A and Vt Ia Fig.5 = 130. The armature resistance is negligible.4 ––36.3.44 + j248.1(a) f ¥ 0. If = (( I fr )2 + ( I far )2 – 2 I fr I far cos (90 + q))1/2 = (1132 + 53.189 V Full-load armature reaction. 000 3 = 6. 8.86° 3 Iaxl q 3. Solution 1 ¥ 10 6 Ia(rated) = 3 ¥ 11 ¥ 10 3 From the Potier triangle of Fig.97 = 2278.

9° 0 50 lf(A) 100 150 175 (a) Fig.7 The full-load torque angle of a synchronous motor at rated voltage and frequency is 30° elect.8 lead f = 36. (d) The load power and excitation remaining constant. P8.1w s ¥ 1. the excitation and frequency are raised by 10%. (b) The load power and terminal voltage remaining constant. (c) The load torque and excitation remaining constant.4(b) cos f = 0. P8.100 V or 12. The stator resistance is negligible. the terminal voltage and frequency are raised by 10%.5 A 8.1x d \ sin d = 1. Solution Vt E f Pm = sin 30° xd Vt E f Tm = sin 30° w s xd V t ¥ 1.9° From the phasor diagram of Fig. the excitation and frequency are reduced by 10%. P8.55 d = 33.5A 3 la(rated) xl = 2060 la 5 Vt 36.4(b) Er = 7.36° Vt ¥ 0 .96 Solutions Manual I far lf I fr 15 VOC(line) (kV) S R 10 Q l ar P f = 27. 9 x d xd sin d = sin 30° d = 30° .3 kV(line) æOCC æ æÆ I fr = 105 A If = 122.1 sin 30° = 0. the terminal voltage and frequency are reduced by 10%. How would the torque angle be affected by the following changes? (a) The load torque and terminal voltage remaining constant.4(a) (b) l a xl Er Fig. 9 E f Vt E f (b) Pm = sin d = sin 30° 0.1 E f Vt E f (a) Tm = sin d = sin 30° w s xd 1.

000 Ia(rated) = = 52. 9 x d sin d = x d sin 30° sin d = sin 30° or d = 30° 8. 11 kV.8 C . (a) What is the excitation emf of the motor if the power angle is 10° and the motor takes rated current at: (i) lagging power factor. (d) Pm = la (leading) A q1 d = 10° q2 O g Ef la xs B b Ef la (lagging) Fig.35 kV 3 1.1x d sin d = d= 97 Vt E f sin 30° w s xd 1.5 A 3 ¥ 11 (a) Power angle d = 10° Ia(rated)xs = 52.1w s ¥ 1.5 ¥ 35 = 1.1V t E f sin d = 1. 9V t E f Vt E f 0. The locus of jIaxs is a circle as the power factor of Ia varies. star-connected synchronous motor has negligible resistance and a synchronous reactance of 35 W per phase. P8. and (ii) leading power factor.Electric Machines (c) Tm = or 1. (b) What is the mechanical power developed and the power factor in part (a)? (c) At what power angle will this motor operate if it develops an output of 500 kW at the rated line voltage and with an excitation emf of 10 kV (line)? What is the corresponding power factor? (d) What is the minimum excitation at which the motor can deliver 500 kW at the rated line voltage without losing synchronism? Solution xs = 35 W 11 Vt = = 6.8.1 sin 30° 33. 3-phase. P8.8 A 1000 kVA.84 kV Vt is drawn in Fig.36° 0.

35 . From Fig. 84 = 6.8° – 10°) = 0.93 = 0 (i) Lagging pf: Ef = 4.35)2 = 0 E f2 – 12.80° pf = cos q2 = cos (90° – 26. 84 4.8 V t2 + E f2 – 2VtEf cos 10° = (Iaxs)2 or E f2 – 2 ¥ 6. 74 sin 10° 35 = 7315 kW =3 From triangle OAC Ia xs Vt = sin d sin b 1.35 ¥ cos 10° Ef – (1. 8.98 Solutions Manual Corresponding to a value of power angle d.74 kV (b) (i) Ia lagging Mechanical power developed Pm(out) = 3 ¥ Vt E f sin d xs 6.84)2 + (6.451 lagging (ii) Ia leading Mechanical power developed Pm(out) = 3 ¥ Vt E f sin d xs 6. 77 ¥ sin 10° 35 = 451 kW =3 ¥ From triangle OAB Ia xs Ef = sin g sin d 1. we have two points C and B which give values of Ef for leading and lagging currents correspondingly. 35 ¥ 7. sin b sin 10∞ \ b = 36.51 Ef + 36. 35 ¥ 4.8° pf = cos q1 = cos (90° – 36. 77 = sin g sin 10∞ or g = 26.73 leading .77 kV (ii) Leading pf: Ef = 7.8°) = 0. as is clear from the diagram.

8 – j 0.5 lagging (d) Without losing synchronism minimum excitation corresponds to power angle d = 90° Pm(out) = Vt E f sin 90° xs 6. 600 3 = 3. Solution 0.323 d = 18.6 + j 87. 6.77 kV 3 6.8° .5 = 3 ¥ Ia(rated) = Vt = 1. 77 = sin g sin 9.6 V Operation at 0. 35 ¥ 5. 187.1°) = 0.9 A 1000 kVA. 77 ¥ sin d 35 sin d = 0.1° cos q2 = cos (90 – 30.5 A 3 ¥ 6.Electric Machines (c) Pm(out) = 99 Vt E f sin d xs Ef = 10 = 5.5(0. 5 = sin 53. 2∞ g = 30.9 5.2° Since Ef < Vt only lagging pf solution is possible 0.750 \ Ef = 5. It supplies full-load current at 0.919 kV or 1.6) 25 = 5. P8. 7 2. From the phasor diagram of Fig. 000 = 87.123 + j 1. 84 5.8 leading pf excitation remaining unchanged.6 kV. Compute the terminal voltage for the same excitation when the generator supplies full-load current at 0. 35 ¥ E f 35 Ef = 0. 413. 1∞ sin d or sin d = 0.59 kV (line) 8.5 = 3 ¥ 1.8 lagging pf rated terminal voltage E f = Vt + jIaxs = 3.413.810.810. 3-phase star-connected synchronous generator has a synchronous reactance of 25 W per phase.8 leading pf.8 lagging pf and a rated terminal voltage.159 \ d = 9. 6 6.7 V Operation at 0.

0 pu is connected to infinite busbars of 1.5 pu reactance. 45 = 52.5 V Q = cos –1 0. 3-phase. P8.9° = 53. 0.351 – j 52. 323 or Vt = 6. 187. What active and reactive power are delivered to the infinite busbars? (b) Calculate the generator excitation and terminal voltage when the generator is delivering zero active power and 0. . 8 11.18 kV (line) 8.462 – j 1.8 pf leading. 5 = sin 108. (a) Calculate the generator excitation.3 V or 11.1∞ 0.6) ¥ 35 = 7.607.8 + j 0.5 pu lagging reactive power to the infinite busbars. can the generator deliver the same active power to the infinite busbars at the same excitation as in part (a)? Explain.15 kV (line) 8.10 A 750 kW. Solution h = 0.5 V or 13.8 pf leading 3 ¥ 11 ¥ 0.1° = 108.45 kW 0.9 A.481 or Ef = 7. Determine the excitation emf per phase when the motor is operating on full-load at 0. star-connected synchronous motor has a synchronous reactance of 35 W/ phase and negligible resistance.0 pu voltage through two parallel lines each of 0.0 pu) at unity power factor at its terminals. (c) With one line disconnected. Its efficiency under this condition is 93%. terminal voltage and power output when it delivers rated current (1.93 Input = Ia = Vt = 750 = 806.9 180° – 18.8°–53.1° Vt 2.9° d 90° – 36.351 V Ef = Vt – j Iaxs Ef = 6.11 A synchronous generator having synchronous reactance of 1. 11 kV. 000 3 = 6. 93 806.9(0.437.5 x 25 = 2187.1° V1 Fig.100 Solutions Manual la Ef la xs = 87.8 = 36.

125 pu 1 Ef = 1.5 + 1 + Ef d2 l = 1 a d1 Eb = 1 pu Vt Vt 0.5 ¥ 1 = 0. P8.968 pu Active power delivered to busbars = 1 ¥ 1 ¥ cos d1 = 0. Vt = 1.968 ¥ 1 = 0.39)/1.926 pu.5 (c) (d) Fig.Electric Machines 101 Solution (a) The circuit model of the system is drawn in Fig.25" $"0% & 0.5 0.11(d). 5 1 la = 1 pu.25 = 14.5 = 0.968 pu Reactive power delivered to busbars = –1 ¥ 1 ¥ sin d1 = – 0.25 Eb = 1 (a) (b) Fig. P8.5 ¥ 0.25 pu (negative because current lags voltage) (b) The phasor diagram is drawn in Fig.125 + Ef = 1. The power (0.926).125 + Eb = 1 0.39 pu d1 = sin–1 0.25 = 0. .968 pu Ef =V Vt2 + (1) 2 = 1. Therefore.625 0. Maximum power that can be delivered = (1 ¥ 1.48° . 25) 2 = 0.39 Eb = 1 la = 0. P8. upf Ef 0.968) as in part (a) cannot be delivered as this is more than the maximum power that can be delivered (0.11(b) Vt = 1 .( 0. P8. P8.11(a) and its phasor diagram (upf) in Fig.11 (c) The circuit model now modifies to that drawn in Fig.5 Vt = 1. the answer is no.11 Generator power output = 0. P8.625 V.11(c) from which it follows that Ef = 1.

what maximum torque can the motor supply? Also determine the armature current.18 rad/s 60 Tm(max) = 4. 008. 3 = 1. 3 ¥ 1 E fg = 1. 514.7 V or 3.905 – j 453. Generator: 1200 kVA. 000 = 57.479 V (line) E fm = 1. 24-pole. terminal voltage and power factor under this condition.55 la la = 2008.55 W/ph.24 W/ph.55 = 1.392 V (line) Pm(max) = 3 ¥ \ 2.3 V .905 – j 140 ¥ 3.905 V 800 = 140 A upf 3 ¥ 3.3 kV.9 kW ( 4. xs = 4. 55 + 3.514.55 1.12 Consider a synchronous generator-motor set whose data is given below. xs = 3. 958.86 ¥ 103 Nm 26.958. 7 ¥ 1.12(a). 300 3 = 1.102 Solutions Manual 8. (b) The motor shaft load is now gradually increased while the field currents of both the generator and motor are continuously adjusted so as to maintain the rated terminal voltage and upf operation.7 V + Vt Elm 3.008. 24 ) nsm = 120 ¥ 50 = 250 rpm 24 wsm = 2p ¥ 250 = 26. With the excitation emfs held fixed at these values. 3. P8.24 la F q2 (a) Vt (b) Fig.24 Efg la + + Elg 4.12 q1 Efm = 1958. 3-phase.905 + j 637 or Efg = 2. 3. 9 ¥ 1. What maximum torque can the motor now deliver without losing synchronism? Solution (a) The circuit model of the set is drawn in Fig. 3-phase. Compute the excitation emfs of both the machines. 2-pole. 50 Hz star-connected.905 + j 140 ¥ 4. Motor: 1000 kW. P8.3 kV.18 3. 50 Hz star-connected. (a) That set is operating at rated terminal voltage and frequency with the motor drawing 800 kW at upf.6 Efm = 1.24 = 1.3 V or 3. Vt = Ia = 3.

443.24 ¥ 360) cos 45.13 = 8.13° f = 90° – 45.10(b) (4. 000 Pe = 3 = 333.078.6 1. 443. P8.24) Ia = ( 2.73°]0. 500 Vt = 3 = 1.416. 857. 078. 5) 2 . 6 ) 2 = 1. 000 ¥ 5 Pe x s = = 1154.14° cos f = 0.58la 3.Electric Machines 103 From the phasor diagram of Fig. 8. 3-phase. 9583) 2 Ia = 360 A 2. P8. 958.3 q2 la 3.5 V 1.12(c) .55 + 3. Solution 2.4 V 3.3 ¥ (3. 600 Ef = 3 = 2.99 leading (b) Under these conditions the phasor diagram for maximum torque (power) is drawn in Fig.13 A 2500 V. 73∞ sin q2 = 0. 24 ¥ 360 1. 4 Vt With reference to the geometry of the phasor diagram of Fig.728.5 kW Efg –1 2. 416.24la Vt = 1905 V q1 Efm Fig.24 ¥ 360)2 –2 ¥ 1. 154. 55 I a tan + tan–1 = 90° (Find Ia) 1. 905 Ia = 500 (It gives q1 + q2 = 90. The motor input is 1000 kW at rated voltage and an excitation emf of 3600 V (line).5 V q1 = tan–1 3.905 ¥ 500 = 2857.15 ¥ 103 Nm 26.5896 q2 = 36.3)2 + (3.12(c) where q1 + q2 = 90° 4.958.(1. 3 ¥ 1.73° – 36. 7) 2 + (1.958. 18 8. 5 = sin q 2 sin 45.3 kW 333. 5 ¥ 1. 7 = 45. star-connected motor has a synchronous reactance of 5 W per phase.44°) Pm(max) = 3 ¥ 1.5 = 1. 000 Tm(max) = = 109. 3 Vt = [(1. 905 1. Calculate the line current and power factor. 34 I a 4. 008. P8.11 OQ = (2.73° 1. 008.

8° 5 (5) 2 = – 87.85° a = 90° – 88. Solution Vt = 1.5 V zs = 0.6 E1 P Fig.97 leading 8.9 PM = or (1.00 –88.15°) 3 5 ( 5) 2 1 = 0.443. 6) 2 + (284. 000 ¥ 1.85 = 1.15° q = tan–1 la F Vt O M Q q jlaxs F Pe x s Vt = 1154.95° Qe(in) = = Vt2 x s z s2 - Vt E f cos (d – a) zs (1.15°) 3 d = 33. 6 = 76.00833 + 0.8 A 1. 443.4 V Ef = 2.1 1.14° 284.078.104 Solutions Manual MQ = 1. 000 (1.443.14 Repeat Prob.4 = 284. 9) 2 = 1. 443. 078.13 considering a motor resistance per phase of 0. 5 + = sin (d –1. 4 ¥ 2. 154.68 kVAR . 4 ) 2 ¥ 5 (1. 078.86° cos f = 0.6 sin (d –1. 443. 8. 154.189.3 – 1. 9 f = 90° – q = 13. 5) + cos 32. P8. 4 ¥ 2.1 W.728. 4 ) 2 ¥ 0.2 = Iaxs = 5Ia Ia = 237.14 For motoring operation Pe(in) = Vt2 ra z s2 + Vt E f sin (d – a) zs 1.1 + j 5 = 5. 443.

Resistance can therefore be neglected except for calculation of efficiency.105 Electric Machines cos f = cos tan–1 Se = 87. Ia O Vt = 6.15 = 3 ¥ 11 ¥ 126 = 24 MW (3-phase) Pm(out) net = 24 – 1. Solution (a) Vt = 11 = 6.23 kV (line) (b) Ef = 15. It takes a current of 15 A at upf when operating with a certain field current. With the field current remaining constant. P8.5 ¥ Ia or Ia = 238.2 = 22.2 MW(3-phase) Pe(in) = Pm(out) = 16.31 kV 6. 50 Hz.16 A 600 V.2 = 16. . 68 = 0.7 A Remark Notice that consideration of the resistance has hardly made any difference to the result.2 MW(3-phase) xs(eqv.15. 8.967 leading 333. 11 kV. delta-connected synchronous motor has a synchronous impedance of 15 W/phase.6 = 3 ¥ 2.5 kV (line) and the shaft load is adjusted so that the motor draws upf current.85 kA (upf) 3 ¥ 11 ¥ 1 The phasor diagram is drawn in Fig. (a) Find the value of the unity power factor current drawn by the motor at a shaft load of 15 MW. find the motor output (net). 8.25 Ef = 7.6 kVA 3 ¥ 344. 2 = 0. star-connected synchronous motor has a resistance and synchronous reactance of 0.95 kV 3 I ax s = Ia = la xs Ef = 8. 35) 2 = 6. star) = Ia = 16. 95) 2 .4 W and 7 W respectively.35 kV M E f = 6. 3 Pe2 + Q e2 = 344. What is the excitation emf under this condition? (b) If the excitation emf is adjusted to 15.35 kV 3 15 =5 W 3 Pm = 15 + 1. 3-phase. friction and iron losses amount to 1200 kW.35 – j 5 ¥ 0.64 kV or 13.85 = 6. the load torque is increased until the motor draws a current of 50 A. 5 = 8. 6-pole.15 A 20 MVA. 3-phase. 31 = 126 kA 5 Pe(in) = Pm(out) gross P Fig.95 ( 8. Find the torque (gross) developed and the new power factor. P8.35 – j 4.8 MW.( 6. Windage.

7° Ia = 15 –0° A E f = 364.7 V Vt = 3 Ef = zs(eqv.6)2 – 2 ¥ 346.4 V 3 zs = 0.4 b 90° – 86.4 = 3 kW la Pm(out) Vt = 346.106 Solutions Manual Solution Vt = 600 = 346.4 – 15 (0.9 lagging 8.675 –85.2 V or 617 V (line) Now Ia = 50 A Iazs = 50 ¥ 7.6 cos b = (356. The motor synchronous impedance is (0.3° lazs = 350.44° 3 .2)2 b = 61.24° = 0.17 A 500 V.4 – j 105 Ef = 356.4 + j 5) = 0. star) = 600 = 346.4 V 3 1 (0. P8.011 = 350. mesh-connected motor has an excitation emf of 600 V.24° Pe(in) = 3 ¥ 600 ¥ 50 cos 25.3° = 25.2 q Fig.4)2 + (350.4 ¥ 350. P8.133 + j 1.46° – 3.7° = 3.46° f = 90° – 61. 000 Tm(developed) = = 420.72 rad/s 60 Ef = 356.16 from which it follows that: (346.6 = 47 – 3 = 44 kW ns = 1.011 –86.2 Nm 104. What is the maximum power output that it can deliver? What is the corresponding line current.4 + j 5) W while the windage.6 V The phasor diagram for these conditions is drawn in Fig.67 = 1.4 + j 7 = 7. 72 pf = cos 25.24° = 47 kW (3-phase) F 3 I a2 ra = 3 ¥ (50)2¥ 0. friction and iron losses are 1200 W.000 rpm gross 2 p ¥ 1.16 44 ¥ 1. 000 ws = = 104. pf and motor efficiency? Solution 500 = 288.4 + j 7) = 340. 3-phase.

7 . 8 = 85. The generator is supplying full-load at 0.8 = 36. 675 (1. 673) 2 = 54 kW (per phase) Pm(out.9° xd = 0.d z s –q 288. 4 – . (8.5 pu. 49 8. (8.49 kW 160.0 pu Ia = 1.8 pf lagging f = cos–1 0.842 lagging Pe(in) = 3 ¥ 500 ¥ 258.85.3% 188. Calculate the power angle and the no-load voltage if the excitation remains unchanged.44° Ia = = or = = Ia = Ia = pf = Vt – 0 .2 = 160.8 pu xq = 0. 7 + 1.8 pu and a quadrature-axis synchronous reactance of 0. 6 + 1 ¥ 0. 4 ) 2 ¥ 0 . gross) max =– =- E f2 ra z s2 + E f Vt zs ( 346.9 – j 139.14 258.5 A cos 32. 4 ¥ 288.19) Pm(out.5 ¥ 0. net) max = 54 ¥ 3 – 1.5 ––32.8 –– 170. Solution Vt = 1.Electric Machines 107 From Eq.9° 217. 8 + 0 . 675–85.8 kW (3-phase) For max power output d = q = 85. 44∞ 172. 0.8 lagging pf at 1. 44∞ 1.375 1 ¥ 0.5 pu From Eq. 5 = 1.842 = 188.56° 258.346.21) h= tan y = = Vt sin f + I a x q V t cos f + I a x a 1 ¥ 0.44° – 206.133 346.56° = 0.E f – .0 pu terminal voltage.18 A 3-phase synchronous generator has a direct-axis synchronous reactance of 0.4 ––85.0 pu.

21.3. Solution xd = 9.4 ¥ sin 52. 749 . tan y = = or From Eq. 6 ¥ 10 3 = 306.8 pf lagging. 8. d = y – f = 52.6 and 6 W respectively.6 kV at the terminals when supplying a load of 2.9° = 17.81 kV 3 3.6 pu 8. 5 ¥ 10 6 3 ¥ 6. 6 ¥ 10 3 ¥ 0 .4 A f = cos–1 (0. if the field becomes open-circuited.8 = 1.8) = 36.5 MVA.6 kV has 32 poles. 5 ¥ 10 6 3 ¥ 6. 6 = 3. or Power angle.96 kV (line) 5.6 W Vt = Ia(rated) = xq = 6 W 6. What maximum power can the generator supply at the rated terminal voltage.8 pf is = 2 .23. 6 + 273.3° + 273. 810 ¥ 0. 8 = 129 y = 52. 810 = 50.2°.108 Solutions Manual y = 54° d = y – f = 54° – 36.810 cos 15.749 V or 9.17 A Ia at 2.9° lag From Eq.9% 3.6 5. 810 .19 A 3.3° + (Ia sin y) xd 3. 8 = 273. Neglecting armature resistance.1° + (1 ¥ sin 54°) ¥ 0.2° – 36.23)) Ef = Vt cos d + Idxd = Vt cos d + (Ia sin y)xd = 1 cos 17. 8. V t sin f + I a x q V t cos f + I a r a 3. determine the regulation and the excitation emf needed to maintain 6. 3-phase synchronous generator rated at 6.3° Ef = = = = Regulation = Vt cos d + Idxd 3.1° No-load voltage (Eq.810 cos 15. slow-speed. 4 ¥ 6 3.9° = 15. (8.2 ¥ 9. Its direct-and quadrature-axis synchronous reactances as measured by the slip test are 9.5 MW at 0. 810 ¥ 0.5 MW at 0.

176 Ef sin d + 0.64 cos 2d = 0 Solution of Eqs (i) and (ii) gives d = 63° Ef (min) = 0. 85 ¥ 0. It is connected to busbars of 1. 85 ¥ 0.32 sin 2d For maximum power output Pm = 1. Compute the minimum pu excitation that is necessary for the machine to stay in synchronism while supplying the full-load torque. 85 Pm = 1.176 Ef cos d + 0.e. 85 Pm = 1.6 ˆ = (3. (i. 8. 1.705 pu (i) (ii) .xq ˆ Pe. Calculate the maximum power output the motor can supply without loss of synchronism.53 pu When excitation is variable Ef 0.81)2 ¥ Á Ë 2 ¥ 9. while its excitation is adjusted to 1.0 = 1. Solution Pm = xd xq E f Vt sin d + V t2 sin 2d xd 2x d x q 0.32 sin 2d dPm = 1.xq ˆ Pe = V t2 Á sin 2d Ë 2 xd xq ˜¯ Ê xd .41 sin d + 0.32 sin 140° = 1. 55 0.xq ˆ E f Vt sin d + V t2 Á sin 2d xd Ë 2 xd xq ˜¯ Given Ef = 0 \ Ê xd .41 sin 70° + 0.64 cos 2d = 0 dd Pm = By trial d = 70° Pm(max) = 1. Pe = Ê xd .41 cos d + 0.85 pu.20 A salient-pole synchronous motor has xd = 0. 3 sin d + sin 2d 2 ¥ 0 .max = V b2 Á Ë 2 xd xq ˜¯ Ê 9. 2 sin d + 1 ¥ sin 2d 2 ¥ 0 .176 Ef sin d + 0.32 sin 2d 1.24.0 pu voltage.0 pu power). 3 1.454 MW 8.6 .2 pu.6 ¥ 6 ˜¯ = 0.. 55 0 .Electric Machines 109 From Eq.

I a ra sin f . P8.500 ¥ 0. f lagging = OG V t .21 Hence tan d = I a x q cos f .73.200 kW P1 = P2 = 600 kW E2 2 l2 Fig.I a x q sin f .22 Two star-connected generators are connected in parallel and supply a balanced load of 1500 kVA at 11 kV line voltage and 0. P8. 1500 kVA.I a ra cos f Solution OG = Vt – Iaxq sin f – Iara cos f GC = Iaxq cos f – Iara sin f A jldxd jlqxq lara f K Vt G la xq O d y ld C Ef lq la D Fig.I a x q sin f .I a x q sin f .22.I a ra cos f For the generating case 8.8 lagging power factor.8 Solution pf lag l The circuit model of the system is drawn in Fig. P8. f lagging Vt . at a lagging power factor.21 From the phasor diagram of the salient-pole synchronous machine given in Fig.22 . 40 P = 1.8 = 1. Calculate: V = 11/ 3 kV (a) the phase current in the second machine 35 43 A E1 1 (b) the induced emf of each machine l1 (c) the power factor at which each machine operates.I a ra cos f tan d = I a x q cos f . P8.I a ra sin f GC . The prime-mover governors of the two machines are adjusted so as to equally share the power load.110 Solutions Manual 8. The synchronous reactances of the two machines respectively are 35 W and 40 W. prove that tan d = I a x q cos f .I a ra sin f V1 . 0. The phase current in one machine is 43 A.

025 + j 1. P8.8(0.9° pu Refer to the circuit diagram drawn in Fig. 000 + j 35(31.3) 3 = 4.847 pu per elect rad 1 pu = 1.5 – j 17. star-connected cylindrical rotor generator of negligible resistance and synchronous reactance of 0.48 + j 0.5 – j 29.6° I2 = 36. Solution 1 ––36. 0.376 + j 1. 8-pole.64 = 1.847 ¥ π kW/elect deg.067 + j 1.8pu Ef = = Ef = d0 = 1 + j 0.102 E1 = 7.8 – j 0. 6.260 = 7.7 A cos f = 0.4° Vt E f Pe = sin d xs + Vt = 1 pu Ef Fig. I 1 = 31.73 lag.9) 3 = 6.2 \ I 2 + I – I 1 = (63 – j 47.9° I = 63 – j 47.000 kW = Stiffness = 1.5 – j 29.2 ––29.4° 1.3 A I= 1.5 – j 17. 0.Electric Machines 111 3 ¥ 11 ¥ 43 cos f1 = 600 f1 = 42.43 kV (line) 8.9° cos f1 = 0. P8. 61 cos 23.102 = 7. f = 36.2) – (31 – 5 – j 29.61 –23. 500 3 ¥ 11 = 78.23 Calculate the synchronizing coefficient (in kW and Nm per mechanical degree) at full-load for a 1000 kVA.351 + 716 + j 1.3) = 31.23.87 lag E1 = 11.6 kV.458 V or 12.8-pf(lag).6) 1.61 pu 23.8 lag.9 = 36.178 V or 12.8 pu. 000 + j 40 (31.4° 0. = 32. 8 = 1. 180 .55 kW/elect deg.260 E2 = 7.351 + 1.2 A cos f2 = 0.92 kV (line) E2 = 11.23 Ê ∂ Pe ˆ Vt E f cos d0 ÁË ∂ d ˜¯ = x s 0 1 ¥ 1.

Stiffness = .112 Solutions Manual 8 mech deg.5 rad/s 8 60 129 × 10 3 78.25 ¥ 4 kW/mech deg. 1 elect degree = \ Ws = 120 ¥ 50 2 p ¥ = 78. 2 Stiffness = 32. = 129 kW/mech deg. 5 = 1.64 ¥ 103 Nm/mech deg.

04 60 ¥ 50 w = (1 – s) ws = (1 – 0.5 ns 120 ¥ 50 = 1.2 A 6-pole. If the torque loss in windage and friction is 12 Nm.5 rad/s Mechanical power developed (net) = 160 ¥ 100. Calculate the net mechanical power developed.5 = 17.04 ˆ Rotor copper loss = 17.5 = 16. Solution sf = 25 25 = 0.5 slip. The load is connected to the rotor slip rings. 3-phase induction motor running on full-load develops a useful torque of 160 Nm and the rotor emf is absorbed to make 120 cycles/min. What are the possible speeds at which the rotor can supply power to this load at 25 Hz? What would be the ratio of voltages at load terminals at these speeds? Assume the rotor impedance to be negligible. find the copper loss in the rotor windings.5 = 2.08 kW Mechanical power developed (gross) = (160 + 12) ¥ 100.500 rpm 4 n = 750 rpm for s = +0.04 ˜¯ .1 A 4-pole wound-rotor induction motor is used as a frequency changer.04) ¥ 104.5 and –0.5 50 We can get 25 Hz voltage at slip = ± 0. 50 Hz. Therefore. Solution ns = 1.7 = 100. Given: starter losses = 200 W (inclusive of core loss). 3-phase supply.29 kW Ê1 ˆ 3 I 2¢ r2¢ Á . ws = 104.n = ± 0.1˜ = Pm Ës ¯ Ê 0.000 rpm.5 where ns = \ The rotor voltage at any slip s is = s ¥ rotor voltage at standstill Therefore the rotor voltage is the same for both 0.5 \ s= or ns .0. the input to the motor and efficiency. The starter is connected to a 50 Hz. ratio of voltages = 1 9.7 rad/s f2 = sf 120 = s ¥ 50 60 or s = 120 = 0.Electric Machines 113 CHAPTER 9: INDUCTION MACHINE 9.290 ¥ Á = 720 W Ë 1 .250 rpm for s = –0.

Find the starting torque when switched on direct to rated voltage and frequency supply.29 + 0.8 = 18.4 A 3. Solution (a) Smax. 08 = 85.234 52.114 Solutions Manual Motor input = 17.5% 18. 025 = 0. 9.8) Solution 3 ¥ (280)2 (r + r2¢ ) = 110 ¥ 103 h= 1 r1 + r2¢ = 0. Neglect stator impedance. Assume the starter and rotor copper losses to be equal under the blocked-rotor test. 36 = 1.09 0. 20-pole.28 W per phase.234 = 1. 5 V 2 ws x 2¢ (i) Tfl = V 2 ( r2¢ /s fl ) 3 w s ( r 2¢ /s fl ) 2 + x ¢ 2 2 ns = 120 ¥ 50 = 300 rpm. 20 sfl = 300 .T = (b) Tmax = 0 . star-connected induction motor has a slip ring rotor of resistance 0.36 rad/s 12 60 Ts = 3 ( I 2¢ 2 r2¢ ) ws 3 (280)2 ¥ 0.02 300 (ii) n = 294 rpm . Compute: (a) slip at maximum torque. 3-phase.468 W r1 = r2¢ = 0.234 W (equivalent rotor) ws = 120 ¥ 50 2p ¥ = 52.3 kV.294 = 0. The motor has a speed of 294 rpm when fullload torque is applied.72 + 0.80 A and 110 kW under the blocked-rotor test. and (b) ratio of maximum to full-load torque.3 A 12-pole. 3-phase. (Try this part after studying Sec.36 ÁË 3 ˜¯ 2 ¥ 3 ¥ 0. What would be the starting torque if the motor is started by connecting the phase windings in star.81 kW 16. 81 9. 50 Hz induction motor draws 2. 28 3 0.234 \ Ts = 3 280 ˆ ¥Ê 52.025 W and standstill reactance of 0.051 Nm = Phase windings connected in star I 2¢ = 280 3 r2¢ = 3 ¥ 0. 051 = 350 Nm 3 9. 50 Hz.

50 Hz induction motor runs at a speed of 710 rpm with an input power of 35 kW. Find: (a) rotor copper loss. . 38 9. 440 V. star-connected. 02 ) 2 + ( 0.46 W xm = 22. (i) by (ii) 0 . 28) 2 ] 0 . 5 [( r2¢ /s fl ) 2 + x 2¢ 2 ] Tmax = Tfl x 2¢ ( r2¢ /s fl ) = 0 . Solution 120 ¥ 50 = 750 rpm 80 n = 710 rpm ws = ns = s= 750 . Rotational losses (core.8 ¥ 103 W T(gross) = 33.54 = 74. 000 = 422 Nm 74.Electric Machines 115 Dividing Eq. (b) gross torque developed. PG = 35 – 1.6 A 7.8 = 1. 8 ¥ 10 3 = 430.4 Nm 78.7 W Determine the maximum motor torque at rated voltage and the slip at which it will occur. and (d) net torque and mechanical power output. The starter copper loss at this operating condition is 1200 W while the rotational losses are 600 W. 02 ) = 2. 025 / 0 . windage and friction) are to be neglected. 54 (c) Mechanical power developed (gross) = (1 – s)PG = (1 – 0.54 rad/s 60 w = (1 – 0.38 rad/s Electrical power input = 35 kW Stator copper loss = 12 kW \ Power across air-gap. 025/0. Also calculate the starting torque. Motor impedance data is as follows: r1 = 1.79 kW (b) Torque (gross) in synchronous watts = 33.5 An 8-pole. 50 Hz.5 kW.710 = 0.34 9.053 750 2p ¥ 750 = 78.053) ¥ 33.053 ¥ 33. 3-phase. 5 [( 0. 3-phase.053) ¥ 78. 28 ¥ ( 0 .8 kW (a) Rotor copper loss = sPG = 0. 4 ¥ 1.2 = 33.6 = 31. (c) gross mechanical power developed. 4-pole squirrel-cage induction motor develops fullload torque at a slip of 5% when operated at rated voltage and frequency.8 = 32 kW (d) Mechanical power output (net) = 32 – 0.32 W x1 = x 2¢ = 1.4 kW Torque (net) = 31.

1 (1 – 0. 85 – 51∞ 24.936 W r2¢ = 0.4 r2¢ 400 r2¢ + 46. Tmax = 3 ws R + 1 2 0.27 = ( 238. 87∞ = 1. VTH = 254 ¥ 22.026 W or 0. 7(1.76 = 0 Solving r2¢ = 0.41 = 431. P9.4 r2¢ + 1.116 Solutions Manual Solution Taking the Thevenin equivalent in Fig. 2 Now. 1 (1.05) = 149.18) .41 = 431.5 kW ws = T(full-load) = 1.2 rad/s 7.7 – Fig.27 Nm 149.936 W (larger value is selected) Now.3 V | 1.32 + j 1. 41 (1.16 + j 1. 46 + 22.19 –86.6. 5 VTH R12 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 (9.1 rad/s 60 w = 157. T= 2 ( r2¢ /s ) V TH 3 w s ( R1 + r 2¢ /s ) 2 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 (9.4 r2¢ 400 r2¢ 2 – 385 r2¢ + 9.46 I¢2 r ¢2/s = 20 r ¢2 440/ 3 = 254 V 22. P9.46) = 1.16 + 20 r2¢ ) 2 + 8.32 + j (1. 7) | Z TH = j 22.17) Substituting the values corresponding to full-load 50.35 + 8.46 1.6 Full-load output = 7.16 + 20 r2¢ )2 + 8. 3) 2 ¥ 20 ¥ r2¢ 3 157.44 = R1 + jX1 l1 1.7 = 238. 500 ¥ 2p = 157. 500 = 50.32 + 1.

46 ) 2 1 1 2 1 = 66. 32) + j (1.46 + j 2. Find the maximum torque that the motor can deliver and corresponding slip.8 1. 5 ¥ ( 225.16 ) 2 + ( 2. 9) 2 = 126.6 Nm r2¢ Smax. 7 (3.20) ( 238.67 V j 22. Taking the Thevenin equivalent. 46 ) 2 + ( 2. 254 ¥ 22.1 2.T = 0.9 Nm l1 1. 936 ) 2 + (1.Electric Machines = 117 0. 936 = 0. 5 ¥ (238. 46) 2 2 0. P9.2) W /phase. 9 ) 2 = Tstart = = (9. 46 ) 2 = 79. 67 + 1.67 = R1 + jX1 ZTH = Smax. T = Tmax = r2¢ R12 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 = 0.19) R12 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 or 30% 2 VTH r2¢ 3 w s ( R1 + r2¢ ) 2 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 (9. Solution The per phase circuit model of the motor and feeder is drawn in Fig.3 Nm 9. 1 1. The feeder has an impedance of (1.8 + j 1. 2 + 1. 12 + j 2.7 – b Fig. 46 + 22. 66 ) 28. P9. 7 VTH = |(1. 3) 2 ¥ 0.3 (1.2 1. 7)| = 225. 8 + 1. 16 + (1. 67) 2 3 3 = w s R + R2 + (X + x ¢ )2 157.16 + 0. 3) 2 3 157.6 is fed through a feeder from 440 V.46 I¢2 lm 0.7. 936 = 0. 50 Hz mains. 55 –83∞ = 3.64 –47. 936 3 157. 5V TH 0. 46 + ( 2. 1 (1.7 .936/s 254 V Vt 22.32 1.195 ( 2.46 a + 1. 67 + 1.4° = 2. 44 + 1.7 The motor of Prob 9. stator current and terminal voltage.16 ) 2 + ( 2. 46) 2 + ( 2.

08) + j (2. r2¢ 0.8 + j 1.100 W Blocked-rotor 180 V 45 A 5.3 V (line) Notice that the voltage of the stator terminals is considerably reduced because of the voltage drop in feeder impedance. 68 –33.938 W ( 45) 2 .7 V or 330.0363 Hence xm = 27. 8 + j 1.18) = 8.26 ––33. 5 y0 = = 0.195 s Zf = j 22.9° ¥ (1.8 0.2) = 254 – 63.g i2 = 0. star-connected induction motor gave the following test results: No-load 400 V 8. 700/3 = 0.0062 ( 400 ) 2 y 02 .68 –33. 936 = = 4.66 + 2.3 ––0.3 W Note: ri here accounts for rotational losses.1° = 4.26 –– 33. 7 ( 4. 5] = 0.63 –28.08 + j 2. For the remaining part it is convenient to proceed by finding Zf.0368 400/ 3 gi = bm = [1. 7) = 4. The stator resistance per phase is 1.2 = 254 – 63.22 or Vt = 190.55 W ri = 161. Solution No-load test 8. 8 + j (1.9° I1 = 254 – 0 = 29.8 A 400 V. 3-phase. 100 .5 W and the standstill leakage reactance of the rotor winding referred to the stator is equal to that of the stator winding.3 + j 0. 5) 2 ¥ 0.12 + 4.18 Z(total) = (3.31 W 45 R= 5.700 W Determine the ohmic values of the components in the circuit model and calculate the line current and power factor when the motor is operating at 5% slip. Blocked-rotor test Z= 180/ 3 = 2. 46) 4. 46 + 22.9°A 8. 9∞ Vt = 254 –0° – 29.5 A 1.118 Solutions Manual Notice the reduction in Tmax.3 ¥ (8. 9.

438 \ also. 1 1 = (0.0062 – j 0.0062 – j 0.18 + j 3. P9. x1 = x 2¢ = 2.1° 231 = 26. 31) 2 .9 A 15 kW.05) = 0.5 A 8. P9. 94 ) 2 = 2.0135) = (0.( 0. 438 = = 8.6 0.040 W Using the approximate circuit model. 4-pole. 415 V.5 1.68 + j 4.510 W Blocked-rotor test 105 V 28 A 2.05 0 .18 + j 3.55 161.438/s – Fig.05 Z (total) = (0.8. 05 In Fig.0363) + (0.05) = (7.112 – j 0. . 76 + j 1.5 + r2¢ r2¢ = 0.055) + (7.5 A 1.5 + j 1.8 Circuit Model 9. 438 0 .8 –23° = 7.055 W 2 Performance calculations s = 0.11 = 1.118 – j 0.11 W X= Now R = r1 + r2¢ 0. determine: (a) the line current and power factor for rated output.055 l2 l0 Zf 27. 055 ZF = (0. 50 Hz delta-connected motor gave the following results on test (voltages and currents are in line values): No-load test 415 V 10.105) = 8.0363) + 8.882 lagging I1 = l1 0.76 W S 0 .938 = 0. 71 pf = cos 28.Electric Machines 119 ( 2.055 + V/Phase 1.1° = 0.71 –28.128 ––23° or Z f = 7.

120 Solutions Manual (b) the maximum torque.500 rpm.3 Nm 157.87 A (a) The circle diagram is drawn in Fig. Solution OP0 = 10. 1 (c) If the motor is started to delta (this is the connection for which test data are given) Is(delta) = OPSC = 110. 626 = 201.2 f 0 = 78. The maximum torque is given as RS = 44 A Tmax = 3 ¥ 415 ¥ 44 = 31.866 lagging (b) Torque line P0F is drawn by locating F as the midpoint of PSCG (equal stator and rotor.9.626 syn watts 3 ns = 1. and (c) the starting torque and line current if the motor is started with the stator star-connected. The point P pertains to this point (P¢ is the second but unacceptable solution—too large a current): Then.1 .5 A cos f 0 = or 1. 5 = 0.1 rad/s 31. The maximum torque point is located by drawing a tangent to the circle parallel to P0F.4 f SC = 66. 510 3 ¥ 415 ¥ 10. 000 3 ¥ 415 3 V(I cos f)rated = 20. ws = 157. Assume that the stator and rotor copper losses are equal at standstill.4° Rated output = 15 kW = (I cos f)rated = 15.87A above P0PSC.7 A (at 415 V) 105 2 . P9.5 A pf = cos f = cos 30° = 0. Hint Part (a) is best attempted by means of a circle diagram. we have to compute the complete output-slip curve and then read the slip for rated output. Il = OP = 30. losses).7 A PSCF = 22 A Tmax = Ts(delta) = ( 3 ¥ 415 ¥ 22 ) = 100.5° OPSC = cos f SC = 28 ¥ 415 = 110.7 Nm 157. For proceeding computationally from the circuit model. PP¢ is drawn parallel to the output line P0PSC at a vertical distance 20. 040 3 ¥ 105 ¥ 28 = 0.

36 power factor Determine the mechanical output.9 A 3 100. From the circle diagram we get the following results. 6-pole.4° S 78.9 Star connection Is(star) = 110.9 A P f = 30° F 66. 7 = 33.10 A 400 V. 3-phase.36. 7 . 5 = 89.16 power factor Blocked-rotor 200 V 39 A 0.Electric Machines 121 V P¢ R PSC 20. 7 = 36. X P9.45 kW Slip s = Torque T = and ws = \ T= 3. Solution cos f0 = 0. 5 A) ws 120 ¥ 50 2p = 104.57 Nm 3 9. 5 A BC = = 0. torque and slip when the motor draws a current of 30 A from the mains.26 PC 13. f0 = 80.33 Nm 104.10.16.5° O G H P0 C Fig. fSC = 69° The circle diagram is drawn in Fig.7 rad/s 6 60 3 ¥ 400 ¥ 13. 50 Hz induction motor gave the following test results: No-load 400 V 8V 0. Assume the stator and rotor copper losses to be equal.75 A) = 7. P9. Ts(star) = Pm = 3 ¥ 400 ¥ PB(= 10. 5 A 3 ¥ 400 ¥ PC ( = 13.8° cos fSC = 0.

04 s In this part it is convenient to proceed by finding Zf (Fig. calculate the input current.2 400 3 = 231 V 1.16 W xm = 35 W Rotational losses are 800 W.440 rpm.11).16 Zf a 35 – b Fig. 4 = = 10 W 0 .8 rad/s 60 s= 60 = 0.11 A 4-pole.440 rpm or w= = 150. 3-phase. Solution 2p ¥ 1. 440 (a) ns = 1.16 W r2¢ = 0.16 I¢2 0.4 W x 2¢ = 1. net mechanical power and torque and efficiency.122 Solutions Manual V P PSC F B P0 C G H D O E Fig.500 rpm n = 1. P9. I1 1.10 9. 400 V. (a) For a speed of 1. P9. P9.4/s = 10 W . (b) Calculate the maximum torque and the slip at which it occurs. power factor.11 1. in order that the identity of the input current is preserved. 50 Hz induction motor has the following parameters for its circuit model (referred to the stator side on equivalent-star basis) r1 = 1.04 1. 500 r2¢ 0.2 W x1 = 1.

04) = 12.440 rpm or 150. Finding the Thevenin equivalent to the left of ab in Fig.9 = 13.16) = 1.10.54 37. 97 pf = cos 25.13 + j 1. T = r2¢ R12 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 0.4° = 0.9 lagging I1 = Mechanical power output (gross) = 3 I 12 Rfi (1 – s) = 3 ¥ (21.91 kW n = 1. 91 = 90.5 V |1.Electric Machines Zf = = 123 j 35 (10 + j 1.8 kW Mechanical power output (net) = 12.1 A 10.16 = R1 + jX1 Z TH = Smax.16) 2 ns = 1.16)| h= j 35 (1. 51 – 74.16 (b) It will be necessary here to use Thevenin theorem.8 = 11.71 + j 3.16 kW 11.91 + j 4. 000 = 78. we get 231 ¥ 35 VTH = = 223.500 rpm ws = 157.71 – 0. 2 + j (35 + 1. 91 ¥ 1.62 –45.16 + 1. 231 = 21.1 ¥ 0.5% 13. 45 – 96. P9. 6∞ = 9. 5∞ Total impedance.4 –22.9° 1.9.91 (1 – 0.13) 2 According to Eq.16) = 1.155 + (1. 5VTH 3 w s R + R2 + (X + x ¢ )2 1 1 2 1 . 16) 10 + j (35 + 1.1° = 8. 8 3 ¥ 400 ¥ 21.71 kW Rotational losses = 0.4° Stator current.97 –25. Z i = 9.98 Nm 150. 2 + j 1. 2 Tmax = 0. 9. 4 = 0.1 rad/s = (1.1)2 ¥ 9. 2 + j (35 + 1.8 rad/s Torque (net) = Power input = 11. 16) 352.70 = 10.

1 = 4. The motor is supplied from 3. Torque (gross) = Z (total)|s=1 = j 0. 3∞ = 118.03 slip. 3.8) W /phase.4 A 0.5 + (0.62 –13.3 kV. 03 = 10.7 – j 28) + (6 – j 45) 124.8) = 15. 5) 2 3 ¥ 157.16 + 1.5 W /phase.16) 2 = 128.12 A 3-phase. 3/ 3 ) ¥ 1.5 kW.527 Nm 62.3° W Im = 45 A Ii = 35 =6A 3 ¥ 3.65 + j 4.03 + j 1. 13) 2 + (1. stator current and power factor. star-connected induction motor has a no-load magnetizing current of 45 A and a core loss of 3.2 + j 1.863 lagging ns = 120 ¥ 50 = 600 rpm 10 ws = 2p ¥ 600 = 62.6 = 15. Use the approximate circuit model: (a) The motor is running at 0.83 rad/s 60 3 0 .45 = 4.3 kV mains through a line of reactance 0. 13 + (1. Assume voltage at motor terminals to be 3.2 + j 1.7 – j 28 I1 = = I1 = pf = (118.15 –81° Is = (3. Solution (a) Z (s) = (0. 1 1.5 Nm 9. 45 (122)2 ¥ 62. 50 Hz.660 Nm (b) We shall neglect magnetizing current. Estimate the gross torque.3 kV.7 – j 73 144.8) + (0. 3/ 3 I 0 = 6 – j 45 I 2¢ = ( 3.8) + (0.45/0. 62 –13.2 + j 1. 83 . 83 0.45 + j 1.124 Solutions Manual = 0. 3/ 3 ) ¥ 1. 000 = 459 A 4. 000 = 122 ––13. 5 ¥ ( 223.15 Ts = 3 (459)2 ¥ 0. 10-pole.8) = 0.3 kV. (b) Calculate the starting torque and current when the motor is switched on direct to line with voltage at the far end of the line being 3.2 + j 3. The stator and referred rotor standstill leakage impedances are respectively (0.3° A 15.

7 Zf = j 35 (6 + j 0.13 s= 1.44)2 ¥ 0. 3-phase. 7) 6 + j 35.3 = 6 0.13(a) and its thevenin equivalent is given in Fig.10(b). 7) 6 + j 35.386 I0 440 = 254 V 3 0.3 = 27. x1 = 0.7 W r2¢ = 0.3 W x 2¢ = 0.96 kW = ÊÁ Ë 0. 7 I 2¢ = 249 = 40. P9. 7 = 0.13 A 6-pole.05 ¯ Pm(net) = 27. 7 xTH = 35 ¥ 0. P9. Solution The circuit model of the motor is drawn in Fig.7 l1 0.21 kW Input current Zf = j 35 (6 + j 0.3 = 6 s 35 0.44 A (1.05 1.1ˆ˜ ¥ 3 ¥ (40.7 W xm = 35 W Rotational loss = 750 W Calculate the net mechanical power output.686 + 0. 7 .Electric Machines 125 9. 50 Hz induction motor has the following parameters of its circuit model (referred to the stator or equivalent star basis): r1 = 0.0 W (stator copper loss negligible).96 – 0.7 I¢2 I¢2 = 0. 0. 440 V. stator current and power factor when the motor runs at a speed of 950 rpm. P9.386) 2 + (6) 2 1 Pm(gross) = ÊÁ . 1.1ˆ˜ ¥ 3I 2¢ 2 r2¢ Ës ¯ 1 . 000 .950 = 0. 000 VTH = 254 ¥ 35 = 249 V 35 + 0.7 = 1.686 W 35 + 0.75 = 27.05 249 V (a) (b) Fig.

2 Nm ws = \ (iv) .7 = 100. 5V TH w s ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) (iii) Fig.04) ¥ 104.5 ¥ 2 T + s 2fl s max s max T s fl sfl = 0.5 rad/s 100.14 A 75 kW.14.07 –22. Determine: (d) Slip at full-load (e) Full-load torque (f) Slip at maximum torque. Solution If the stator resistance and rotational losses are neglected.2 when operating at rated voltage and frequency with rotor winding short-circuited at the slip-rings. (ii) ( r2¢ /s fl ) 2 ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) Tmax = 0.6° 254 = 41.000 (losses negligible) Tfl = 746.14 Dividing Eq. Find: (a) Maximum torque (b) Starting torque (c) Full-load rotor copper loss.63) = 5. (iii) by Eq.61 + j 2.04 2p ¥ 1.8 A pf = cos 22. 50 Hz.33 = 6.04 and a slip at maximum torque of 0.84 –16.2° = 5. 07 9.5 ¥ Tfl = 75. 440 V. wound-rotor induction motor has a full-load slip of 0. the circuit model on the Thevenin basis is as in Fig.126 Solutions Manual = 5.7 rad/s 60 w = (1 – 0. 3-phase. Assume the stator resistance and rotational losses to be negligible. P9.61 + j 163 Z (total) = 5.6° = 0. The rotor resistance is now doubled by adding an external series resistance. 6-pole. T r2¢ = X 1 + x 2¢ Tfl = x2 I¢2 (i) 2 VTH ( r2¢ /s fl ) 3 w s ( r2¢ /s fl ) 2 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 r ¢2/s VTH (ii) 2 Tmax = 3 0. P9. I1 = X1 Smax. 000 = 104.923 lagging 6.61 + j(0.7 + 1.5 ¥ sfl Tfl r2¢ ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) = 0.

17 s fl¢ + 0.4 \ Tmax = 1.16 = 0 s fl¢ 2 – 0.000 = 3 I 2¢ 2 r2¢ Á Ë 0. 04 ( 0. 940.940 Nm 2 VTH r2¢ 3 w s r2¢ 2 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 (v) Dividing Eq.5 ¥ 2.7 ¥ 1. 2 ) 2 + 1 Ts = 1 ¥ 746. (vi) by Eq.1 (1 – s fl¢ ) = 75.2 Substituting in Eq.6 0. 4 s fl¢ (vi) Also 104. 04 Tfl Tmax = 2. 2 ) 2 + ( 0 .2 = 746. 4 s fl¢ .T = ( 0 .17 s fl¢ 2 – 2.6 ¥ 746. (ii) Ts ( r2¢ /s fl ) 2 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 = sfl Tfl r ¢ 2 ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 2 \ = 2 + s fl2 Ê 1 ˆ smax.2 = 1. T = 2 ¥ 0.7 (1 – s fl¢ ) Tfl¢ = 75. (iv) ( 0.2 = 0.940. 4 ) 2 + s fl¢ 2 0.2 Nm Ê 1 ˆ .125 kW = full-load rotor copper loss (d) Smax.1˜ (c) Pm = 75.1 = 0. 5 ¥ Tfl¢ 0.04 ¯ or 3 I 2¢ 2 r2¢ (fl) = 3. 0.T = 0.T Á ˜ 2 + 1 Ë sfl ¯ smax.083*. (vii) 104. (iv) \ (b) Ts = ( 0.685 s fl¢ + 0.05 = 0 s fl¢ = 0.17 (1 – s fl¢ ) s fl¢ = 0. 04 ) 2 1 ¥ =1 0.5 ¥ = 2.1 Nm (remains unchanged) Substituting in Eq.000 Multiplying Eq. 4 ) 2 + s fl¢ 2 1.940. 04) 2 Tmax = 0.6 (vii) ( 0. 2 ) 2 + ( 0. 2 ¥ 0.000 ¥ 0.16 + s fl¢ 2 3. (v) by Eq.Electric Machines 127 (a) Smax.

(c) maximum torque.128 Solutions Manual (e) 104.1 8.T = 1.11) = 1.1˜ Ës ¯ or sPm (max ) = 0.4 W and 3. 89 = = 22.15 For Pm(max) (d) smax.6) ( 0. star-connected stator winding and runs on 50 Hz with 400 V between lines. (b) the gross mechanical power at 4% slip. 5 ¥ ( 400/ 3 ) 2 157.11 kW (c) Tmax = 3 Ê 0. The rotor resistance and standstill reactance per phase are 0. Solution Rotor impedance (standstill) referred to stator 1 = (0. 1 (22.1 (1 – 0.1 rad/s 60 3 ¥ ( 400/ 3 ) 2 ¥ 22.89 Á .5V 2 ˆ w s ÁË x2¢ ˜¯ 3 0.67.083) Tfl¢ = 75. and (e) maximum mechanical power (gross). 500 ¥ 2p = 157. 04 s V 2 ( r2¢ /s ) 2 w s ( r2¢ /s ) 2 + x 2¢ 2 ws = T= 1. (a) T(gross) = r2¢ 0 . 02 wmax. (d) speed at maximum torque.T = Ê1 ˆ ( 0. 67) 2 r2¢ + j x 2¢ = 0.04) = 6.000 Tfl¢ = 781. Neglect stator impedance.49 Nm = r2¢ 0.04.1˜ Ës ¯ Pm Fig.89 I¢2 + 400/ 3 = 231 – Ê1 ˆ 0.2 = 0. 02 ) 2 = 40. 02 ) 2 = 0. 25 157.51 ¥ 157.15 .89 + j 8. Calculate: (a) the gross torque at 4% slip.02 0. 25) 2 + (8. The effective ratio of rotor to stator turns is 0. 02 = 63.6 W respectively.25 W 0 .4 + j 3. P9.02 or slip = 0. 89 ) 2 + (8.500 (1 – 0.2 Nm (f) s max ¢ . T = 2 ¥ 0. P9. 89 = = 0.7 (1 – 0.1 0.11 x 2¢ 8.4 9.15 A 3-phase induction motor has a 4-pole.51 Nm (b) Pm(gross) = 40.89 Á .335 rpm (e) Refer to Fig.

025.Electric Machines I 2¢ = 129 231 = 19. l1 (a) Motoring + s = 0.2 W ws = 120 ¥ 50 2p = 62.27 W x1 + x 2¢ = 2.27/s .37) + (184 – j 15. mechanical output (gross) and torque developed (gross) for the following conditions: (a) as a motor at a slip of 0. power factor.9 –11.18 W r2¢ = 0.8 W 0 . power. 02 ) | 1 .19 = 22.77 = 18.35 ¥ 0.6 W Calculate the machine performance (input current. 440 V.27 – j 4. pf = 0.1° 1.16 I¢2 l0 254 V I 2¢ = Input power = 0. (c) as a break at a slip of 2.83 rad/s ¥ 10 60 254 .0.025.7 ––11.8 + 0.35 ––39.35 A.98 + j 2.1 ˜¯ = 8.16 = 10.37 I 1 = (22.04 = 31.67) A 138 16.11 – j 20. 10-pole.54 W x1 + x 2¢ = 6.81 W r1 = 0.28)2 ¥ 0. delta-connected squirrel-cage induction motor has the following parameters referred to a stator phase: r2¢ = 0.16 W ri = 138 W xm = 16.2 – 254 ––11. 025 s z (total) = (10. 50 Hz. Solution On equivalent-star basis 440 V= = 254 V 3 r1 = 0.18) + j 2. 3-phase.38 16.16 = 11.1ˆ Pm(max) = 3 ¥ (19.1° = 22.48 W ri = 414 W xm = 48.77 lagging 3 ¥ 440 ¥ 31.4 kW 2.934 kW 9. P9. 1 + j 8. P9.7° I1 = 31.84 – j 15.1° 11. (b) as a generator at a slip of –0.025 I0 = r2¢ 0.16 0.67) = 24.28 A |( 0 .16.18 Fig.16 A 30 kW.89 ÊÁ Ë 0. 89/0. 2 The equivalent circuit is drawn in Fig.j 254 = (1. 27 = = 10.27 – j 4.

26 = (–26. 27 3 ¥ 62. 7) 2 ¥ 0.16 = 2.4) + (1.7° = 116.7° 254 ––81.18) + j 2.83 – j 22.135 W s s z (total) = (10.26 –166.747 lagging power output = 18. 025 = –338 Nm (in direction opposite to which the rotor is running) T= (c) Braking s = 2.5° 254 ––166.025 r2¢ -0.315 + j 2.4) I 2¢ = I 1 = (–26. 025 = 265.27 Pm = ÊÁ Ë -0.7 Nm T= (b) Generating s = –0.22 ––138.18 = 16.5° = 27.025 ˜¯ = –25 kW Pm(in) = 25 kW 3 ¥ ( 27.16 = –9 + j 2. 27 62.0 r2¢ 0.4° I 1 (out) = 33.1ˆ ¥ 3 ¥ (27.67 – j 6.135 + 0.67) = –24.22 pf = 0.28 I 2¢ = .16 = 9.67 – j 6. 025 s z(total) = (–10.8 + 1.5° 9. 27 = = 0.27 = ÊÁ Ë 0.22 –416 ° I1 = 33.43 ––166.1ˆ ¥ 3 ¥ (22. 83 0. 27 = = –10.025 ˜¯ = 16.7)2 ¥ 0.5 ––817° 2.16 = 0. 43) 2 ¥ 0.8) + j 2.07 = 33.91 kW 1 .43)2 ¥ 0.28 kW ( 22.84 – j 15.8 W 0. 88 -0 .18 –81.130 Solutions Manual 1 Pm = ÊÁ .82 – j 115.1ˆ˜ ¥ 3 I 2¢ 2 r2¢ Ës ¯ 1 .

04 W 20 1.5 kW Pm(in) = 5. The total electrical and mechanical power input (14.5)2 ¥ 0.56 ¥ 10–3 ri = 390 W (includes windage and friction loss) Ê 400 ˆ ÁË ˜ y0 = 5. 4-pole.95 = 132.5 kW. 50 Hz.21 kW 1 Pm = ÊÁ . The field rotates in an opposite direction to the rotor (s = 2).8 – j 115.1ˆ˜ ¥ 3 ¥ (116. running with a slip of 0.27 Ë2 ¯ = –5. 56 ¥ 10 -3 ) 2 = 0.2 W Rotor-blocked test Z(total) = (20)2R = 140/ 3 40. 400 V.Electric Machines 131 I 1 = (16. 5) 2 ¥ 0. Estimate the braking torque developed when the motor.0238 bm = ( 0. Braking. therefore.1 W /phase: No-load 400 V 5.550 W Obtain the approximate equivalent circuit modal.28) + (184 – j 15.5 A 410 W Rotor-blocked 140 V 20 A 1. 0238) 2 . 83 2 = 87. delta-connected induction motor with a stator resistance of 2.49 Nm (in the direction of field but opposite to the direction in which the rotor is rotating) Torque is developed in the same direction in which the rotor is running. 550 3 . power input = 14. can only be a short-time operation.21 + 5.5 kW 3 ¥ (116.05 has two of its supply terminals suddenly interchanged.27 ––81.27 A.67) = 18.5 3¯ y0 = 0. pf = 0.17 The following test results were obtained on a 7.141 lagging.9° A I1 = 132. Solution No-load test T= Ê 400 ˆ ÁË 3 ˜¯ 2 gi = 410 3 gi = 2.71 kW) is consumed in stator and rotor copper loss and in core loss. 9.0237 xm = 42.(2.64 – j 130.5 = 19. 27 62.

7 W (eqv. 1 or Ts = 1 pu 9. 5 ws 1 2.83 = 3.525 W 0. 04 = 0.3 W 1. 5 ¥ 0. 25 ¥ 0.65 Nm 157 1. 25 ws 0.7 3. What external resistance must be inserted in each rotor phase to limit the starting current to 100 A? What pu torque will be developed with rotor resistance starting ? Solution We must assume here that the magnetizing current can be neglected.18 A 3-phase wound-rotor induction motor has star-connected rotor winding with a rotor resistance of 0. 04 Ts = =1 Tfl 0.12 W/phase.95 0. 96 3 0 .4° W 231 I 2¢ = = 58.7 = 0. 1 ws 0.83 I¢2 0.17) Braking torque s = 1.1 r1 = = 0. 04 ) + x 2 ( 0. star) 3 r2¢ = 1. P9.1 + R ext ) 2 + x 22 Rext = 2.83 = 1 + j 3. 95 9.7 + 0.3 A 3.59/s 231 V 400 390 r2¢ 0.04 and a line current of 100 A. 04 0.1 0. 59 ws = 157 rad/s Tbreaking = (58. V′ V¢ = 100 A = 2 2 ( 0. 95 s Z(total) = (0.59 Circuit model (approximate) (Fig.18 what external resistance must be inserted per rotor phase to develop full load torque at 3/4th synchronous speed with a line current of 100 A? Solution s = 0.83 W l1 2 .132 Solutions Manual R = 1. With the slip rings shorted the motor develops rated torque at a slip of 0. P9.3)2 = 19.29 – 0.1 = ws 0.4 W Tfl = 3 ¥ (100) 2 ¥ 0. 04 Ts = 3 ¥ (100) 2 ¥ 2.3) + j 3.1 + R ext ) 3 (100 ) 2 ¥ 0.19 In Prob 9.17 = = 0.1 + Rext = Rext . 59 Fig.29 W X = 3.25 3 (100 ) 2 ¥ ( 0.96 –75. 1/0.

03) 2 + (8.9 V (line) 3 V ¢ 2 ( r2 + R ext ) w s ( r2 + R ext ) 2 + x 22 3 ( 302. 3-phase induction motor has a rotor resistance of 4.5 W (a) Tstart = V 2 r2¢ 3 w s r2¢ 2 + x 2¢ 2 [Eq.1 rad/s 4 60 \ 85 = V ¢ 2 ¥ 4.Electric Machines 133 9. 5/0. (9. 5) 2 = 102 Nm (c) Induced rotor voltage at slip s = s ¥ standstill voltage = 0.5 W x2 = 8. V¢ = 302. 50 Hz. 5) 2 = 11. 5) 2 ( 4.5 W/phase and a standstill reactance of 8.1 ( 4. 03) 157.03 ¥ 302.20 A 4-pole.7 V (line) T= V 2 ( r2¢ /s ) 3 w s ( r 2¢ /s ) 2 + x ¢ 2 2 T= V ¢ 2 ( r 2 /s ) 3 w s ( r2 /s ) 2 + x 22 or 3 (302. (a) What is the rotor voltage at standstill ? (b) What would be the starting torque if a 3 W resistance were added in each rotor phase ? (c) Neglecting stator voltage drop.5 = 9. 5 + 3) 2 + (8. 5) 2 + ( 8. 5) 2 ( 4. the starting torque of the motor is 85 Nm. With no external resistance in the rotor circuit. 5) 2 Standstill rotor voltage. 5 + 3) 157. 5 3 157. what would be the induced rotor voltage and the torque at a slip of 0.03? Solution r2 = 4. 5/0.16) with R ¢ext = 0] V ¢ 2 r2 = 3 2 w s r2 + x 22 But ws = 120 ¥ 50 2p ¥ = 157. 1 ( 4 . 1 ( 4.5 W/phase.1 V or 15.5 V (b) With external resistance Rext = 3 W Tstart = = or 523.6 Nm = .

T + s max. T /s ) where K= X 1 + x 2¢ RI Solution For the circuit model of Fig.3 we have the following relationships T= Tmax = smax. Solution 2 Tstart Ê ISC ˆ s =x Á Ë I fl ˜¯ fl 2 or 0.21 Calculate the ratio of transformation of an auto transformer starter for a 25 kW.13 (as reduced by the Thevenin theorem) show that T Tmax = 1+ K2 +1 1 + 1/2 K 2 + 1 ( s/s max.77 9. 3-phase induction motor if the starting torque is to be 75% of full-load torque. Ignore the magnetizing current of the transformer and of the motor.75 = x2(6)2 0. T = 2 VTH ( r2¢ /s ) 3 w s ( R1 + r2¢ /s ) 2 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 3 ws R + 1 2 0. 9. Assume the slip at full-load to be 3.134 Solutions Manual 9. P9.035 or x = 0. we have T Tmax = R1 + R12 + ( X1 + x2¢ )2 ( r2¢ / s ) 1 [( R + r ¢/s ) 2 + ( X 1 + x2¢ ) 2 ] 2 1 2 R1 1 + 1 + (( X 1 + x 2′ )/ R 1 ) 2 r2′ /s = = R1 /r2′ /s + 1 [( ′ / ) 2 r s + R12 + ( X 1 + x 2′ ) 2 ] 2 2 1 + 1 + (( X 1 + x 2¢ )/ R1 ) 2 1 + 1/2 [( r2¢ /s ) 2 + R12 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 / R1 r2¢ /s] 1+ 1+ K2 = 1 + (1/2 ) 1/ R1 R12 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 [( r2¢ /s ) / ( R12 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 ) + ( R12 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 )/( r2¢ /s )] (i) (ii) (iii) . 5 V TH R12 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 r2′ R12 + ( X 1 + x 2′ ) 2 Dividing (i) by (ii).5 % and the short-circuit current to be six times full-load current. 400 V.22 With reference to the circuit model of Fig.

T ) 2 + ( X 1 + x 2′ ) 2 Ë 2 fl ¯ = (1 + r2¢ / R1 s fl ) 2 + (( X 1 + x 2¢ )/ R1 ) 2 (1 + r2¢ / R1 s max .79 ¥ 10–4 means the machine has an unrealistically small resistance and therefore the answer is smax.02 1+ K2 +1 T fl 1 = = T max 2 . (c) starting torque. 33 2 + 1 1 = 2 2. 50 Hz. The answers to parts (b). T = 0. T ) 2 + (( X 1 + x 2¢ )/ R1 ) 2 (i) .09 (b) I 2¢ 2 = 2 VTH . 33 2 + 1 [( s 2 max. T ] or 1 + 4. K= sfl = 0.22 or 2 s max . and (d) should be expressed in terms of current and torque at full-load speed. T /s + s/s max.22) of K = 4.09 smax. 9. follows from Thevenin equivalent of Fig.T at maximum torque (b) rotor current referred to the stator at maximum torque.33 R1 (a) We use the result of Prob 9. the torque developed at rated power). The motor has a K-ratio (defined in Prob 9. 75 kW induction motor develops its rated power at a rotor slip of 2%.33. and (d) starting current. 2.T /s fl ) / s fl s max. 5 1 + 1/2 4.09. The maximum torque is 250% of rated torque (that is. T = 2. T /s fl + s fl /s max.79 ¥ 10–4 Here smax. 5 1 + 1/2 K 2 + 1 [ s max.Electric Machines 135 1+ 1+ K2 = 1 + 1/2 1 + (( X 1 + x 2¢ )/ R1 ) 2 [ s max.T + 4 ¥ 10–4 = 0 or smax.23 A 3-phase.22.T sfl smax.3 ( R1 + r2¢ /s ) 2 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 2 \ Ê I 2¢ |max. Solution X 1 + x 2¢ = 4. T ] = 1+ 1+ K2 1 + 1/2 1 + K 2 [ s max .T ˆ ( R1 + r2′ /s fl ) 2 + ( X 1 + x 2′ ) 2 = Á I¢ | ˜ ( R1 + r2′ /s max. T ] or 2 2 s max . T + s fl = 4. T /s + s/s max. Find: (a) smax. T = 0. T – 0. (c). T ] 9.

38 Ë 2 fl ¯ or I 2¢ max. T = 0.4 (ii) Using (ii).08 I 2¢ | fl The reader should note that the actual value of referred rotor current cannot be computed. 4/0 .24 A 3-phase induction motor is wound for P poles. 33 2 (1 + 0 . 4/0.4/0. 02 ) 2 + 4. we have = 0. (i) can be rewritten as 2 Ê I 2¢ |max. where r = integer non-multiple of 3. Solution To suppress P2 = (P + PM) poles.136 Solutions Manual We know that smax.458 Tfl (d) Similar to part (b). 33 2 = 48. 09 ) 2 + 4. find PM and P1.02)2 + 4. 33) 2 = 0. 4/0 . If the modulation poles are PM. Ê P + PM ˆ Ê 2p ˆ ÁË P ˜¯ r ÁË 3 ˜¯ = n(2p) .4)2 + 4. (c) T = \ 2 VTH ( r2¢ /s ) 3 w s ( R1 + r2¢ /s ) 2 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 (9. obtain the general condition to suppress P2 = (P + PM) poles. 75 20. 4 ) 2 + 4. If P = 10. 75 Á I ¢ | ˜ = (1 + 0 . 02 ) 2 + 4. 33 2 459. Under this condition show that the angle between the phase axes for P1 = (P – PM) poles is r(2p /3). T R1 1 + (( X 1 + x 2¢ )/ R1 ) 2 1+ K2 = smax. 096 \ Ts = 0. 33 2 ¢ I 2¢ | s =1 = 22. T = r2¢ (9. T = 3.332 ˆ 0.8) È ( R + r ¢/s )2 + ( X 1 + x2¢ ) 2 ˘ Ts = Í 1 2 fl2 s 2 ˙ fl Tfl Î ( R1 + r2¢) + ( X1 + x2¢ ) ˚ È (1 + r2¢/R1 sfl )2 + ( X 1 + x2¢ /R1)2 ˘ Ê (1 + 0.02 = Á s ¥ = Í 2 2 ˙ fl Ë (1 + 0.9) R12 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 r2¢ = smax.9 I 2fl \ 9.02 ( R1 + r2¢ /s fl ) 2 + ( X 1 + x 2¢ ) 2 Ê I 2¢ /s ˆ ÁË I ¢ ˜¯ = ( R + r ¢ ) 2 + ( X + x ¢ ) 2 2fl 1 2 1 2 = (1 + r2¢ / R1 s fl ) 2 + (( X 1 + x 2¢ / R1 ) 2 (1 + r2¢ / R1 ) 2 + (( X 1 + x 2¢ / R1 ) 2 = (1 + 0.T ˆ (1 + 0.332 ˜¯ Î (1 + r2¢/R1) + ( X 1 + x2¢ / R1) ˚ 459.09 1 + ( 4 .

Estimate the gross torque developed.1ˆ˜ = 2 Ë5 ¯ Hence P1 = 10 – 2 = 8 poles 9. (ii) at 1450 rpm when the effective rotor voltage is 400 V/phase.1ˆ˜ Ë r ¯ P The angle between the phase axes of P1 = (P – PM) poles is PM ˆ Ê 2p ˆ Ê 3n Ê ˆ Ê 2p ˆ ÁË1 . 50 Hz.Electric Machines 137 where r = integer non-multiple of 3 n = integer This gives PM Ê 3n =Á . 4-pole.˜ r Á ˜ Ë r ¯ Ë 3 ¯ 2p = 2r ÊÁ ˆ˜ – n(2p) Ë 3 ¯ 2p = 2r ÊÁ ˆ˜ Ë 3 ¯ PM 3n .8 Nm .1ˆ˜ PM = 10 ÊÁ Ë r ¯ n = 2.1ˆ˜ = ÊÁ Ë r ¯ P 3n . (i) at standstill.7 Nm 157 ( 2 ) 2 + ( 8) 2 T2 = 3 ( 230 ) 2 ¥ 9 = 107 Nm 157 ( 9 ) 2 + ( 2 ) 2 T(total) = 29. 500 ¥ 2p ws = = 157 rad/s 60 (i) T1 = 3 ( 230 ) 2 ¥ 2 = 29. The rotor quantities given are all referred to the stator. the effective rotor voltage being 230 V/phase. delta-connected induction motor have respective standstill leakage impedances of (2 + j 8) and (9 + j2) W/phase.P ˜¯ r ÁË 3 ˜¯ = ÁË1 .8 + 107 = 136. r=5 6 PM = 10 ÊÁ . the stator impedances are negligible.r + 1˜¯ r ÁË 3 ˜¯ 3n ˆ Ê 2p ˆ Ê = Á2 . What is the gross starting torque if a star-delta starter is used ? Solution 1.25 The two cages of a 3-phase.

1 Nm 157 ( 2 ¥ 30) 2 + (8) 2 3 ( 400) 2 ¥ ( 9 ¥ 30 ) = 11. 450 1 = 30 1.32 Nm 157 (9 ¥ 30 ) 2 + ( 2) 2 T(total) = 50.1 + 11.3 = 61. Starting torque = 136.138 Solutions Manual (ii) s = 1.7 Nm .1.4 Nm T2 = Star-delta starting: In star-delta starting. 500 . starting voltage/phase is 400 = 230 V 3 Hence. 500 T1 = 3 ( 400) 2 ¥ ( 2 ¥ 30 ) = 50.

7kW with line current 50 A and runs at 720 rpm. 3-phase. The stator losses are equal to 1800 W.05 X 50 = 2. There are 80% as many rotor conductors as stator conductors. For speed of 1425 rpm. calculate (a) the slip. (b) the total input power.27 A squirrel-cage induction motor is rated 25 kW. 50 Hz.9. f = nb/120 50 = (720 X p) / 120 or p = 8 ns = 750 rpm a) n= 720 rpm ship. 50 Hz induction motor develops mechanical power of 20 kW at 985 rpm.28 A 3-phase.5 Hz 9.7) X 100 = 87. Calculate (a) the slip. Neglect mechanical loss. 6-pole. Calculate: (a) the rotor copper loss.26 A 3-phase. 4-pole. 50 Hz. 400V.5 % . (b) the rotor induced emf between the two slip rings.8 Rotor phase voltage = 400 X 0. and (c ) rotor frequency. and (c ) the efficiency. (i) 3[(I’2 X r’2)/s – I’2 X r2] = Pm S = (1000-985) / 1000 X 100 = 1. (b) the power factor.7 = ( 3 X 440 X 50 X cos ) / 1000 pf = cos c) = 0.753 lagging = (25 / 28. 440 V. and ( c) the rotor frequency (a) ns = (120 X 50) / 4 = 1500 rpm n = 1425 s = [(1500 – 1425) / 1500 ] X 100 = 5% (b) Turn ratio rotor phase (V)/rotor phase = 0. On fullload it draws 28. 400 V. s = (750 – 720) / 750 = 0.04 b) 28. wound rotor induction motor has a -connected stator winding and Y-connected rotor winding.1 % 9.3 = 320 V Voltage between two slip rings = 3 X 320 = 554 V (c) f2 = 0.

985 = 304.0367) X [(400)2 X (0.(i) At max torque r’2 = x’2 s = (1500 – 900) / 1500 = 0.29 A 400 V.65 = 1.0367 Stator impedance will be ignored I’2 = 400 3 /( (r’2/s)2 + x’22) Then in terms of mechanical power developed 3(1/s .4 x’2 / (0.6 w (ii) Pc(pome asass air-gap) = 304.015 X 50 = 0.9633) r’2/ (r’22 + 0.934 Or x’2 = 2.934 ---------.0367 X 0.161135 X x’2) = 0. Mechanical output = 5000w Rotational loss = 285 w Mechanical power developed = 5285 w Slip = (1500 – 1445) / 1500 = 0.6/0. 5kW.00135 X x’22) = 0.9633 / 0.0367)2 + x’22] = 5285 (0.00135 X x’22) = 5285 / ((400)2 X 0.0367)2 r’2] / r’22 + 0. Calculate its value. If the maximum torque occurs at 900 rpm.015/0. 50 Hz induction motor runs at 1445 rpm at full-load.934 Or (0.00135 X x’22 = 5285 W= W r’2/ (r’22 + 0.4 X 2.06 .4 or r’2 = 0.015) – 1) I’2r’2 = 200w Rotor copper loss = 3I’2r’2 = 20000 X 0.3((1/0.211 kw (iii) f2 = 0.4 X x’2 Substituting (ii) in (i) 0.65 Then r’2 = 0.1) I’22 r’2 = Pm = 5285 3(1/0.0367 – 1) [ (400)2 (1/3) X r’2 ] / [ (r’2/0.16 x’22 + 0.00135 X x’22) = 0.4/ 0.015 = 20307 w Stator loss = 1300 w Input power = 20307 + 1800 = 2.75 Hz 9. The rotational losses are 285 W.

Isc = 7.2/(0.(ii) Dividing (i) by (ii) 4/3 = (0.1 / 400 / 3 = 0. Assumption : Stator impedence is negligible.32 A 5kW.04/0.2 X 0.25 + Rext)/0. 24V.1 A Blocked rotor test: Vsc = 52 V. For the range of ships considered R’2/s >> x’2 Now T = (3/ s) X (sV2/r’2) = K X s/r2 At 960 rpm At 800 rpm s = (1000-960) / 1000 = 0. Calculate the motor efficiency at rated voltage at a slip of 4%.25/0. 4-pole induction motor gave the following lest data: No-load test: V0 = 400V.(i) ¾ T = K (0.2 Nm 9. Calculate the external resistance/phase to be added to lower the speed to 800 rpm with load torque reducing to 3/4th of the previous value.Tmax = (3/ s) (0.2 T = K (0.5 X (400 / 3)2 / 265) = 192.30 The rotor of a 6-pole.6 A.(iii) s = (2 X 1500) / 60 = 50 rad/s Therefore Tmax = (3 / 50 ) (0.0134 . 400 V.5 V2)/x’2 ----------------. 50 Hz slip ring induction motor has a resistance of 0.67 Rext = 1.04/0.6 A to flow.04 = 1.04 s = (1000 – 800) / 1000 = 0. dc when applied between the two stator terminals causes a current of 7.2 X (0. P0 = 350 W.25) 0. I0 = 3.15) -------.25 + Rext = 4/3 X 0. Psc = 440W.42 9.25 / phase and runs at 960 rpm. 50 Hz. No load test: F0 = 3.25 + Rext) --------.

6 kw Pi = 5.025) = 9 A Pm (next) = 3 X ((1/0.7 X (equivalent) = 3.506 + 3 X (92 X(2.6) = 1.607 + 0.58 = 0.95 R = (440/3) / (7.6)2 = 2.58 + j 3.65 Blocked rotor test: Z = (52 / 3 ) /7. 600 V.506/6.2 % 9. 50 Hz. 6-pole.54 – 1.937 W R’2 = 0.54 / 1000) )+ 0.54 X = ((3.58 R’2 = 2.35 = 5.96/ 0.025 = x1 +x’2 R1 = 24 / (2 X 7.Gi = 350 / (400)2 = 0.0134)2 – (0.506 + 0.54)2 ) = 3.6 = 3. Y-connected squirrel-cage induction motor has the following parameters/phase referred to the stator: R1 = 0.9 .96 At slip of 4 % r’2/s = (0.04) = 24 I’2 = 231 / (125.95)2 – (2.96) = 5. 20kW.42 Xm = 72.33 A 3-phase.04) – 1) X (92 X 0.463 kw = 5.0022)2 = 0.463 = 85.0132 Xm = 75.0022 w Ri = 457 (accounts for rotational loss) Bm = (0.35 = 6.

39 = 17. = (2 X 965)/60 = 101. Blocked rotor test: I0 = 3.42) = 346.75 + 16. r’2 / s = (0.895 kw N = (1 – 0.The rotational and core losses equal 545 W.7 = 15.9 % 9. For a slip of 3.05 rad’s Shaft torque = 14895 / 101.34 A 7.748kw =14.05 = 147.33 ∠ 9.12 – j 7.73 X 0.4 / j 72.4 Nm c) Pn = 3 X 600 X 17.895 / 16.5% find: (a) the line current and the power factor (b) the mechanical output and shaft torque (c) the efficiency.937 + j 3.035 ) = 20 r1 + r’2/s = 20.64 I0 = 346.64 = 16. 4-pole induction motor gave the following test results: No-load test V0 = 400V.035) – 1) X (16. 400 V.12 – j 2.035) X 1000 = 965 rpm.44 – 0.545 = 14.52 A .73 ∠ (-24.12 – j 2.33)2 X 0.21 ∠ 93˚) = 16.9 = .6 ˚ = 0.j 4.3˚ = 16.909 logging b) Pm = 3 X ( (1/0.44 kw Mechanical output = 15.4 / (21. P0 = 330 W.5 kW.748 = 88.7 / 0.75 I1 bar = .937 a) I’2 = (600 3) / (20.j 4.909 = 16.73 A Pf = cos24.6˚ ) I1 = 17.

52 / (400/ 3)) = 0.43) = 0.885 R = 615 / (3 X (13)2 = 1.261 – j 4.3˚) = 7. Psc = 615W.749) = 9.83 R = 1.1 r’2 = 1.2/2 = 1.9.3˚ ) = 7.113/0.885)2 – (1.2 and the full-load slip is 4%.113 X = x1 + x’2 = ((4.83 = 28.1 + 27.0152 mho gm = 330 / (400)2 = 0. No load test y0 = (3.776 – j 1.88 ∠ (.04 r’2 / s = 1.732) = 231 / (29. Isc = 13 A.2 bm = 0.93 I’2 = 231 / (28.776 – j1.213)2) = 4732 a) diagram b) s = 0. Determine: (a) the parameters of the per phase circuit model.93 + j 4.477) / (8.0021 mho rc = 476.485 – j 3.04 = 27.213 r1 = 2.9˚) . (b) The stator current and its pf when the motor is delivering full-load.53 ∠ (-29.01505 mho Block rotor test: Z = (110 / 3) / 13 = 4.2) X –j X (231 / 66.272 (0.Vsc = 110 V.273 I0 = (231/476.477 Therefore I1 = 7. (c) The efficiency in part (b). The effective ac resistance between the stator terminals is 2.485 X –j X 3.31 ∠ 9.

88)2 X 1.867 = 5.5 / Ifl)2 Sfl ----------------.867 lagging c) Pm(net output) = 3 X ((1/0. (c) The starting current in parts (a) and (b).976 / 5.9˚ = 0.53 X 0.976 kw Pi = 3 X 400 X 9. 440 V squirrel-cage induction motor has a starting torque of 182 Nm and a full-load torque of 135 Nm.(ii) Dividing (ii) by (i) Ts /135 X 135 / 182 = (119.5/207)2 = 45 Nm b) Ts = Tfl 1 = (Is/Ifl)2 sfe -------------.724 = 86. The starting current of the motor is 207 A when rated voltage is applied.35 A 30 kW.724 kw = 4.5/207)2 Ts = 135 X (119.9 % 9.04) – 1) X (7. Determine: (a) the staring torque when the line voltage is reduced to 254 V. Ts / Tfl = (Is/Ifl)2 sfl a) 182 / 135 = (207 / Ifl)2 sfl ---------------.113 = 4.5 A Ts / 135 = (119.(iii) Dividing (iii) by (i) 135/182 = (Is/ 207)2 . and the corresponding starting torque.(i) Is(reduced voltage) = 207 X (254/440) = 119.53 A Pf = Cos 29. (b) the voltage that must be applied for the motor to develop a starting torque equal to the full-load torque.I1 = 9. (d) The starting voltage to limit the starting current to 40 A.

733 r’2 + 0.1 rad / s Pout ( ) = 7.23 = 0 r’22 – 0.08 + 25 r’2)2 + 625 r’2 + 7.41 x’2 = 1.36 A 400V.04 N = 0.71 b) For max torque r’2 = sx’2 . S = 0.537 – 0. The per phase circuit parameters of the machines are R1 = 1. 3-phase induction motor develops its full-load torque at a slip of 4%.1 X [((231)2 X r’2) / (1.96 X 1500 = 1440 rpm W = (2 X 1440) / 60 = 150.04 (1.0656)] / 2 = 0.73 Nm T = (3 / ws) X (I’22 r’2/s) 49.3 r’2 1.3 A Voltage to be applied = 440 X (178.Or Is = (135/182) X 207 = 178. 7.952 = 512. 0.08 + 25r’2)2 + (2.0232 Smaller value is rejected as it would regain to large current for development of the required torque.0164 = 0 r’2 = [0. 50 Hz.8 = 49. 4-pole.73 = 3/157.733 ± (0.3/207) = 379 V 9.41 Mechanical.82)2 ] X 1 / 0. slip at maximum torque and the corresponding rotor speed.08 R’2 = ? X1 = 1.5 kW.5 kw T( ) = 7500 / 150. Hence r’2 = 0.8 rad / s Ws = (2 X 1500) / 60 = 157. core and stray losses may be neglected.166 + 54r’2 + 625 r’2 + 10. (a) Find the rotor resistance (as referred to stator) (b) Find the maximum torque.71 .

1) X (26.05 I’2 = (254/2.T = 0. 4-pole 50 Hz induction motor has a star-connected stator and and 1.031) = 26.or s = 0. the stator to rotor turn ratio being 1.05 = 300.05 2) = 87.03 Stator impedence is neglected V = 440 3 = 254 V S = 0.372/2.504 = 4. The full-load slip is 4%.22 X (1.372 / 0.11 X = 2 X 1.37 A 3 – phase.504 n = (1 – 0.3 = 126.18 r’2 / smax. Find also the maximum torque and the corresponding speed.82) = 65.6 Tmax = 3 / 157. The rotor resistance and standstill reactance/phase are 0.5 Nm Smax.3 + j 2.04 r’2 /s = 0.71 / 1.1 rad/s T(fl) = (3/157. Calculate the full-load torque and power developed.04 = 9.68 A s = (2 X 1500) / 60 = 157.41 = 0.5 Nm . 440 V.62) X 2.62A Tmax = 3 / 157.71 / 0.3)2 = 0.41 = 2.6)2 X 1.3 I’2 = 254 / (9.2 rotor.82 I’2 = 231 / ( 2. r’2 = 0.05 = 0.3.2 X (1.504) X 1500 = 744 rpm r’2/s = 0.11 + j 2.17 + 1.3)2 = 2.68)2 X 9.T = 0.18 = 2.41 r’2 + (r’2/s) = 0.372 x’2 = 1.1 X (87.1 X (65.22 respectively.41 = 2.372/0.41 = 116 Nm 9.

3kV.5 A 61 A 15.2 = 8. No load test: F0 = 18.5 / (3300 / 3) = 9.5 kW The resistance of the stator winding is 1.347 x1 = 6.6 and the rotational loss is 6.71 X 10-3)2 + (8.1 kw Rotational loss = 6.71 X 10 – 3 Core + rotational loss = 15.717 .732) = 3.1 – 6.9 kw Gi = 8900 / (3300)2 = 3.2 kw Therefore core loss = 15.3kV Blocked-rotor test 730 V 18.132 X = [(6.91 R = (30.732)2] = 6.676 X 10-3 mho xm = 103.732 r1 = 1.6 r’2 = 1.38 A 3-phase. Calculate the circuit model parameters (rotational loss not to be accounted in Ri core loss resistance).9.17 X 10-4)2 = 9.1 kW 3. 6-pole wound rotor induction motor has the following test data: No-load test 3.6 / 2.35 Blocked rotor tests: Z = (730 / 3) / 61 = 6.91)2 – (2. Assume X1/X’2 = R1/R’2 Calculate (a) the slip at maximum developed torque (b) the maximum developed torque and the corresponding shaft torque (c) the starting torque at half the rated voltage Note: Do not approximate the circuit model.5 X 1000) / (3 X (61)2) = 2.17 X 10 -4 mho ri = 1224 Bm = [(9. 3.2 kW.347 X (1.

4˚) = 1.43 b) r’2/s = 1.5) = 3.7) X (245.104 X 10 3 Nm T(Shift) = (4.5 + j3.817 – j 9.48 (56.63 = 0.61 a) Slip at maximum torque s = r’2 / x’2 = 1.676) = 10 3 / (9.6)2 X 2.6 + j 106.63 Series equivalent of the shunt branch = 10 3/(0.5˚) I’2 = 1837 ∠(0˚) / (7.05∠ (66.63 = 4.442 X 10 3 Nm .6 A N = (1-0.72) X (8.2 kw T(loss) = 6200 / 59.20) = 103 ∠(+85.62 + j 102.63 Z(total) = 4.5˚)) = 245.7˚) X 103∠(85.43) X 1000 = 570 rpm w = 59.546 – 0.546 X 10 3 Nm Rotational loss = 6.2 ˚) = 8.48 ∠(56.906 ∠ (67.6 1.32) = [ 4.13 / 0.7 rad/s ws = 104.22 + j 106.2˚) / (10.7 = 104 = 0.x’2 = 2.24 = 7.6 + j 3.32 ----------------------Nth = [(1905 X 103 ∠(85.8 (84.62 + j 102.2˚ ) / 106.32 ----------------------10.71 ∠ (-85.132 / 2.22 + j 106.13 + j 6.22 + j 106.7 rad/s Tmax (developed) = (3/104.32) ] = 1837 V Zth = [(1.6)] / (10.43 = 2.104) X 10 3 = 4.

045)2 + (1. Estimate its starting torque as a percentage of full-load torque when it is started by means of .25 and a maximum torque of 180 Nm while it runs at 860 rpm.786)2] X (0.8 X 2) / [ (0. Smax.25 = 0.786 – 0.14 x’2 X’2 = 1.045 T = (3/ s) X (V2 / (r’2/s)2 + x’22) X (r’2/s) = (100.14 r’2 = 0.13 = 590 Nm 9. 50 Hz induction motor has a rotor resistance of 0.5 / s)V2 = 180 / 1.14x’2 for max torque Tmax = 3/cos (0.73 + j 6.4˚ ) I’2 = 1837 / (2 X 6.25/0.9 Nm (ii) For max torque at starting r’2 + Rext = x’2 = 1.786 Rext = 1.81) = 135 A T(start) = 3/104.8 (i) s = 0.T = (1000 – 800) / 1000 = 0.045) = 32.536 (referred to stator) 9.5V2 / x’2) = kx’2 180 = kx’2 0.786 Now k = (1.786 = 100.40 At rated voltage the blocked rotor current of and induction motor is five times its full-load current and full-load slip is 4%.24 = 6. Calculate: (a) the torque at 4.25/0.7 X (135)2 X 1.c) Starting torque at half rated voltage Z (total) = 2.81 (66.25 = 1.39 A 6-pole.5% slip (b) the resistance to be added to the rotor circuit to obtain the maximum torque at starting.

42 A 440 V.(a) a star-delta starter.07 X1 = 1.9 .33 => 33 % Auto T/X => TSt / Tf = K2 (ISC / If )2 Sf = 0.4 . 8-pole induction motor has its rotor and stator winding star-connected. (a) Y- ISC / I = 5 => TSt / Tf = (ISt / If )2 Sf = 1/3 (ISC / If )2 Sf = 1/3 (5)2 X 0.03 X2 = 0.41 squirrel-cage induction motor has a full-load slip of 4% and a blocked-rotor current of six times the ful-load current. The parameters of its circuit model are R1 = 0.04 X = 0.482 Ifl or 4.Ifl = (0. Sfl = 0.82 of Ifl 9.694)2 Ifl = 0. The effective stator to rotor turn ratio is 2. Sf = 0.04 = 0.4% I(line) = x2.4 Xm = 25.18 Ri = 127. 50 Hz.5/1.52 (5)2 X 0.25 = 25 % 9. Find the percentage of tapping of the autotransformer starter to give full-load torque on starting and the line current as a percentage of full-load current.04. Isc / Ifl = 6. and (b) by an autotransformer with 50% tapping.04 Ts/Tfl = x2 (Isc / Ifl) Sfl 1 = x2 X 36 X 0. R2 = 0.04 = 0.694 or 69. 22 kW.

4 (includes rotational loss) Neglecting any changes in mechanical losses due to changes in speed.07 = 0.4375 + 0.214 R’ext R’ext – 6.837s + R’ext)2 + 4.28 = 0.54 X (254)2 / [(0.4 r1 + r’2 = 0.9)2 = 0.5)2 X 0. a = 2.644 = 3.5)2 X 0. At what speed would the motor run if the added rotor resistance is: (a) left in the circuit (b) subsequently shorted out.28 / (2.751 = 0 R’ext = (6.045 (i) Resistance left in circuit r’2 + R’ext = 0. calculate the added rotor resistance required for the motor to run up to the speed 675 rpm for a constant load torque of 300 Nm.28 R’ext = 0.98) / 2 = 6.155 R’ext = ? V = 440 / 3 = 254 V ns = 750 rpm s = 78.4375 + R’ext) (0. r’2 = (2.Turn ratio.54 rad/s T = (3/ s) X [V2 / (r1 + r’2 + R’ext)2] X [(r’2 + R’ext)/1] 300 = 3/78.8375 + R’ext)2 + 4. 0.67s R’ext + R’ext + 4.701 + 1.644] X (0.539 R’ext + 1.26.539 ± 5.4375 r1 = 0.18 = 2.7175 T(load) = 300 Nm T(dev) = (3/ s) X [V2/ (r1+r’2 +R’ext) / s)2 + (x1 + x’2)2] X (r’2 + R’ext)/s .8375 x1 + x’2 = 1.594 + 8.03 + (2.644 = 8.214 (0.4375 + R’ext) 0. Also compare the motor efficiency under these two conditions.

107 S = 0.4375)2 + 4.0675 ± 0.7175 X ((1/0.107) -1) .0609.0315 .7175/s (0.644s2 = 5.4 + 6.107) X 750 = 670 rpm (ii) External rotor resistance cut out 300 = (3 / 78.594s 4.1914 = 0 s2 – 0.0656 .644 s2) X 0.21 A Pm = 3 X (34.55 ] = 34.644s)2 = 5.7175 S = 0.644] X 0.107 ± 0.7175 / s) 300 = (3 / 78.4 s + 0.28 = 0.512 + 4.894s 0.1066 = 0 S = (1.644 X (0.893) / 2 = 1.21)2 X 0.4s + 0.54 X (254)2 / (0.4375 / s (0.7179)2 + 4.54) X (254)2 / [(0. speed = (1-0.16s2 + 0.16s2 + 0.4375/s)2 +4.544s + 0.35s + 0. 0.54) X (254)2 X s2 / (0.644s2 = 3.244s + 0.1914 + 4.4 + 0.7175)2 + 4.4375 + 0.675s + 0.300 = 3/78.512 = 0 S2 – 1. speed = (1 – 0. 0.4s + 0.107 .644s2 = 3.107 I’2 = 254 / [(0.304 s2 – 3.594s 0.71) + 21.4 + (0.804 s2 – 5.0656) X 750 = 701 rpm Comparison of efficiencies (i) r’2 + R’ext = 0.107s + 0.5437) / 2 = 0.04 = 0 s = (0.7175/s)2 + 4.32s + 0.894s 4.0656 s= 0.

(b) the full-load rotor copper loss.48) X 100 = 79.565 kw = 22. T = r’2 / (x1 +x’2) = 0.48 kw = (21.43 A 40 kW.67) + j 2.565 X 100 = 86.71) = 26. 3-phase.4 + 6.5V2 / (x1 + x’2) ----------------------. 6-pole.4 + 6.02 kw Pi = 3 X (254)2/127. (c) the starting torque at half the rated voltage.(ii) .02/26.= 21.08 / 25.56 T = (3/ s) X (V2 / [(r’2/s)2 + (x1 + x’2)2] X r’2/s = (3/ s) X [(sV2r’2) / (r’22 + (x1 + x’2)s2] Tfl = (3/ s) X (sfl V2 r’2) / r’22 + (x1 )x’2)2 S2fl ---------. (e) the slip in part (d).38 % (ii) R’ext cut out r’2 = 0.4 + 6.18 when operating at rated voltage and frequency with slip rings short-circuited.4 + 3 X (34.4375 s = 0.18 Or (x1 + x’2) / r’2 = 5.4375 X ((1/0. 400 V.21)2 X (0.67) = 25. Determine: (d) the developed torque at full-load current.64 % 9.37 A (Notice current is the same as in part (ii) Pm = 3 X (34. The rotor circuit resistance is now doubled by adding an external resistance through the slip rings.(i) Tmax = (3/ s) X ( 0.0656) – 1) = 22.0656 I’2 = 254 / [(0.4 + 3 X (34.155] = 34.75 times full-load torque at a slip of 0. 50 Hz wound rotor induction motor develops a maximum torque of 2.37)2 X 0.08 kw Pi = 3 X (254)2 / 127.37)2 X (0. Smax. Stator resistance and rotational losses may be ignored. Determine: (a) the full-load slip.

54) X [(200 / 3)2 / (0.051] X (1/r’2) Or r’2 = 0. 0.95)2 + (0.0663 r’2 / sfl = 0.989 ± (0.989 ± (0.56)2 X 0.989 ± 0.694 kw (c) Ts (half voltage) = (3/ s) X I’22 r’2 ns = (120 X 50) / 8 = 750 rpm ws = 78.56)2s2fl) / 5.034 (b) Pm = 3 X [(V2 sfl r’2)] / [(r’22 + (x1 + x’2)2 s2fl] = 3 X (V2 sfl) / [1+ ((x1 + x’2)/r’2) sfl] X 1/ r’2 40 X 1000 = 3 X [(400 / 3)2 X 0.034 / 2.034 Sfl = 0.0663 = 241 Nm .0663 / 0.18 = 0.921 / 2 = 0.0663 = 2.034] / [1+ (5.978 – 0.56 s 30.129) / 2 = 0.95 x1 + x’2 = 0.3684 Rotor copper loss = 3I’22 r’2 = 3 X [V2 / [(r’2 / sfl)2 + (x1 + x’2)2]] X r’2 = 3 X [ (400 / 3)2 / [(1.91 s2fl Sfl = 0.5(1+ (5.034 = 1.54 rad/s Ts(voltage) = (3 / 78.5 [ 1 + ((x1 + x’2)/r’2)2s2fl] / [((x1 + x’2) / r’2)sfl Substituting the value 2.5 [r’22 + (x1 + x’2) s2fl] / [(x1 +x’2) r’2 sfl] --------.0663 / 0.3684)] X 0.58 sfl = 1 + 30.129) / 2 = 0.(iii) Tmax / Tfl = 0.905.978 – 0.3684)2]] X 0.034] X (1/r’2) Or 40 X 1000 = [(400)2 X 0.0663)2 + 10.75 = 0.Tmax / Tfl = 0.

total impedance must be same.3684)2} = 116.025 Therefore Tmax / Tfl = 0. The motor speed at full load is 292.068 T(dev) = 3/78.1326 For full – load current.5 V2 / (x2’) 2) ) X ( V2 / ((V2’/ Sfl ) 2 +(x2’) 2 Ns = 1200 X 50 / 20 = 300 rpm N = 292.4)2 X (0.3684)2 = ((0.0663 = 0.9s Or s = 0.95)2 + (0.95 = 1009 Nm 9.12 and stand still reactance of 1.6kV.12 / 0.95)2 + (0. 20pole.1326 / 0.5 [((r21/ Sfl ) 2 +(x2) 2)] / x2(r2/ Sfl ) = 0.5) / 300 = 0.025)2 + (1.12 .107 b) Tmax = (3/ Tfl = (3/ s s ) X ( 0.3084)2) Or 0.068) = 1.5 rpm Sfl = (300 – 292. 50 Hz induction motor has rotor resistance of 0. a) Smax = 0.025 ) .12 = 0.12)2] / 1.1326/s)2 + (0. Thus (1.(c) I’2 (fl) = V/ 3 / [ {(r’2 / sfl)2 + (x1 + x’2)2}] = (400 / 3) / {(1.12 / 1.1326/s = 1.5 rpm.54 X (116.12 X ( 0.5 [(0.44 Determine the slip at maximum torque and ratio of maximum to full load torque for a 3 phase star connected 6.4 A Now R’2(total) = 2r’2 = 2 X 0.12 / 0.

2595 .5 [ 23.Tmax / Tfl = 0.04 + 1.376 = 12.2544 ] / 5.376 Therfore Tmax / Tfl = 2.1472 / 5.

8 + 56.36–69.1° = 2.63 + j 6. 5 + j 55.8) = 35–54° = 20. 55 + j 55.6° 220 = 5.000 rpm.8 3.6 W r2 = 6.6° 42.23 + j 35. P10.8 W.7 rad/sec . Solution s= 1.6° = 0.6 + j 28. j 48 3.1 1. 000 . 6-pole. (x1m + x2) = 15.7 j48 I m¢¢ 220 V 1.8 j48 3.6° ¥ = 4.88) = 23.55 lagging Im = I¢m = 5. 50 Hz.6° ¥ j 48 58. x = 96 W The rotational losses of the motor are estimated to be 75 W.8) = j 48 || (3.4/s = 56. the shaft power. the power factor.8) = 7.7 + j 7.1 A 220 V.88 Z (total) = (20. pf = cos 56. 8 = 3.22––56.940 = 0.8 7.22 A. P10.63 + j 6.4/(2 – s) = 1. single-phase induction motor has the following circuit model parameters: r1m = 3.16–56. 6∞ IL = Im = 5.1 Z f (total) = j 48 || (1. At a motor speed of 940 rpm.1––10° I¢¢m = 5.Electric Machines 139 CHAPTER 10: FRACTIONAL-KILOWATT MOTORS 10.16 – 56.22––56. determine the line current.8 I m¢ lm 7.3 Z b (total) = j 48 ||(1.75 + j 7.18 = 42.22––56. and the efficiency. 8 ws = 104.6 + j 28.8 + 1.8) = j 48 || (58.55 + j 7.75 Fig.06 1000 The circuit model is drawn in Fig.6 W.48––53° ns = 1.5 + j 7.3) + (2.

4 ∞ ¥ 42 .7 – (4.65 W r1a = 40.92 W r2 = 9.75–1° V mf = 230 2 j ˆ Ê ÁË1 .1 W x1m = 11.11) I mf = = 169.1)2 ¥ 56. (b) Calculate the performance of the motor at a slip of 0. 771–1. 06 ) 2 – 52 .46 + j 6.6 W x1a = 9.92 + j 7.3 – 75 = 404. 8 – 47.3 + j 9.1 = 37.6 + j 11. 8 – .7 (1–0.(18.47.77 + j 18.06–26. 2 .92 ˜¯ = 169. 75 ) 2 – 2 ∞ 8.89 1. 2 ∞ .10 ) and (10.4 – 10.34 –38.65) a2 ( 0.06) ¥ 4.75 – j 0.3 W 220 ¥ 5.5 = 42.0 z 1a 1 = (40. 6 10. 7 4.92 + j 7.4° V mb = 230 2 j ˆ Ê ÁË1 + 0.2 A 1/4 kW.1∞ + 169.6 W T= = Pm = Pout = Pin = 404.87 Nm 104.6 + 8.8–47.1 = 18. 92 ) 2 = 47.4° z 1m + Z f + Z 12 = z1m + Zb + Z12 = 10.75] 104.75 – j 0.8 = 2.1° Substituting in Eqs (10.0 + 18.3 W 479.86) = 11.140 Solutions Manual 1 [(3.46 W x2 = 6.48)2 ¥ 1.8––47. 50 Hz. windage and core loss = 45 W (a) Calculate the starting torque and current of the motor.6––60.73 – j 4.4 Z 12 = 1 (47. 567– 62.6) 2 = 18. 06 – 26.86 W Friction.0.035 (the auxiliary winding is opencircuited).1 – j 11. 4 ¥ 18.1° = 8. 4-pole split-phase motor has the following circuit model parameters: r1m = 10.6 + j 11. Solution (a) s = 1 = Z f = Z b = j 236 || (9.87 = 479.30 W x = 236 W a = 0. 75 –1∞ ( 42 .92 ˜¯ = 169.22 ¥ 0. 230 V.55 = 631. 3 = 64% 631. 4∞ = 5.1 + j 11.

18 = 10.92 + 4.1 141 .88 A (b) With reference to Fig.9 + j 133. 567– 62.82 – j 1.7° = (10.46 + j 6.55 – j 5.14––49. 3– 49.3–49.92 j j (2.88 = 107.76 Z (total) = z1m + 1 Z + Zb 2 f ( ) 1 [(113. 75–1∞ ( 42.96)2] 157.47. P10.10 = 12.9 – 4.Electric Machines I mb = 169.6° = 113.2 9. (10. 4∞ ¥ 42.3 + j 6.4).1° = 3.8) + (4. T= = I m2 2w s (Rf – Rb) ( 2.647 lagging IL = Im = From Eq.88––33.(18.78 Nm Ts = I m = I mf + I mb = 2.9 + j 133.500 rpm.1 + j 11.81 + j 6.1∞ + 169.8 Z b = j 236 || ÊÁ 9. 8– 47.89 + 3.1° = 4.14 A pf = 0.55 – j 5.54) = 1.86) = 8.96––15.89 – 3.7–49.965 ¯ = j 236 || (4.03 = 6.03) I .92 a mf = 4.7° IL = 2.I mb = 0.73 – j 4.92 ¥ [(5.20 – j 1.1∞ = 3. 06 – 26.6) + Vm = V L 230 = z ( total ) 107.32 + j 81. 7∞ = 2.18 Ia = ( ) I L = I m + I a = 6.46 Z f = j 236 || ÊÁ + j 6.6)2 – (3.4° IL(start) = 12.82 – j 103 1.035 ¯ = j 236 ||(270.86ˆ˜ Ë 1.1 = 1.82 + j 1.73 – j 4.14 ) 2 (113. 06 ) 2 – 52. 2∞ .14–56. 4 ∞ ¥ 18.75 – j 7.76)] 2 = 69.1 rad/s = 2 ¥ 8. 203– 47. 2 ∞ ns = 1.86ˆ˜ Ë 0.54 + j 6. 75) 2 – 2 ∞ 6.20 – j 1.86) = 175. ws = 157.59 Nm 2 ¥ 157.54 + j 6. 8– .

79 W z 1m = 9.7 z 1a = 15.5 W x1a = 13.36 – j 82.14 ¥ 0.7) Ëa ¯ = 0.1.3 = 82. (a) Calculate starting torque and current (b) Calculate motor performance at s = 0.8) = 140.03–31.5 W 241 = 75.8) = 140.2 W x1m = 8. 220 V.5 + j 13.9–38.84) = 15.6° 2 V mb = 1 ¥ 220 (1 + j 0.92 – j 155. 50 Hz.9 a2 ˆ 1 1 Ê z1a Z 12 = 2 Á 2 .2° = 12.59 = 241 W Pin = 230 ¥ 2. 5 10.9––38.84 W The windage friction and core loss is 45 W.5 W Z C = –j 257 W (series capacitive reactance in auxiliary winding) a = 1.3 A 400 W.j a ˜ 2 ÁË m a /V ¯ 1Ê aˆ V + j ˜ 2 ÁË m a¯ V mf = V a = 220–0° V V mf = 1 ¥ 220 (1– j 0.86 + j 7.3 + j 6.2 – j 8. permanent capacitor motor has the following circuit model parameters: r1m = 9.3––89.92 – j 155.647 = 318.3(a).5 || (14.25 r2 = 14.5625 z 1a = 9.142 Solutions Manual Pm = (1 – s) wsT = (1 – 0.1 ¥ 1.25)2 = 1.7° Vmf = V mb = V ˆ 1Ê V .5 2 a = (1.5 – j 257 = 15.035) ¥ 157. (b) and (c) h= Z f = Z b = j 138.9 – 9.6° 2 . 6-pole.67% 318.5 – j 243. Solution (a) s = 1 With reference to Figs 10.7 W r1a = 15.2 + j 8.3 W x2 = 6.5 W x = 138.z1m ˜ + 2 (9.

416 – .4° = 2. 4 ∞ = 3.49 + 2.795––109.28) I + I mb = 1. 177 – .2° = 9795––32.6° ¥ 82.9–38.282 – j 9025 N 1 = 3.28 I mf = ( Vmf z1m + Z b + Z12 ) ( ) Vmf z1m + Z b + Z12 + Vmb Z12 D = N1 D = 140.Electric Machines z 1m + Z f + Z 12 = 9.2° = 9.2° I mb = ( ) Vmb z1m + Zf + Z12 + Vmf Z12 ( z1m + Zf + Z12 ) ( z1m + Zb + Z12 ) - 2 Z12 = N2 D D = (69.9––38.4° ( ) Vmb z1m + Zf + Z12 = 140.1° = 7.52––71.377 = 14.79 – j 2. 667–-77.52––71.96 Ia = ( ) 143 .28 = 6.3° = –7187 – j 9100 N2 = 1065 – j 14.77 j j (3.3 = 22.Z 122 = 2944 – j 2878 = 4.7° 18.2° z 1m + Z b + Z 12 = 69.81 = 69.596––51.79 – j 2. 4 ∞ D = 3.6° ¥ 69.42 – j 65.44.3)2––179.8° I mb = N2 = 14 .3° A 4.79 + 0.3––89. 8∞ 4 .117––44.4° = –6773 – j 71 D .4° = –3829 – j 2949 Z 122 = (82.117–-44.59 + j 2.53––33.8° = –3.38 – j 4.59 – j 2.9–38.86 + j 7.59 – j 2.522)––142.667––77.52––71. 7 = 4.3––89.964 – j 18.45––41.6° ¥ 69.9––38.318 – j 9.85.49 I mf = I m = I mf + I mb = 3.2 + j 87 + 12.216 V mb Z 12 = 140.241 = 18.6° = 8252 – j 5277 V mf Z 12 = 140.7° = 11596––128.416––85.49 – 2.7° = 11.79 – j 2.52––71.25 a mf = 0.6° ¥ 82.36 – j 82.168 + j 0.

2 – 2 . 4 ¥ 8.s ) 1.2° V mf = 140.98 + j 71.53 ( 2 . 3∞ ( 7. 3 = = 143 W.70––76.144 Solutions Manual I (line) = I m + I a = 6.596––51.81 + j 6.9°.3)2––17.9––38. 53 + j 145.1 r2 14.j 9.j 17812 = 18101–-79∞ D = 75.4] 104.060 – j 8787 140.3° Z f = 65.1 = 7.6° ¥ 68.Z 122 = 7.3°.000 rpm.5° .7 + 6. z 1m Z b = j 138.36 – j 82.6° Z 12 = 82.2 + j 8.37 – j 66. 282 .98 + j 71. Ts = ws = 2 2 2 I R .2 + j 8. 9 Z f = j 138. 000 = 104.6°.54 – j 2.5 || (7. 7 = 2 ¥ 22.008 = 9314––32. 7∞ .4° = –6.3––89.29–47. 34 ) = 145.81 + j 6.69 Nm 104.3––89.079 Z 122 = (82. = 138.17 – 42. 025 3222 .4 – (3.3 = 75.68–45.62 = 3.55 – j 3.5.72 = 68.2° = 9680––114. 7 (b) s = 0. Z b = 6.9––38.88 + 0.70––76.9–38.7 rad/s 60 ) = 2 [(4. 4 ∞ = 97.6° ¥ 82.88 + Z f + Z 12 = 9.5 || (143 + j 6.84).58––30.9–38.53 + j 6. 203.7 + 65. 5 – 90 ∞ ¥ 10 . 8 – 45. 5 – 90 ∞ ¥ 143.84) 138.70––76.2°A ns = 1. 3 = = 7.53)2 ¥ 22.5 + 0.57––16° z 1m + Z b + Z 12 = 9.36 – j 82.080 – j 5.I mb Rb w s mf f ( 2p ¥ 1.7° = 11.8° = –4.45)2 ¥ 22. 5 – 87∞ = 9. 0 . V mb = 140.3 = 16.2° = 5192––78° = 1.57––16° ¥ 68.773 – j 71 D .1 = 75.7° N 1 = 140.1 s r2 14.853 – j 5.81 = 7.

7 W 445.69 – j 1.1) = 445. 314 –-32.57––1. 9∞ = 0.7 – 45 = 400.0% 589 400.83 ( Ia = IL = = IL = Power input = = I m + I a = 1. 101–-79.596––128.3° = –7187 – j 9.9–38. 314–-32.96 589 W Torque in syn watts = 2 = = Mech.167 = 1.2 W 495.I mb Rb ) 2[(1.59 + 1 + j 0. 5∞ = 1.692 2.42 N 2 = 140.96 lagging 220 ¥ 2.4° 9.7° = = = I mb = 10.I mb = 1.83 Nm 104.42 = 0.998––63.32 – j 1.4 Show that if the stator voltages of a 2-phase induction motor are Vm and Va with a fixed phase difference of 90°.6° = 140.0° = 8.32 – j 1.28 + j 0.408 11.648–37.83 2.76 = 2. 8∞ = 194––47.59 = 2.42 – 0.322)2 ¥ 6.9––38.6 – j 1.167 I m = I mf + I mb = 1.79 ¥ 0.6° ¥ 75.275 – j 0.32 – j 1.78––15.3––89.317 – j 2.8° A j j (1.9° 2.81] 495.504 + j 6.94)2 ¥ 65. 7 = 3.6° ¥ 82.17) I .2 (1– 0.67 – 0.100 1.Electric Machines I mf = 145 18. 5∞ = 0.275 – j 0.3° 9.9° A 2. Solution Torque output = Z f (total) = (r1 + jx1) Z f Z b (total) = (r1 + jx1) Z b At s = 1 Z f = Z b = Z + (R + j X) Z f (total) = Z b (total) = Z (total) .7 W 4000 = 68. the starting torque is the same as for a balanced voltage of V m Va per phase.25––44.25 a mf = 1 + j 0.78 A pf = 0. power output = h= ) (I 2 mf 2 Rf .322––31. 998–-63. power developed = Mech. 7 10.98 – (0.

find approximate expressions for forward and backward torques in terms of phase voltages (differing 90° in phase) and motor speed.5 For a 2-phase servo motor (with high resistance rotor).o ˜ Tf = k Á ˜ Á 2 ws ¯ Ë ¯ Ë 2 w ˆ Ê Vm .Va ˆ Ê r2¢ ˆ 2 Ê Vm .Va 2 V mb = 2 Ê Vm + Va ˆ Tf = ws ÁË 2 Z (total) ˜¯ 2 2 Ê Vm .s ) ˜¯ ÁË 2 .Va ˆ (2 .s ˜¯ ws r2¢ ÁË 2 ˜¯ s=1– wo ws wo = motor speed Hence 2 w ˆ Ê Vm . 2 r2¢ s Zb = Vmb = Vm .s) = Tb = ws ÁË 2r2¢/(2 .Va 2 r 2¢ R -s 2 2 2 Ê Vm + Va ˆ Ê r2¢ ˆ 2 Ê Vm + Va ˆ = s Tf = ws ËÁ 2r2 / s ¯˜ ËÁ s ¯˜ ws r2¢ ËÁ 2 ¯˜ 2 2 2 Ê Vm .Va ˆ Ê 1.Va ˆ Ê 1+ o ˜ Tb = k Á ˜ Á 2 ws ¯ Ë ¯ Ë ws = synchronous speed . balanced voltage for the same starting torque is V= V m Va 10.Va ˆ ws ÁË 2 Z (total) ˜¯ 2 Tb = V m .Va 2 R R Hence R 2 [(Vm + Va)2 – (Vm – Va)2] w s 4 Z 2 (total) Ts = Tf – Tb = = 2 R ws Z 2 (total) ( Vm Va ) 2 Hence. Solution Vmf = Zf = Vm + Va .146 Solutions Manual Vmf = V m . Assume stator impedance and rotor reactance to be negligible.

s Vm s s = Vm ÊÁ1 . the voltage induced on the opencircuited phase (a) is proportional to rotor speed and leads the other phase (m) voltage by 90°.Vmb ) = jVm(1 – s) wo = j Vm = jkwo ws .sˆ Ê = Vm Vmb Á1 + s ˜¯ Ë or V mb = Vm s 2 V mf = 2 .6 Show that in a 2-phase tachometer with high resistance rotor.Electric Machines 147 10. Neglect the stator impedance and rotor reactance.s ) = 2-s s V mf + V mb = V m – 0 ∞ 2 .ˆ˜ Ë 2 2¯ s ( V a = j Vmf . Solution I mf = I mf (magnetizing current is left out) \ V mf V mb = r 2¢ / s r 2¢ /( 2 .

1 12. the average current through the load and the torque developed. Th3.1 A separately excited dc motor is fed from a 230 V. . The motor armature resistance and inductance are respectively 2 W and 0. Th2.160) ˘ ¥ p˙ 180 ˚ = 130.65 V (average motor terminal voltage) 130. Th6. Th4.3 shows a three-phase full-converter feeding a separately excited dc motor. La = 6. Draw the voltage and current waveforms for the firing angle a = 60°.3 V/rpm. P12. P12. The thyristors are fired at intervals of 60° (Th1. If the current through the armature flows for 160° after the commencement of current flow at a = 60° (causing discontinuous current operation). Also calculate the value of a to obtain a speed of 1.3 Figure 12. 6 = 65. Assume w = 150 rad/s. Solution The voltage waveform at motor terminals fed from a single-phase full-converter is drawn in Fig.325 ¥ 1 = 65.1. 50 Hz. Derive an expression for the average motor terminal voltage as function of a.600 rpm at rated current. supply. The motor’s torque constant is 1 Nm/A and the voltage constant is 1 V rad/s.1 W.0 = 150 V (motor induced emf) Va = 1È p ÍÎ Ú 160∞ + 60∞ 60∞ 230 2 sin wt d (wt ) + 150 (180 .325 Nm Ia = V 150 V 200 2 360° 20° 60° 180° wt 160° Fig. The rated motor armature current. The converter is fed from a 400 V. 50 Hz source via a single-phase full-converter. Ea = 150 ¥ 1. calculate the average voltage across the load. Calculate the no-load speed for a = 30° assuming the no-load current to be 5 A. Ia = 50 A and Ra = 0.148 Solutions Manual CHAPTER 12: MOTOR CONTROL BY STATIC POWER CONVERTERS 12.05 mH. Th5).325 A 2 Ta = 65.5 mH and Ka F = 0.

3 Solution With reference to the waveform of Fig.Electric Machines la Th1 3-phase supply Th2 La Ra + Th3 iA uA 149 + Va uB ea – lf uC Th4 Th5 Th6 – Fig. firing instants of thyristors and output voltage waveform (Va) (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 1 Vm o t 5 6 4 5 6 ua ua uCB uAB uAC uBC uBA uCA uCB uAB 3 Vm o p/6 p/6 + a p/6 + a + p/3 Fig.3(a). P12.3(a) p /6 + a + p / 3 p /6 +a (na – nB)d (wt) t . P12. Va(a) = 3 p Ú P12.

while Th1 behaves as an open circuit to C as it is conducting in the forward direction. 3 For speed of 1.2e -t ˆ VTh = VC = Vdc Á 1 Ë RL C ˜¯ (i) For turn off in 100 ms.600 ¥ 0.32 V No-load speed = 467.500 rpm.e. VTh1 must reduce to zero at the end of this period.3 = 480 V Va = 480 + 50 ¥ 0. the capacitor discharges via RL and battery source. VTh = 0 = Vdc (1 –2e–100 1 ¥ 10–6/10C ) (ii) . The turn-off time for the main thyristor Th1 is 100 ms and the maximum permissible current through it is 25 A. The voltage of C which is also the voltage across Th1 changes according to the following equation.2 Solution With Th1 in conducting state as Th2 is fired.150 Solutions Manual = 3 6V cos a p (V = rms value of phase voltage) a = 30° Given Va = 3 ¥ 6 ¥ ( 400 / 3 ) cos 30° p = 467.558 rpm 0. Calculate the value of the commutating components L and C.2 A chopper circuit as shown in Fig. P12.82 V Ea = 467. Ê 1 . Vdc = 100 V and a load of resistance RL = 10 W. P12.1° 12.1 = 467.2 is inserted between a battery.82 – 5 ¥ 0. i.1 = 485 V Now 3 6 ¥ 400 / 3 cos a p or a = 26. Ea = 1. 32 = 1. 485 = Hint: (see page 837) Th1 C + lo – + Th2 Vdc RL – L D Fig.

4 mF With Th1 turned off the capacitor voltage keeps changing till it is reverse charged as –Vdc. (c) Calculate the firing angles if the dc input voltage to the inverter is obtained from a 3-phase semi-converter fed from a 500 V (line-to-line). Solution The output voltage waveform is drawn in Fig. we get L = 640 mH 12. (b) Calculate the dc input voltage required to feed the inverter for operating the motor at 60 Hz. 50 Hz. The motor speed is controlled by maintaining V/f constant at a value corresponding to the rated voltage and frequency. star-connected induction motor is fed from an inverter such that this phase voltage is a six-step waveform.Electric Machines 151 which gives C = 14. 50 Hz source while the inverter output corresponds to 60 Hz.4.4 A 4 pole. 400 V.4 wt . 3-phase. The maximum value of the oscillatory current is given as iC(max) = Vdc Cw = Vdc C/ LC = Vdc C / L (iii) Hence the maximum current through Th1 is iTh1(max) = I0 + Vdc C / L 25 = or Vdc + Vdc RL (iv) C/ L Substituting values. 50 Hz and 40 Hz. P12. diode D is positively biased by the capacitor and begins conducting so that the LC resonant circuit oscillates through Th1. As Th1 is fired once again. (a) an = = = 4È p ÍÎ Ú p /3 1 3 0 Vdc sin nw t d (w t ) + 4Vdc È cos nw t Í 3p Í n Î { p /3 } 0 4Vdc Ê np ˆ 1 + cos 3np ÁË 3 ˜¯ = V01 = 4Vdc 3p p/ 2 p/ 3 ˘ 2 V sin nw t d (w t ) ˙ 3 dc ˚ p /2 Ï cos nw t ¸ ˘ + 2 Ì˙ ˝ n ˛p/ 3 ˙ Ó ˚ The fundamental is given by V01 = Ú Ê 1 + cos p ˆ sin w t ÁË 3 ˜¯ 2Vdc/3 Vdc/3 2p p /3 2p /3 p 2Vdc sin wt p 2 Vdc (rms phase) p Fig. P12. (a) Determine the expression for the fundamental and harmonics of the inverter output voltage waveform.

52 a = 58. Th2 Th4.5 A single-phase bridge inverter of Fig.4 V (c) For a 3-phase semi-converter Vdc = 3 6V (1 + cos a) 2p 3 6 ¥ ( 500 / 3 ) (1 + cos a) 2p 1 + cos a = 1.5(a) by the firing sequence Th1 Th3. Also find expressions for the steady-state current. V0 = 400 ¥ 60 = 480V (line) 50 2 480 = Vdc p 3 or Vdc = 615.5(b) as output (with an on-period of 5 ms) feeds a load of R = 8 W in series with L = 0.5(a) with the quasi-square wave of Fig. 2 400 = V p dc 3 or Vdc = 513 V For 40 Hz output. V = 400 ¥ 40 = 320 V 50 320 = 2 V p dc 3 or Vdc = 410. 11. The output frequency of the inverter is 50 Hz.5(b) can be obtained from the bridge inverter circuit of Fig.6 V For 50 Hz output. (b) The expression for the fundamental component of the load current from the general expression describing the harmonic content of the output voltage waveform.044 H from a 200 V dc source. Th1. P12. P12. Determine: (a) The load current waveform for the first two half-cycles. Remark: This output waveform of Fig. Th4. 11. Th2 Th3.152 Solutions Manual (b) For 60 Hz output.7° 12. also. or 513 = V0 = Solution fo = 50 Hz or 314 rad/s Period = 20 m tON = 5 m 4V nd sin sin n wt np 2 .

044 L = = 5.5 m 8 R Period 1 200 (1 – e–t /t ) = 25 (1 – e–t /t ) 8 = 14.403I01 = 2. It follows from this figure that [(25 – (25 + I01)e –t/t)|t = 5ms]e–t/t |t=5ms = I01 [(25 – (25 + I01) ¥ 0.5(a).93e–t/t = 6. P12.5 t= 0.47 A at the end of period 3 Steady State Current The steady-state current waveform is drawn in Fig. P12.18 A 153 .08 – 0.93 A at the end of period 1 i(1) = Period 2 i(2) = 14.Electric Machines iTh1 iTh4 D1 Th1 + D4 Th4 iD1 iTh2 – iD4 Load + vo – io D2 Th2 iTh3 Th3 iD2 D3 iD3 (a) 5 5 5 t (ms) d 10 (b) Fig.403 = l01 25 – 10.48I01 I01 = 5.403] ¥ 0.01 A at the end of period 2 Period 3 Vo = –200 V i(3) = –25 + (25 + 6.01)e –t/t = –12.

18 e–t/t + lo1 –lol 5ms 5ms f = tan–1 \ Fig.57 rad V01 4 ¥ 200 1 ¥ 157 sin sin w t = 1 ¥p 2 = 180 sin 314 t Z = R 2 + w 2 L 2 = 16 wL = 60° R io = 11.5(a) . P12.18 e–t/t) 5.154 Solutions Manual (b) d = 314 ¥ 5 ¥ 10–3 = 1.25 sin (314 t – 60°) (25–30.

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