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10ME44

KINEMATICS OF MACHINES

Subject Code : 10ME44

IA Marks : 25

Hours/Week : 04

Exam Hours : 03

Total Hours : 52

**Exam Marks : 100
**

PART – A

UNIT - 1

Introduction: Definitions Link or element, kinematic pairs, Degrees of freedom, Grubler's

criterion (without derivation), Kinematic chain, Mechanism, Structure, Mobility of

Mechanism, Inversion, Machine. Kinematic Chains and Inversions: Inversions of Four

bar chain; Single slider crank chain and Double slider crank chain.

07 Hours

UNIT - 2

Mechanisms: Quick return motion mechanisms-Drag link mechanism, Whitworth

mechanism and Crank and slotted lever Mechanism. Straight line motion mechanisms

Peaucellier's mechanism and Robert's mechanism. Intermittent Motion mechanisms Geneva wheel mechanism and Ratchet and Pawl mechanism. Toggle mechanism,

Pantograph, Ackerman steering gear mechanism.

06 Hours

UNIT - 3

Velocity and Acceleration Analysis of Mechanisms (Graphical Methods) Velocity and

acceleration analysis of Four Bar mechanism, slider crank mechanism and Simple

Mechanisms by vector polygons: Relative velocity and acceleration of particles .in a

common link, relative velocity and accelerations of coincident Particles on separate linksCoriolis component of acceleration. Angular velocity and angular acceleration of links,

velocity of rubbing.

07 Hours

UNIT - 4

Velocity Analysis by Instantaneous Center Method: Definition, Kennedy's Theorem,

Determination of linear and angular velocity using instantaneous center method Klein's

Construction: Analysis of velocity and acceleration of single slider crank mechanism.

06 Hours

PART – B

UNIT - 5

Velocity and Acceleration Analysis of Mechanisms (Analytical Methods): Analysis of

four bar chain and slider crank chain using analytical expressions. (Use of complex

algebra and vector algebra)

06 Hours

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT

Page 1

Kinematics of Machines

10ME44

UNIT - 6

Spur Gears: Gear terminology, law of gearing, Characteristics of involute action, Path of

contact. Arc of contact, Contact ratio of spur, helical, bevel and worm gears, Interference

in involute gears. Methods of avoiding interference, Back lash. Comparison of involute

and cycloidal teeth. Profile Modification.

07 Hours

UNIT - 7

Gear Trains: Simple gear trains, Compound gear trains for large speed. reduction,

Epicyclic gear trains, Algebraic and tabular methods of finding velocity ratio of epicyclic

gear trains. Tooth load and torque calculations in epicyclical gear trains 07 Hours

UNIT - 8

Cams: Types of cams, Types of followers. Displacement, Velocity and, Acceleration time

curves for cam profiles. Disc cam with reciprocating follower having knife-edge, roller

and flat-face follower, Disc cam with oscillating roller follower. Follower motions

including SHM, Uniform velocity, uniform acceleration and retardation and Cycloidal

motion.

06 Hours

TEXT BOOKS:

1. "Theory of Machines”, Rattan S.S, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New

Delhi, and 3rd edition -2009.

2. "Theory of Machines”, Sadhu Singh, Pearson Education (Singapore) Pvt. Ltd, Indian

Branch New Delhi, 2nd Edi. 2006

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. “Theory of Machines & Mechanisms", J.J. Uicker, , G.R. Pennock, J.E. Shigley.

OXFORD 3rd Ed. 2009.

2. Mechanism and Machine theory, Ambekar, PHI, 2007

Graphical Solutions may be obtained either on the Graph Sheets or on the

Answer Book itself.

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT

Page 2

Kinematics of Machines

10ME44

CONTENTS

Sl.No

Particulars

Page No

1

Introduction to KOM

4-14

2

Mechanisms

15-37

3

**Velocity & Acceleration Analysis of
**

Mechanisms (Graphical method)

38-70

4

**Velocity & Acceleration Analysis of
**

Mechanisms(Instantaneous Method)

71-87

5

**Velocity & Acceleration Analysis of
**

Mechanisms(Analytical Method)

88-105

6

Spur Gears

106-139

7

Gear train

140-167

8

Cams

160-196

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT

Page 3

Links can be classified into + Binary + Ternary + Quarternary. A resistant body or a group of resistant bodies with rigid connections preventing their relative movement is known as a link.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 UNIT-01 INTRODUCTION TO KOM 1. Binary Link Link Ternary Link Quarternary Kinematic Pair: A Kinematic Pair or simply a pair is a joint of two links having relative motion between them. etc. Example: Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 4 . A link may also be defined as a member or a combination of members of a mechanism. A link is also known as Kinematic link or an element.1 Definitions: Link or element: A mechanism is made of a number of resistant bodies out of which some may have motions relative to the others. connecting other members and having motion relative to them. thus a link may consist of one or more resistant bodies.

The contact between the two can only be broken only by the destruction of at least one of the members. universal joint. Examples: Nut turning on a screw. The contact surfaces of the two links are dissimilar. Ex. i) Kinematic pairs according to nature of contact : a) Lower Pair: A pair of links having surfaced or area contact between the members is known as a lower pair. b) Higher Pair: When a pair has a point or line contact between the links. a) Sliding pair: If two links have a sliding motion relative to each other. Similarly. Types of Kinematic Pairs: Kinematic pairs can be classified according to i) Nature of contact. they constitute an unclosed pair.: Cam and follower pair. Unclosed pair: When two links of a pair are in contact either due to force of gravity or some spring action. All the lower pairs and some of the higher pairs are closed pairs. tooth gears. 3 and 3. links 2. all pairs of a slider-crank mechanism. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 5 . Kinematic pairs according to nature of mechanical constraint. Examples: Wheel rolling on a surface cam and follower pair. The contact surfaces of the two links are similar. ii) Nature of mechanical constraint. it is known as a higher pair. it is known as a closed pair. Closed pair: When the elements of a pair are held together mechanically. Link 4 (Slider) reciprocates relative to link 1 and it‟s a sliding pair. ball and roller bearings. In this the links are not held together mechanically. link 2 rotates relative to link 1 and constitutes a revolute or turning pair. 4 constitute turning pairs. iii) Nature of relative motion. A rectangular rod in a rectangular hole in a prism is an example of a sliding pair. shaft rotating in a bearing. iii) Kinematic pairs according to nature of relative motion. etc.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 In the above given Slider crank mechanism. they form a sliding pair.

If F > 0. Translational Motions along any three mutually perpendicular axes x. they form a screw pair. they constitute a turning pair or revolving pair. The ball and socket joint is a spherical pair. 1. The connection of a link with another imposes certain constraints on their relative motion. d) Screw pair (Helical Pair): if two mating links have a turning as well as sliding motion between them. ball ad roller bearings. The number of restraints can never be zero (joint is disconnected) or six (joint becomes solid). a pair can have. Thus a rigid body possesses six degrees of freedom. results in a statically determinate structure. it is a spherical pair. are some of the examples for a Rolling pair. Degrees of freedom = 6 – no. they form a rolling pair. Degrees of freedom of a pair is defined as the number of independent relative motions. c) Rolling pair: When the links of a pair have a rolling motion relative to each other. of restraints. y and z.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 b) Turning Pair: When on link has a turning or revolving motion relative to the other. both translational and rotational. 2. F = 0. etc. j1 = Joints with two degrees of freedom. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 6 . F < 0. Degrees of Freedom: An unconstrained rigid body moving in space can describe the following independent motions. j1 = Joints with single (one) degree of freedom. A rolling wheel on a flat surface. Rotational motions along these axes. This is achieved by cutting matching threads on the two links. To find the number of degrees of freedom for a plane mechanism we have an equation known as Grubler‟s equation and is given by F = 3 ( n – 1 ) – 2 j1 – j2 F = Mobility or number of degrees of freedom n = Number of links including frame. The lead screw and the nut of a lathe is a screw Pair e) Spherical pair: When one link in the form of a sphere turns inside a fixed link. results a mechanism with „F‟ degrees of freedom. results in a statically indeterminate structure.

Cam. Gear.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 The degrees of freedom for various joints are given by: Type of joint Hinges (Revolute) Nature of Motion.) Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 7 . 1 Slider (prismatic) Pure Sliding 1 Cylindrical. a. b. and c. Pure rolling Degrees of freedom. Kinematic Chain: A Kinematic chain is an assembly of links in which the relative motions of the links is possible and the motion of each relative to the others is definite (fig. Ball Bearings Rolling and Sliding 2 Rolling Contact Pure Rolling 1 Spherical 3 Note: A revolute joint connecting m links at the same point must be considered as (m-1) joints.

However. The degree of freedom of a structure is zero or less. only one input is necessary that determines the motion of other links and are said to have one degree of freedom. If motion of each link results in definite motion of the others. A structure with negative degrees of freedom is known as a Superstructure. it is known as a structure. Linkage. some authors prefer to call all chains having relative motions of the links as kinematic chains. the linkage is known as mechanism. In some mechanisms. If one of the links of a redundant chain is fixed. it is necessary to know how many inputs are needed. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 8 . Mechanism and structure: A linkage is obtained if one of the links of kinematic chain is fixed to the ground. two inputs may be necessary to get a constrained motion of the other links and are said to have two degrees of freedom and so on. To obtain constrained or definite motions of some of the links of a linkage. the motion of a link results in indefinite motions of other links. In other mechanisms. it is a nonkinematic chain.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 In case.

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Motion and its types: (i) Motion Absolute motion Relative motion (ii) Motion Plane motion Rectilinear motion Helical or screw motion Spherical motion (iii) Motion Continuous motion Reciprocating motion Oscillatory motion Intermittent motion (iv) Motion Uniform motion Variable motion Simple Harmonic motion (iv) Motion Completely Partially Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Incompletely Page 9 .

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 The tree main types of constrained motion in kinematic pair are.: Motion of a shaft or rod with collars at each end in a hole as shown in fig. then it is completely constrained motion. E. E. (ii) Incompletely Constrained motion : If the motion between a pair of links is not confined to a definite direction. then it is incompletely constrained motion.g.g.: A spherical ball or circular shaft in a circular hole may either rotate or slide in the hole as shown in fig. (i) Completely constrained motion : If the motion between a pair of links is limited to a definite direction. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 10 .

E.Kinematics of Machines (iii) 10ME44 Successfully constrained motion or partially constrained motion. second between wedge C and sliding rod A and the frame B. 1. Shaper. sliding and a screw pair.: Lathe. then each mechanism is called „Inversion‟ of the original Kinematic Chain. Machine: It is a combination of resistant bodies with successfully constrained motion which is used to transmit or transform motion to do some useful work. But it is possible to have a chain which consists of three sliding pairs or which consists of a turning. etc. E. If the motion in a definite direction is not brought about by itself but by some other means. wedge C and a sliding rod A.g.: Foot step Bearing. one between the wedge C and the frame B. Hence the three sliding pairs are. The figure shows a kinematic chain with three sliding pairs.2 Kinematic chains and Inversions: Kinematic chain with three lower pairs It is impossible to have a kinematic chain consisting of three turning pairs only. It consists of a frame B. then it is known as successfully constrained motion. Steam Engine. Inversions: By fixing each link at a time we get as many mechanisms as the number of links.g. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 11 .

the required fly press mechanism is obtained. When link A is fixed.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 This figure shows the mechanism of a fly press. The element B forms a sliding with A and turning pair with screw rod C which in turn forms a screw pair with A. Types of Kinematic Chain: 1) Four bar chain 2) Single slider chain 3) Double Slider chain Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 12 .

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 1) Four bar Chain: The chain has four links and it looks like a cycle frame and hence it is also called quadric cycle chain. This mechanism is shown in the figure below. the link CE pivoted at D makes vertical reciprocating motion at end E. 3) Watt‟s straight line mechanism or double lever mechanism. 2) Coupling rod of locomotive or double crank mechanism. In this type of chain all four pairs will be turning pairs. This is used to convert rotary motion to reciprocating motion and vice versa. It is shown in the figure. It is also known as Crank and lever mechanism. Inversions of four bar chain mechanism: There are three inversions: 1) Beam Engine or Crank and lever mechanism. 1) Beam Engine: When the crank AB rotates about A. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 13 .

On any small displacement of the mechanism the tracing point „C‟ traces the shape of number „8‟. the crank DC rotates about D. Hence this is also an example for the approximate straight line mechanism. When AB rotates about A. Since links AB and CD work as cranks. this mechanism is also known as double crank mechanism. This is shown in the figure below. the links AB & DE act as levers at the ends A & E of these levers are fixed. this mechanism is used for coupling locomotive wheels. 1) Watt‟s straight line mechanism or Double lever mechanism.Kinematics of Machines 2) 10ME44 Coupling rod of locomotive In this mechanism the length of link AD = length of link C. The AB & DE are parallel in the mean position of the mechanism and coupling rod BD is perpendicular to the levers AB & DE. In this mechanism. a portion of which will be approximately straight. Also length of link AB = length of link CD. This mechanism is shown below. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 14 .

They are: 1) Reciprocating engine mechanism (1st inversion) 2) Oscillating cylinder engine mechanism (2nd inversion) 3) Crank and slotted lever mechanism (2nd inversion) 4) Whitworth quick return motion mechanism (3rd inversion) 5) Rotary engine mechanism (3rd inversion) 6) Bull engine mechanism (4th inversion) 7) Hand Pump (4th inversion) 1) Reciprocating engine mechanism : In the first inversion. the cylinder and the frame is kept fixed.. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 15 .e. It is shown in the figure below the purpose of this mechanism is to convert rotary motion to reciprocating motion and vice versa. Inversions of a Slider crank chain: There are four inversions in a single slider chain mechanism.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 UNIT-02 MECHANISMS Slider crank Chain Mechanism: It is a four bar chain having one sliding pair and three turning pairs. the link 1 i. The fig below shows a reciprocating engine.

engines. etc. Thus the cutting stroke is executed during the rotation of the crank through angle α and the return stroke is executed when the crank rotates through angle β or 360 – α. Link 5 connects link 4 to the ram (link 6). This mechanism is shown in the figure below. This mechanism is used in steam engine. The rotary motion of P is taken to the ram Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 16 . Therefore.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 A slotted link 1 is fixed. 2) Crank and slotted lever mechanism: It is an application of second inversion. link 2. 2) Whitworth quick return motion mechanism Third inversion is obtained by fixing the crank i. The ram with the cutting tool reciprocates perpendicular to the fixed link 3. The crank and slotted lever mechanism is shown in figure below. I. the sliding piston 4 reciprocates in the slotted link 1.e. when the crank rotates uniformly. Whitworth quick return mechanism is an application of third inversion. compressors. The ram with the tool reverses its direction of motion when link 2 is perpendicular to link 4. pumps. The slider (link 1) reciprocates in oscillating slotted lever (link 4) and crank (link 2) rotates. The crank OC is fixed and OQ rotates about O. In this mechanism link 3 is fixed. Link 5 connects the extension OQ provided on the opposite side of the link 1 to the ram (link 6).C. slotting machines and in rotary engines. The slider slides in the slotted link and generates a circle of radius CP. we get This mechanism is used in shaping machines. When the crank 2 rotates about O.

It is a rotary cylinder V – type internal combustion engine used as an aero – engine. where the entire mechanical power developed. In this mechanism when the pistons reciprocate in the cylinders. The Gnome engine has generally seven cylinders in one plane. This mechanism is shown in the figure below. The angle covered during cutting stroke from P1 to P2 in counter clockwise direction is α or 360 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 R which reciprocates. pistons and connecting rods rotate about the axis O. But now Gnome engine has been replaced by Gas turbines. the whole assembly of cylinders. During the return stroke. The quick return motion mechanism is used in shapers and slotting machines. is obtained in the form of rotation of the crank shaft. 4) Rotary engine mechanism or Gnome Engine Rotary engine mechanism or gnome engine is another application of third inversion.2θ. the angle covered is 2θ or β. The crank OA is fixed and all the connecting rods from the pistons are connected to A. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 17 .

PR = PQ. 3) Oldham‟s Coupling. The end R generates an ellipse with the displacement of sliders P and Q. Hence the instrument traces an ellipse. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 18 . cos θ = x. Here the slotted link is fixed. The sliding block P and Q in vertical and horizontal slots respectively. In this case. 2) Scotch yoke mechanism. QR Squaring and adding (i) and (ii) we get x2 (PR)2 x2 + y2 = cos2 θ + sin2 θ (QR)2 + y2 =1 (PR)2 (QR)2 The equation is that of an ellipse. 1) Elliptical trammel. PR and Sin θ = y . Path traced by mid-point of PQ is a circle. From the fig. They are three important inversions of double slider crank chain. Inversions of Double slider Crank chain: It consists of two sliding pairs and two turning pairs. 1) Elliptical Trammel: This is an instrument for drawing ellipses.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Double slider crank chain: A four bar chain having two turning and two sliding pairs such that two pairs of the same kind are adjacent is known as double slider crank chain. The co-ordinates of the point R are x and y.

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 19 . The mechanism is used to convert rotary to reciprocating mechanism. 2) Scotch yoke mechanism: This mechanism. the slider Q reciprocates in the vertical slot. the slider P is fixed. When PQ rotates above P.Kinematics of Machines x2 + y2 10ME44 =1 (PR)2 (QR)2 Its an equation of circle with PR = QR = radius of a circle.

the flange 3 must turn through the same angle. If the distance between the axis of the shaft is x. When flange 1 turns. An application of the third inversion of the double slider crank mechanism is Oldham‟s coupling shown in the figure. The intermediate piece forms the link 4 which slides or reciprocates in flanges 1 & 3. These flanges form 1 and 3. the intermediate disc 4 must turn through the same angle and whatever angle 4 turns. The link two is fixed as shown.Kinematics of Machines 3) 10ME44 Oldham‟s coupling: The third inversion of obtained by fixing the link connecting the 2 blocks P & Q. If one block is turning through an angle. The two shafts to be connected have flanges at their ends. 4 & 3 must have the same angular velocity at every instant. = angular velocity of each shaft in rad/sec v = linear velocity in m/sec Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 20 . An intermediate disc having tongues at right angles and opposite sides is fitted in between the flanges. The maximum sliding speed of each tongue along its slot is given by v=x where. This coupling is used for connecting two parallel shafts when the distance between the shafts is small. the frame and the other block will also turn through the same angle. It is shown in the figure below. secured by forging. Slots are cut in the flanges. Hence 1. it will be the diameter if the circle traced by the centre of the intermediate piece.

Crank and slotted lever mechanism o Whitworth quick return mechanism: Whitworth quick return mechanism is an application of third inversion of the single slider crank chain. The various quick return mechanisms commonly used are Whitworth Drag link. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 21 .Kinematics of Machines 1.2θ. the angle covered is 2θ or β. The ratio of time of working stroke to that of the return stroke is known a time ratio. During these operations for a certain period the mechanisms will be under load known as working stroke and the remaining period is known as the return stroke. The crank OC is fixed and OQ rotates about O. the mechanism returns to repeat the operation without load.3 i) 10ME44 Mechanisms: Quick return motion mechanisms: Many a times mechanisms are designed to perform repetitive operations. Quick return mechanisms are used in machine tools to give a slow cutting stroke and a quick return stroke. During the return stroke. The slider slides in the slotted link and generates a circle of radius CP. This mechanism is shown in the figure below. The quick return motion mechanism is used in shapers and slotting machines. Link 5 connects the extension OQ provided on the opposite side of the link 1 to the ram (link 6). The rotary motion of P is taken to the ram R which reciprocates. The angle covered during cutting stroke from P1 to P2 in counter clockwise direction is α or 360 .

the crank CD rotate at a non-uniform speed. We can observe that / α > / β. 2. The crank and slotted lever mechanism is shown in figure below. Shortest link is always stationary link. Hence time of working stroke is α /β times more or the return stroke is α /β times quicker. 3) Crank and slotted lever mechanism: It is an application of second inversion.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 ii) Drag link mechanism : This is four bar mechanism with double crank in which the shortest link is fixed. Sum of the shortest and the longest links of the four links 1. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 22 . If the crank AB rotates at a uniform speed. It is the necessary condition for the drag link quick return mechanism. 3 and 4 are less than the sum of the other two. This rotation of link CD is transformed to quick return reciprocatory motion of the ram E by the link CE as shown in figure. the link CD rotates through 180o . When the crank AB rotates through an angle α in Counter clockwise direction during working stroke.

when the crank rotates uniformly. Scott Russell mechanism. The ram with the cutting tool reciprocates perpendicular to the fixed link 3. Link 5 connects link 4 to the ram (link 6). slotting machines and in rotary engines. (ii) Straight line Motion machines: The easiest way to generate a straight line motion is by using a sliding pair but in precision machines sliding pairs are not preferred because of wear and tear. Ex. Thus the cutting stroke is executed during the rotation of the crank through angle α and the return stroke is executed when the crank rotates through angle β or 360 – α.: Watt mechanism Grasshopper‟s mechanism Robert‟s mechanism Tchebicheff‟s mechanism Peaucillier mechanism : Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 23 . Therefore. Time to cutting = α= α . The slider (link 1) reciprocates in oscillating slotted lever (link 4) and crank (link 2) rotates. Ex. Hart mechanism.: Peaucellier mechanism. we get.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 In this mechanism link 3 is fixed. The ram with the tool reverses its direction of motion when link 2 is perpendicular to link 4. Time of return β 360 – α This mechanism is used in shaping machines. 2) Approximate straight line motion mechanisms. Hence in such cases different methods are used to generate straight line motion mechanisms: 1) Exact straight line motion mechanism.

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 24 .FP2 = (AF – FP) (AF+FP) = AQ x AP Since AB and BP are links of a constant length. The link OQ and the fixed link are equal in length.e.. The link PQ and RS are of equal length and the tracing pint „O‟ is rigidly attached to the link QR on a line which bisects QR at right angles. BFP. we have AB2 = AF2 + FB2 and BP2 = BF2 + FP2 Subtracting. o Robert‟s mechanism : This is also a four bar chain. The best position for O may be found by making use of the instantaneous centre of QR. link AB = link AC. i. The product AQ x AP remain constant as the link OQ rotates may be proved as follows: Join BC to bisect PQ at F. from the right angled triangles AFB. then.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 The pin Q is constrained to move long the circumference of a circle by means of the link OQ. CP. Therefore the point P traces out a straight path normal to AR.BP2 = AF2 . PB and BQ of equal length to the fixed pin A. The pins P and Q are on opposite corners of a four bar chain which has all four links QC. the product AQ x AP is constant. AB2 . The path of O is clearly approximately horizontal in the Robert‟s mechanism.

the ratchet wheel rotates in the counter clock wise direction (driven by pawl). the follower remains in rest locked in position by the circular arc. During the remaining time of one revolution of the driver. clocks. watches and counting devices. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 25 . A ratchet and Pawl mechanism consists of a ratchet wheel 2 and a pawl 3 as shown in the figure.Kinematics of Machines iii) 10ME44 Intermittent motion mechanism: 1) Ratchet and Pawl mechanism: This mechanism is used in producing intermittent rotary Motion member. the Pin and follower remain in contact and hence the follower is turned by one quarter of a turn. It consists of a driving wheel D carrying a pin P which engages in a slot of follower F as shown in figure. One more pawl 5 is used to prevent the ratchet from reversing. lifting jacks. 2) Geneva mechanism: Geneva mechanism is an intermittent motion mechanism. When the lever 4 carrying pawl is raised. Ratchets are used in feed mechanisms. During one quarter revolution of the driving plate. As the pawl lever is lowered the pawl slides over the ratchet teeth.

Their motions will be proportional to their distance from the fixed point. The links are pin jointed at A. 4. B. Then it can be shown that the points P and Q always move parallel and similar to each other over any path straight or curved. Let ABCD be the initial position. C moves to Q1 . AB is parallel to DC and AD is parallel to BC. Q and P are in a straight line. If the motion of Q is to be enlarged then the link BC is extended to P such that O. Q is a point on the link AD. This is a simple figure of a Pantograph. C and D. Hence this mechanism finds its use in copying devices such as engraving or profiling machines. D moves to D1 and P to P1 ) and the new configuration of the mechanism is shown by dotted lines. Toggle Mechanism: Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 26 . Suppose if point Q moves to Q1 . The movement of Q (Q Q1) will be enlarged to PP1 in a definite ratio. B moves to Q1 . Link BA is extended to fixed pin O. then all the links and the joints will move to the new positions (such as A moves to A1 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 3) Pantograph: Pantograph is used to copy the curves in reduced or enlarged scales.

The figure below shows a toggle mechanism. the force F rises rapidly. The ratio of the crank movement to the slider movement approaching infinity is proportional to the mechanical advantage. Resolving the forces at C vertically F Sin α = P Cos α 2 Therefore. (because Sin α/Cos α = Tan α) 2 tan α Thus for the given value of P.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 In slider crank mechanism as the crank approaches one of its dead centre position. This is the principle used in toggle mechanism. 4) Hooke‟s joint: Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 27 . as the links CD and CE approaches collinear position (α O). the slider approaches zero. Links CD and CE are of same length. A toggle mechanism is used when large forces act through a short distance is required. F = P .

In Europe it is called as Cardan joint.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Hooke‟s joint used to connect two parallel intersecting shafts as shown in figure. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 28 . Therefore for different value of the corresponding value of and are tabulated. When the vehicles steer to the right as shown in the figure. Approximate value of b/l for correct steering should be between 0. the short link BL is turned so as to increase α. For different angle of turn θ. the longer links AB and KL are parallel and the shorter links AK and BL are inclined at an angle α. This can also be used for shaft with angular misalignment where flexible coupling does not serve the purpose. In an Ackermann steering gear mechanism. The fundamental equation for correct steering is.5. Hence Hooke‟s joint is a means of connecting two rotating shafts whose axes lie in the same plane and their directions making a small angle with each other. the instantaneous centre I does not lie on the axis of the rear axle but on a line parallel to the rear axle axis at an approximate distance of 0. the corresponding value of Φ and (Cot Φ – Cos θ) are noted. This is done by actually drawing the mechanism to a scale or by calculations. The cross link KL connects two short axles AC and BD of the front wheels through the short links AK and BL which forms bell crank levers CAK and DBL respectively as shown in fig. where as the link LK causes the other short link AK to turn so as to reduce α. In the above arrangement it is clear that the angle Φ through which AK turns is less than the angle θ through which the BL turns and therefore the left front axle turns through a smaller angle than the right front axle. 5) Ackermann steering gear mechanism: This mechanism is made of only turning pairs and is made of only turning pairs wear and tear of the parts is less and cheaper in manufacturing. Cot Φ – Cos θ = b / l.4 and 0. It is commonly known as Universal joint.3l above it.

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 29 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Three correct steering positions will be: When moving straight When moving one correct angle to the right corresponding to the link ratio AK/AB and angle α. By varying the angle of the crank piece it can be used to change the angle of movement from 1 degree to 180 degrees.) Some Of The Mechanisms Which Are Used In Day To Day Life. Similar position when moving to the left. The bell crank was originally used in large house to operate the servant‟s bell. hence the name. (In all other positions pure rolling is not obtainable. Bell Crank: The bell crank is used to convert the direction of reciprocating movement.

The crescent shaped cut out in dark orange section lets the points of the cross past. The Geneva stop is used to provide intermittent motion. then locks the wheel in place when it is stationary. the dark blue pin then turns the blue cross quarter of a turn for each revolution of the drive wheel. a similar shape to the main part of the mechanism. The Geneva stop mechanism is used commonly in film Elliptical Trammel Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 30 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 GENEVA STOP: The Geneva stop is named after the Geneva cross. the orange wheel turns continuously.

The rack is the flat. Rack and pinion can convert from rotary to linear of from linear to rotary. toothed part. it works either way. Rack And Pinion The rack and pinion is used to convert between rotary and linear motion. and increases its speed. The piston starts from one end. Piston Arrangement This mechanism is used to convert between rotary motion and reciprocating motion. It reaches maximum speed in the middle of its travel then gradually slows down until it reaches the end of its travel. the pinion is the gear. A similar mechanism is used in ellipse drawing tools. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 31 .Notice that the handle traces out an ellipse rather than a circle. Notice how the speed of the piston changes.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 This fascinating mechanism converts rotary motion to reciprocating motion in two axis.

Kinematics of Machines

10ME44

The diameter of the gear determines the speed that the rack moves as the pinion turns.

Rack and pinions are commonly used in the steering system of cars to convert the rotary

motion of the steering wheel to the side to side motion in the wheels.

Rack and pinion gears give a positive motion especially compared to the friction drive of

a wheel in tarmac. In the rack and pinion railway a central rack between the two rails

engages with a pinion on the engine allowing the train to be pulled up very steep slopes.

Ratchet

**The ratchet can be used to move a toothed wheel one tooth at a time. The part used to
**

move the ratchet is known as the pawl.

The ratchet can be used as a way of gearing down motion. By its nature motion created

by a ratchet is intermittent. By using two pawls simultaneously this intermittent effect can

be almost, but not quite, removed.

Ratchets are also used to ensure that motion only occurs in only one direction, useful for

winding gear which must not be allowed to drop. Ratchets are also used in the freewheel

mechanism of a bicycle.

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT

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Kinematics of Machines

10ME44

Worm Gear

A worm is used to reduce speed. For each complete turn of the worm shaft the gear shaft

advances only one tooth of the gear.

In this case, with a twelve tooth gear, the speed is reduced by a factor of twelve. Also, the

axis of rotation is turned by 90 degrees.

Unlike ordinary gears, the motion is not reversible, a worm can drive a gear to reduce

speed but a gear cannot drive a worm to increase it.

As the speed is reduced the power to the drive increases correspondingly. Worm gears

are a compact, efficient means of substantially decreasing speed and increasing power.

Ideal for use with small electric motors.

Watch Escapement.

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Kinematics of Machines

10ME44

**The watch escapement is the centre of the time piece. It is the escapement which divides
**

the time into equal segments.

The balance wheel, the gold wheel, oscillates backwards and forwards on a hairspring

(not shown) as the balance wheel moves the lever is moved allowing the escape wheel

(green) to rotate by one tooth.

The power comes through the escape wheel which gives a small 'kick' to the palettes

(purple) at each tick.

Gears.

**Gears are used to change speed in rotational movement. In the example above the blue
**

gear has eleven teeth and the orange gear has twenty five. To turn the orange gear one

full turn the blue gear must turn 25/11 or 2.2727r turns. Notice that as the blue gear turns

clockwise the orange gear turns anti-clockwise.

In the above example the number of teeth on the orange gear is not divisible by the

number of teeth on the blue gear. This is deliberate. If the orange gear had thirty three

teeth then every three turns of the blue gear the same teeth would mesh together which

could cause excessive wear. By using none divisible numbers the same teeth mesh only

every seventeen turns of the blue gear.

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT

Page 34

the cam follower traces the surface of the cam transmitting its motion to the required mechanism. Cam follower design is important in the way the profile of the cam is followed. A fine pointed follower will more accurately trace the outline of the cam. The motion created can be simple and regular or complex and irregular. As the cam turns. Cams are used to convert rotary motion into reciprocating motion. This more accurate movement is at the expense of the strength of the cam follower. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 35 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Cam Follower. driven by the circular motion. Steam Engine.

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 36 . then the other forcing it back and forth. The reciprocating motion of the piston is converted to useful rotary motion using a crank. In this common design high pressure steam is pumped alternately into one side of the piston. As the large wheel (the fly wheel) turns a small crank or cam is used to move the small red control valve back and forth controlling where the steam flows. In this animation the oval crank has been made transparent so that you can see how the control valve crank is attached.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Steam engines were the backbone of the industrial revolution.

f = dv dt 2 d x Linear Acceleration (Rate of change of linear velocity) 2 dt Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 37 . The analysis can be carried out both by graphical method as well as analytical method. The mechanism will be represented by a line diagram which is known as configuration diagram. linear displacement and is denoted by „x‟. As dynamic forces are a function of acceleration and acceleration is a function of velocities. A body rotating about a fired point in such a way that all particular move in circular path angular displacement and is denoted by „ ‟.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 UNIT 03 VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION ANALYSIS Introduction Kinematics deals with study of relative motion between the various parts of the machines. Velocity: Rate of change of displacement is velocity. Velocity can be linear velocity of angular velocity. Study of Motions of various parts of a machine is important for determining their velocities and accelerations at different moments. velocity and acceleration of a part of the machine. Some important Definitions Displacement: All particles of a body move in parallel planes and travel by same distance is known. study of velocity and acceleration will be useful in the design of mechanism of a machine. Thus motion leads study of displacement. Kinematics does not involve study of forces.

A O2 Va = 2 2 xr Va = 2 x O2 A Ex: Vao2 is absolute velocity. This is absolute velocity Velocity of point A with respect to O2 fixed point.Kinematics of Machines Thirdly 10ME44 2 d 2 Angular Acceleration (Rate of change of angular velocity) dt = d dt We also have. Small letters are used for velocity vector diagram. B A 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 38 . Relative velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to another point „x‟ A 3 B 4 2 O2 O4 Ex: Vba Velocity of point B with respect to A Note: Capital letters are used for configuration diagram. Absolute velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to a fixed point (zero velocity point). zero velocity point.

o A link AB moving in a vertical plane such that the link is inclined at 30 to the horizontal with point A is moving horizontally at 4 m/s and point B moving vertically upwards. B O4 Vb Absolute velocity is velocity of B with respect to O4 (fixed point. zero velocity point) b Vba Vb O2. us consider a simple situation. To illustrate the difference between absolute velocity and relative velocity. Va = 4 m/s ab Absolute velocity Horizontal direction (known in magnitude and directors) Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 39 . Vector O4 b = Vb absolute velocity. Find velocity of B. O4 Vab a Velocity vector diagram Vector O2a = Va= Absolute velocity Vector ab = Vab Relative velocity ba = Va Vab is equal magnitude with Vba but is apposite in direction.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Vba = or Vab Vba = or Vab Equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. Let.

1 Point O is fixed and End A is a point on rigid body. yA = R sin .R sin Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 40 .Kinematics of Machines Vb = ? ab 10ME44 Absolute velocity Vertical direction (known in directors only) A 30 o Va O 4 m/s a Vab Vb C B Vba Velocity of B with respect to A is equal in magnitude to velocity of A with respect to B but opposite in direction. Consider rigid link rotating about a fixed centre O. Differentiating xA with respect to time gives velocity. as shown in figure. Rotation of a rigid link about a fixed centre. Relative Velocity Equation y Rigid body A ya R O O4 x xA Fig. The distance between O and A is R and OA makes and angle „ ‟ with x-axis next link xA = R cos . d xA R sin θ dθ dt dt = .

2 Points A and B are located on rigid body From Fig. 10ME44 dy A R cos θ dθ dt = .Kinematics of Machines Similarly. 2 xB = xA + R cos Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT yB = yA + R sin Page 41 .R cos dt d Let. d xA dt yA = dθ V dt x V A y A = angular velocity of OA dt x VA = .Rω sin y VA = .Rω cos Total velocity of point A is given by VA = R 2 sin R cos θ 2 VA = Rω Relative Velocity Equation of Two Points on a Rigid link Rigid body B yB R sin yA A R cos xA xB x Fig.

By graphical method 2. ( R ωsin = ( VA = ( VA VB = VA y VA (Rω sin y Rω = VA + R ωcos ) + Rω cos ) = Rω VBA VBA = VB – VA Velocity analysis of any mechanism can be carried out by various methods. VB = V = x R cos θ y V = Total velocity of point A A A y x V = Total velocity of point B B B x VA y (Rω sin ) Rω cos x VA ) x VA ) VA Similarly. d d xB x xA R sin θ dθ VB dt dt dt d x xA R sin θ VA R sin dt d Similarly. d yB dt yA y d VB dt yA dθ R cos θ dt y R cos θ VA dt VA = V Similarly.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Differentiating xB and yB with respect to time we get. By instantaneous method Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 42 . By relative velocity method 3. 1.

Kinematics of Machines

10ME44

**By Graphical Method
**

The following points are to be considered while solving problems by this method.

1. Draw the configuration design to a suitable scale.

2. Locate all fixed point in a mechanism as a common point in velocity diagram.

3. Choose a suitable scale for the vector diagram velocity.

4. The velocity vector of each rotating link is r to the link.

5. Velocity of each link in mechanism has both magnitude and direction. Start from a

point whose magnitude and direction is known.

6. The points of the velocity diagram are indicated by small letters.

To explain the method let us take a few specific examples.

1. Four – Bar Mechanism: In a four bar chain ABCD link AD is fixed and in 15 cm long.

The crank AB is 4 cm long rotates at 180 rpm (cw) while link CD rotates about D is 8

cm long BC = AD and | BAD = 60o. Find angular velocity of link CD.

C

15 cm

B

8 cm

ωBA

60o

A

D 15 cm

Configuration Diagram

**Velocity vector diagram
**

2πx120

Vb = r = ba x AB = x4 = 50.24 cm/sec 60

Choose a suitable scale

1 cm = 20 m/s = ab

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT

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Kinematics of Machines

10ME44

r

to CD

a, d

c

Vcb

r

r

to BC

to AB

b

Vcb = bc

Vc = dc = 38 cm/sec = Vcd

We know that V =ω R

Vcd = CD x CD

ωcD =

Vcd

CD

38

8

4.75 rad/sec (cw)

**2. Slider Crank Mechanism:
**

In a crank and slotted lever mechanism crank rotates of 300 rpm in a counter clockwise

direction. Find

(i) Angular velocity of connecting rod and

(ii) Velocity of slider.

A

60 mm

45

150 mm

o

B

Configuration diagram

**Step 1: Determine the magnitude and velocity of point A with respect to 0,
**

2π x 300

VA = O1A x O2A = x 60 60

= 600 mm/sec

Step 2: Choose a suitable scale to draw velocity vector diagram.

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT

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Kinematics of Machines

10ME44

a Va

r

r

to AB

to OA

b

O

Along sides B

Velocity vector diagram

Vab = ab =1300mm/sec

ba =

Vba 1300

8.66 rad/sec BA 150

**Vb = ob velocity of slider
**

Note: Velocity of slider is along the line of sliding.

3. Shaper Mechanism:

In a crank and slotted lever mechanisms crank O2A rotates at

direction. Determine the velocity of slider.

6

D

rad/sec in CCW

Scale 1 cm = ……x…. m

5

C

ω

O2

3

B

2

4

O1

Configuration diagram

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT

Page 45

C and D.e. The velocity of rubbing of pins depends on the angular velocity of links relative to each other as well as direction. For example: In a four bar mechanism we have pins at points A. When the links are motion they rub against pin surface. when angular velocities are in opposite directions use + sign when angular velocities are in some directions use -ve sign. B. Vra = ab x ratios of pin A (rpa) + sign is used ab is CW and Wbc is CCW i. the dimensions of the links are as given below: Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 46 . Vrb = ( ab + bc) radius rpb VrC = ( bc + cd) radius rpc VrD = cd rpd Problems on velocity by velocity vector method (Graphical solutions) Problem 1: In a four bar mechanism.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 To Determine Velocity of Rubbing Two links of a mechanism having turning point will be connected by pins.

05 = 0. B. CF = 30 mm and BCF is read clockwise. The ratio of the pins are 30 mm. 25 mm and 35 mm respectively. vi) The velocity of rubbing of pins A. it is zero velocity point). BC = 66 mm CD = 56 mm and At a given instant when | DAB CCW direction.2 m/s.525 m/s Step – 3: To draw velocity vector diagram choose a suitable scale.5 x 0. Solution: Step -1: Construct the configuration diagram selecting a suitable scale. i) Velocity of point C ii) Velocity of point E on link BC when BE = 40 mm iii) The angular velocity of link BC and CD iv) The velocity of an offset point F on link BC.5 rad/sec in Determine. C and D. Vba = BA x BA = 10. First locate zero velocity points. Scale: 1 cm = 20 mm C G B F o 60 A D Step – 2: Given the angular velocity of link AB and its direction of rotation determine velocity of point with respect to A (A is fixed hence.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 AB = 50 mm. 40 mm. v) The velocity of an offset point G on link CD. if CG = 24 mm. AD = 100 mm o 60 the angular velocity of link AB is 10. if BF = 45 mm. say 1 cm = 0. DG = 44 mm and DCG is read clockwise. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 47 .

415 m/s. Vcb is given vector bc Vbc = 0.066 Join e on velocity vector diagram to zero velocity points a.39 m/s Step – 4: To determine velocity of point E (Absolute velocity) on link BC.44 m/s Vcd is given vector dc Vcd = 0.6 r / s .44 = 0.24 m/s BC 0.Kinematics of Machines Draw a line 0. This can be done by taking corresponding ratios of lengths of links to vector distance i.525 m/s. be BE bc BC be = BE x Vcb = 0. d f C From b draw a line r Ved to BC and from d. Vbc =ω BC x BC V b c 0.066 Similarly. d / vector de = Ve = 0.525 m/s e. (cw) BC 0. Step 5: To determine angular velocity of links BC and CD.44 ωBC = 6.e.04 x 0. we know Vbc and Vcd. Vcd = ωCD x CD Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 48 . g a. 10ME44 r to link AB in the direction of rotation of link AB (CCW) equal to b Vba = 0. first locate the position of point E on velocity vector diagram. Draw d line r to CD to interest at C.

035 = 0. When the crank turns through o 60 from Inner-dead centre. From the point f to zero velocity point a.056 ωCD = 6. r Draw a line to BF from b on velocity vector diagram to intersect the previously drawn line at „f‟.03 = 0. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 49 . d and measure vector fa to get Vf = 0.04 = 0.96 x 0.96 r / s (CCW) Step – 6: To determine velocity of an offset point F Draw a line r to CF from C on velocity vector diagram. Draw a line Draw a line line at g. The length of the connecting rod is 800 mm. Step – 7: To determine velocity of an offset point.39 CD 0.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 V cd 0. [ ab CCW and cbCW] Vpb = (10.5 + 6. Vg = dg 0. Rubbing velocity at point C will be = 6.244 m/s Problem 2: In a slider crank mechanism the crank is 200 mm long and rotates at 40 rad/sec in a CCW direction. r to DG from d on velocity vector diagram to intersect previously drawn Measure vector dg to get velocity of point G.5 x 0.6) x 0.495 m/s. r to GC from C on velocity vector diagram.684 m/s.315 m/s Rubbing velocity at pin B will be Vpb = ( ab + cb) x rpb of point at B.305 m / s Step – 8: To determine rubbing velocity at pins Rubbing velocity at pin A will be Vpa = ab x r of pin A Vpa = 10.

crank and cross head having pins diameters 80. Draw oa r to link OA equal to 8 m/s ea f b o. Mark zero velocity point o. i) The velocity of the slider ii) Velocity of point E located at a distance of 200 mm on the connecting rod extended. g r From a draw a line to AB and from o.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Determine. iii) The position and velocity of point F on the connecting rod having the least absolute velocity. E A F o 45 BOG Va = Woa x OA Va = 40 x 0. g draw a horizontal line (representing the line of motion of slider B) to intersect the previously drawn line at b. g. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 50 . iv) The angular velocity of connecting rod.2 Va = 8 m/s Step 2: Choose a suitable scale for velocity vector diagram and draw the velocity vector diagram. Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram by selecting a suitable scale. v) The velocity of rubbing of pins of crank shaft.60 and 100 mm respectively.

ge will give AB velocity of point E.4 m/sec Step 4: To mark point F on link AB such that this has least velocity (absolute).84 m/sec VP cross head = ab x rcross head = 6 x 0. g to cut the vector ab at f.6 m/sec Problem 3: A quick return mechanism of crank and slotted lever type shaping machine is shown in Fig. the dimensions of various links are as follows. Ve = ge =8. g.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 ab give Vba=4. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 51 . fb BF ab BF AB fb x AB =200mm ab Step – 5: To determine the angular velocity of connecting rod. Vpcrankshaft = ao x radius of crankshaft pin = 8 x 0. We know that Vab = ab x AB ab = Vab = 6 rad/sec AB Step – 6: To determine velocity of rubbing of pins.1 = 0. Join e to o.64 m/s VPcrank pin = ( ab + oa) rcrank pin= (6 +8)0. r Draw a line to ab passing through o. g. From f to o.8 m/sec Step – 3: To mark point „e‟ since „E‟ is on the extension of link AB drawn be = BE x ab mark the point e on extension of vector ba.08 = 0. To mark the position of F on link AB.06 =0. Find BF by using the relation. gf will have the least absolute velocity.

and ii) Angular velocity of link O2D. B C on O2D O1 B 2 45 o C O1 Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 52 . Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram R R Tool D 200 D B on orank. O. Find: i) Velocity of the Ram R.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 O1O2 = 800 mm. O2D = 1300 mm and DR = 400 mm o The crank O1B makes an angle of 45 with the vertical and relates at 40 rpm in the CCW direction. velocity of cutting tool. O1B = 300 mm.

3 = 1.18 x 0.3 m/sec b d c r Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT O1O2 Page 53 .18 rad / sec 60 60 O1B = Vb = 4. Vb = O1B x O1B 2 N O1B 2 x 40 4.254 m/sec Step 3: Draw velocity vector diagram. Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 0.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Step 2: Determine velocity of point B.

o Choose a suitable scale o Mark zero velocity points O. Find the velocity and acceleration of the slider D.024 m / s 60 Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Problem 4: Figure below shows a toggle mechanisms in which the crank OA rotates at 120 rpm. a b O. Step 2: Determine velocity of point A with respect to O. Vao = OA x OA 2 x120 Vao = 0.q Draw vector oa to link OA and magnitude = 5.024 o r m/s. Solution: 120 All the dimensions in mm 45 o A 40 190 100 135 B 120 D Configuration Diagram Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram choosing a suitable scal.4 5.q Velocity vector diagram Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT D Page 54 .

to BD from b from q draw a line along the slide to intersect at d.5 r/s at the moment when crank makes an angle of 45o with vertical. Calculate OP (crank) = 240 mm a) the velocity of the Ram S OA = 150 mm b) the velocity of slider P on the slotted level AR = 165 mm c) the angular velocity of the link RS.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 r o From a draw a line ab o Draw a line to AB and from q draw a line Vba and qb r dq r to QB to intersect at b.24 0. Vd (slider velocity) Problem 5: A whitworth quick return mechanism shown in figure has the following dimensions of the links. The crank rotates at an angular velocity of 2. Vbq .6 m / s 60 Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 55 . VP = OP x OP Vao = 2 x 240 x 0. R S A O 45 o P on slider Q on BA B Configuration Diagram Step 2: To determine the absolute velocity of point P. RS = 430 mm Solution: Step 1: To draw configuration diagram to a suitable scale.

g r Velocity vector diagram o Draw op r link OP = 0. BQ and BC. Pq = Velocity of sliding. find the velocities of the points B and C and the angular velocities of links AB.6 m. P 0.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale. p From O. Vqa = aq = o Angular velocity of link RS = sr RS rad/sec SR Problem 6: A toggle mechanism is shown in figure along with the diagrams of the links in mm. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 56 . aq = Velocity of Q with respect to A. line at q. a. The crank rotates at 50 rpm in the clockwise direction. g draw a line r to AP/AQ and from P draw a line along AP to intersect previously draw. a.6 m q S O.

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 C Q 100 B 140 OA = 30 AB = 80 A BQ = 100 50 rpm BC = 100 All dimensions are in mm O Solution Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale.05 m / s 0. Step 2: Calculate the magnitude of velocity of A with respect to O.1507 m / s 60 b O. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 57 . V a = OA x OA Va = 2 x 50 x 0. q a c Vector velocity diagram Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale.03 0.

74 r / s (ccw) bq qb 1.15 m/s r p From a draw a link to AB and from O. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 58 .33 r / s (ccw) BC BC Problem 7: The mechanism of a stone crusher has the dimensions as shown in figure in mm.3 r / s (ccw) aB From b draw a line OC Vb r r to Be and from O. 0.13 m / s 0.106 m / s bc 1.Kinematics of Machines o r Draw Oa 10ME44 to link OA = 0. q these two lines intersect at C. q draw a link ab Vba ab o and qb = ab AB VC bC VCb to BQ to intersect at b. Step 2: Given speed of crank OA determine velocity of A with respect to „o‟. 0. Find the velocity of point K when crank OA is inclined at 30o to the horizontal. What will be the torque required at the crank to overcome a horizontal force of 40 kN at K. 500 60 o A 100 M hz h2 100 200 K 600 400 600 D 320 360 B 200 C Configuration diagram Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale. If crank rotates at 120 rpm CW.

T V= R OA I T P O P T=FxP F= T r TOA = Fk Vk horizontal Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 59 . to AC to intersect at c. r r to BQ to intersect at b. r to MD to intersect at to KM to x intersect the o Since we have to determine the torque required at OA to overcome a horizontal force of 40 kN at K. Draw a the horizontal line from o.26 m/s o From a draw a link o From b draw a line o From c draw a line d. r r r r to AB and from q draw a link to BC and from a. draw a line to CD and from m draw a line o From d draw a line r to KD and from m draw a line previously drawn line at k. m k b c a Velocity vector diagram Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by selecting a suitable scale.1 1. q. m and c line r to this line from k. o r Draw Oa to link OA = 1. q.26 m / s 60 Vk(hz) d o.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Va = OA 2 x 120 x OA = x 0.

AC = 680 mm and OQ = 650 mm. i) The angular velocity of the cylinder ii) The sliding velocity of the plunger iii) The absolute velocity of the plunger When the crank OA rotates at 20 rad/sec clockwise. Determine.6 N-m Problem 8: In the mechanism shown in figure link OA = 320 mm.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 FV TOA = k k hz OA TOA = 40000 X 0. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 60 .45 = 12.

draw a line perpendicular to AB. ab o = V ab AB = 5. The length of the various links are: Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 61 . o Angular velocity of cylinder will be.1 m/s o Absolute velocity of plunger = OC qc = 4.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 r From a draw a line to AB and from o. o To mark point c on ab We know that ab ac ac ab x AC AB AC = AB o Mark point c on ab and joint this to zero velocity point.22 m/s Problem 9: In a swiveling joint mechanism shown in figure link AB is the driving crank which rotates at 300 rpm clockwise. q.61 rad/sec (c ) Studying velocity of player will be qb = 4.

Kinematics of Machines Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT 10ME44 Page 62 .

Kinematics of Machines Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT 10ME44 Page 63 .

Kinematics of Machines Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT 10ME44 Page 64 .

43 m/s o From b draw a line o From b draw a line r to BG. f draw a line Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT to CF to intersect at C.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 r o Draw gb = 0. Page 65 . r to GE to intersect at e. to BC and from „f‟ draw a line r r to BE and from g.

ii) Angular velocity of link BD. locate zero velocity points O2O6. i) Velocity of point D. Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram. Vb = 2 x O2A Vb = 1 x 50.Kinematics of Machines o 10ME44 From c draw a line r to CD and from f draw a line r to FD to intersect at d.8 = 50. iii) Velocity of slider C. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 66 . Solution: Step 1: Draw configuration diagram. Step 2: Determine velocity of A with respect to O2.8 mm/sec. Problem 11: For the mechanism shown in figure link 2 rotates at constant angular velocity of 1 rad/sec construct the velocity polygon and determine.

O6 draw a line r to O6D to intersect at Vd = O6 d = 32 mm/sec = BDbd = Vc = O2C = bd Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 67 . o Mark point b on vector ac such that ab o From b draw a line d. O6 draw a line along the line of stocks of c to intersect the previously drawn line at c. Step 4: r ab AC x AB to BD and from O2. r to O2A in the direction of rotation equal to 50.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 o From O2.8 o From a draw a line r to Ac and from O2. O6 draw a line mm/sec.

AB and BC are 750 mm and 200 mm long respectively crank BC is rotating e at a uniform speed of 200 rpm. CDE and EF. Draw the velocity vector diagram and determine velocity of slider A and angular velocity of link AB. Problem 2: For the mechanism shown in figure determine the velocities at points C. E and F and the angular velocities of links. The slider moves along an axis perpendicular to r AO and in 120 mm from O. OA = 300 mm.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE Problem 1: In a slider crank mechanism shown in offset by a perpendicular distance of 50 mm from the centre C. Various lengths of the links are OP = 90 mm. Determine the velocity of the slider when | AOP is 135o and also mention the maximum velocity of slider. The crank op of a crank and slotted lever mechanism shown in figure rotates at 100 rpm in the CCW direction. BC. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 68 . AR = 480 mm and RS = 330 mm.

The angular speed of link 2 is 200 rad/sec CCW.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Problem 4: Find the velocity of link 4 of the scotch yoke mechanism shown in figure. link O2P = 40 mm. 4 P 3 2 Q on link 4 o 45 Problem 5: In the mechanism shown in figure link AB rotates uniformly in C direction at 240 rpm. Determine the linear velocity of B and angular velocity of EF. E C B A AB = 160 mm BC = 160 mm CD = 100 mm o 45 AD = 200 mm EF = 200 mm 100 mm F Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT CE = 40 mm Page 69 .

04 VELOCITY AND ACCELRATION ANALYSIS (Instantaneous Method ) Instantaneous Method To explain instantaneous centre let us consider a plane body P having a non-linear motion relative to another body q consider two points A and B on body P having velocities as Va and Vb respectively in the direction shown. The point I is known as the instantaneous centre of rotation for the body P. the body P will be rotating about I at that instant. The position of instantaneous centre changes with the motion of the body. If the intersection of the two lines is at I. centre of rotation of the body also lies on a line r to the direction of Vb at B. Thirdly.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 UNIT. If a line is drawn r to Va. at A the body can be imagined to rotate about some point on the line. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 70 . In case of the r lines drawn from A and B meet outside the body P as shown in Fig 2.

If N is the number of instantaneous centers and n is the number of links Fixed instantaneous center I12. I14 Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 71 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 If the direction of Va and Vb are parallel to the r at A and B met at . Number of Instantaneous Centers The number of instantaneous centers in a mechanism depends upon number of links. This is the case when the body has linear motion.

Hence. Hence. Hence. Hence. Steps to locate instantaneous centers: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Permanent instantaneous center I23. Point A is a coincident point on link 2 and link 3. To illustrate the procedure let us consider an example A slider crank mechanism has lengths of crank and connecting rod equal to 200 mm and 200 mm respectively locate all the instantaneous centers of the mechanism for the position of the Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 72 . for the three links to be in relative motion all the three centers should lie in a same straight line. Considering A on link 2. velocity of A with respect to I12 will be a vector VA2 r to link A I12. I12 and I13 are the instantaneous centers for link 2 and link 3. I34 Neither fixed nor permanent instantaneous center I13. It can be seen that when I23 lies on the line joining I12 and I13 the VA2 and VA3 will be same in magnitude and direction. Step 2: Identify the number of instantaneous centers by using the relation Step 3: Identify the instantaneous centers by circle diagram. their instantaneous centers should lie in a straight line.e. I23. the proof. It is seen that velocity vector of VA2 and VA3 are in different directions which is impossible. Step 4: Locate all the instantaneous centers by making use of Kennedy‟s theorem. the instantaneous center of the two links cannot be at the assumed position. Consider a three link mechanism with link 1 being fixed link 2 rotating about I12 and link 3 rotating about I13. I24 Arnold Kennedy theorem of three centers: Statement: If three bodies have motion relative to each other. Let us assume that instantaneous center of link 2 and 3 be at point A i. velocity of A with respect to I13 will be r to A I13. Similarly for point A on link 3.

Step 2: Determine the number of links in the mechanism and find number of instantaneous centers. Also find velocity of slider and angular velocity of connecting rod if crank rotates at 40 rad/sec. Step 1: Draw configuration diagram to a suitable scale. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 73 . Step 3: Identify instantaneous centers. o Suit it is a 4-bar link the resulting figure will be a square.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 crank when it has turned through 30o from IOC.

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 o Locate fixed and permanent instantaneous centers. Step 4: Velocity of different points. Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale. Va = 2 AI12 = 40 x 0. BC = CD = 360 mm and AD = 600 mm. Angle | BAD 60o .2 = 8 m/s also Va = 2 x A13 3 = Va AI13 Vb = 3 x BI13 = Velocity of slider. Crank AB rotates in C direction at a speed of 100 rpm. To locate neither fixed nor permanent instantaneous centers use Kennedy‟s three centers theorem. Problem 2: A four bar mechanisms has links AB = 300 mm. Locate all the instantaneous centers and determine the angular velocity of link BC. Step 2: Find the number of Instantaneous centers Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 74 .

C. D and angular velocities of links AB. BC and CD. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 75 . method determine the linear velocities of points B.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 For a mechanism in figure crank OA rotates at 100 rpm clockwise using I.C.

Kinematics of Machines

10ME44

OA = 20 cm

AB = 150 cm

BC = 60 cm

CD = 50 cm

BE = 40 cm

OE = 135 cm

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Kinematics of Machines

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**In the toggle mechanism shown in figure the slider D is constrained to move in a horizontal
**

path the crank OA is rotating in CCW direction at a speed of 180 rpm the dimensions of

various links are as follows:

OA = 180 mm CB = 240 mm

AB = 360 mm BD = 540 mm

Find,

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Kinematics of Machines

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i) Velocity of slider

Angular velocity of links AB, CB and BD.

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4 m/s Va = 3 x AI13 V 3 = a AI13 2.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Va = 2 x AI12 = 3.44 rad / sec Vb = 3 x BI13 Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 79 .

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Vb = 4 x BI14 4 = Vb 11.875 rad / sec AI14 Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 80 .

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 81 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Figure shows a six link mechanism. What will be the velocity of cutting tool D and the angular velocities of links BC and CD if crank rotates at 10 rad/sec.

Kinematics of Machines Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT 10ME44 Page 82 .

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Va = 2 x AI12 = 10 x 0.25 rad / sec VC = 4 x CI14 Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 83 .015 Va = 2 x AI12 = 0.15 m/s Va = 3 x AI13 3 = Va AI13 Vb = 3 x BI13 Vb = 4 x BI14 4 = Vb BI14 4.

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 84 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 A whitworth quick return mechanism shown in figure has a fixed link OA and crank OP having length 200 mm and 350 mm respectively. Find the velocity of the rotation using IC method when crank makes an angle of 120 o with fixed link and rotates at 10 rad/sec. Other lengths are AR = 200 mm and RS = 40 mm.

Kinematics of Machines Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT 10ME44 Page 85 .

Kinematics of Machines Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT 10ME44 Page 86 .

1. A change in velocity requires any one of the following conditions to be fulfilled: o o o Change in magnitude only Change in direction only Change in both magnitude and direction When the velocity of a particle changes in magnitude and direction it has two component of acceleration. Va‟ = (ω + δ t) r Velocity of A parallel to OA = 0 Velocity of A‟ parallel to OA = Va‟ sin δ θ Therefore change in velocity = Va‟ sin δ θ – 0 t r sin c Centripetal acceleration = f = t Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 87 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 UNIT-05 VELOCITY AND ACCELRATION ANALYSIS (Analytical method) Acceleration Analysis Rate of change of velocity is acceleration. Radial or centripetal acceleration c f = 2 r Acceleration is parallel to the link and acting towards centre.

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 as δt tends to Zero sin δ θ tends to δ θ r r t t c 2 f = ωr (dθ/ dt) =ω r But V = ωr or ω = V/r Hence. f c 2 2 =ω r = V /r 2. Tnagential Acceleration: Va‟ = (ω + δ t) r Velocity of A perpendicular to OA = Va Velocity of A‟ perpendicular to OA = Va‟ cos δ θ Therefore change in velocity = Va‟ cos δ θ – Va t r cos t Tnagnetial acceleration = f = r t as δt tends to Zero cos δ θ tends to 1 r r t r t t f = r Example: B A = 2 AB Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 88 .

5 x 0. r f ab fab t f ab t r f = BA acts fBA = r f BA to link. Vb = Vb = 10.05 Vb = 0.525 m/s Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT 2 x AB Page 89 . Step 2: Draw velocity vector diagram to a scale. t + f BA Problem 1: Four bar mechanism. Solution: Step 1: Draw configuration diagram to a scale.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Acts parallel to BA and acts from B to A. For a 4-bar mechanism shown in figure draw velocity and acceleration diagram.

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 STEP 4: Draw the acceleration diagram (ABOVE FIG) Choose a suitable scale to draw acceleration diagram. point b1. Therefore. o Link AB has only centripetal acceleration. draw a line parallel to AB and toward 2 A from a1d1 equal to 5. o 1 From b 1 draw a line r to BC. The magnitude is not known.51 m/s i.e. o Mark the zero acceleration point a1d1. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 90 .75 m/s (b 1). 2 1 o From b1 draw a vector parallel to BC points towards B equal to 1.

t BC = 1 f bc c1b1 BC BC t f cd CD = CD c1c 1 34. point c1.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 2 o From a1d1 draw a vector parallel to AD and pointing towards D equal to 2. Step 1: Draw configuration diagram. Step 2: Find velocity of A with respect to O.72 m/s i.6 m/s Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 91 . 1 o From c 1 draw a line b1c1 = fbc. d1c1 = fCD and To determine angular acceleration.11rad / sec (CCW) Problem 2: For the configuration of slider crank mechanism shown in figure below.09 rad / sec (CCW) 1 CD 79. r to CD to intersect the line drawn r to BC at c1.e. Va = OA x OA Va = 20 x 0.48 Va = 9.

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Step 4 Sl. AB f ab = t f ab 3. No. OA f aO = 2. Link Magnitude c 2 c 2 1.2 Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT – – Page 92 . Slider B Direction Sense Parallel to OA O A – Parallel to AB r to AB – Parallel to Slider OAr abr = 192 = 17.

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 93 . Velocity of slider D and angular velocity of link BD.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Problem 3: In a toggle mechanism shown in figure the crank OA rotates at 210 rpm CCW increasing at the rate of 60 rad/s2. Acceleration of slider D and angular acceleration of link BD.

3 r r = 20 – Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT to AB Parallel to BQ r r r= to OA Parallel to AB r r= 2 Parallel to OA r r= 2 Direction to BQ to BD to BD Parallel to slider motion Page 94 .2 = 4. 1. 4. 2. Magnitude m/s Link c AO AB BQ BD Slider D 2 2 f aO = r = 96.4 m/s 60 Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram. Step 4: Sl. 5.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Step 1 Draw the configuration diagram to a scale.93 r = 38.8 t f aO = r = 12 c f ab = t f ab = c f bq = t f bq = c f bd = t f bd = 2 r = 5. 3. No. Step 2 Find Va = OA 2 x OA 210 Va = x 0.

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Step 5: Draw the acceleration diagram choosing a suitable scale. o Mark zero acceleration point Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 95 .

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Coriolis Acceleration: It has been seen that the acceleration of a body may have two components. in same cases there will be a third component called as corilis acceleration to illustrate this let us take an example of crank and slotted lever mechanism. Centripetal acceleration and Tangential acceleration. However. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 96 .

AO d = A1B1 d Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 97 . 3. A1 to B1 due to outward velocity of slider VB/A. 2. Assume this motion also to have constant velocity VB/A. Consider the motion of slider from B to B2 in 3 stages. 1. in its motions from OP to OP1 in a small interval of time t.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Assume link 2 having constant angular velocity 2. B1 to B2 due to acceleration acceleration. B to A1 due to rotation of link 2. During this time slider 3 moves outwards from position B to B2. r to link 2 this component in the coriolis component of We have Arc B1B2 = Arc QB2 – Arc QB1 = Arc QB2 – Arc AA1 Arc B1B2 = OQ d .

Displacement B1B2 = ½ at 2 = ½ f (dt) 2 ½ f (dt) = VB/A 2 dt 2 2 cr f B/A = 2 2 VB/A coriolis acceleration The direction of coriolis component is the direction of relative velocity vector for the two coincident points rotated at 90o in the direction of angular velocity of rotation of the link.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 = VB/A 2 2dt The tangential component of velocity is case r to the link and is given by Vt = r. In this has been assumed constant and the slider is moving on the link with constant velocity. Therefore. there is a constant acceleration r to rod. tangential velocity of any point B on the slider 3 will result in uniform increase in tangential velocity. The equation Vt = r remain same but r increases uniformly i.e. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 98 .

O1B = 300 mm. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 99 . velocity of cutting tool.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 A quick return mechanism of crank and slotted lever type shaping machine is shown in Fig. O2D = 1300 mm and DR = 400 mm The crank O1B makes an angle of 45o with the vertical and rotates at 40 rpm in the CCW direction. and iv) Angular Acceleration of link AD. O1O2 = 800 mm. the dimensions of various links are as follows. Find: iii) Acceleration of the Ram R.

3 m/sec Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 100 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram Step 2: Determine velocity of point B Vb = OB x OB 2 N OB = 2 x 40 O1B 60 60 4. Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 0.254 m/sec Step 3: Draw velocity vector diagram.18rad / sec Vb = 4.18 x 0.3 = 1.

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Step 4: prepare table showing the acceleration components Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 101 .

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 KLENIN‟S Construction This method helps us to draw the velocity and acceleration diagrams on the construction diagram itself. The procedure is given below for a slider crank mechanism Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 102 . The crank of the configuration diagram represents the velocity and acceleration line of the moving end (crank).

oab is the velocity vector diagram rotated through 90º opposite to the rotation of the crank. Acceleration diagram: The line representing Crank OA represents the acceleration of A with respect to O. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 103 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 To draw the velocity vector diagram: Link OA represents the velocity vector of A with respect to O. extend the line BA to meet this perpendicular line at b. Draw a line perpendicular at O. To draw the acceleration diagram follow the steps given below. Draw a circle with OA as radius and A as centre. Voa = oa = ω r = ω OA.

a1.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Draw another circle with AB as diameter. O1. ******************* Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 104 . Join C and D to meet OB at b1 and AB at E.ba1and b1 is the required acceleration diagram rotated through 180º. The two circles intersect each other at two points C and D.

1. thus the motion transmitted is considered as positive. When one of the discs is rotated. special purpose machines. Gears are machine elements that transmit motion by means of successively engaging teeth. Thus the friction drive is not positive a drive. the other disc will be rotate as long as the tangential force exerted by the driving disc does not exceed the maximum frictional resistance between the two discs. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 105 . in which a definite velocity ratio is importance (as in watch mechanism. Friction Wheels: Kinematiclly. beyond certain limit. The gear teeth act like small levers. Gears do not depend on friction and do best when friction is minimized. in the transmission of motion or power between two shafts. slipping will take place between the two discs.1 wheels.etc). In order to Figure understand motion transmitted by two toothed 4. The effect of slip is to reduce the velocity ratio of the drive. let us consider the two discs placed together as shown in the figure 4. the only positive drive is by means of gears or toothed wheels. In precision machine. Gears essentially allow positive engagement between teeth so high forces can be transmitted while still undergoing essentially rolling contact.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 UNIT-06 GEARS Introduction: The slip and creep in the belt or rope drives is a common phenomenon. Gears are highly efficient (nearly 95%) due to primarily rolling contact between the teeth. the motion and power transmitted by gears is equivalent to that transmitted by friction wheels or discs in contact With sufficient friction between them. But when the tangential force exceeds the frictional resistance.

2 1.3 Gears for connecting parallel shafts. The axes may be 1. Gears for neither parallel nor intersecting shafts.1 Gear Classification: Gears may be classified according to the relative position of the axes of revolution. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 106 . Gears for connecting intersecting shafts.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Some common places that gears can normally be found are: Printing machinery parts Newspaper Industry Book binding machines Rotary die cutting Injection molding machinery Plastics machinery builders machines Blow molding machinery Motorcycle Transmissions (street Heavy earth moving to Agricultural equipment and race applications) personal vehicles Polymer pumps High volume water pumps for municipalities High volume vacuum Turbo boosters for automotive pumps applications Boat out drives Special offshore racing drive Canning and bottling systems machinery builders Commercial and Military Military offroad vehicles Hoists and Cranes Marine applications operations Automotive prototype and Low volume automotive reproduction production Diesel engine builders Special gear box builders Stamping presses Many different special machine tool builders 4.1 1.

Advantages: Spur gears are easy to find. Spur gears (Emerson Power Transmission Corp) External contact Internal contact Spur gears are the most commonly used gear type. Parallel helical gears: The teeth on helical gears are cut at an angle to the face of the gear. To reduce the noise and stress in the gears. Sometimes. many spur gears are used at once to create very large gear reductions. and are mounted on parallel shafts. which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Helical gears Herringbone gears Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT double-helical gears Page 107 . until the two teeth are in full engagement. and are generally the least expensive. Limitations: Spur gears generally cannot be used when a direction change between the two shafts is required.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Gears for connecting parallel shafts 1. the teeth collide. inexpensive. the contact starts at one end of the tooth and gradually spreads as the gears rotate.2 Spur gears: Spur gears are the most common type of gears. and this impact makes a noise. When two teeth on a helical gear system engage. They are characterized by teeth. Spur gears are most commonly available. and efficient. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear. They have straight teeth. most of the gears in your car are helical.

One interesting thing about helical gears is that if the angles of the gear teeth are correct. they create a thrust load on the gear when they mesh. Perhaps the most well-known application of a rack is the rack and pinion steering system used on many cars in the past Gears for connecting intersecting shafts: Bevel gears are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be changed. The teeth on bevel gears can be straight. In theory. They are usually mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart. Straight bevel gear teeth actually have the same problem as straight spur gear teeth. the torque and angular velocity of the pinion gear are related to the Force and the velocity of the rack by the radius of the pinion gear. helical gears are used in almost all car transmission. Because of the angle of the teeth on helical gears. (They are in theory a gear with an infinite pitch diameter). Helical gears to have the following differences from spur gears of the same size: o Tooth strength is greater because the teeth are longer. Just like with spur gears. they can be mounted on perpendicular shafts. but can be designed to work at other angles as well. as is shown. o Greater surface contact on the teeth allows a helical gear to carry more load than a spur gear o The longer surface of contact reduces the efficiency of a helical gear relative to a spur gear Rack and pinion (The rack is like a gear whose axis is at infinity. These spiral teeth engage just like helical teeth: the contact starts at one end of the gear and progressively spreads across the whole tooth. the solution to this problem is to curve the gear teeth. spiral or hypoid. as each tooth engages.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 This gradual engagement makes helical gears operate much more smoothly and quietly than spur gears. Straight bevel gears Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Spiral bevel gears Page 108 . adjusting the rotation angle by 90 degrees. For this reason. Devices that use helical gears have bearings that can support this thrust load.): Racks are straight gears that are used to convert rotational motion to translational motion by means of a gear mesh. it impacts the corresponding tooth all at once.

A special application in which helical gears are used is a crossed gear mesh. Many worm gears have an interesting property that no other gear set has: the worm can easily turn the gear. This means that the driveshaft doesn't pass into the passenger compartment of the car as much. This feature is useful for machines such as conveyor systems. but the gear cannot turn the worm. Since the driveshaft of the car is connected to the input pinion. This is because the angle on the worm is so shallow that when the gear tries to spin it. in which the locking feature can Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 109 . in which the two shafts are perpendicular to each other. the friction between the gear and the worm holds the worm in place. Figure shows the input pinion engaging the ring gear of the differential. and even up to 300:1 or greater. This feature is used in many car differentials. this also lowers Hypoid gears (Emerson Power Transmission Corp) the driveshaft. This allows the input pinion to be mounted lower than the axis of the ring gear. although they are still primarily use in parallel shaft applications. Neither parallel nor intersecting shafts: Helical gears may be used to mesh two shafts that are not parallel. Crossed-helical gears Worm and worm gear: Worm gears are used when large gear reductions are needed. but they must also be in the same plane.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 On straight and spiral bevel gears. The ring gear of the differential and the input pinion gear are both hypoid. can engage with the axes in different planes. making more room for people and cargo. The hypoid gear. the shafts must be perpendicular to each other. It is common for worm gears to have reductions of 20:1.

One other very interesting usage of worm gears is in the Torsion differential. Arc of Action: Is the arc of the Pitch Circle between the beginning and the end of the engagement of a given pair of teeth. 4. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 110 . Arc of Approach: Is the arc of the Pitch Circle between the first point of contact of the gear teeth and the Pitch Point.3 Terminology for Spur Gear Figure 4-4 Spur Gear Terminology: Addendum: The radial distance between the Pitch Circle and the top of the teeth. which is used on some high-performance cars and trucks.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 act as a brake for the conveyor when the motor is not turning.

Chordal Thickness: The thickness of the tooth measured along a chord passing through the points where the Pitch Circle crosses the tooth profile. Root Circle: The circle that passes through the bottom of the tooth spaces. Base Circle: The circle from which is generated the involute curve upon which the tooth profile is based. between the first point of contact and the last. Line of Action: That line along which the point of contact between gear teeth travels. Face: The working surface of a gear tooth. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 111 . Pitch Point: The point of tangency of the pitch circles of two meshing gears.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Arc of Recession: That arc of the Pitch Circle between the Pitch Point and the last point of contact of the gear teeth. Chordal Addendum: The distance between a chord. where the Line of Centers crosses the pitch circles. Contact Ratio: The ratio of the length of the Arc of Action to the Circular Pitch. If both gears are the same size. the radius of which is equal to the distance from the center of the gear to the pitch point. they are both called "gears". Profile Shift: An increase in the Outer Diameter and Root Diameter of a gear. Pinion: The smaller of two meshed gears. located between the pitch diameter and the top of the tooth. Ratio: Ratio of the numbers of teeth on mating gears. Diametral pitch: Teeth per millimeter of pitch diameter. passing through the points where the Pitch Circle crosses the tooth profile. Dedendum: The radial distance between the bottom of the tooth to pitch circle Diametral Pitch: Teeth per mm of diameter. Land: The top surface of the tooth. and the tooth top. Backlash: Play between mating teeth. introduced to lower the practical tooth number or acheive a non-standard Center Distance. Circular Pitch: Millimeter of Pitch Circle circumference per tooth. located between the pitch diameter and the bottom of the teeth Gear: The larger of two meshed gears. Module: Millimeter of Pitch Diameter to Teeth. Flank: The working surface of a gear tooth. Circular Thickness: The thickness of the tooth measured along an arc following the Pitch Circle Clearance: The distance between the top of a tooth and the bottom of the space into which it fits on the meshing gear. Face Width: The width of the tooth measured parallel to the gear axis. Center Distance: The distance between centers of two gears. Pitch Circle: The circle. Pressure Angle: Angle between the Line of Action and a line perpendicular to the Line of Centers.

2 Gear-Tooth Action 4. 4.1 Fundamental Law of Gear-Tooth Action Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 112 . Working Depth: The depth to which a tooth extends into the space between teeth on the mating gear.2.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Root Diameter: The diameter of the Root Circle.

and from the similar triangles. Therefore. the relationship between the angular velocities of the driving gear to the driven gear. and it Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 113 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Although the two profiles have different velocities V1 and V2 at point K. Otherwise the two tooth profiles would separate from each other. of a pair of mating teeth is Point P is very important to the velocity ratio. Thus. or velocity ratio. their velocities along N1N2 are equal in both magnitude and direction. we have We notice that the intersection of the tangency N1N2 and the line of center O1O2 is point P.

the motion transmission between two gears is equivalent to the motion transmission between two imagined slip-less cylinders with radius R1 and R2 or diameter D1 and D2. These two circles are termed pitch circles. Pitch point divides the line between the line of centers and its position decides the velocity ratio of the two teeth. and through pitch point P. We can get two circles whose centers are at O1 and O2. The involute has important advantages. 4. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 114 . The above expression is the fundamental law of gear-tooth action. The most commonly used conjugate tooth curve is the involute curve. the size of the teeth ( the module ) must be the same for both the gears. In this case. This is the fundamental law of gear-tooth action. The fundamental law of gear-tooth action may now also be stated as follow (for gears with fixed center distance) A common normal (the line of action) to the tooth profiles at their point of contact must. it is easy to manufacture and the center distance between a pair of involute gears can be varied without changing the velocity ratio. The velocity ratio is equal to the inverse ratio of the diameters of pitch circles. which is decided by the velocity ratio. the position of P should remain unchanged. where is the pressure angle or the angle of obliquity. Thus close tolerances between shaft locations are not required when using the involute profile.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 is called the pitch point. (Erdman & Sandor). Although many tooth shapes are possible for which a mating tooth could be designed to satisfy the fundamental law. the normal line of their profiles must pass through the corresponding pitch point.3 Conjugate Profiles To obtain the expected velocity ratio of two tooth profiles. we simply termed the tooth profiles which satisfy the fundamental law of gear-tooth action the conjugate profiles. conjugate action : It is essential for correctly meshing gears. pass through a fixed point on the line-of-centers called the pitch point Any two curves or profiles engaging each other and satisfying the law of gearing are conjugate curves.2 Constant Velocity Ratio For a constant velocity ratio. in all positions of the contacting teeth. and the relative rotation speed of the gears will be constant(constant velocity ratio). only two are in general use: the cycloidal and involute profiles.2. Sometimes.2. The two profiles which satisfy this requirement are called conjugate profiles. It is the angle which the common normal to the base circles make with the common tangent to the pitch circles 4.

We use the word involute because the contour of gear teeth curves inward.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Another requirement . Gears have many terminologies. which is the ratio of the rotary velocity of the driver gear to that of the driven gears. It may also be defined as a path traced by the end of a string.1 Generation of the Involute Curve The curve most commonly used for gear-tooth profiles is the involute of a circle. this behavior of the contacting surfaces (ie. This involute curve is the path traced by a point on a line as the line rolls without slipping on the circumference of a circle. the teeth flanks) is known as conjugate action 4.3 Involute Curve The following examples are involute spur gears. parameters and principles. 4. The circle from which the involute is derived is called the base circle Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 115 . which is originally wrapped on a circle when the string is unwrapped from the circle. One of the important concepts is the velocity ratio.the shape of teeth necessary for the speed ratio to remain constant during an increment of rotation.

Kinematics of Machines Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT 10ME44 Page 116 .

the motion of the point that is tracing the involute is perpendicular to the line at any instant. The normal at any point of an involute is tangent to the base circle. The instantaneous center or instant center is defined in two ways. the instant center is a point on one body about which the other rotates at the instant considered. the instant center is the point at which the bodies are relatively at rest at the instant considered. The line rolls without slipping on the circle. Because of the property (2) of the involute curve. 2. 3.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 1. 1. When two bodies have planar relative motion. Cycloidal profile: Epicycliodal Profile: Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 117 . the instantaneous center of the motion of the line is its point of tangent with the circle. 2. Note: We have not defined the term instantaneous center previously. For any instant. When two bodies have planar relative motion. and hence the curve traced will also be perpendicular to the line at any instant. There is no involute curve within the base circle.

epi-cycloid and hypo-cycloid) are required for the face and flank respectively. starts increasing and again becomes maximum at the end of engagement. Thus close tolerances between shaft locations are not required. therefore the cycloidal gears are stronger than the involute gears. the interference does not occur at all. In cycloidal gears. In involute system. for the same pitch. • It is easy to manufacture and the center distance between a pair of involute gears can be varied without changing the velocity ratio. In cycloidal gears. 2. Advantages of Cycloidal gear teeth: 1. 2. In involute gears. However the difference in wear is negligible 3.e. This condition results in less wear in cycloidal gears as compared to involute gears. The face and flank of involute teeth are generated by a single curve where as in cycloidal gears. the pressure angle. where as in involute gears the convex surfaces are in contact. The most commonly used conjugate tooth curve is the involute curve. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 118 . remains constant between the point of tooth engagement and disengagement. reduces to zero at pitch point. It is necessary for smooth running and less wear of gears. (Erdman & Sandor). the contact takes place between a convex flank and a concave surface. the pressure angle is maximum at the beginning of engagement. But in cycloidal gears. Thus the involute teeth are easy to manufacture than cycloidal teeth. 3.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Hypocycliodal Profile: The involute profile of gears has important advantages. double curves (i. Since the cycloidal teeth have wider flanks. Though there are advantages of cycloidal gears but they are outweighed by the greater simplicity and flexibility of the involute gears. the basic rack has straight teeth and the same can be cut with simple tools. Due to this reason. the cycloidal teeth are preferred specially for cast teeth. This results in less smooth running of gears.

The radius of curvature of an involute is equal to the length of tangent to the base circle. System of Gear Teeth The following four systems of gear teeth are commonly used in practice: 14 ½O Composite system 14 ½O Full depth involute system 20O Full depth involute system 20O Stub involute system The 14½ O composite system is used for general purpose gears. 2. 4. Basic rack for involute tooth profile has straight line form. o to 20o results in a stronger tooth. 5. because the The 20o stub involute system has a strong tooth to take heavy loads. When two involutes gears are in mesh and rotating. 3. Pressure angle remains constant during the mesh of an involute gears. (Law of Gearing or conjugate action) 8. The tooth profile of this system has cycloidal curves at the top and bottom and involute curve at the middle portion. 6. The common tangent drawn from the pitch point to the base circle of the two involutes is the line of action and also the path of contact of the involutes.The teeth are produced by formed milling cutters or hobs The tooth profile of the 14½ spur and helical gears. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 119 . 7. The involute tooth form of gears is insensitive to the centre distance and depends only on the dimensions of the base circle. It is stronger but has no interchangeability. The increase of the pressure angle from 14½ tooth acting as a beam is wider at the base. Manufacturing of gears is easy due to single curvature of profile. A normal drawn to an involute at pitch point is a tangent to the base circle. O full depth involute system was developed using gear hobs for The tooth profile of the 20o full depth involute system may be cut by hobs.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Properties of involute teeth: 1. they exhibit constant angular velocity ratio and is inversely proportional to the size of base circles.

Consider an involute of base circle radius ra and two points B and C on the involute as shown in figure. Let ra= base circle radius of gear rb= radius of point B on the involute and rc= radius of point C on the involute b= pressure angle for the point B c= pressure angle for the point C tb= tooth thickness along the arc at B tc= tooth thickness along the arc at C From OBE and OCF r r cos (1) b b ra rc cos Therefore a c 2 rb cos b rc cos From the properties of the Involute: c Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 120 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 The study of the geometry of the involute profile for gear teeth is called involumetry. The normal BE and CF are tangents to the Base circle. Draw normal to the involute from the points B and C.

c tan c c AOF At the po int B AOD 2rb b b At the po int C AOD AOC C tb 2rb tc 2rb tan C tb AOB tan c c c tc 2rc Equating the above equations : t tan b b b b b t c inv. it is possible to calculate the thickness of the tooth at any point Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 121 . c c 2rb inv. b tan b b Expression tan b b is b b b called involute function Similarly: ArcAF BE tan OF OF AOC AOF tan c Inv. tan b c 2rc t inv. c c 2rb t inv.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Arc AE = Length BE and Arc AF = Length CF AOE ArcAE BE tan OE OE AOB AOE tan b Inv. t 2rc tb c 2r 2r c b tooth thickness at C Using this equation and knowing tooth thickness at any point on the tooth.

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Consider a pinion driving wheel as shown in figure. and Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 122 . When the pinion rotates in clockwise. Contact length KP is called as path of approach and contact length PL is called as path of recess. Thus the length of part of contact is KL which is the sum of the parts of path of contacts KP and PL. The point K is the intersection of the addendum circle of wheel and the common tangent. The point L is the intersection of the addendum circle of pinion and common tangent. MN is the common normal at the point of contacts and the common tangent to the base circles. and R A = O2K = Radius of addendum circle of wheel r = O1P = Radius of pitch circle of pinion. the contact between a pair of involute teeth begins at K (on the near the base circle of pinion or the outer end of the tooth face on the wheel) and ends at L (outer end of the tooth face on the pinion or on the flank near the base circle of wheel). The length of path of contact is the length of common normal cut-off by the addendum circles of the wheel and the pinion. ra = O1L = Radius of addendum circle of pinion.

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 R = O2P = Radius of pitch circle of wheel. In Figure. Radius of the base circle of pinion = O1M = O1P cos = r cos And radius of the base circle of wheel = O2N = O2P cos = R cos From right angle triangle O2KN KN O2 K PN RA O2 P sin 2 2 O2 N 2 R cos R sin 2 2 Path of approach: KP KP 2 2 2 RA R cos triangle O1ML KN R sin PN Similarly from right angle ML O1L O1M 2 ra MP 2 r O1P sin 2 cos 2 2 r sin Path of recess: PL PL ML r Length of path of contact = KL KL KP 2 a MP 2 2 2 2 r cos r sin PL RA 2 R cos ra 2 r 2 2 cos R r sin Arc of contact: Arc of contact is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle from the beginning to the end of engagement of a given pair of teeth. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 123 . the arc of contact is EPF or GPH.

The arc GP is known as arc of approach and the arc PH is called arc of recess.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Considering the arc of contact GPH. Length of arc of approach = arc GP Length of arc of recess = arc PH Lenght of path of approach cos Lenght of path of recess cos Length of arc contact = arc GPH = arc GP + arc PH KP PL KL cos cos cos KP cos PL cos Length of path of contact cos Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 124 . The angles subtended by these arcs at O1 are called angle of approach and angle of recess respectively.

vibration and noise.that is to impact. Contat ratio Length of the arc of contact P C Where: PC Circular pitch m and m = Module. The average number of teeth in contact is an important parameter . Mathematically. as in Figure. though there is only one pair in contact in the middle of the path. it is termed the contact ratio Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 125 .if it is too low due to the use of inappropriate profile shifts or to an excessive centre distance.The manufacturing inaccuracies may lead to loss of kinematic continuity .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Contact Ratio (or Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact) The contact ratio or the number of pairs of teeth in contact is defined as the ratio of the length of the arc of contact to the circular pitch.The average number of teeth in contact is also a guide to load sharing between teeth. Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact Continuous motion transfer requires two pairs of teeth in contact at the ends of the path of contact.

= Addendu m radius of the pinion a = Addendum of rack EF = Length of path of contact EF = Path of approach EP + Path of recess PF sin AP EP a EP Path of approach Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT EP a sin Page 126 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Let r = Pitch circle radius of the pinio n = O1P = Pressure angle ra.

MN is the common tangent to the basic circles and KL is the path of contact between the two mating teeth. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 127 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Path of recess PF NF NP From triangle O1 NP : NP O1P sin r sin O1 N O1P cos r cos From triangle O1NF: 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 NF O1F O1 N ra r cos Substituting NP and NF values in the equation (3) Path of racess PF ra Path of length of contact Exercise problems refer presentation slides 1 2 r sin r cos EF EP a sin PF 2 ra 2 r cos 2 1 2 r sin Figure shows a pinion and a gear in mesh with their center as O1andO2 respectively.

and occurs when the teeth are being cut and weakens the tooth at its root. the phenomenon. If this radius is further increased. when the tip of tooth undercuts the root on its mating gear is known as interference Similarly. the maximum length of path of contact is MN. then the tip of tooth on wheel will cause interference with the tooth on pinion. The limiting value of the radius of the addendum circle of the pinion is O1N and of the wheel is O2M. if the point of contact between the two teeth is always on the involute profiles and if the addendum circles of the two mating gears cut the common tangent to the base circles at the points of tangency. When interference is just prevented. the radius of the addendum circle of pinion is increased to O1N. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 128 . The tooth tip of the pinion will then undercut the tooth on the wheel at the root and damages part of the involute profile. The interference may only be prevented. The points M and N are called interference points. Interference may be avoided if the path of the contact does not extend beyond interference points. This effect is known as interference. In general. the point of contact L will moves from L to N.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Consider. the point of contact L will be inside of base circle of wheel and not on the involute profile of the pinion. if the radius of the addendum circles of the wheel increases beyond O2M.

the pressure angle. By tooth correction.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Maximum path of approach MP r sin Maximum path of recess PN R sin Maximum length of path of contact MN MP PN r MN R sin Maximum length of arc of contact r R sin cos r R tan Methods to avoid Interference 1. Under cut of the radial flank of the pinion. but tooth thickness of gear will be greater than the pinion tooth thickness. the limiting number of teeth on gear can be calculated. i. Centre distance may be increased. Minimum number of teeth on the pinion avoid Interference The pinion turns clockwise and drives the gear as shown in Figure. interference will occur. Height of the teeth may be reduced. centre distance and base circles remain unchanged. Considering the critical addendum circle radius of gear. It leads to increase in pressure angle. Points M and N are called interference points. The limiting value of addendum circle radius of pinion is O1N and the limiting value of addendum circle radius of gear is O2M. Let Ф = pressure angle R = pitch circle radius of gear r = pitch circle radius of pinion = ½ mt T & t = number of teeth on gear & pinion m = module Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 129 .. if the contact takes place beyond M and N.e.

m = Addendum of pinion G = Gear ratio = T/t From triangle O1NP. Applying cosine rule O1 N 2 2 r PN 2 O1P r 2 r 2 2 NP 2 2 2 2 R sin R sin 2 1 R sin O2 P sin r 2 O1P PN cos O1PN 2 r R sin 2 r R sin 2 2 2R sin cos 90 2 2 r r 2 1 R R r r 2 sin 2 R sin Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 130 . m = Addendum of gear ap.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 aw = Addendum constant of gear (or) wheel ap = Addendum constant of pinion aw.

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uniform thermal expansion characteristics throughout the system.m = Addendum of rack The straight profiles of the rack are tangential to the pinion profiles at the point of contact and perpendicular to the tangent PM. "0. but this would presuppose perfection in manufacturing. the backlash is usually taken entirely off Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 134 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Let t = Minimum number of teeth on the pinion r = Pitch circle radius of the pinion = ½ mt Ǿ = Pressure angle AR. If the rotational sense of the pinion were to reverse. thus. Point L is the limit of interference. not just the phenomenon it causes.1 mm of backlash. however." A pair of gears could be designed to have zero backlash. and no lubricant. Therefore. then a period of unrestrained pinion motion would take place until the backlash gap closed and contact with the wheel tooth re-established impulsively. gear pairs are designed to have some backlash. for example. Backlash: The gap between the non-drive face of the pinion tooth and the adjacent wheel tooth is known as backlash. It is usually provided by reducing the tooth thickness of each gear by half the desired gap distance. one could speak of a pair of gears as having. Backlash is the error in motion that occurs when gears change direction. The term "backlash" can also be used to refer to the size of the gap. In the case of a large gear and a small pinion.

backlash can be minimised through one of several techniques. Backlash can also be provided by moving the gears farther apart. such as instrumentation and control.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 the gear and the pinion is given full sized teeth. where precision is important. For situations. Let r = standard pitch circle radius of pinion R = standard pitch circle radius of wheel c = standard centre distance = r +R r’ = operating pitch circle radius of pinion R’ = operating pitch circle radius of wheel Ф = Standard pressure angle Ф’ = operating pressure angle h = tooth thickness of pinion on standard pitch circle= p/2 h’ = tooth thickness of pinion on operating pitch circle Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 135 .

Involute gears have the invaluable ability of providing conjugate action when the gears' centre distance is varied either deliberately or involuntarily due to manufacturing and/or mounting errors.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Let H = tooth thickness of gear on standard pitch circle H1 = tooth thickness of gear on operating pitch circle p = standard circular pitch = 2п r/ t = 2пR/T p’ = operating circular pitch = 2п r1/t = 2пR1/T ΔC = change in centre distance B = Backlash t = number of teeth on pinion T = number of teeth on gear. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 136 .

The two main non.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 There is an infinite number of possible centre distances for a given pair of profile shifted gears.standard gear systems: (1) Long and short Addendum system and (2) Extended centre distance system. however we consider only the particular case known as the extended centre distance. to prevent interference and to maintain a reasonable contact ratio. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 137 . Long and Short Addendum System: The addendum of the wheel and the addendum of the pinion are generally made of equal lengths. Non Standard Gears: The important reason for using non standard gears are to eliminate undercutting.

Now If the pinion is meshed with the gear. In this method there is no change in pressure angle and the centre distance remains standard. The amount of increase in the addendum of the pinion should be exactly equal to the addendum of the wheel is reduced. The result is increase in tooth thickness and decrease in tooth space. the profile cutter is withdrawn a certain amount from the centre of the pinion so the addendum line of the cutter passes through the interference point of pinion.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Here the profile/rack cutter is advanced to a certain increment towards the gear blank and the same quantity of increment will be withdrawn from the pinion blank. it will be found that the centre distance has been increased because of the decreased tooth space. Therefore an increased addendum for the pinion and a decreased addendum for the gear is obtained. Increased centre distance will have two undesirable effects. ********************* Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 138 . Extended centre distance system: Reduction in interference with constant contact ratio can be obtained by increasing the centre distance. The effect is to move the contact region from the pinion centre towards the gear centre. thus reducing approach length and increasing the recess length. The effect of changing the centre distance is simply in increasing the pressure angle. In this method when the pinion is being cut.

t = number of teeth on the gear. DB = m tBandDC = m tC = angular velocity. It reduces speed and increases torque. so does B and C. D = Pitch circle diameter. v = linear velocity on the circle. Any combination of gear wheels employed to transmit motion from one shaft to the other is called a gear train. Simple Gear Trains The typical spur gears as shown in diagram. A B m = D A = D B = DC tA tB tC DA = m tA. The meshing of two gears may be idealized as two smooth discs with their edges touching and no slip between them. The angular velocity is simply the reverse of the tooth ratio. They often consist of multiple gears in the train. To create large gear ratio. The direction of rotation is reversed from one gear to another. N = speed in rpm m = module = D v v t and module must be the same for all gears otherwise they would not mesh.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 UNIT-07 GEARS TRAINS A gear train is two or more gear working together by meshing their teeth and turning each other in a system to generate power and speed. This ideal diameter is called the Pitch Circle Diameter (PCD) of the gear. gears are connected together to form gear trains. helical or herringbone. The most common of the gear train is the gear pair connecting parallel shafts. The teeth of this type can be spur. v = D = 2 r Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT GEAR 'A' C GEAR 'B' GEAR 'C' (Idler gear) Page 139 . The teeth on the gears must all be the same size so if gear A advances one tooth. It has no affect on the gear ratio.

The efficiency is defined as: T 2 N2 T2 60 Power out N2 2 2 N1 T1 60 N1 T 1 Power In Because the torque in and out is different. In a real gear box.5 to obtain high speed ratio Torque & Efficiency The power transmitted by a torque T N-m applied to a shaft rotating at N rev/min is given by: P 2 NT 60 In an ideal gear box. The total torque must add up to zero. the torque is increased and vice versa. P 2 N1 T1 60 N1 T 1 N2 T 2 T 2 N 60 2 2 T2 T1 N1 N2 GR It follows that if the speed is reduced. power is lost through friction and the power output is smaller than the power input.3 to connect gears where a large center distance is required 1. otherwise they would be slipping. the input and output powers are the same so. A holding torque T3 must be applied to the body through the clamps. DA DB DC v 2 A B 2 A DA A mtA 2 C DB B B m tB tA B tB or in terms of rev / min A N B tB NA tA DC C m tC C C tC NC tC 1 Application: 1. a gear box has to be clamped in order to stop the case or body rotating.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 The velocity v of any point on the circle must be the same for all the gears.4 to obtain desired direction of motion of the driven gear ( CW or CCW) 1. T1 + T2 + T3 = 0 Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 140 .

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Input B A D Output C Compound Gears GEAR 'B' GEAR 'A' GEAR 'D' GEAR 'C' Page 141 . Likewise for C and D. For large velocities ratios. compound gear train arrangement is preferred. C tC = D tD. A chain of two pairs is shown below. Compound Gear train Compound gears are simply a chain of simple gear trains with the input of the second being the output of the first. The velocity of each tooth on A and B are the same so: A tA = B tB -as they are simple gears. The direction of rotation of the output shaft depends on the design of the gear box.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 If we use a convention that anti-clockwise is positive and clockwise is negative we can determine the holding torque. Gear B is the output of the first pair and gear C is the input of the second pair. Gears B and C are locked to the same shaft and revolve at the same speed.

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT This design can produce large gear ratios in a small space and are used on a wide range of applications from marine gearboxes to electric screwdrivers. GR t A tC line. Here is a picture of a typical gear box. The design involves planet and sun gears as one orbits the other like a planet around the sun. clocks and machine NA N D If R and T=Pitch circle radius & number of teeth of the gear RA + RB = RC + RD and tA + tB = tC + tD Epicyclic gear train: Epicyclic means one gear revolving upon and around another. Page 142 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 tA tB B A A and tB B and tA A C A C B D tB B tD D C C tD tD D TC D tC tA tB tA tC tD tC Since gear B and C are on the same shaft B C t A D tt B t D GR C A Since 2 N The gear ratio may be written as: N In tB tD N Out t A tC GR Reverted Gear train tB tD The driver and driven axes lies on the same tools. These are used in speed reducers.

Gear B meshes with gear C and revolves around it when the arm is rotated. First consider what happens when the planet gear orbits the sun gear. B is called the planet gear and C the sun. Planet wheel B B Arm Arm 'A' C C Sun wheel Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 143 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Basic Theory The diagram shows a gear B on the end of an arm.

Work out the revolutions of B. Now consider that C is unable to rotate and the arm A is revolved once. One way to get round this is to magine that the whole system is revolved once. Step 1 2 3 Action Revolve all once Revolve C by –1 revolution. Work out the revolutions of the other gears and add them up. B spins about its own center and number of revolutions it makes is the ratio tC . Suppose the arm is held stationary and gear C is rotated once. Any object orbiting around a center must rotate once. Gear B will revolve 1 t B tC t B because of the orbit. Then identify the gear that is fixed and revolve it back one revolution. The following tabular method makes it easy. Suppose gear C is fixed and the arm A makes one revolution. Step 3 is simply add them up and we find the total revs of C is zero and for the arm is 1. B will rotate by this number for every complete revolution of C. Determine how many revolutions the planet gear B makes. Now consider that B is free to rotate on its shaft and meshes with C. Step 1 is to revolve everything once about the center.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Observe point p and you will see that gear B also revolves once on its own axis. keeping the arm fixed A 1 Add 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT B 1 tC 0 tB t 1 C tB C 1 -1 0 Page 144 . Step 2 identify that C should be fixed and rotate it backwards one revolution keeping the arm fixed as it should only do one revolution in total. It is this extra rotation that causes confusion.

The design so far considered has no identifiable input and output. keeping the arm fixed Add A 1 0 1 B 1 100 50 3 C 1 -1 0 Gear B makes 3 revolutions for every one of the arm. We need a design that puts an input and output shaft on the same axis. how many times does the planet gear revolve? Solution: Step 1 2 3 Action Revolve all once Revolve C by –1 revolution. If the arm is revolved once. This can be done several ways. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 145 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Example: A simple epicyclic gear has a fixed sun gear with 100 teeth and a planet gear with 50 teeth.

If the arm rotates at 200 rpm and wheel F at 100 rpm in the same direction. the arm A is fixed to the shaft S. The wheel B having 100 teeth rotates freely on the shaft S.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Problem 1: In an ecicyclic gear train shown in figure. TF=150. NF=100rpm: Since the mod ule is same for all gears : the number of teeth on the gears is proportional to the pitch cirlce : rF rB 2rC TF TB 2TC 150 100 2 TC TC 25 Number of teeth on gears C The gear B and gear F rotates in the opposite directions: TB Train value TF N also N L TV Arm N Arm N NF N T B F NF NA NB NA (general exp ression for epicyclic gear train) A N ATF NB 100 100 200 150 NB 200 Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT NE 350 Page 146 . The wheel F having 150 teeth driven separately. find (a) number of teeth on the gear C and (b) speed of wheel B. C 100 rpm F150 S B100 Arm A C 200 rpm Solution: TB=100. NA=200rpm.

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 147 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 The Gear B rotates at 350 rpm in the same direction of gears F and Arm A.

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Problem 2: In a compound epicyclic gear train as shown in the figure.9 rpm CW Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 148 . B and C is a compound gear rotate about axis Q. 45 and 21 teeth respectively. Gear A rotates at 90 rpm CCW and gear D rotates at 450 rpm CW. Gears A. D E P A B Q C Arm F Solution: TA=18 . ND=450rpm: Since the module and pitch are same for all gears : the number of teeth on the gears is proportional to the pitch cirlce : rD rA rB rC TD TA TB TC TD 18 45 21 84 teeth on gear D Gears A and D rotates in the opposite directions: Train value also NL TV TB TB N TD N C N D NF NA NF Arm Arm T A TC N NF T TA N D F N FTDNA 18 21 450 N F 90 N F 45 84 N F Speed of Arm 400. TC=21. has gears A and an annular gears D & E free to rotate on the axis P. Find the speed and direction of rotation of arm F and gear E. All gears having same module and pitch. NA = -90rpm. TB=45.B and C are having 18.

Determine the number of teeth for all the wheels and the exact pitch circle diameter of the annular wheel.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Now consider gears A. If an input torque of 20 N-m is applied to the spindle carrying the sun wheel.72 rpm CW Problem 3: In an epicyclic gear of sun and planet type shown in figure 3.9 N E Speed of gear E 482. B and E: rE rA 2rB TE TA 2TB TE 18 2 45 TE 108 Number of teeth on gear E Gears A and E rotates in the opposite directions: T A Train value also TV TA TE TE NE NA NF NF NE NF NA NF N E 400. Annular 'A' Spider 'L' Sun Wheel 'S' Planet Wheel 'P' Solution: Module being the same for all the meshing gears: TA = TS + 2TP Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 149 . determine the fixed torque on the annular wheel.9 18 108 90 400. the spider that carries three planet wheels P of equal size to make one revolution for every five revolution of the driving spindle carrying the sun wheel. When the annular ring is stationary. the pitch circle diameter of the annular wheel A is to be nearly 216mm and module 4mm.

Trial 1: Trial 2: Let Let TA = 52 and TS = 13 TA TS 52 13 TP 19.5 teeth 2 4 TA = 56 and TS = 14 TA TS 56 14 TP 21teeth 2 4 TA = 56.Kinematics of Machines TA 10ME44 216 4 PCD of A m Spider arm L Operation Arm L is fixed & Sun wheel S is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (S rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements 54 teeth Sun Wheel S Planet wheel P TS 0 TP TA = 54 T S TP m+n n If L rotates +1 revolution: n=1 The sun wheel S to rotate +5 revolutions correspondingly: n+m=5 From (1) and (2) m=4 TS m TP (1) T P S TA TS m TP m n T TS TP +1 0 Annular wheel A TA T m S TA n T S m TA (2) When A is fixed: n TS m TA 0 TS T 54 4 A 4T S 13. therefore TS should be either 13 or 14 and TA correspondingly 52 and 56.5 teeth But fractional teeth are not possible. TS = 14 and TP = 21 PCD of A = 56 4 = 224 mm - - This is impracticable This is practicable Also Torque on L Torque on L L = Torque on S 5 L = 20 Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT 1 100 N S m Page 150 .

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Fixing torque on A = (TL – TS) = 100 – 20 = 80 N-m ] Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 151 .

If A and B are having the same speed and same direction 3. The following table gives the number of teeth on each gear.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 D Problem 4: The gear train shown in figure 4 is used in an indexing mechanism of a milling machine. If A is making 72 rpm and B 36 rpm in the same direction Figure 4 Solution: Gear D is external to the epicyclic train and thus C and D constitute an ordinary train. Operation Arm C (60) E (28) 0 -1 0 -m n n-m Arm or C is fixed & wheel A is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (A rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements (i) F (24) A (72) B (72) G (28) H (24) +1 -1 +1 28 7 24 6 7m 6 +m -m +m 7m 6 7 m 6 n+m n-m n+m 28 24 n 7 6 For one revolution of A: n+m=1 For A and B for same speed and direction: From (1) and (2): n = 1 and m = 0 (1) n+m = n–m n 7 m 6 (2) If C or arm makes one revolution. If A and B are having the same speed and opposite direction 4.(n – m)(3) Page 152 . Gear Number of teeth Diametral pitch in mm A B C D E 72 72 60 30 28 24 08 08 12 12 08 08 A C Arm B H G F E F How many revolutions does D makes for one revolution of A under the following situations: 2. then revolution made by D is given by: T C ND 60 2 N T C D 30 ND 2NC Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT (n + m) = . The drive is from gear wheels A and B to the bevel gear wheel D through the gear train. If A is making 72 rpm and B is at rest 5.

m = 1 When C is fixed and A makes one revolution. opposite direction: n = 0. D does not make any revolution.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 (ii)A and B same speed. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 153 .

The number of teeth in the wheels are S1 = 24. A2 = 120. determine the speed and direction of rotation of shaft Q. A1 = 100. gears S1 and S2 being rigidly attached to the shaft Q. S2 S1 Figure 5 Solution: Consider the gear train P A1 S1: Arm P Operation Arm P is fixed & wheel A1 is given +1 revolution A1 (100) S1 (24) 100 P 0 P 1 24 1 +1 Operation 25 6 Multiply by m 0 (A1 rotates through 25 m +m m revolution) If A1 is fixed: S1 n 0 A1 (100) -1 n n+ m n+ m. while the P1 P Q annular A2 is driven in counter clockwise direction at 500 rpm.Kinematics of Machines + 10ME44 A is making 72 rpm: (n + m) = 72 B at rest (n – m) = 0 n = m = 36 rpm C makes 36 rpm and D makes 36 (iv) A is making 72 rpm and B making 36 rpm (n + m) = 72 rpm (n + (n – m)) = 72. If the shaft P rotates at 1000 rpm clockwise. gives n NP 1 25 n 6 31 6 n 25 m 6 0 Add +1 revolutions to all elements S1 (24) A1 P1 P1 S1 A1 S1 -1 6 Add n revolutions to all elements NP N OR Arm P is fixed & wheel A1 is given -1 revolution Arm P +1 0 100 25 24 6 25 6 1 31 6 n=-m 6 31 6 N 31 S1 Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 154 . S2 = 40. D makes 54 60 30 and 60 30 72 rpm (n – m) = 36 rpm n = 54 108 rpm A2 A1 P2 Problem 5: Figure 5 shows a compound epicyclic gear train.

Kinematics of Machines Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT 10ME44 Page 155 .

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Now consider whole gear train: Operation A1 is fixed & wheel A2 is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (A1 rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions A1 (100) A2 S1 (24). S2 (40) (120) and Q Arm P P 120 0 P +1 40 2 3 0 +m 3m n n+ m n 3m 6 31 18 31 18 n m 31 18 31 to all elements When P makes 1000 rpm: and A2 makes – 500 rpm: from (1) and (2): 3 2 18 m = 1000 31 n+ m = -500 n m 500 m 31 1000 m 18 31 (1) (2) m 1000 500 31 949 rpm 49 m n 949 500 449 rpm and NQ = n – 3 m = 449 – (3 -949) = 3296 rpm Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 156 .

Kinematics of Machines Problem 6. A Compound gears DE meshed with the two internal wheels. The compound wheels revolve freely on pin which projects from a arm keyed to a shaft A co-axial with F. 10ME44 Arm B C E E F Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT D D B A A B80 C82 D28 N A=800rpm Page 157 . D has 28 teeth and meshes with internal gear C while E meshes with B. An internal wheel B with 80 teeth is keyed to a shaft F. if the wheels have the same pitch and the shaft A makes 800 rpm. A fixed internal wheel C with 82 teeth is concentric with B. what is the speed of the shaft F? Sketch the arrangement.

D = 28.58rpm Page 158 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Data: tB = 80.42rpm Speed of gear B m n Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT 0 0 761. NA = 800 rpm Solution: The pitch circle radius is proportional to the number of teeth: rC rD rB rE tC tD tB tE 82 28 80 tE tE 26 number of teeth on gear E Operation Compound Gear wheel B (80) Arm E(26) Arm is fixed & B is given ONE revolution (CW) 0 +1 Multiply by m (B rotates 0 80 80 28 26 26 26 82 40 m 13 40 14 13 through m D (28) 80 40 +m C (82) m 13 m 41 revolution) 40 Add n revolutions to all elements n 40 m n m+n 13 m n 13 40 14 13 41 m n Since the wheel C is fixed and the arm (shaft) A makes 800 rpm. tC = 82. n 800rpm 40 14 13 41 40 14 m n m 800 13 41 m 761.42 800 38.

Kinematics of Machines Speed of gear B 10ME44 Speed of shaft F Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT 38.58rpm Page 159 .

571rps (CCW ) Page 160 . Arm D15 E20 F30 B20 C35 Solution: Data: tB = 20.429 1 0.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Problem 7: The fig shows an Epicyclic gear train. tC = 35. tE = 20. Wheel E is fixed and wheels C and D are integrally cast and mounted on the same pin. If arm A makes one revolution per sec (Counter clockwise) determine the speed and direction of rotation of the wheels B and F. tF = 30 NA = 1rps-(CCW) Compound Gear Operation Arm B (20) wheel D (15) Arm is fixed & B is given ONE revolution (CW) 0 +1 C (35) 20 20 15 15 35 7 4 3 7 20 20 3 30 3 Multiply by m (B rotates F (30) E (20) 0 +m 3 through m 4m 3 14 m 7m 4m 3 9 revolution) Add n revolutions to n m+ n 4 n 4m n 3 3 all elements 7 m m n n 14 m 9 3 Since the wheel E is fixed and the arm A makes 1 rps-CCW n 1rps and 7m n 0 3 7m 1 3 0 Speed of gear B m Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT m 3 7 n 0. tD = 15.429 0.

667 (CCW ) Problem 7: In the gear train shown. tC = 80. D60 Output Shaft A F32 E30 B20 Input Shaft C80 The arm A. NB = 1000 rpm (ccw) (input speed). If the input speed is 1000 rpm (ccw) when seen from the right.5 kW Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 161 . the wheel C is fixed. determine the speed of the output shaft.5 kW. Solution: Data : tB = 20.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Speed of gear F n 14 m 99 1 14 0. the gear B. tF = 32.429 1. tD = 60. tE = 30. carrying the compound wheels D and E turns freely on the out put shaft. The number of teeth on each gear is indicated in the figures. P = 7. is keyed to the input shaft and the gear F is keyed to the output shaft. Find the output torque to keep the wheel C fixed if the input power is 7.

.Kinematics of Machines Operation Arm is fixed & B is given +1 10ME44 Compound Gear wheel Arm B (20) Input 0 D (60) +1 revolution Multiply by m (B rotates 0 through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements n m+n F (32) E (30) 1 3 60 80 20 1 1 60 3 3 1 4 1m 1m 3 4 1m 3 m C (80) 1 3 30 32 5 16 5 m 16 1 m n 1m n n 1 m n 5m 3 16 3 4 Input shaft speed = 1000 rpm (ccw) i.e. gear B rotates – 1000 rpm Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 162 .

T B N B TF N F T C N C 0 Since C is fixed : NC N B TF N F 0 TB 0 71.5 1000 60 7500 60 TB 71.25m m n 1m 4 n Gear C is fixed.59 1431. 0 0 1000 800 1.8Nm From the torque equation : TB TF TC 0 71.59Nm 1000 2 P From the energy equation.59 1000 TF 50 TF 0 1431.25 1000 800 200 Speed of F 5 n m 16 200 800 5 50 16 Speed of the output shaft F 50rpm (CW ) Input power 2 N BTB 60 2 1000 TB 7.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 m n 1000 1000 m 0.21Nm Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 163 .8 TC TC 0 1360.

21 Nm in the same direction of wheel Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 164 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 The Torque required to hold the wheel C = 1360.

A1 and A2 for which A2 is the arm. in order to find the speed ratio of S1 to A2. A1 and A2: Operation A2 (100) A1 (120) 0 +1 A2 is fixed & wheel A1 is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (A1 rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements A1 is fixed: N S1 N A2 N S1 (b) S1 (40) 120 40 0 +m 3m n n+ m n 3m m Figure 6 3 n n 3n n 4 4 N A2 Consider complete gear train: A1 (120) Operation A1 is fixed & wheel S2 is given +1 revolution Multiply by m 0 0 (A1 rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements S2 is fixed n A2 (100) 30 100 3 10 3 m 10 n 3m 10 S1 (40) 3 4 10 6 5 6m 5 n S2 (30) 6m 5 +1 +m n+ m m=-n Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 165 . Determine also the magnitude and direction of the torque required to fix S2. A1 A2 P1 P2 S1 S2 (a) Consider gear train S1. if a torque of 300 N-m is applied in a clockwise direction to S1 Solution: Consider first the gear train S1. A1 = 120. S1 is the driver. when A1 is fixed. The number of teeth on the gears are S1 = 40.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Problem 8: Find the velocity ratio of two co-axial shafts of the epicyclic gear train as shown in figure 6. A2 = 100 and the sun wheel S2 is fixed. S2 = 30.

7 N m 13 opposite to directiojn of rotation Referring to the figure: TS 2 507.7 300 207. in the direction of rotation. N T A2 Resisting torque on A2.7 N T m A2 S2 (CW ) S1 T S1 Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 166 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 n 6n S1 11 10 22 5 N A2 5 13 13 n 3 n 10 Input torque on S1 = TS1 = 300 N-m. TA2 300 22 507.

a) Disk or plate cam (Fig. b) Cylindrical cam (Fig.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 UNIT-08 CAMS INTRODUCTION A cam is a mechanical device used to transmit motion to a follower by direct contact. The follower moves in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the camshaft and is held in contact with the cam by springs or gravity. 6. where the cams drive the push rods (the followers) to open and close the valves in synchronization with the motion of the pistons. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 167 . The roller follows the groove.1 Plate or disk cam.2 Cylindrical cam. A familiar example is the camshaft of an automobile engine. the cam normally rotates while the follower may translate or oscillate. In a cam follower pair. Types of cams Cams can be classified based on their physical shape.2): The cylindrical cam has a groove cut along its cylindrical surface. Fig.1a and b): The disk (or plate) cam has an irregular contour to impart a specific motion to the follower. The driver is called the cam and the driven member is called the follower. and the follower moves in a plane parallel to the axis of rotation of the cylinder. 6. 6. Fig. 6.

4 Types of followers (ii) Based on type of motion: (Fig. Fig.3 Translating cam Types of followers: 1.3b).3a and b).5) Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 168 . 6. (Fig. 6.6.6. 6.7 Based on surface in contact. 6.3a) or reciprocate (Fig.4) Knife edge follower Roller follower Flat faced follower Spherical follower Fig. The translating cam is a contoured or grooved plate sliding on a guiding surface(s). The contour or the shape of the groove is determined by the specified motion of the follower. 6. The follower may oscillate (Fig.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 c) Translating cam (Fig.

the lines of movement are offset from the centers of the camshafts (Fig. and d).6 Off set followers Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 169 . c. 6.4a.6a. b. b. and d).6. 6.6.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 (a) Oscillating follower (b) Translating follower Fig. Fig. (b) Off-set follower: For this type. c.5 (iii) Based on line of motion: (a) Radial follower: The lines of movement of in-line cam followers pass through the centers of the camshafts (Fig.

with its center on the axis of the camshaft.6.7 Cam Profile The contour of the working surface of the cam. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 170 . or the center of a roller.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Cam nomenclature (Fig. Tracer Point The point at the knife edge of a follower. Pressure Angle The angle between the normal to the pitch curve and the direction of motion of the follower at the point of contact. Prime Circle The smallest circle drawn. Base Circle The smallest circle drawn. tangential to the cam profile. 6. tangential to the pitch curve. with its center on the axis of the camshaft. The size of the base circle determines the size of the cam.7): Fig. or the center of a spherical face Pitch Curve The path of the tracer point.

The displacement. p Uniform velocity q Modified uniform velocity r Uniform acceleration and deceleration s Simple harmonic motion t Cycloidal motion Displacement diagrams: In a cam follower system. the displacement varies linearly with θ. velocity and acceleration diagrams are plotted for one cycle of operation i. Since the follower moves with constant velocity.. dwells. within no time. the motion of the follower is very important. theoretically. before designing the cam surface. The cam is assumed to rotate at a constant speed and the follower raises. follower motion with. Construction of displacement diagrams and calculation of velocities and accelerations of followers with different types of motions are discussed in the following sections. Appropriate displacement patterns are to be selected for this purpose.6.e. returns to its original position and dwells again through specified angles of rotation of the cam. The displacement of the follower is plotted along the y-axis and angular displacement θ of the cam is plotted along x-axis. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 171 . one rotation of the cam.8 shows the displacement. From the displacement diagram. during rise and fall. the acceleration becomes infinite at the beginning and end of rise and fall. velocity and acceleration of the follower can also be plotted for different angular displacements θ of the cam. Its displacement can be plotted against the angular displacement θ of the cam and it is called as the displacement diagram. (a) Follower motion with Uniform velocity: Fig. velocity and acceleration patterns of a follower having uniform velocity type of motion. Displacement diagrams are basic requirements for the construction of cam profiles. Some of the standard follower motions are as follows: They are. during each revolution of the cam.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Types of follower motion: Cam follower systems are designed to achieve a desired oscillatory motion. since the velocity changes from zero to a finite value. Also.

the displacement diagrams are slightly modified. Accordingly. With this modification. In the modified form. In order to prevent this. the velocity of the follower changes uniformly during the beginning and end of each stroke.8 (b) Follower motion with modified uniform velocity: It is observed in the displacement diagrams of the follower with uniform velocity that the acceleration of the follower becomes infinite at the beginning and ending of rise and return strokes.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Fig. instead of being Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 172 . the displacement of the follower varies parabolically during these periods. the acceleration becomes constant during these periods.6.

The acceleration/retardation of the follower becomes constant accordingly.9 (c) Follower motion with uniform acceleration and retardation (UARM): Here. The displacement. fig.6. velocity and acceleration patterns are shown in fig. 6. the displacement of the follower varies parabolically with respect to angular displacement of cam.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 infinite as in the uniform velocity type of motion.9. The displacement. velocity and acceleration patterns are shown in fig. the velocity of the follower varies uniformly with respect to angular displacement of cam.10. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 173 . Accordingly.6.

6.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Fig.10 Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 174 .

P moves with uniform angular velocity ωp.6.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 (d) Simple Harmonic Motion: In fig. which is the projection of point P on the vertical diameter is called simple harmonic motion. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 175 . the motion executed by point Pl. along a circle of radius r (r = s/2). Here.11.

θo = Angular displacement during outstroke. θr = Angular displacement during return stroke Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 176 .Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 s= Stroke or displacement of the follower.

is similar to that of the projection of a point moving along a cyloidal curve on a vertical line as shown in figure 6. The motion executed by the follower here. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 177 . (e) Cycloidal motion: Cycloid is the path generated by a point on the circumference of a circle.12. on a straight/flat surface.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 ω = Angular velocity of cam. as the circle rolls without slipping.

The expressions for maximum values of velocity and acceleration of the follower are shown below.13. Compared to all other follower motions. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 178 .6. cycloidal motion results in smooth operation of the follower.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 The construction of displacement diagram and the standard patterns of velocity and acceleration diagrams are shown in fig.

Velocity and acceleration during out stroke and return stroke if the cam rotates at 1000 rpm in clockwise direction.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Solved problems p Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = Knife edged. for 600 cam rotation. lift = 50mm. dwell for 450 cam rotation. in-line. return stroke with SHM. Determine max. out stroke with SHM. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 179 . dwell for the remaining period. base circle radius = 50mm. for 900 cam rotation.

Mark points 1.3…. This forms the required cam profile.l from displacement diagram to the cam profile and join them by a smooth free hand curve.c…. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 180 .b.2.in direction opposite to the direction of cam rotation. Transfer points a.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Cam profile: Construct base circle...

Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 181 . as shown in the fig. except that the lines drawn from 1. are tangential to the offset circle of 10mm dia. with the follower off set by 10 mm to the left of cam center. 2. Displacement diagram: Same as previous case.3….Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 2) Draw the cam profile for the same operating conditions of problem (1). Cam profile: Construction is same as previous case.

out stroke with UARM. in-line.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = roller follower. lift = 25mm. return stroke with UARM. for 900 cam rotation. dwell for the remaining period. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 182 . Determine max. velocity and acceleration during out stroke and return stroke if the cam rotates at 1200 rpm in clockwise direction. roller radius = 5mm. for 1200 cam rotation. dwell for 600 cam rotation. base circle radius = 20mm.

Starting from the first point of contact between roller and base circle.in direction opposite to the direction of cam rotation.b.c….3….2. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 183 .l from displacement diagram.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Cam profile: Construct base circle and prime circle (25mm radius). At each of these points a.c… draw circles of 5mm radius. draw a smooth free hand curve.b.. tangential to all successive roller positions. Transfer points a. representing rollers.. Mark points 1. This forms the required cam profile. on prime circle.

3…. as shown in the fig. are tangential to the offset circle of 10mm dia. Cam profile: Construction is same as previous case. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 184 . except that the lines drawn from 1. with follower off set to right of cam center by 5mm and cam rotating counter clockwise. Displacement diagram: Same as previous case.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 (4) Draw the cam profile for conditions same as in (3).2.

dwell for 0. off set to the right of cam axis by 18mm.05sec. lift = 35mm. roller radius = 14mm. base circle radius = 50mm. During return stroke. during 0.125sec. Velocity and acceleration during out stroke and return stroke if the cam rotates at 240 rpm. acceleration is 3/5 times retardation.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = roller follower. out stroke with SHM in 0.0125sec. return stroke with UARM. dwell for the remaining period. Determine max. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 185 .

Kinematics of Machines Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT 10ME44 Page 186 .

Kinematics of Machines Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT 10ME44 Page 187 .

lift = 30mm. dwell for 600. in line. 10ME44 Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = knife edged follower. during 900 of cam rotation. dwell for the remaining period. out stroke with uniform velocity in 1200 of cam rotation. return stroke with uniform velocity.Kinematics of Machines 3. base circle radius = 20mm. Displacement diagram: Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 188 .

dwell for 300. roller radius = 7mm.. 10ME44 Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = oscillating follower with roller as shown in fig. return stroke with cycloidal motion during 1200 of cam rotation. base circle radius = 20mm. if the cam rotates at 600 rpm. velocity and acceleration during outstroke and return stroke. Displacement diagram Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 189 . dwell for the remaining period. Also determine the max. follower to rise through 400 during 900 of cam rotation with cycloidal motion.Kinematics of Machines 2.

2. Starting from the first point of contact between roller and base circle.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Cam profile: Draw base circle and prime circle. Show points 1‟.3…. representing rollers. Draw another circle of radius equal to the distance between cam center and follower pivot point. tangential to all successive roller positions. draw a smooth free hand curve.b. 2‟.. Divide these into same number of divisions as in the displacement diagram. Transfer points a.c… draw circles of 7mm radius. 3‟… on the outer circle. draw arcs. With these points as centers and radius equal to length of follower arm. This forms the required cam profile. cutting the prime circle at 1. on to these arcs from displacement diagram.c.b. Take the line joining cam center and pivot point as reference and draw lines indicating successive angular displacements of cam. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 190 . At each of these points a.

in line. Base circle radius = 30mm.Kinematics of Machines 4. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 191 . 10ME44 Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = knife edged follower. follower rises by 24mm with SHM in 1/4 rotation. dwells for 1/8 rotation and then raises again by 24mm with UARM in 1/4 rotation and dwells for 1/16 rotation before returning with SHM.

draw a smooth free hand curve. representing flat faced followers.. Transfer points a. in line.3….2..c… draw perpendicular lines to the radials. This forms the required cam profile. Starting from the first point of contact between follower and base circle. Mark points 1. Displacement diagram: Cam profile: Construct base circle. Base circle radius = 25mm.Kinematics of Machines (9) 10ME44 Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = flat faced follower.l from displacement diagram. on prime circle. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 192 . At each of these points a.in direction opposite to the direction of cam rotation.c…. follower rises by 20mm with SHM in 1200 of cam rotation. dwells for 300 of cam rotation.b.b. tangential to all successive follower positions. returns with SHM in 1200 of cam rotation and dwells during the remaining period.

= 5mm. falls by half the distance instantaneously.Kinematics of Machines (10) 10ME44 Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = roller follower. returns with Uniform velocity in 1800 of cam rotation. roller dia. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 193 . in line. Base circle radius = 20m. follower rises by 25mm with SHM in 1800 of cam rotation.

lift = 30mm. base circle radius = 25mm. dwell for 600 cam rotation. dwell for the remaining period. for 1200 cam rotation. first half of return stroke with Uniform velocity and second half with UARM. Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 194 . out stroke with SHM. off-set to the right by 5mm. roller radius = 5mm. return stroke during 1200 cam rotation.Kinematics of Machines (11) 10ME44 Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = roller follower.

Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 Displacement diagram: Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 195 .

Draw the profile of the cam. The axis of the roller and the cam fall on the same vertical line. The same descends with SHM. fitted to its end. The base circle diameter of the cam is 50mm and the push rod has a roller of 60mm diameter. along a path inclined to the vertical at 600. interposed by a dwell period of 600. The angle of action for the outstroke and the return stroke is 600 each. Displacement diagram: Department of Mechanical Engineering SJBIT Page 196 . The stroke of the follower is 20mm.Kinematics of Machines 10ME44 (12) A push rod of valve of an IC engine ascends with UARM.

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