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Ánh Ngọc 1Q12

Elections are held to fill representatives in a parliament or some other
institution. A government is elected depending on the nature of the
political system. Elections are universal among democracies,
referendums vary. There are some kind of election system: singlemember constituencies, and multi-member constituencies. Singlemember plurality includes single-member plurality, alternatives vote
and two round system. Firstly, the seat is awarded to the candidate
with the most votes, this kind is employed in some world’s largest
democracies: UK, US, Canada. Besides, there is also alternatives vote
when a candidate is elected if his votes amount to a majority. Tworound system is a second round in case no candidate wins majority in
the first round. Next, multi-member constituencies contains
proportional representation in which each group of voters are awarded
with a ‘fair share” of representation. The electoral system applies 2
method: highest average and largest remainders.
Referendums are on a specific issue to be approved or rejected.
Different types of referendums depend on whether or not the people
can initiate a referendum themselves, whether a parliament has
discretion as to whether to decide a matter itself or with a referendum
and the verdict of the people is binding or advisory.
Basic theory of election
The social choice theory deals with how groups can best arrive at
decisions. However, the problem with social choice is finding good
procedures that will turn individual preferences for different
candidates into a single choice by the whole group.
Election in VN
Vietnam elects on national level a head of state - the president - and
a legislature. The National Assembly (Quoc Hoi) has 498 members,
elected for a five-year term. Vietnam is a single-party state. This
means that only one political party, the Communist Party of
Vietnam is legally allowed to hold effective power. At the last
elections, 20 May 2007, only the Vietnamese Fatherland Front, a front
of the Communist Party of Vietnam, mass organizations and affiliated,
and some non-partisans were allowed to participate. 1 member is selfnominated and is not a member of the VFF. 42 seats were won by nonparty candidates. The president is elected for a five-year term by the
parliament. More than 99% of all candidates were selected by
Communist Party and most of them were from their own party.