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Created by Ankur Sharma, Gurudayal Srivastava, Vikram Singh, Sanket Tamhane

1. WHAT ARE CENTRIFUGES?
• THESE ARE THE DEVICES USED FOR SEPARATING IMPURITIES FROM FUEL OIL & LUBE OIL
• IMPURITIES CAN BE SOLID (ASH,METAL PARTICLE ETC) OR LIQUID (CHEMICALS & WATER)
2. WHAT IS THE PRINCIPLE ON WHICH PURIFIER WORKS?
• WHEN BOWL/TANK IS ROTATED, CENTRIFUGAL FORCE WILL THROW ANY PARTICLE WITH
DENSITY GREATER THAN THE OIL TO THE PERIPHERY OF BOWL.
• FORCE OF SEPARATION CAN BE GIVEN BY THE STOKE’S FORMULA I.E.,
• F = Π/6 X D3 ( ρw – ρo ) w2 r ------------(2)
WHERE D = DIAMETER OF IMPURITY PARTICLE/OIL GLOBULE
( ρw – ρo ) = DENSITY DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WATER & OIL.
W = ANGULAR VELOCITY OF THE DISC.
R = EFFECTIVE RADIUS/ DISTANCE OF IMPURITY PARTICLE FROM BOWL CENTRE. FOR THIS
DIAMETER OF BOWL TO BE INCREASED. BUT THERE IS LIMITATION BECAUSE OF
BALANCING PROBLEM.
3. WHAT IS INTERFACE?
• WHEN SEPARATION STARTS BY CENTRIFUGAL FORCE, IT FORMS THREE ZONES I.E.
1. HEAVIER LIQUID/PARTICLE PHASE NEAR PERIPHERY OF BOWL
2. LIGHT LIQUID/CLEAN OIL PHASE NEAR CENTER OF THE BOWL. &
3. MIDDLE NEUTRAL PHASE .THIS GRADUALLY BECOMES LESS & EVENTUALLY FORMS THIN
DIVIDING LINE BETWEEN THE TWO ZONES .THIS DIVIDING LAYER IS CALLED INTERFACE OR
E-LINE.
• THE POSITION OF INTERFACE DECIDES THE DEGREE OF PURIFICATION
• THE OPTIMUM POSITION OF INTERFACE IS BETWEEN EDGE OF DISC STACK & THE OUT SIDE
EDGE OF THE TOP DISC.
• POSITION OF INTERFACE CAN BE FIXED BY USING CORRECT SIZE OF GRAVITY DISC.

4. WHAT IS GRAVITY DISC?
• GRAVITY DISC IS A RING FITTED AT THE TOP OF DISC STACK FROM WHERE WATER
(HEAVIER PHASE) IS PASSING OUT.
• OUTSIDE DIAMETER OF GRAVITY DISC IS FIXED & INSIDE DIAMETER CAN VARY DEPENDING
UPON SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF THE OIL TO BE PURIFIED. FOR THIS PURPOSE DIFFERENT SETS
OF GRAVITY DISCS ARE SUPPLIED WITH EVERY CENTRIFUGE.
• THE SIZE OF THE DAM RING CAN BE SELECTED WITH THE FOLLOWING DATA.

METHODS TO SELECT CORRECT SIZE OF GRAVITY DISC? 1. USING THE MONOGRAMS GIVEN IN MANUAL WHICH IS BASED ON OIL DENSITY & SEPARATING TEMP. HOW AND WHERE SEPARATION OF IMPURITY IS DONE? . BY USING THE FORMULA. HOW ARE THE FOLLOWING FACTORS AFFECT INTERFACE? 8. 5. THE INTERFACE WILL BE FORMED WITHIN THE DISC STACK & SEPARATING EFFICIENCY WILL REDUCE. 7. BY TRIAL & ERROR METHOD. C) TEMPERATURE OF THE OIL. CLEAN OIL WILL PASS TO THE WASTE THROUGH WATER OUTLET & CLEAN OIL OUTLET WILL BE CLEAR OF WATER. WHAT IS TRIAL & ERROR METHOD? • IF THE GRAVITY DISC (INSIDE DIAMETER) IS CORRECT SIZE . • IF INSIDE DIAMETER IS TOO SMALL. 3. 2. WITH THIS CLEAN OIL OUTLET IS CLEAR OF WATER & WATER DISCHARGE IS CLEAR OF OIL . D) TEMPERATURE OF WATER. INTERFACE WILL BE FORMED BETWEEN EDGE OF DISC STACK & OUTSIDE EDGE OF THE TOP MOST DISC . THE INTERFACE WILL BE FORMED OUTSIDE THE TOP DISC EDGE. • IF INSIDE DIAMETER IS TOO LARGE. WITH THIS CLEAN OIL WILL CONTAIN WATER & THE WATER DISCHARGE WILL BE CLEAR OF OIL.A) VISCOSITY OF THE OIL. B) SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF THE OIL. 6.

• IN CASE PARTS OF THE BOWL IS CLEANED THOROUGHLY AND THE OTHER PARTS CLEANED POORLY. • THERE IS ONLY ONE OUTLET ON TOP.9. • REQUIRE SEALING WATER WHILE STARTING. • THESE ARE TO BE CLEANED WITH DIESEL OIL AND PLAIN CLOTH. • PROVIDED WITH AUTOMATIC CLEANING ARRANGING. AND THE DISCS ARE TO BE TAKEN OUT. THE BOWL PART IS TO BE DISMANTLED. • WATER WASH IS GIVEN DURING RUNNING PERIOD ONLY. . WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PURIFIER AND CLARIFIER? PURIFIER • THE LOWER DISC HAS HOLES • SEPARATES WATER & HEAVY SOLID IMPURITIES • TWO OUTLETS ON TOP. • DISC WITHOUT NECK • CLARIFIER DISC WITH SMALLER NECK • DOES REQUIRE SEALING WATER. SELF CLEANING • A SELF CLEANING CENTRIFUGE DOES NOT REQUIRE DISMANTLING. CAUSE UNBALANCE OF THE BOWL WHICH FURTHER RESULT IN VIBRATION AND DAMAGE TO THE BEARING. EACH FOR WATER & OIL • TOP DISC WITH NECK. • TO BE CLEANED MANUALLY 10. • GRAVITY DISC ON TOP OF DISC STACK. • SEPARATES ONLY FINER PARTICLES. WHAT IS MANUAL CLEANING AND SELF CLEANING? MANUAL CLEANING • IN THIS TO CLEAN THE BOWL AND DISC. THE BOWL IS ALSO TO BE CLEANED IN A SIMILAR FASHION. CLARIFIER • THE LOWER DISC HAS NO HOLES. • ALSO IMPROPER CLEANING RESULTS IN PLUGGING IN SOME PARTS WITH SLUDGE WHICH FURTHER AFFECTS THE PERFORMANCE OF THE BOWL OPERATIONS.

BOWL HAS NOT CLOSED PROPERLY 10. THROUGHPUT IS TOO HIGH 13. 7. TOO MUCH RATE OF THROUGHPUT 3. 2. Foundation damper & spring failure 3. SLIDING BOWL IS SEIZED 3. Motor speed too high or too low 7. TOO MUCH SLUDGE INSIDE THE BOWL 5.OPERATING WATER FLOW IS NOT PROPER 12. GRAVITY DISC OF BIGGER SIZE. 2. SEALING RING IS LEAKING 16. 2.HEIGHT OF BOWL IS NOT PROPERLY ADJUSTED 13. FOR THIS.CLUTCH PADS ARE WORN OUT OR SLIPPING 12. OIL IS EXCESSIVELY HEATED UP. WHAT ARE THE REASONS FOR WATER CARRIED AWAY WITH OIL? 1. WHAT ARE THE REASONS WHY HAVN’T GET ENOUGH RPM WHEN PURIFIER IS RUNNING? 1. WHAT ARE THE REASONS IF BOWL IS NOT GETTING CLOSED? 1. Sludge too much 2. THE SLUDGE DISCHARGE TAKES PLACE THROUGH A NUMBER OF SLOTS IN THE BOWL WALL. 2. SLIDING BOWL IS FORCED UPWARDS AGAINST A SEAL RING BY THE PRESSURE OF THE OPERATING LIQUID CONTAINED IN THE SPACE BELOW IT. WHAT ARE THE REASONS IF PURIFIER IS NOT DESLUDGING? 1. GRAVITY DISC IS SMALLER. Foundation bolts are loose 14. Improper touching with friction clutch (worn out frictional clutch) 2. SEALING RING OF BOWL IS LEAKING 8. LOW SPEED OF BOWL ROTATION 6. Shaft is bend 9. Touching with break . WRONG SELECTION OF GRAVITY DISC.• • • • FOR THIS THE BOWL IS CONSTRUCTED WITH A CONICAL SURFACE AND HYDRAULICALLY OPERATED OPENING AND CLOSING VALVE MECHANISM. OPERATING WATER LINE PRESSURE IS NOT BUILT UP. 15. DOWN BELOW PAIRING DISC AND WATER HOLES ARE CHOCKED. Worn gear 5. Uneven wear of frictional clutch 6. OPERATING WATER FAILURE 9. DURING NORMAL RUNNING CONDITIONS THESE SLOTS ARE CLOSED BY THE SLIDING BOWL. WHAT ARE THE REASONS FOR EXCESSIVE VIBRATION? 1. FEED RATE IS TOO HIGH 4. TOO LOW FUEL OIL TEMP 4. Bearing failure 4. Height adjustment is not proper 8. WHAT ARE THE REASONS FOR PURIFIER OVERFLOWING? 1. BOWL DISC IS DIRTY 5. DESLUDGING WATER PRESSURE IS NOT SUFFICIENT MAY BE FILTER IS CHOCKED OR SOLENOID VALVE IS NOT OPERATING. THIS OPERATING LIQUID OUTER BALANCES THE DOWNWARD PRESSURE FROM THE PROCESS LIQUID INSIDE THE BOWL. 11. INTERFACE WILL SHIFT INWARD 3.OIL PAIRING DISC ARE WORN OUT 11.

7. 21.O.this measures the discharge oil pressure and alarms and initiates a shut down when below a set value.O TO D. WHAT IS PAIRING DISC? It is a stationary impeller mounted in a chamber at the neck of the bow. which is smaller than the heavy oil Open heater by pass vale. 18.Oil has a much higher viscosity than water. WHAT IS DRIVE OF PURIFIER? • THE DRIVE FOR THE CENTRIFUGE IS TAKEN FROM A STANDARD CONSTANT SPEED HORIZONTAL SHAFT TYPE ELECTRIC MOTOR RUNNING AT 1450-1720 RPM WITH AC SUPPLY OF 60 CYCLE. Open heater drains v/v. 22. 20. Bowl not open. 24. Closed the F. The outlet from the tank is restricted in such a way that water flows freely but oil tends to back up. Water in oil. WHAT ARE ALL TRIPS & ALARMS ARE PRESENT IN PURIFIER? 1. typically by a lever switch operated by the discharged sludge hitting a striker plate. It is used to remove oil and water from purifier. High temperature alarm and shut down 6. WHY MULTIDISC PROVIDED? To separate the liquid into thin layer & create shallow settling distance between discs. It works on centripetal force. Back Pressure shutdown. . 6. HOW TO ADJUST BOWL HEIGHT? By turning vertical shaft adjust screw By shim by bowl body 19.This found on modern designs which have a detection probe mounted in the oil discharge 5.? Replace the gravity disc. HOW TO CHANGE PURIFIER FROM H. 8. Heavy phase overflow. Improving separation of oil from heaver liquids & solids particle 23. WHY NEED SEALING WATER? To seal the water outlet & to prevent the overflow of oil from the water outlet. The water outlet is blocked by a seal on the gravity disc. This initiates an alarm and shut down 3. The other method is by measuring the motor current. The heavy phase outlet is led to a small catchment tank contain a float.3. O heater steam in/out valves. Excessive sludge in the bowl Bearing failure Motor running at overload One phase power failure (Single phasing) Sump oil level too high Vertical shaft and horizontal shaft are out of alignment 17. The motor current rises until full speed is re-established. 5. when the bowl opens the bowl speed is dragged down due to friction effects of the discharging sludge and water. Blank off the sealing water inlet line. It function is convert the rotating energy into a pressure head. This is detected by a current sensing relay 4. 2. 4.this may be done in several ways. WITH WORM WHEEL BOWL REVOLVES AT A SPEED OF ABOUT 6000 RPM. HOW TO CANGE PURIFIER TO CLARIFIER? Open up the purifier and set the blind disc at the bottom of the disc stack. Low control/seal water pressure-Where control water is supplied via a fixed small header tanks a float switch may be fitted.

AN EPC-400 CONTROL UNIT. The water will be discharged from sludge ports in the bowl or. THE SPINDLE IS DRIVEN THROUGH THIS CYLINDRICAL WORM WHICH ITS DRIVE FROM THE WORM WHEEL. AND • A WATER DRAIN VALVE. A STRAINER. When the separated water reaches the disc stack. They are extremely abrasive and must be removed from the fuel before it enters the engine. The increase in water content is sensed by a water-detecting transducer in the outlet . • AN OIL FEED PUMP. THE TOP PART OF THE SPINDLE CARRIES BOWL AND THE LOWER IS FITTED WITH CYLINDRICAL WORM (REMOVABLE). from a water drain valve. THE SPINDLE UNIT WHICH IS VERTICAL IS FITTED WITH BALL BEARINGS AND SLEEVE. if the amount is large.• • • • NORMALLY CENTRIFUGAL FRICTION TYPE COUPLING IS USED TO CONNECT THE MOTOR AND THE PURIFIER CROSS SHAFT WHICH HOUSES THE WORM WHEEL ON IT WITH INBUILT WORM. to some extent. Clean oil is discharged from the oil outlet and separated sludge and water collect at the periphery of the bowl. WORKING: Changes in refinery techniques are resulting in heavy fuel oils with increased density and usually contaminated with catalytic fines.2% above the reference value. THE MATERIAL USED FOR WORM IS HARDENED STEEL WHERE AS THAT FOR WORM WHEEL IS PHOSPHOR BRONZE. In the ALCAP separation system the separator has no gravity disc and operates. some water will escape with the cleaned oil. The water transducer signal is fed to the MARST 1 microprocessor which will discharge the water when a predetermined level is reached which is 0. 26. as a clarifier. It can be used for oil whose specific gravity is more than 1. THE WHOLE OF THIS ASSEMBLY IS TOTALLY ENCLOSED IN AN OIL BATH AND LUBRICATION IS THEREFORE AUTOMATIC. WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF ALCAP SYSTEM? . 25. These are small particles of the catalysts used in the refining process. AND OIL HEATING SYSTEM ARE SUPPLEMENTARY EQUIPMENT TO THE BASIC CONCEPT. The generally accepted maximum density limit for purifier operation is 991 kg/m3 at 15*C. WHAT IS AN ALCAP SYSTEM? • THE BASIC ALCAP CLEANING SYSTEM COMPRISES: • AN FOPX SEPARATOR • A WATER TRANSDUCER WT 200.

VISCOSITY. 2. Bowl speed is higher than motor speed.• • • • • CONSTANT OPTIMUM SEPARATION EFFICIENCY IS MAINTAINED SINCE SEPARATED WATER DOES NOT ENTER THE DISC STACK. Friction clutch is provided as the starting torque is too high so power required is high. 4. SEPARATION EFFICIENCY IS NOT AFFECTED EVEN WHEN CLEANING FUEL OILS WITH A HIGH WATER CONTENT. WIDE OPERATING RANGE AS ANY FUEL OIL WITH DENSITY UP TO 1010 KG/M3/15°C CAN BE EFFICIENTLY CLEANED WITH RESPECT TO WATER AND SOLID PARTICLES. 3. SINGLE STAGE OPERATION: ONE ALCAP CLEANING SYSTEM REPLACES ONE PURIFIER/ONE CLARIFIER IN SERIES. . Pure clarifier cannot be changed to purifier as they don’t have oil outlet. FLOW RATE AND TEMPERATURE. VIRTUALLY NO OIL LOSSES. SIMPLE OPERATION: NO ADJUSTMENTS OF THE CLEANING PLANT ARE REQUIRED DUE TO FLUCTUATIONS IN DENSITY. Pure diesel oil purifier cannot be changed for heavy oil as they don’t have heater. SOME POINTS TO REMEMBER 1.