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shown in Fig. P5.23 was reinforced by bolting two 6 200 1,200

mm steel [E = 200 GPa] plates (1) to opposite sides of the block. A

concentrated load of 360 kN is applied to a rigid cap. Determine:

(a) the normal stresses in the steel plates (1) and the oak block (2).

(b) the shortening of the block when the load is applied.

Fig. P5.23

Solution

Equilibrium

Consider a FBD of the rigid cap. Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:

Fy = 2 F1 F2 360 kN = 0

Force-Deformation Relationships

The relationship between the internal force and the deformation of an axial

member can be stated for members (1) and (2):

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

(b)

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations Relationship

For this configuration, the elongations of both members will be equal; therefore,

e1 = e2

(c)

Compatibility Equation

Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (c) to

derive the compatibility equation:

F1 L1 F2 L2

=

(d)

A1 E1 A2 E2

Solve the Equations

Solve Eq. (d) for F2, recognizing that steel plates (1) and oak block (2) have the same length:

L AE

L A E

A E

F2 = F1 1 2 2 = F1 1 2 2 = F1 2 2

A1 E1 L2

L2 A1 E1

A1 E1

Substitute this expression into equilibrium equation (a) and solve for F1:

A E

A E

Fy = 2 F1 F2 = 2 F1 F1 2 2 = F1 2 + 2 2 = 360 kN

A1 E1

A1 E1

For this structure, the areas and elastic moduli are given below:

A1 = (6 mm)(200 mm) = 1, 200 mm 2

A2 = (200 mm) 2 = 40, 000 mm 2

E1 = 200 GPa

(e)

(f)

E2 = 12 GPa

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Substitute these values into Eq. (f) and calculate F1 = 90 kN. Backsubstitute into Eq. (e) to calculate

F2 = 180 kN.

Normal Stresses

The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:

F (90 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

= 75 MPa = 75 MPa (C)

1 = 1 =

A1

1,200 mm 2

2 =

=

= 4.50 MPa = 4.50 MPa (C)

A2

40,000 mm 2

Ans.

Ans.

(b) The shortening of the block is equal to the elongation (i.e., contraction in this instance) of member

(2):

FL

(180, 000 N)(1,200 mm)

u B = e2 = 2 2 =

= 0.450 mm = 0.450 mm

Ans.

A2 E2 (40,000 mm 2 )(12, 000 N/mm 2 )

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cross-sectional area of 2,300 mm2, are attached to

unyielding supports at the top and bottom, as shown in

Fig. P5.24. At flange B, a concentrated downward load of

280 kN is applied. Determine:

(a) the normal stresses in the upper and lower pipes.

(b) the deflection of flange B.

Fig. P5.24

Solution

(a) Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B. Sum forces in the vertical

direction to obtain:

Fy = F1 F2 280 kN = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships:

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations:

e1 + e2 = 0

(b)

(c)

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:

F1 L1 F2 L2

+

=0

A1 E1 A2 E2

Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for F2:

L AE

L A E

F2 = F1 1 2 2 = F1 1 2 2

A1 E1 L2

L2 A1 E1

and substitute this expression into Eq. (a) to determine F1:

L A E

L A E

Fy = F1 F2 = F1 F1 1 2 2 = F1 1 + 1 2 2 = 280 kN

L2 A1 E1

L2 A1 E1

(d)

(e)

(f)

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Notice that A1 = A2 and E1 = E2 for this structure. Therefore, F1 can be computed as:

280 kN

280 kN

280 kN

F1 =

=

=

= 178.182 kN

L1 A2 E2

1.6 m 1.571429

1+

1+

2.8 m

L2 A1 E1

and from Eq. (e), F2 has a value of

L A E

1.6 m

F2 = F1 1 2 2 = (178.182 kN)

= 101.818 kN

L2 A1 E1

2.8 m

Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:

F 178,182 N

1 = 1 =

= 77.5 MPa = 77.5 MPa (T)

A1 2,300 mm 2

2 =

F2 101,818 N

=

= 44.3 MPa = 44.3 MPa (C)

A2 2,300 mm 2

Ans.

Ans.

(b) The deflection of flange B is equal to the elongation (i.e., contraction in this instance) of member (2):

FL

(101,818 N)(2,800 mm)

= 0.620 mm = 0.620 mm

u B = e2 = 2 2 =

Ans.

A2 E2 (2,300 mm 2 )(200, 000 N/mm 2 )

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5.25 Solve Problem 5.24 if the lower support in Fig. P5.24 yields

and displaces downward 0.50 mm as the load P is applied.

5.24 (Repeated here for convenience) Two identical steel [E =

200 GPa] pipes, each with a cross-sectional area of 2,300 mm2,

are attached to unyielding supports at the top and bottom, as

shown in Fig. P5.24. At flange B, a concentrated downward load

of 280 kN is applied. Determine:

(a) the normal stresses in the upper and lower pipes.

(b) the deflection of flange B.

Solution

(a) Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B. Sum forces in the vertical

direction to obtain:

Fy = F1 F2 280 kN = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships:

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations:

e1 + e2 = 0.50 mm

(b)

(c)

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:

F1 L1 F2 L2

+

= 0.50 mm

A1 E1 A2 E2

Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for F2:

FL A E

(0.5 mm)A2 E2

L A E

F2 = 0.5 mm 1 1 2 2 =

F1 1 2 2

A1 E1 L2

L2

L2 A1 E1

(0.5 mm)A2 E2

L A E

Fy = F1 F2 = F1

F1 1 2 2 = 280 kN

L2

L2 A1 E1

Simplify this expression, gathering terms with F1 on the left-hand side of the equation:

(d)

(e)

(f)

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(0.5 mm)A2 E2

L

F1 1

F1

L2

L2

L

F1 1 + 1

L2

A2 E2

= 280 kN

A1 E1

A2 E2

(0.5 mm)A2 E2

= 280 kN +

A1 E1

L2

Notice that A1 = A2 and E1 = E2 for this structure. Therefore, F1 can be computed as:

(0.5 mm)(2,300 mm 2 )(200, 000 N/mm 2 )

280, 000 N +

362,143 N

2,800 mm

F1 =

=

= 230, 455 N

1,600 mm

1.571429

1+

2,800 mm

and from Eq. (a), F2 has a value of

F2 = F1 280 kN = 230, 455 N 280, 000 N = 49,545 N

Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:

F 230, 455 N

1 = 1 =

= 100.2 MPa = 100.2 MPa (T)

A1 2,300 mm 2

2 =

F2 49,545 N

=

= 21.5 MPa = 21.5 MPa (C)

A2 2,300 mm 2

(b) The downward deflection of flange B is equal to the elongation of member (1):

FL

(230, 455 N)(1,600 mm)

u B = e1 = 1 1 =

= 0.802 mm = 0.802 mm

A1 E1 (2,300 mm 2 )(200, 000 N/mm 2 )

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

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bar ABC, two identical solid bronze [E = 15,000 ksi] rods,

and a solid steel [E = 30,000 ksi] rod, as shown in Fig. P5.26.

The bronze rods (1) each have a diameter of 0.625 in. and

they are symmetrically positioned relative to the center rod

(2) and the applied load P. Steel rod (2) has a diameter of

0.375 in. If all bars are unstressed before the load P is

applied, determine the normal stresses in the bronze and steel

rods after a load of P = 14 kips is applied.

Fig. P5.26

Solution

Equilibrium

By virtue of symmetry, the forces in the two bronze rods (1) are

identical. Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Sum forces in the

vertical direction to obtain:

Fy = 2 F1 + F2 P = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships

The relationship between the internal force and the deformation

of an axial member can be stated for members (1) and (2):

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

(b)

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations Relationship

For this configuration, the elongations of all rods will be equal; therefore,

e1 = e2

(c)

Compatibility Equation

Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (c) to

derive the compatibility equation:

F1 L1 F2 L2

=

(d)

A1 E1 A2 E2

Solve the Equations

Solve Eq. (d) for F2:

L AE

L A E

F2 = F1 1 2 2 = F1 1 2 2

A1 E1 L2

L2 A1 E1

Substitute this expression into equilibrium equation (a) and solve for F1:

L A E

L A E

Fy = 2 F1 + F2 = 2 F1 + F1 1 2 2 = F1 2 + 1 2 2 = P

L2 A1 E1

L2 A1 E1

(e)

(f)

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For this structure, P = 14 kips, and the lengths, areas, and elastic moduli are given below:

L1 = 24 in.

L2 = 60 in.

4

4

E1 = 15, 000 ksi

E2 = 30, 000 ksi

Substitute these values into Eq. (f) and calculate F1 = 6.11888 kips. Backsubstitute into Eq. (e) to

calculate F2 = 1.76224 kips.

A1 =

A2 =

Normal Stresses

The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:

F 6.11888 kips

1 = 1 =

= 19.94 ksi

A1 0.30680 in.2

2 =

F2 1.76224 kips

=

= 15.96 ksi

A2 0.11045 in.2

Ans.

Ans.

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cross-sectional area of A1 = 5.60 in.2 is connected

at flange B to an aluminum alloy [E = 10,000 ksi]

pipe with a cross-sectional area of A2 = 4.40 in.2.

The assembly (shown in Fig. P5.27) is connected

to rigid supports at A and C. For the loading

shown, determine:

(a) the normal stresses in steel pipe (1) and

aluminum pipe (2).

(b) the deflection of flange B.

Fig. P5.27

Solution

(a) Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B. Sum forces

in the horizontal direction to obtain:

Fx = F1 + F2 60 kips = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships:

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

A1 E1

A2 E2

(b)

Geometry of Deformations:

e1 + e2 = 0

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:

F1 L1 F2 L2

+

=0

A1 E1 A2 E2

Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for F2:

L AE

L A E

F2 = F1 1 2 2 = F1 1 2 2

A1 E1 L2

L2 A1 E1

and substitute this expression into Eq. (a) to determine F1:

L A E

L A E

Fx = F1 + F2 = F1 + F1 1 2 2 = F1 1 + 1 2 2 = 60 kips

L2 A1 E1

L2 A1 E1

F1 can be computed as:

60 kips

60 kips

60 kips

F1 =

=

=

= 49.2508 kips

2

L1 A2 E2

1.218254

120

in.

4.40

in.

10,

000

ksi

1+

1+

2

L2 A1 E1

144 in. 5.60 in. 30, 000 ksi

and from Eq. (a), F2 has a value of

F2 = F1 + 60 kips = 49.2508 kips + 60 kips = 10.7492 kips

Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:

F 49.2508 kips

1 = 1 =

= 8.79 ksi = 8.79 ksi (C)

A1

5.60 in.2

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Ans.

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2 =

F2 10.7492 kips

=

= 2.44 ksi = 2.44 ksi (T)

A2

4.40 in.2

Ans.

(b) The deflection of flange B is equal to the elongation (i.e., contraction in this instance) of member (1):

F L (49.2508 kips)(120 in.)

u B = e1 = 1 1 =

= 0.0352 in. = 0.0352 in.

Ans.

A1 E1

(5.60 in.2 )(30, 000 ksi)

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Fig. P5.28 is reinforced using four steel [E =

200 GPa] reinforcing rods, each having a

diameter of 19 mm. If the pier is subjected to an

axial load of 670 kN, determine:

(a) the normal stress in the concrete and in the

steel reinforcing rods.

(b) the shortening of the pier.

Fig. P5.28

Solution

(a) Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of the pier, cut around the upper end.

The concrete will be designated member (1) and the reinforcing steel bars

will be designated member (2). Sum forces in the vertical direction to

obtain:

Fy = F1 F2 670 kN = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships:

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations:

e1 = e2

(b)

(c)

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:

F1 L1 F2 L2

=

A1 E1 A2 E2

Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for F2:

L AE

L A E

F2 = F1 1 2 2 = F1 1 2 2

A1 E1 L2

L2 A1 E1

and substitute this expression into Eq. (a) to determine F1:

L A E

L A E

Fy = F1 F2 = F1 F1 1 2 2 = F1 1 + 1 2 2 = 670 kN

L2 A1 E1

L2 A1 E1

Since L1 = L2, the term L1/L2 = 1 can be eliminated and Eq. (f) simplified to

A E

F1 1 + 2 2 = 670 kN

A1 E1

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

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The gross cross-sectional area of the pier is (250 mm)2 = 62,500 mm2; however, the reinforcing bars

take up a portion of this area. The cross-sectional area of four 19-mm-diameter reinforcing bars is

A2 = (4 bars)

4

and thus the area of the concrete is

A1 = 62,500 mm 2 1,134.115 mm 2 = 61,365.885 mm 2

F1 can now be computed as:

F1 1 +

= 670 kN

2

61,365.885 mm 29 GPa

F1 =

670 kN

= 594.258 kN

1.127457

F2 = F1 670 kN = (594.248 kN) 670 kN = 75.742 kN

Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated. In the concrete, the

normal stress is:

F

594, 258 N

1 = 1 =

Ans.

= 9.68 MPa = 9.68 MPa (C)

A1 61,365.885 mm 2

and the normal stress in the reinforcing bars is

F

75, 742 N

2 = 2 =

Ans.

= 66.8 MPa = 66.8 MPa (C)

A2 1,134.115 mm 2

(b) The shortening of the 1.5-m-long pier is equal to the elongation (i.e., contraction in this instance) of

member (1) or member (2):

FL

(594, 258 N)(1,500 mm)

Ans.

u = e1 = 1 1 =

= 0.501 mm = 0.501 mm

A1 E1 (61,365.885 mm 2 )(29, 000 N/mm 2 )

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shown in Fig. P5.29 is reinforced using

four steel [E = 200 GPa] reinforcing rods.

If the pier is subjected to an axial force of

670 kN, determine the required diameter

D of each rod so that 20% of the total load

is carried by the steel.

Fig. P5.29

Solution

(a) Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of the pier, cut around the upper end. The

concrete will be designated member (1) and the reinforcing steel bars will be

designated member (2). Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:

Fy = F1 F2 670 kN = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships:

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations:

e1 = e2

(b)

(c)

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:

F1 L1 F2 L2

=

A1 E1 A2 E2

Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for F1:

L AE

L A E

F1 = F2 2 1 1 = F2 2 1 1

A2 E2 L1

L1 A2 E2

and substitute this expression into Eq. (a) to determine F2:

L A E

L A E

Fy = F1 F2 = F2 2 1 1 F2 = F2 2 1 2 + 1 = 670 kN

L1 A2 E2

L1 A2 E2

Since L1 = L2, the term L1/L2 = 1 can be eliminated and Eq. (f) simplified to

A E

F2 1 1 + 1 = 670 kN

A2 E2

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

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From the problem statement, 20% of the total load must be carried by the reinforcing steel; therefore,

F2 = 0.20(670 kN) = 134 kN

The gross cross-sectional area of the pier is Agross = (250 mm)2 = 62,500 mm2; however, the reinforcing

bars take up a portion of this area. Therefore, the areas of the concrete (1) and steel (2) are related by:

Agross = A1 + A2

and thus, the area of the concrete can be expressed as A1 = Agross A2. Equation (g) can now be restated

and solved for the area of the reinforcing steel bars:

62,500 mm 2 A2 29 GPa

(134 kN)

+ 1 = 670 kN

A2

200 GPa

62,500 mm 2 A2

= 27.586207

A2

A2 = 2,186.369 mm 2

Knowing the area required from four bars, the diameter of each bar can be computed:

(4 bars)

2

Dbar

2,186.369 mm 2

Dbar 26.4 mm

Ans.

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consisting of rigid bar ABC, two identical solid bronze [E =

100 GPa] rods, and a solid steel [E = 200 GPa] rod, as shown

in Fig. P5.30. The bronze rods (1) each have a diameter of 20

mm and they are symmetrically positioned relative to the

center rod (2) and the applied load P. Steel rod (2) has a

diameter of 24 mm. All bars are unstressed before the load P

is applied; however, there is a 3-mm clearance in the bolted

connection at B. Determine:

(a) the normal stresses in the bronze and steel rods.

(b) the downward deflection of rigid bar ABC.

Fig. P5.30

Solution

(a) Equilibrium: By virtue of symmetry, the forces in the

two bronze rods (1) are identical. Consider a FBD of the rigid

bar. Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:

Fy = 2 F1 + F2 P = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships: The relationship

between the internal force and the deformation of an axial

member can be stated for members (1) and (2):

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

(b)

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations: For this configuration, the deflections of joints A, B, and C are equal:

v A = vB = vC

(c)

The pin connections at A and C are ideal; therefore, the deflection of joints A and C will cause an

identical elongation of rods (1):

v A = e1

(d)

The pin at B has a 3-mm clearance; thus, the elongation of rod (2) is related to rigid bar deflection vB by:

vB = e2 + 3 mm

(e)

Substitute Eqs. (d) and (e) into Eq. (c) to obtain the geometry of deformation equation:

e1 = e2 + 3 mm

(f)

Compatibility Equation: Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of

deformation relationship (f) to derive the compatibility equation:

F1 L1 F2 L2

=

+ 3 mm

A1 E1 A2 E2

(g)

F L

AE

L A E (3 mm)A1 E1

F1 = 2 2 + 3 mm 1 1 = F2 2 1 1 +

L1 A2 E2

L1

A2 E2

L1

Substitute this expression into Eq. (a)

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L A E (3 mm)A1 E1

Fy = 2 F1 + F2 = 2 F2 2 1 1 +

+ F2 = P

L

A

E

L

1

2

2

1

L A E

(3 mm)A1 E1

F2 2 2 1 1 + 1 = P 2

L1

L1 A2 E2

(3 mm)A1 E1

L1

F2 =

(h)

L A E

2 2 1 1 +1

L1 A2 E2

For this structure, P = 170 kN = 170,000 N, and the lengths, areas, and elastic moduli are given below:

L1 = 2, 400 mm

L2 = 1,800 mm

P2

4

4

E1 = 100, 000 MPa

E2 = 200, 000 MPa

Substitute these values into Eq. (h) and calculate F2 = 60,138 N. Backsubstitute into Eq. (a) to calculate

F1 = 54,931 N.

A1 =

A2 =

Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each rod can now be calculated:

F

54,931 N

1 = 1 =

= 174.9 MPa

A1 314.1593 mm 2

2 =

F2

60,138 N

=

= 132.9 MPa

A2 452.3893 mm 2

(b) The downward deflection of the rigid bar can be determined from the elongation of rods (1):

FL

(54,931 N)(2,400 mm)

e1 = 1 1 =

= 4.20 mm

A1 E1 (314.1593 mm 2 )(100, 000 MPa)

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

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5.31 Two steel [E = 30,000 ksi] pipes (1) and (2) are

connected at flange B, as shown in Fig. P5.31. Pipe (1)

has an outside diameter of 6.625 in. and a wall

thickness of 0.28 in. Pipe (2) has an outside diameter of

4.00 in. and a wall thickness of 0.226 in. If the normal

stress in each steel pipe must be limited to 18 ksi,

determine:

(a) the maximum downward load P that may be applied

at flange B.

(b) the deflection of flange B at the load determined in

part (a).

Fig. P5.31

Solution

(a) Pipe section properties: The pipe cross-sectional areas are:

D1 = 6.625 in.

d1 = 6.625 in. 2(0.28 in.) = 6.0650 in.

A1 =

4

D2 = 4.00 in.

A2 =

4

direction to obtain:

Fy = F2 F1 P = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships:

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations:

e1 + e2 = 0

(b)

(c)

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:

F1 L1 F2 L2

+

=0

A1 E1 A2 E2

(d)

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For this problem, it is convenient to express the compatibility equation in terms of the normal stress 1

and 2:

1 L1 2 L2

+

=0

(e)

E1

E2

Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (e) for 1:

L E

1 = 2 2 1

(f)

L1 E2

The elastic moduli of the two pipes are equal; therefore, E1/E2 = 1. The normal stresses in pipes (1) and

(2) are limited to 18 ksi. Assume that the normal stress in pipe (2) controls, meaning that 2 = 18 ksi.

Calculate the corresponding stress in pipe (1):

L E

16 ft

1 = 2 2 1 = (18 ksi)

= 28.80 ksi

L1 E2

10 ft

Since this stress magnitude is greater than 18 ksi, our assumption is proven incorrect. We now know

that the normal stress in pipe (1) actually controls; thus, 1 = 18 ksi (negative by inspection). The

normal stress in pipe (1) can be found from Eq. (f)

L E

10 ft

2 = 1 1 2 = (18 ksi)

= 11.250 ksi

(f)

L2 E1

16 ft

Now that the stresses are known, the allowable forces F1 and F2 can be computed:

F1 = 1 A1 = (18 ksi)(5.5814 in.2 ) = 100.4652 kips

F2 = 2 A2 = (11.250 ksi)(2.6795 in.2 ) = 30.1444 kips

Substitute these values into Eq. (a) to obtain the allowable load P:

Pmax = F2 F1 = 30.1444 kips (100.4652 kips) = 130.6 kips

L (11.250 ksi)(16 ft)(12 in./ft)

u B = e2 = 2 2 =

= 0.0720 in.

30,000 ksi

E2

Ans.

Ans.

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[E = 100 GPa] rod at flange B, as shown in Fig P5-32. Aluminum rod (1)

has an outside diameter of 100 mm and bronze rod (2) has an outside

diameter of 50 mm. The normal stress in the aluminum rod must be limited

to 180 MPa, and the normal stress in the bronze rod must be limited to 140

MPa. Determine:

(a) the maximum downward load P that may be applied at flange B.

(b) the deflection of flange B at the load determined in part (a).

Fig. P5.32

Solution

(a) Rod section properties: The rod cross-sectional areas are:

A1 =

A2 =

obtain:

Fy = F2 F1 P = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships:

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations:

e1 + e2 = 0

(b)

(c)

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:

F1 L1 F2 L2

+

=0

(d)

A1 E1 A2 E2

For this problem, it is convenient to express the compatibility equation in terms of the normal stress 1

and 2:

1 L1 2 L2

+

=0

(e)

E1

E2

Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (e) for 1:

L E

1 = 2 2 1

(f)

L1 E2

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The normal stress in aluminum rod (1) is limited to 180 MPa. We will assume that the aluminum rod

controls, and then, we will calculate the corresponding stress in bronze rod (2):

L E

500 mm 100 GPa

2 = 1 1 2 = (180 MPa)

= 142.9 MPa

L2 E1

900 mm 70 GPa

This stress magnitude is greater than the 140 MPa allowable stress for the bronze rod; therefore, this

calculation shows that the stress in the bronze rod actually controls. If the stress in the bronze rod is

limited to 140 MPa, the normal stress in aluminum rod (1) can be found from Eq. (f)

L E

900 mm 70 GPa

1 = 2 2 1 = (140 MPa)

= 176.4 MPa

(f)

L1 E2

500 mm 100 GPa

Now that the stresses are known, the allowable forces F1 and F2 can be computed:

F1 = 1 A1 = (176.4 MPa)(7,853.982 mm 2 ) = 1,385, 442 N = 1,385.4 kN

F2 = 2 A2 = (140 MPa)(1,963.495 mm 2 ) = 274,889 N = 274.9 kN

Substitute these values into Eq. (a) to obtain the allowable load P:

Pmax = F2 F1 = 274.9 kN (1,385.4 kN) = 1, 660 kN

L (140 MPa)(900 mm)

u B = e2 = 2 2 =

= 1.260 mm

E2

100,000 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

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loaded as shown in Fig. P5.33. Member ABCD is

rigid and is horizontal before the load P is applied.

Bars (1) and (2) are both made from steel [E =

30,000 ksi] and both have a cross-sectional area of

1.25 in.2. A concentrated load of P = 9 kips acts on

the structure at D. Determine:

(a) the normal stresses in both bars (1) and (2).

(b) the downward deflection of point D on the

rigid bar.

Fig. P5.33

Solution

Equilibrium

Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces in

members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin A gives

the best information for this situation:

M A = (54 in.)F1 + (108 in.)F2 (132 in.)P = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships

The relationship between the internal force and the

deformation of an axial member can be stated for members

(1) and (2):

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations Relationship

Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The deflections

of the rigid bar are related by similar triangles:

vC

vB

=

(c)

54 in. 108 in.

Since there are no gaps, clearances, or other misfits at pins B

and C, the elongation of member (1) will equal the deflection

of the rigid bar at B and the elongation of member (2) will

equal the deflection of the rigid bar at C. Therefore, Eq. (c)

can be rewritten in terms of the member elongations as:

e1

e2

=

54 in. 108 in.

(b)

(d)

Compatibility Equation

Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (d) to

derive the compatibility equation:

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1 F1 L1

1 F2 L2

=

54 in. A1 E1 108 in. A2 E2

(e)

Solve Eq. (e) for F1:

54 in. L2 A1 E1

54 in. L2 A1 E1

F1 = F2

= F2

108 in. A2 E2 L1

108 in. L1 A2 E2

Substitute this expression into equilibrium equation (a) and solve for F2:

M A = (54 in.)F1 + (108 in.)F2 (132 in.)P = 0

(54 in.)F2

(f)

54 in. L2 A1 E1

+ (108 in.)F2 = (132 in.)P

108 in. L1 A2 E2

1 L2 A1 E1

+ (108 in.) = (132 in.)P

F2 (54 in.)

2 L1 A2 E2

(g)

For this structure, P = 9 kips, and the lengths, areas, and elastic moduli are given below:

L1 = 80 in.

L2 = 120 in.

A1 = 1.25 in.2

A2 = 1.25 in.2

E2 = 30, 000 ksi

Substitute these values into Eq. (g) and calculate F2 = 8 kips. Backsubstitute into Eq. (f) to calculate F1

= 6 kips.

Normal Stresses

The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:

F

6 kips

1 = 1 =

= 4.80 ksi

A1 1.25 in.2

F

8 kips

2 = 2 =

= 6.40 ksi

A2 1.25 in.2

Ans.

Ans.

Calculate the elongation of one of the axial members, say member (1):

FL

(6 kips)(80 in.)

e1 = 1 1 =

= 0.01280 in.

(h)

A1 E1 (1.25 in.2 )(30, 000 ksi)

Since there are no gaps at pin B, the rigid bar deflection at B is equal to the elongation of member (1);

therefore, vB = e1 = 0.01280 in. (downward). From similar triangles, the deflection of the rigid bar at D

is related to vB by:

vB

vD

=

(i)

54 in. 132 in.

From Eq. (i), the deflection of the rigid bar at D is:

132 in.

132 in.

vD =

vB =

Ans.

(0.01280 in.) = 0.0313 in.

54 in.

54 in.

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loaded as shown in Fig. P5.34. Member ABCD is

rigid and is horizontal before the load P is applied.

Bars (1) and (2) are both made from steel [E =

30,000 ksi] and both have a cross-sectional area of

1.25 in.2. If the normal stress in each steel bar must

be limited to 18 ksi, determine the maximum load

P that may be applied to the rigid bar.

Fig. P5.34

Solution

Equilibrium

Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces

in members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin A

gives the best information for this situation:

M A = (54 in.)F1 + (108 in.)F2 (132 in.)P = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships

The relationship between the internal force and the

deformation of an axial member can be stated for

members (1) and (2):

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations Relationship

Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The

deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar triangles:

vC

vB

=

(c)

54 in. 108 in.

Since there are no gaps, clearances, or other misfits at pins

B and C, the elongation of member (1) will equal the

deflection of the rigid bar at B and the elongation of

member (2) will equal the deflection of the rigid bar at C.

Therefore, Eq. (c) can be rewritten in terms of the member

elongations as:

e1

e2

=

54 in. 108 in.

(b)

(d)

Compatibility Equation

Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (d) to

derive the compatibility equation:

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1 F1 L1

1 F2 L2

=

54 in. A1 E1 108 in. A2 E2

Solve the Equations

Since allowable stresses are specifed, it is convenient to express Eq. (e) in terms of stress:

1 L1 54 in. 2 L2 1 2 L2

=

=

E1

108 in. E2

2 E2

and solve for 1:

L E

2 = 2 1 1 2

L2 E1

Since both bars have the same elastic modulus, E1/E2 = 1. Substitute 1 = 18 ksi and solve for 2:

L E

80 in.

2 = 2 1 1 2 = 2(18 ksi)

= 24.0 ksi 18 ksi

N.G.

L2 E1

120 in.

(e)

(f)

It is now evident that the stress in bar (2) controls. Substitute 2 = 18 ksi and solve for 1:

L E 18 ksi 120 in.

1 = 2 2 1 =

= 13.50 ksi 18 ksi

OK

2 L1 E2

2 80 in.

Now that the stresses are known, the allowable forces F1 and F2 can be computed:

F1 = 1 A1 = (13.50 ksi)(1.25 in.2 ) = 16.875 kips

F2 = 2 A2 = (18 ksi)(1.25 in.2 ) = 22.5 kips

Substitute these values into Eq. (a) to obtain the allowable load P:

M A = (54 in.)(16.875 kips) + (108 in.)(22.5 kips) (132 in.)P = 0

Pmax = 25.3125 kips = 25.3 kips

Ans.

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P5.35 consists of a rigid beam ABCD and two

supporting bars. Bar (1) is an aluminum alloy [E =

70 GPa] with a cross-sectional area of A1 = 2,400

mm2. Bar (2) is a bronze alloy [E = 100 GPa] with

a cross-sectional area of A2 = 6,000 mm2. The

normal stress in the aluminum bar must be limited

to 70 MPa, and the normal stress in the bronze rod

must be limited to 90 MPa. Determine:

(a) the maximum downward load P that may be

applied at B.

(b) the deflection of the rigid beam at B.

Fig. P5.35

Solution

Equilibrium

Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces in

members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin D gives

the best information for this situation:

M D = (3.5 m)F1 (1.2 m)F2 + (2.7 m)P = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships

The relationship between the internal force and the

deformation of an axial member can be stated for members

(1) and (2):

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

(b)

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations Relationship

Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The

deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar triangles:

v

vA

= C

(c)

3.5 m 1.2 m

A and C, the elongation of member (1) will equal the

deflection of the rigid bar at A and the elongation of

member (2) will equal the deflection of the rigid bar at C.

Therefore, Eq. (c) can be rewritten in terms of the member

elongations as:

e1

e

= 2

3.5 m 1.2 m

(d)

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Compatibility Equation

Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (d) to

derive the compatibility equation:

1 F1 L1

1 F2 L2

(e)

=

3.5 m A1 E1 1.2 m A2 E2

Solve the Equations

Since allowable stresses are specified, it is convenient to express Eq. (e) in terms of stress:

1 L1 3.5 m 2 L2

L

=

= 2.9167 2 2

E1

1.2 m E2

E2

and solve for 1:

L E

1 = 2.9167 2 2 1

L1 E2

Substitute 2 = 90 MPa and solve for 1:

L E

3.3 m 70 GPa

1 = 2.9167 2 2 1 = 2.9167(90 MPa)

= 209.1 MPa 70 MPa

N.G.

L1 E2

2.9 m 100 GPa

It is now evident that the stress in bar (1) controls. Substitute 1 = 70 MPa and solve for 2:

L E

1

1

2.9 m 100 GPa

2 =

1 1 2 =

= 30.13 MPa 90 MPa

(70 MPa)

O.K.

2.9167 L2 E1 2.9167

3.3 m 70 GPa

(f)

Now that the stresses are known, the allowable forces F1 and F2 can be computed:

F1 = 1 A1 = (70 MPa)(2,400 mm 2 ) = 168, 000 N = 168.00 kN

F2 = 2 A2 = (30.13 MPa)(6,000 mm 2 ) = 180, 780 N = 180.78 kN

Substitute these values into Eq. (a) to obtain the allowable load P:

M D = (3.5 m)(168.00 kN) (1.2 m)(180.78 kN) + (2.7 m)P = 0

(b) Deflections of the rigid bar

Calculate the elongation of one of the axial members, say member (1):

FL

(168, 000 N)(2,900 mm)

e1 = 1 1 =

= 2.9000 mm

A1 E1 (2, 400 mm 2 )(70, 000 MPa)

Since there are no gaps at pin A, the rigid bar deflection at

A is equal to the elongation of member (1); therefore, vA =

e1 = 2.9000 mm (downward). From similar triangles, the

deflection of the rigid bar at B is related to vA by:

vA

v

(h)

= B

3.5 m 2.7 m

2.7 m

2.7 m

vB =

vA =

(2.9000 mm) = 2.24 mm

3.5 m

3.5 m

Ans.

(g)

Ans.

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P5.36 consists of a rigid beam ABCD and two

supporting bars. Bar (1) is an aluminum alloy [E =

70 GPa] with a cross-sectional area of A1 = 2,400

mm2. Bar (2) is a bronze alloy [E = 100 GPa] with

a cross-sectional area of A2 = 6,000 mm2. All bars

are unstressed before the load P is applied;

however, there is a 3-mm clearance in the pin

connection at A. If a load of P = 800 kN is applied

at B, determine:

(a) the normal stresses in both bars (1) and (2).

(b) the normal strains in bars (1) and (2).

(c) determine the downward deflection of point A

on the rigid bar.

Fig. P5.36

Solution

Equilibrium

Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces in

members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin D gives

the best information for this situation:

M D = (3.5 m)F1 (1.2 m)F2 + (2.7 m)P = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships

The relationship between the internal force and the

deformation of an axial member can be stated for members

(1) and (2):

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

(b)

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations Relationship

Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The deflections

of the rigid bar are related by similar triangles:

v

vA

= C

(c)

3.5 m 1.2 m

member (2) will equal the deflection of the rigid bar at C.

However, there is a 3-mm clearance at A. Consequently, not

all of the rigid beam deflection at A will go toward elongating

bar (1). The relationship between rigid beam deflection and

axial member elongation can be expressed:

v A = e1 + 3 mm

Equation (c) can be rewritten in terms of the member elongations as:

e1 + 3 mm

e

= 2

3.5 m

1.2 m

(d)

(e)

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Compatibility Equation

Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (e) to

derive the compatibility equation:

F1 L1

FL

3.5 m F2 L2

(f)

+ 3 mm =

= 2.9167 2 2

A1 E1

1.2 m A2 E2

A2 E2

Solve the Equations

Solve Eq. (f) for F2:

A2 E2 F1 L1

L1

A2 E2 (3 mm)A2 E2

F2 =

+ 3 mm = F1

+

2.9167 L2 A1 E1

2.9167 L2 A1 E1

2.9167 L2

L1

A2 E2 (3 mm)A2 E2

+

(3.5 m)F1 + (1.2 m) F1

= (2.7 m)(800 kN)

2.9167 L2

2.9167 L2 A1 E1

L1

A2 E2

(3 mm)A2 E2

= (2.7 m)(800 kN) (1.2 m)

(3.5 m)F1 + (1.2 m)F1

2.9167 L2 A1 E1

2.9167 L2

(3 mm)A2 E2

2.9167 L2

L1

A2 E2

(3.5 m) + (1.2 m)

2.9167 L2 A1 E1

F1 =

The value of F1 is thus calculated as:

2.9167(3,300 mm)

F1 =

2.9 m

6, 000 mm 2 100 GPa

3.5 m + (1.2 m)

2.9167(3.3 m) 2, 400 mm 2 70 GPa

= 403,982 N = 404 kN

(2.7 m)(800, 000 N) (1.2 m)

(2.7 m)(800 kN) (3.5 m)F1

F2 =

1.2 m

(2.7 m)(800 kN) (3.5 m)(403.982 kN)

=

1.2 m

= 621.719 kN

(a) Normal stresses:

F

403,982 N

1 = 1 =

= 168.3 MPa (T)

A1 2,400 mm 2

F

621, 719 N

2 = 2 =

= 103.6 MPa (T)

A2 6,000 mm 2

Ans.

Ans.

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168.3 MPa

1 = 1 =

= 2.404 103 mm/mm = 2, 404

E1 70,000 MPa

103.6 MPa

2 = 2 =

= 1.036 103 mm/mm = 1, 036

E2 100,000 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

Calculate the elongation of member (1):

FL

(403,982 N)(2,900 mm)

e1 = 1 1 =

= 6.9735 mm

A1 E1 (2, 400 mm 2 )(70, 000 MPa)

the elongation of member (1) was expressed in Eq. (d).

Therefore, the rigid bar deflection at A is:

v A = e1 + 3 mm

= 6.9735 mm + 3 mm

= 9.97 mm

Ans.

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P5.37 consists of a rigid bar ABCD and two 1,500mm-long bars. Bar (1) is steel [E = 200 GPa] with

a cross-sectional area of A1 = 510 mm2. Bar (2) is

an aluminum alloy [E = 70 GPa] with a crosssectional area of A2 = 1,300 mm2. A concentrated

load of P = 22 kN acts on the structure at D.

Determine:

(a) the normal stresses in both bars (1) and (2).

(b) the downward deflection of point D on the

rigid bar.

Fig. P5.37

Solution

Equilibrium

Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces

in members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin

C gives the best information for this situation:

M C = (850 mm)F1 + (425 mm)F2

(1, 000 mm)P = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships

The relationship between the internal force and the

deformation of an axial member can be stated for

members (1) and (2):

FL

FL

(b)

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations Relationship

Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The

deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar

triangles:

vA

vB

vD

=

=

850 mm 425 mm 1, 000 mm

(c)

pin B, the elongations of members (1) and (2) will equal

the deflections of the rigid bar at A and B, respectively.

e1

e2

=

(d)

850 mm 425 mm

Compatibility Equation

Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (d) to

derive the compatibility equation:

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F1 L1 850 mm F2 L2

FL

=

= 2.0 2 2

A1 E1 425 mm A2 E2

A2 E2

(e)

Solve Eq. (e) for F1:

L A E

F1 = 2.0 F2 2 1 1

L1 A2 E2

and substitute into Eq. (a) to solve for F2:

(850 mm)F1 + (425 mm)F2 = (1, 000 mm)P

(850 mm)(2.0) F2

(f)

L2 A1 E1

+ (425 mm)F2 = (1, 000 mm)P

L1 A2 E2

F2 (850 mm)(2.0)

+ 425 mm = (1, 000 mm)(22 kN)

2

1,500 mm 1,300 mm 70 GPa

F2 = 9.440 kN

F1 = (2.0)

(9.440 kN)

1,500 mm 1,300 mm 2 70 GPa

= 21.162 kN

F 21,162 N

1 = 1 =

= 41.5 MPa (T)

A1 510 mm 2

F

9, 440 N

2 = 2 =

= 7.26 MPa (T)

A2 1,300 mm 2

(b) Deflections of the rigid bar

Calculate the elongation of member (1):

FL

(21,162 N)(1,500 mm)

e1 = 1 1 =

= 0.3112 mm

A1 E1 (510 mm 2 )(200, 000 MPa)

Since the pin at A is assumed to have a perfect connection, vA = e1 = 0.3112 mm. From Eq. (c),

1, 000 mm

vD =

v A = 1.176471(0.3112 mm) = 0.366 mm

850 mm

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

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P5.38 consists of a rigid bar ABCD and two 1,500mm-long bars. Bar (1) is steel [E = 200 GPa] with

a cross-sectional area of A1 = 510 mm2. Bar (2) is

an aluminum alloy [E = 70 GPa] with a crosssectional area of A2 = 1,300 mm2. All bars are

unstressed before the load P is applied; however,

there is a 5-mm clearance in the pin connection at

A. If a concentrated load of P = 200 kN acts on the

structure at D, determine:

(a) the normal stresses in both bars (1) and (2).

(b) the normal strains in bars (1) and (2).

(c) the downward deflection of point D on the

rigid bar.

Fig. P5.38

Solution

Equilibrium

Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces

in members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin

C gives the best information for this situation:

M C = (850 mm)F1 + (425 mm)F2

(1, 000 mm)P = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships

The relationship between the internal force and the

deformation of an axial member can be stated for

members (1) and (2):

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

(b)

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations Relationship

Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The

deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar

triangles:

vA

vB

vD

=

=

850 mm 425 mm 1, 000 mm

(c)

member (2) will equal the deflection of the rigid bar at

B. However, there is a 5-mm clearance in the

connection at A. Consequently, not all of the rigid bar

deflection at A will go toward elongating bar (1). The

relationship between rigid bar deflection and axial

member elongation can be expressed:

v A = e1 + 5 mm

(d)

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e1 + 5 mm

e2

=

850 mm 425 mm

(e)

Compatibility Equation

Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (e) to

derive the compatibility equation:

F1 L1

FL

850 mm F2 L2

+ 5 mm =

= 2.0 2 2

(f)

A1 E1

425 mm A2 E2

A2 E2

Solve the Equations

Solve Eq. (f) for F2:

A E FL

L A2 E2 (5 mm)A2 E2

F2 = 2 2 1 1 + 5 mm = F1 1

+

2.0 L2 A1 E1

2.0 L2 A1 E1

2.0 L2

(850 mm)F1 + (425 mm)F2 = (1, 000 mm)P

L A2 E2 (5 mm)A2 E2

(850 mm)F1 + (425 mm) F1 1

+

= (1, 000 mm)P

2.0 L2

2.0 L2 A1 E1

L A2 E2

(5 mm)A2 E2

(850 mm)F1 + (425 mm)F1 1

= (1, 000 mm)P (425 mm)

2.0 L2 A1 E1

2.0 L2

(5 mm)A2 E2

2.0 L2

L A2 E2

850 mm + (425 mm) 1

2.0 L2 A1 E1

F1 =

(5 mm)(1,300 mm 2 )(70,000 N/mm 2 )

2.0(1,500 mm)

F1 =

1,500 mm 1,300 mm 2 70,000 N/mm 2

850 mm + (425 mm)

2.0(1,500 mm) 510 mm 2 200,000 N/mm 2

= 130,381 N = 130.381 kN

(1,000 mm)(200,000 N) (425 mm)

(1,000 mm)(200 kN) (850 mm)F1

F2 =

425 mm

(1,000 mm)(200 kN) (850 mm)(130.381 kN)

=

425 mm

= 209.827 kN

(a) Normal stresses:

F 130,381 N

1 = 1 =

= 256 MPa (T)

A1 510 mm 2

Ans.

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2 =

F2 209,827 N

=

= 161.4 MPa (T)

A2 1,300 mm 2

F

130,381 N

1 = 1 =

= 1.278 103 mm/mm = 1, 278

A1E1 (510 mm 2 )(200,000 N/mm 2 )

F

209,827 N

2 = 2 =

= 2.306 103 mm/mm = 2,310

2

2

A2 E2 (1,300 mm )(70,000 N/mm )

(c) Deflections of the rigid bar

Calculate the elongation of member (2):

FL

(209,827 N)(1,500 mm)

= 3.4587 mm

e2 = 2 2 =

A2 E2 (1,300 mm 2 )(70, 000 MPa)

Since the pin at B is assumed to have a perfect connection, vB = e2 = 3.4587 mm. From Eq. (c),

1, 000 mm

vD =

vB = 2.35294(3.4587 mm) = 8.14 mm

425 mm

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

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a solid aluminum alloy [E = 70 GPa] post (2)

surrounded by a bronze [E = 100 GPa] tube (1).

Before the load P is applied, there is a clearance of

2 mm between the post and the tube. The yield

stress for the aluminum post is 260 MPa and the

yield stress for the bronze tube is 340 MPa.

Determine:

(a) the maximum load P that may be applied to the

assembly without causing yielding of either the

post or the tube.

(b) the downward displacement of rigid cap B.

(c) the normal strain in the bronze tube.

Fig. P5.39

Solution

Section properties:

R1 = 35 mm r1 = 29 mm

R2 = 15 mm

A2 = (15 mm) 2 = 706.858 mm 2

Equilibrium: Consider a FBD around rigid cap B after the gap has been closed.

Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:

Fy = F1 F2 P = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships:

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations:

e2 = e1 + 2 mm

(b)

(c)

Compatibility Equation

Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (c) to

derive the compatibility equation:

F2 L2 F1 L1

=

+ 2 mm

(d)

A2 E2 A1 E1

Solve the Equations

Since allowable stresses are specified, it is convenient to express Eq. (d) in terms of stress:

2 L2 1 L1

=

+ 2 mm

E2

E1

and solve for 2:

(e)

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2 = 1

L1 E2

E

+ (2 mm) 2

L2 E1

L2

70, 000 MPa

+ (2 mm)

602 mm 100, 000 MPa

602 mm

Substitute 1 = 340 MPa and solve for 2:

70, 000 MPa

N.G.

2 = 0.697674(340 MPa) + (2 mm)

= 469.8 MPa 260 MPa

602 mm

It is now evident that the stress in post (2) controls. Substitute 2 = 260 MPa and solve for 1:

70, 000 MPa L2 E1

1 = 2 (2 mm)

602 mm L1 E2

= 1

602 mm 600 mm 70, 000 MPa

OK

= 39.333 MPa < 340 MPa

(a) Maximum load: Now that the stresses are known, the allowable forces F1 and F2 can be computed:

F1 = 1 A1 = (39.333 MPa)(1,206.372 mm 2 ) = 47, 450 N = 47.450 kN

F2 = 2 A2 = (260 MPa)(706.858 mm 2 ) = 183, 783 N = 183.783 kN

Substitute these values into Eq. (a) to obtain the allowable load P. By inspection, the forces in the post

and the tube must be compression; therefore:

Fy = F1 F2 P = 0

Ans.

FL

(47, 451 N)(600 mm)

e1 = 1 1 =

= 0.2360 mm

A1 E1 (1,206.372 mm 2 )(100, 000 N/mm 2 )

The displacement of cap B is 2 mm greater:

Ans.

(c) Normal strain in tube (1): The strain in bronze tube (1) is:

39.333 MPa

1 = 1 =

= 393

E1 100, 000 MPa

Ans.

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bronze pipe (2) at B. When put in place, however, a gap of 5 mm

exists between the two members, as shown in Fig P5-40. Aluminum

tube (1) has an elastic modulus of 70 GPa and a cross-sectional area

of 2,000 mm2. Bronze pipe (2) has an elastic modulus of 100 GPa

and a cross-sectional area of 3,600 mm2. If bolts are inserted in the

flanges and tightened so that the gap at B is closed, determine:

(a) the normal stresses produced in each of the members.

(b) the final position of flange B with respect to support A.

Fig. P5.40

Solution

Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B after the bolts have been tightened

and the gap at B has been closed. Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:

Fy = F1 F2 = 0

F1 = F2

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships:

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

A1 E1

A2 E2

(b)

Geometry of Deformations:

e1 + e2 = 5 mm

(c)

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:

F1 L1 F2 L2

+

= 5 mm

A1 E1 A2 E2

(d)

Solve the Equations: Substitute Eq. (a) into Eq. (d) and solve for F1:

L

L

F1 1 + 2 = 5 mm

A1 E1 A2 E2

F1 =

5 mm

7, 000 mm

3,000 mm

+

2

2

(2,000 mm )(70, 000 N/mm ) (3, 600 mm 2 )(100, 000 N/mm 2 )

= 85, 714 N

F

85, 714 N

1 = 1 =

= 42.8570 MPa = 42.9 MPa (T)

A1 2,000 mm 2

F

85, 714 N

2 = 2 =

= 23.8094 MPa = 23.8 MPa (T)

A2 3,600 mm 2

(f)

Ans.

Ans.

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(b) The deflection of flange B is equal to the elongation of bronze pipe (2):

FL

(85, 714 N)(3,000 mm)

e2 = 2 2 =

= 0.714 mm

A2 E2 (3,600 mm 2 )(100,000 N/mm 2 )

Ans.

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5.41 The assembly shown in Fig. P5.41 consists of a steel rod (1) [E1 =

30,000 ksi; A1 = 1.25 in.2], a rigid bearing plate B that is securely fastened

to rod (1), and a bronze post (2) [E2 = 15,000 ksi; A2 = 3.75 in.2]. The

yield strengths of the steel and bronze are 62 ksi and 75 ksi, respectively.

A clearance of 0.08 in. exists between the bearing plate B and bronze post

(2) before the assembly is loaded. After a load of P = 65 kips is applied to

the bearing plate, determine:

(a) the normal stresses in bars (1) and (2).

(b) the factors of safety with respect to yield for each of the members.

(c) the vertical displacement of bearing plate B.

Fig. P5.41

Solution

Elongation in rod (1) alone: Check to see if the bearing plate attached to rod (1) will contact the

bronze post for the 65-kip load.

F L (65 kips)(12 ft)(12 in./ft)

e1 = 1 1 =

= 0.2496 in. > 0.08 in. gap contact will occur

A1 E1

(1.25 in.2 )(30, 000 ksi)

This calculation proves that the bearing plate attached to rod (1) will contact the bronze post when the

65-kip load is applied; therefore, this structure must be analyzed as a statically indeterminate structure.

Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B after the gap at B has been closed.

Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:

Fy = F1 F2 P = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships:

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations:

e1 + e2 = 0.08 in.

(b)

(c)

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:

F1 L1 F2 L2

+

= 0.08 in.

A1 E1 A2 E2

(d)

F L AE

AE

L A E

F1 = 0.08 in. 2 2 1 1 = (0.08 in.) 1 1 F2 2 1 1

A2 E2 L1

L1

L1 A2 E2

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and substitute the resulting expression into Eq. (a) to determine an expression for F2:

AE

L A E

(0.08 in.) 1 1 F2 2 1 1 F2 65 kips = 0

L1

L1 A2 E2

L A E

AE

F2 1 + 2 1 1 = (0.08 in.) 1 1 65 kips

L1

L1 A2 E2

AE

(0.08 in.) 1 1 65 kips

L1

F2 =

L A E

1+ 2 1 1

L1 A2 E2

The axial force in post (2) is thus:

(1.25 in.2 )(30, 000 ksi)

(0.08 in.)

65 kips

(144 in.)

F2 =

= 39.75 kips

24 in. 1.25 in.2 30, 000 ksi

1+

144 in. 3.75 in.2 15, 000 ksi

and the axial force in rod (1) is:

F1 = F2 + P = 39.75 kips + 65 kips = 25.25 kips

F 25.25 kips

1 = 1 =

= 20.20 ksi = 20.2 ksi (T)

A1

1.25 in.2

F

39.75 kips

= 10.60 ksi = 10.60 ksi (C)

2 = 2 =

A2

3.75 in.2

(b) Factors of safety:

62 ksi

FS1 =

= 3.07

20.2 ksi

FS2 =

75 ksi

= 7.08

10.60 ksi

(c) Displacement of plate B: The displacement of plate B is equal to the elongation of rod (1).

FL

(25.25 kips)(144 in.)

e1 = 1 1 =

= 0.09696 in.

A1 E1 (1.25 in.2 )(30,000 ksi)

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

vB = 0.0970 in.

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with an outside diameter of 3.50 in. and a wall

thickness of 0.216 in. is fastened to a solid 2-in.diameter aluminum [E = 10,000 ksi] rod. The

assembly is attached to unyielding supports at the

left and right ends and is loaded as shown in Fig.

P5.42. Determine:

(a) the stresses in all parts of the axial structure.

(b) the deflections of joints B and C.

Fig. P5.42

Solution

Section properties: The steel tube cross-sectional area is:

D1 = 3.50 in.

d1 = 3.50 in. 2(0.216 in.) = 3.068 in.

A1 =

4

D2 = D3 = 2.00 in.

A2 = A3 =

the horizontal direction to obtain:

Fx = F1 + F2 34 kips = 0

(a)

direction to obtain:

Fx = F2 + F3 + 26 kips = 0

(b)

Force-Deformation Relationships:

FL

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

e3 = 3 3

A1 E1

A2 E2

A3 E3

(c)

Geometry of Deformations:

e1 + e2 + e3 = 0

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (c) into Eq. (d) to derive the compatibility equation:

F1 L1 F2 L2 F3 L3

+

+

=0

A1 E1 A2 E2 A3 E3

Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (a) for F1:

F1 = F2 34 kips

(d)

(e)

(f)

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F3 = F2 26 kips

(g)

( F2 34 kips)L1 F2 L2 ( F2 26 kips)L3

+

+

=0

A1 E1

A2 E2

A3 E3

and expand terms:

F2 L1 (34 kips)L1 F2 L2 F2 L3 (26 kips)L3

+

+

=0

A1 E1

A1 E1

A2 E2 A3 E3

A3 E3

Regroup terms:

L

L (34 kips)L1 (26 kips)L3

L

F2 1 + 2 + 3 =

+

A1 E1

A3 E3

A1 E1 A2 E2 A3 E3

and solve for F2:

(34 kips)L1 (26 kips)L3

+

A1 E1

A3 E3

F2 =

L

L1

L

+ 2 + 3

A1 E1 A2 E2 A3 E3

(34 kips)(48 in.)

(26 kips)(60 in.)

+

2

(2.2285 in. )(30, 000 ksi) (3.1416 in.2 )(10, 000 ksi)

=

48 in.

60 in.

60 in.

+

+

2

2

(2.2285 in. )(30, 000 ksi) (3.1416 in. )(10, 000 ksi) (3.1416 in.2 )(10, 000 ksi)

= 16.3227 kips

Backsubstitute into Eqs. (f) and (g) to obtain F1 and F3:

F1 = F2 34 kips = 16.3227 kips 34 kips = 17.6773 kips

F3 = F2 26 kips = 16.3227 kips 26 kips = 9.6773 kips

(a) Normal stresses: The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:

F 17.6773 kips

= 7.9325 ksi = 7.93 ksi (C)

1 = 1 =

A1

2.2285 in.2

Ans.

2 =

F2 16.3227 kips

=

= 5.1957 ksi = 5.20 ksi (T)

A2

3.1416 in.2

Ans.

3 =

F3 9.6773 kips

=

= 3.0834 ksi = 3.08 ksi (C)

A3

3.1416 in.2

Ans.

(b) Joint deflections: The deflection of flange B is equal to the elongation (i.e., contraction in this

instance) of member (1):

FL

(17.6773 kips)(48 in.)

uB = e1 = 1 1 =

= 0.012692 in. = 0.01269 in.

Ans.

A1 E1 (2.2285 in.2 )(30, 000 ksi)

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The deflection of flange C is equal to the sum of the elongations in members (1) and (2). The elongation

of member (2) is:

FL

(16.3227 kips)(60 in.)

e2 = 2 2 =

= 0.031174 in.

A2 E2 (3.1416 in.2 )(10, 000 ksi)

And thus, the deflection of flange C is:

uC = e1 + e2 = 0.012692 in. + 0.031174 in. = 0.018482 in. = 0.01848 in.

Ans.

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pin connection at A and by two axial bars (1) and (2).

Bar (1) is a 30-in.-long bronze [E = 15,000 ksi] bar

with a cross-sectional area of 1.25 in.2. Bar (2) is a

40-in.-long aluminum alloy [E = 10,000 ksi] bar with

a cross-sectional area of 2.00 in.2. Both bars are

unstressed before the load P is applied. If a

concentrated load of P = 27 kips is applied to the

rigid bar at D, determine:

(a) the normal stresses in bars (1) and (2).

(b) the deflection of the rigid bar at point D.

Fig. P5.43

Solution

Equilibrium

Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces

in members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin

A gives the best information for this situation:

M A = (36 in.)F1 + (84 in.)F2 (98 in.)P = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships

The relationship between the internal force and the

deformation of an axial member can be stated for

members (1) and (2):

FL

FL

e1 = 1 1

e2 = 2 2

A1 E1

A2 E2

Geometry of Deformations Relationship

Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The

deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar triangles:

v

vB

v

= C = D

(c)

36 in. 84 in. 98 in.

There are no gaps, clearances, or other misfits at the pins in

this structure. The vertical deflection of the rigid bar at C

will produce elongation in member (2); however, and the

vertical deflection of the rigid bar at B will create

contraction in member (1) (see the discussion under the

heading Structures with a rotating rigid bar in the text

and examine Fig. 5.11). Therefore, Eq. (c) can be rewritten

in terms of the member elongations as:

e

e

1 = 2

36 in. 84 in.

(b)

(d)

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Compatibility Equation

Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (d) to

derive the compatibility equation:

1 F1 L1

1 F2 L2

=

(e)

36 in. A1 E1 84 in. A2 E2

Solve the Equations

Solve Eq. (e) for F1:

36 in. L2 A1 E1

36 in. L2 A1 E1

F1 = F2

= F2

84 in. A2 E2 L1

84 in. L1 A2 E2

Substitute this expression into equilibrium equation (a) and solve for F2:

M A = (36 in.)F1 + (84 in.)F2 (98 in.)P = 0

(36 in.)F2

(f)

36 in. L2 A1 E1

+ (84 in.)F2 = (98 in.)P

84 in. L1 A2 E2

3 L2 A1 E1

+ (84 in.) = (98 in.)P

F2 (36 in.)

7 L1 A2 E2

(g)

For this structure, P = 27 kips, and the lengths, areas, and elastic moduli are given below:

L1 = 30 in.

L2 = 40 in.

A1 = 1.25 in.2

A2 = 2.00 in.2

E2 = 10, 000 ksi

Substitute these values into Eq. (g) and calculate F2 = 25.6183 kips. Backsubstitute into Eq. (f) to

calculate F1 = 13.7241 kips.

The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:

F 13.7241 kips

= 10.98 ksi (C)

1 = 1 =

A1

1.25 in.2

F

25.6183 kips

2 = 2 =

= 12.81 ksi (T)

A2

2.00 in.2

Ans.

Ans.

Calculate the elongation of one of the axial members, say member (2):

FL

(25.6183 kips)(40 in.)

e2 = 2 2 =

= 0.051237 in.

(h)

A2 E2 (2.00 in.2 )(10, 000 ksi)

Since there are no gaps at pin C, the rigid bar deflection at C is equal to the elongation of member (2);

therefore, vC = e2 = 0.051237 in. (downward). From similar triangles [Eq. (c)], the deflection of the

rigid bar at D is therefore:

98 in.

98 in.

(0.051237 in.) = 0.0598 in.

vD =

vC =

Ans.

84 in.

84 in.

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