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# 5.

## 23 The 200 200 1,200-mm oak [E = 12 GPa] block (2)

shown in Fig. P5.23 was reinforced by bolting two 6 200 1,200
mm steel [E = 200 GPa] plates (1) to opposite sides of the block. A
concentrated load of 360 kN is applied to a rigid cap. Determine:
(a) the normal stresses in the steel plates (1) and the oak block (2).
(b) the shortening of the block when the load is applied.

Fig. P5.23

Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid cap. Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:
Fy = 2 F1 F2 360 kN = 0
Force-Deformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the deformation of an axial
member can be stated for members (1) and (2):
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
(b)
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
For this configuration, the elongations of both members will be equal; therefore,
e1 = e2

(c)

Compatibility Equation
Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (c) to
derive the compatibility equation:
F1 L1 F2 L2
=
(d)
A1 E1 A2 E2
Solve the Equations
Solve Eq. (d) for F2, recognizing that steel plates (1) and oak block (2) have the same length:
L AE
L A E
A E
F2 = F1 1 2 2 = F1 1 2 2 = F1 2 2
A1 E1 L2
L2 A1 E1
A1 E1
Substitute this expression into equilibrium equation (a) and solve for F1:

A E
A E
Fy = 2 F1 F2 = 2 F1 F1 2 2 = F1 2 + 2 2 = 360 kN
A1 E1
A1 E1

For this structure, the areas and elastic moduli are given below:
A1 = (6 mm)(200 mm) = 1, 200 mm 2
A2 = (200 mm) 2 = 40, 000 mm 2

E1 = 200 GPa

(e)

(f)

E2 = 12 GPa

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Substitute these values into Eq. (f) and calculate F1 = 90 kN. Backsubstitute into Eq. (e) to calculate
F2 = 180 kN.
Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
F (90 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
= 75 MPa = 75 MPa (C)
1 = 1 =
A1
1,200 mm 2

2 =

## F2 (180 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

=
= 4.50 MPa = 4.50 MPa (C)
A2
40,000 mm 2

Ans.

Ans.

(b) The shortening of the block is equal to the elongation (i.e., contraction in this instance) of member
(2):
FL
(180, 000 N)(1,200 mm)
u B = e2 = 2 2 =
= 0.450 mm = 0.450 mm
Ans.
A2 E2 (40,000 mm 2 )(12, 000 N/mm 2 )

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## 5.24 Two identical steel [E = 200 GPa] pipes, each with a

cross-sectional area of 2,300 mm2, are attached to
unyielding supports at the top and bottom, as shown in
Fig. P5.24. At flange B, a concentrated downward load of
280 kN is applied. Determine:
(a) the normal stresses in the upper and lower pipes.
(b) the deflection of flange B.

Fig. P5.24

Solution
(a) Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B. Sum forces in the vertical
direction to obtain:
Fy = F1 F2 280 kN = 0
(a)
Force-Deformation Relationships:
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations:
e1 + e2 = 0

(b)

(c)

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:
F1 L1 F2 L2
+
=0
A1 E1 A2 E2
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for F2:
L AE
L A E
F2 = F1 1 2 2 = F1 1 2 2
A1 E1 L2
L2 A1 E1
and substitute this expression into Eq. (a) to determine F1:

L A E
L A E
Fy = F1 F2 = F1 F1 1 2 2 = F1 1 + 1 2 2 = 280 kN
L2 A1 E1

L2 A1 E1

(d)

(e)

(f)

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Notice that A1 = A2 and E1 = E2 for this structure. Therefore, F1 can be computed as:
280 kN
280 kN
280 kN
F1 =
=
=
= 178.182 kN
L1 A2 E2
1.6 m 1.571429
1+
1+
2.8 m
L2 A1 E1
and from Eq. (e), F2 has a value of
L A E
1.6 m
F2 = F1 1 2 2 = (178.182 kN)
= 101.818 kN
L2 A1 E1
2.8 m
Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
F 178,182 N
1 = 1 =
= 77.5 MPa = 77.5 MPa (T)
A1 2,300 mm 2

2 =

F2 101,818 N
=
= 44.3 MPa = 44.3 MPa (C)
A2 2,300 mm 2

Ans.

Ans.

(b) The deflection of flange B is equal to the elongation (i.e., contraction in this instance) of member (2):
FL
(101,818 N)(2,800 mm)
= 0.620 mm = 0.620 mm
u B = e2 = 2 2 =
Ans.
A2 E2 (2,300 mm 2 )(200, 000 N/mm 2 )

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5.25 Solve Problem 5.24 if the lower support in Fig. P5.24 yields
and displaces downward 0.50 mm as the load P is applied.
5.24 (Repeated here for convenience) Two identical steel [E =
200 GPa] pipes, each with a cross-sectional area of 2,300 mm2,
are attached to unyielding supports at the top and bottom, as
shown in Fig. P5.24. At flange B, a concentrated downward load
of 280 kN is applied. Determine:
(a) the normal stresses in the upper and lower pipes.
(b) the deflection of flange B.

## Fig. P5.24 (repeated)

Solution
(a) Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B. Sum forces in the vertical
direction to obtain:
Fy = F1 F2 280 kN = 0
(a)
Force-Deformation Relationships:
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations:
e1 + e2 = 0.50 mm

(b)

(c)

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:
F1 L1 F2 L2
+
= 0.50 mm
A1 E1 A2 E2
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for F2:

FL A E
(0.5 mm)A2 E2
L A E
F2 = 0.5 mm 1 1 2 2 =
F1 1 2 2
A1 E1 L2
L2
L2 A1 E1

## and substitute this expression into Eq. (a) to determine F1:

(0.5 mm)A2 E2
L A E
Fy = F1 F2 = F1
F1 1 2 2 = 280 kN
L2
L2 A1 E1

Simplify this expression, gathering terms with F1 on the left-hand side of the equation:

(d)

(e)

(f)

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(0.5 mm)A2 E2
L
F1 1
F1
L2
L2

L
F1 1 + 1
L2

A2 E2
= 280 kN
A1 E1
A2 E2
(0.5 mm)A2 E2
= 280 kN +
A1 E1
L2

Notice that A1 = A2 and E1 = E2 for this structure. Therefore, F1 can be computed as:
(0.5 mm)(2,300 mm 2 )(200, 000 N/mm 2 )
280, 000 N +
362,143 N
2,800 mm
F1 =
=
= 230, 455 N
1,600 mm
1.571429
1+
2,800 mm
and from Eq. (a), F2 has a value of
F2 = F1 280 kN = 230, 455 N 280, 000 N = 49,545 N
Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
F 230, 455 N
1 = 1 =
= 100.2 MPa = 100.2 MPa (T)
A1 2,300 mm 2

2 =

F2 49,545 N
=
= 21.5 MPa = 21.5 MPa (C)
A2 2,300 mm 2

(b) The downward deflection of flange B is equal to the elongation of member (1):
FL
(230, 455 N)(1,600 mm)
u B = e1 = 1 1 =
= 0.802 mm = 0.802 mm
A1 E1 (2,300 mm 2 )(200, 000 N/mm 2 )

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

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## 5.26 A load P is supported by a structure consisting of rigid

bar ABC, two identical solid bronze [E = 15,000 ksi] rods,
and a solid steel [E = 30,000 ksi] rod, as shown in Fig. P5.26.
The bronze rods (1) each have a diameter of 0.625 in. and
they are symmetrically positioned relative to the center rod
(2) and the applied load P. Steel rod (2) has a diameter of
0.375 in. If all bars are unstressed before the load P is
applied, determine the normal stresses in the bronze and steel
rods after a load of P = 14 kips is applied.

Fig. P5.26

Solution
Equilibrium
By virtue of symmetry, the forces in the two bronze rods (1) are
identical. Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Sum forces in the
vertical direction to obtain:
Fy = 2 F1 + F2 P = 0
(a)
Force-Deformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the deformation
of an axial member can be stated for members (1) and (2):
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
(b)
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
For this configuration, the elongations of all rods will be equal; therefore,
e1 = e2

(c)

Compatibility Equation
Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (c) to
derive the compatibility equation:
F1 L1 F2 L2
=
(d)
A1 E1 A2 E2
Solve the Equations
Solve Eq. (d) for F2:
L AE
L A E
F2 = F1 1 2 2 = F1 1 2 2
A1 E1 L2
L2 A1 E1
Substitute this expression into equilibrium equation (a) and solve for F1:

L A E
L A E
Fy = 2 F1 + F2 = 2 F1 + F1 1 2 2 = F1 2 + 1 2 2 = P
L2 A1 E1
L2 A1 E1

(e)

(f)

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For this structure, P = 14 kips, and the lengths, areas, and elastic moduli are given below:
L1 = 24 in.
L2 = 60 in.

## (0.375 in.) 2 = 0.11045 in.2

4
4
E1 = 15, 000 ksi
E2 = 30, 000 ksi
Substitute these values into Eq. (f) and calculate F1 = 6.11888 kips. Backsubstitute into Eq. (e) to
calculate F2 = 1.76224 kips.
A1 =

A2 =

Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
F 6.11888 kips
1 = 1 =
= 19.94 ksi
A1 0.30680 in.2

2 =

F2 1.76224 kips
=
= 15.96 ksi
A2 0.11045 in.2

Ans.

Ans.

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## 5.27 A steel [E = 30,000 ksi] pipe column with a

cross-sectional area of A1 = 5.60 in.2 is connected
at flange B to an aluminum alloy [E = 10,000 ksi]
pipe with a cross-sectional area of A2 = 4.40 in.2.
The assembly (shown in Fig. P5.27) is connected
shown, determine:
(a) the normal stresses in steel pipe (1) and
aluminum pipe (2).
(b) the deflection of flange B.

Fig. P5.27

Solution
(a) Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B. Sum forces
in the horizontal direction to obtain:
Fx = F1 + F2 60 kips = 0
(a)
Force-Deformation Relationships:
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
A1 E1
A2 E2

(b)

Geometry of Deformations:
e1 + e2 = 0
Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:
F1 L1 F2 L2
+
=0
A1 E1 A2 E2
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for F2:
L AE
L A E
F2 = F1 1 2 2 = F1 1 2 2
A1 E1 L2
L2 A1 E1
and substitute this expression into Eq. (a) to determine F1:

L A E
L A E
Fx = F1 + F2 = F1 + F1 1 2 2 = F1 1 + 1 2 2 = 60 kips
L2 A1 E1

L2 A1 E1
F1 can be computed as:
60 kips
60 kips
60 kips
F1 =
=
=
= 49.2508 kips
2
L1 A2 E2
1.218254

120
in.
4.40
in.
10,
000
ksi

1+
1+

2
L2 A1 E1
144 in. 5.60 in. 30, 000 ksi
and from Eq. (a), F2 has a value of
F2 = F1 + 60 kips = 49.2508 kips + 60 kips = 10.7492 kips
Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
F 49.2508 kips
1 = 1 =
= 8.79 ksi = 8.79 ksi (C)
A1
5.60 in.2

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Ans.

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2 =

F2 10.7492 kips
=
= 2.44 ksi = 2.44 ksi (T)
A2
4.40 in.2

Ans.

(b) The deflection of flange B is equal to the elongation (i.e., contraction in this instance) of member (1):
F L (49.2508 kips)(120 in.)
u B = e1 = 1 1 =
= 0.0352 in. = 0.0352 in.
Ans.
A1 E1
(5.60 in.2 )(30, 000 ksi)

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## 5.28 The concrete [E = 29 GPa] pier shown in

Fig. P5.28 is reinforced using four steel [E =
200 GPa] reinforcing rods, each having a
diameter of 19 mm. If the pier is subjected to an
axial load of 670 kN, determine:
(a) the normal stress in the concrete and in the
steel reinforcing rods.
(b) the shortening of the pier.

Fig. P5.28

Solution
(a) Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of the pier, cut around the upper end.
The concrete will be designated member (1) and the reinforcing steel bars
will be designated member (2). Sum forces in the vertical direction to
obtain:
Fy = F1 F2 670 kN = 0
(a)
Force-Deformation Relationships:
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations:
e1 = e2

(b)

(c)

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:
F1 L1 F2 L2
=
A1 E1 A2 E2
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for F2:
L AE
L A E
F2 = F1 1 2 2 = F1 1 2 2
A1 E1 L2
L2 A1 E1
and substitute this expression into Eq. (a) to determine F1:
L A E
L A E
Fy = F1 F2 = F1 F1 1 2 2 = F1 1 + 1 2 2 = 670 kN
L2 A1 E1
L2 A1 E1

Since L1 = L2, the term L1/L2 = 1 can be eliminated and Eq. (f) simplified to
A E
F1 1 + 2 2 = 670 kN
A1 E1

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

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The gross cross-sectional area of the pier is (250 mm)2 = 62,500 mm2; however, the reinforcing bars
take up a portion of this area. The cross-sectional area of four 19-mm-diameter reinforcing bars is

A2 = (4 bars)

## (19 mm) 2 = 1,134.115 mm 2

4
and thus the area of the concrete is
A1 = 62,500 mm 2 1,134.115 mm 2 = 61,365.885 mm 2
F1 can now be computed as:

## 1,134.115 mm 2 200 GPa

F1 1 +
= 670 kN
2
61,365.885 mm 29 GPa
F1 =

670 kN
= 594.258 kN
1.127457

## and from Eq. (a), F2 has a value of

F2 = F1 670 kN = (594.248 kN) 670 kN = 75.742 kN
Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated. In the concrete, the
normal stress is:
F
594, 258 N
1 = 1 =
Ans.
= 9.68 MPa = 9.68 MPa (C)
A1 61,365.885 mm 2
and the normal stress in the reinforcing bars is
F
75, 742 N
2 = 2 =
Ans.
= 66.8 MPa = 66.8 MPa (C)
A2 1,134.115 mm 2

(b) The shortening of the 1.5-m-long pier is equal to the elongation (i.e., contraction in this instance) of
member (1) or member (2):
FL
(594, 258 N)(1,500 mm)
Ans.
u = e1 = 1 1 =
= 0.501 mm = 0.501 mm
A1 E1 (61,365.885 mm 2 )(29, 000 N/mm 2 )

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## 5.29 The concrete [E = 29 GPa] pier

shown in Fig. P5.29 is reinforced using
four steel [E = 200 GPa] reinforcing rods.
If the pier is subjected to an axial force of
670 kN, determine the required diameter
D of each rod so that 20% of the total load
is carried by the steel.

Fig. P5.29

Solution
(a) Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of the pier, cut around the upper end. The
concrete will be designated member (1) and the reinforcing steel bars will be
designated member (2). Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:
Fy = F1 F2 670 kN = 0
(a)
Force-Deformation Relationships:
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations:
e1 = e2

(b)

(c)

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:
F1 L1 F2 L2
=
A1 E1 A2 E2
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for F1:
L AE
L A E
F1 = F2 2 1 1 = F2 2 1 1
A2 E2 L1
L1 A2 E2
and substitute this expression into Eq. (a) to determine F2:
L A E
L A E

Fy = F1 F2 = F2 2 1 1 F2 = F2 2 1 2 + 1 = 670 kN
L1 A2 E2
L1 A2 E2

Since L1 = L2, the term L1/L2 = 1 can be eliminated and Eq. (f) simplified to
A E

F2 1 1 + 1 = 670 kN
A2 E2

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

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From the problem statement, 20% of the total load must be carried by the reinforcing steel; therefore,
F2 = 0.20(670 kN) = 134 kN
The gross cross-sectional area of the pier is Agross = (250 mm)2 = 62,500 mm2; however, the reinforcing
bars take up a portion of this area. Therefore, the areas of the concrete (1) and steel (2) are related by:
Agross = A1 + A2
and thus, the area of the concrete can be expressed as A1 = Agross A2. Equation (g) can now be restated
and solved for the area of the reinforcing steel bars:
62,500 mm 2 A2 29 GPa

(134 kN)
+ 1 = 670 kN
A2
200 GPa

62,500 mm 2 A2
= 27.586207
A2
A2 = 2,186.369 mm 2

Knowing the area required from four bars, the diameter of each bar can be computed:
(4 bars)

2
Dbar
2,186.369 mm 2

Dbar 26.4 mm

Ans.

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## 5.30 A load of P = 170 kN is supported by a structure

consisting of rigid bar ABC, two identical solid bronze [E =
100 GPa] rods, and a solid steel [E = 200 GPa] rod, as shown
in Fig. P5.30. The bronze rods (1) each have a diameter of 20
mm and they are symmetrically positioned relative to the
center rod (2) and the applied load P. Steel rod (2) has a
diameter of 24 mm. All bars are unstressed before the load P
is applied; however, there is a 3-mm clearance in the bolted
connection at B. Determine:
(a) the normal stresses in the bronze and steel rods.
(b) the downward deflection of rigid bar ABC.

Fig. P5.30

Solution
(a) Equilibrium: By virtue of symmetry, the forces in the
two bronze rods (1) are identical. Consider a FBD of the rigid
bar. Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:
Fy = 2 F1 + F2 P = 0
(a)
Force-Deformation Relationships: The relationship
between the internal force and the deformation of an axial
member can be stated for members (1) and (2):
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
(b)
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations: For this configuration, the deflections of joints A, B, and C are equal:
v A = vB = vC
(c)
The pin connections at A and C are ideal; therefore, the deflection of joints A and C will cause an
identical elongation of rods (1):
v A = e1
(d)
The pin at B has a 3-mm clearance; thus, the elongation of rod (2) is related to rigid bar deflection vB by:
vB = e2 + 3 mm
(e)
Substitute Eqs. (d) and (e) into Eq. (c) to obtain the geometry of deformation equation:
e1 = e2 + 3 mm
(f)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of
deformation relationship (f) to derive the compatibility equation:
F1 L1 F2 L2
=
+ 3 mm
A1 E1 A2 E2

(g)

## Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (g) for F1:

F L
AE
L A E (3 mm)A1 E1
F1 = 2 2 + 3 mm 1 1 = F2 2 1 1 +
L1 A2 E2
L1
A2 E2
L1
Substitute this expression into Eq. (a)
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L A E (3 mm)A1 E1
Fy = 2 F1 + F2 = 2 F2 2 1 1 +
+ F2 = P
L
A
E
L
1
2
2
1

## and derive an expression for F2:

L A E

(3 mm)A1 E1
F2 2 2 1 1 + 1 = P 2
L1
L1 A2 E2

(3 mm)A1 E1
L1
F2 =
(h)
L A E
2 2 1 1 +1
L1 A2 E2
For this structure, P = 170 kN = 170,000 N, and the lengths, areas, and elastic moduli are given below:
L1 = 2, 400 mm
L2 = 1,800 mm
P2

## (24 mm) 2 = 452.3893 mm 2

4
4
E1 = 100, 000 MPa
E2 = 200, 000 MPa
Substitute these values into Eq. (h) and calculate F2 = 60,138 N. Backsubstitute into Eq. (a) to calculate
F1 = 54,931 N.
A1 =

A2 =

Normal Stresses: The normal stresses in each rod can now be calculated:
F
54,931 N
1 = 1 =
= 174.9 MPa
A1 314.1593 mm 2

2 =

F2
60,138 N
=
= 132.9 MPa
A2 452.3893 mm 2

(b) The downward deflection of the rigid bar can be determined from the elongation of rods (1):
FL
(54,931 N)(2,400 mm)
e1 = 1 1 =
= 4.20 mm
A1 E1 (314.1593 mm 2 )(100, 000 MPa)

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

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5.31 Two steel [E = 30,000 ksi] pipes (1) and (2) are
connected at flange B, as shown in Fig. P5.31. Pipe (1)
has an outside diameter of 6.625 in. and a wall
thickness of 0.28 in. Pipe (2) has an outside diameter of
4.00 in. and a wall thickness of 0.226 in. If the normal
stress in each steel pipe must be limited to 18 ksi,
determine:
(a) the maximum downward load P that may be applied
at flange B.
(b) the deflection of flange B at the load determined in
part (a).

Fig. P5.31

Solution
(a) Pipe section properties: The pipe cross-sectional areas are:
D1 = 6.625 in.
d1 = 6.625 in. 2(0.28 in.) = 6.0650 in.

A1 =

4

D2 = 4.00 in.
A2 =

4

## Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B. Sum forces in the vertical

direction to obtain:
Fy = F2 F1 P = 0
(a)
Force-Deformation Relationships:
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations:
e1 + e2 = 0

(b)

(c)

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:
F1 L1 F2 L2
+
=0
A1 E1 A2 E2

(d)

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For this problem, it is convenient to express the compatibility equation in terms of the normal stress 1
and 2:
1 L1 2 L2
+
=0
(e)
E1
E2
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (e) for 1:
L E
1 = 2 2 1
(f)
L1 E2
The elastic moduli of the two pipes are equal; therefore, E1/E2 = 1. The normal stresses in pipes (1) and
(2) are limited to 18 ksi. Assume that the normal stress in pipe (2) controls, meaning that 2 = 18 ksi.
Calculate the corresponding stress in pipe (1):
L E
16 ft
1 = 2 2 1 = (18 ksi)
= 28.80 ksi
L1 E2
10 ft
Since this stress magnitude is greater than 18 ksi, our assumption is proven incorrect. We now know
that the normal stress in pipe (1) actually controls; thus, 1 = 18 ksi (negative by inspection). The
normal stress in pipe (1) can be found from Eq. (f)
L E
10 ft
2 = 1 1 2 = (18 ksi)
= 11.250 ksi
(f)
L2 E1
16 ft

Now that the stresses are known, the allowable forces F1 and F2 can be computed:
F1 = 1 A1 = (18 ksi)(5.5814 in.2 ) = 100.4652 kips
F2 = 2 A2 = (11.250 ksi)(2.6795 in.2 ) = 30.1444 kips

Substitute these values into Eq. (a) to obtain the allowable load P:
Pmax = F2 F1 = 30.1444 kips (100.4652 kips) = 130.6 kips

## (b) The deflection of flange B is equal to the elongation of pipe (2):

L (11.250 ksi)(16 ft)(12 in./ft)
u B = e2 = 2 2 =
= 0.0720 in.
30,000 ksi
E2

Ans.

Ans.

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## 5.32 A solid aluminum [E = 70 GPa] rod (1) is connected to a solid bronze

[E = 100 GPa] rod at flange B, as shown in Fig P5-32. Aluminum rod (1)
has an outside diameter of 100 mm and bronze rod (2) has an outside
diameter of 50 mm. The normal stress in the aluminum rod must be limited
to 180 MPa, and the normal stress in the bronze rod must be limited to 140
MPa. Determine:
(a) the maximum downward load P that may be applied at flange B.
(b) the deflection of flange B at the load determined in part (a).

Fig. P5.32

Solution
(a) Rod section properties: The rod cross-sectional areas are:

A1 =

A2 =

## Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B. Sum forces in the vertical direction to

obtain:
Fy = F2 F1 P = 0
(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships:
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations:
e1 + e2 = 0

(b)

(c)

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:
F1 L1 F2 L2
+
=0
(d)
A1 E1 A2 E2
For this problem, it is convenient to express the compatibility equation in terms of the normal stress 1
and 2:
1 L1 2 L2
+
=0
(e)
E1
E2
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (e) for 1:
L E
1 = 2 2 1
(f)
L1 E2
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The normal stress in aluminum rod (1) is limited to 180 MPa. We will assume that the aluminum rod
controls, and then, we will calculate the corresponding stress in bronze rod (2):
L E
500 mm 100 GPa
2 = 1 1 2 = (180 MPa)
= 142.9 MPa
L2 E1
900 mm 70 GPa
This stress magnitude is greater than the 140 MPa allowable stress for the bronze rod; therefore, this
calculation shows that the stress in the bronze rod actually controls. If the stress in the bronze rod is
limited to 140 MPa, the normal stress in aluminum rod (1) can be found from Eq. (f)
L E
900 mm 70 GPa
1 = 2 2 1 = (140 MPa)
= 176.4 MPa
(f)
L1 E2
500 mm 100 GPa
Now that the stresses are known, the allowable forces F1 and F2 can be computed:
F1 = 1 A1 = (176.4 MPa)(7,853.982 mm 2 ) = 1,385, 442 N = 1,385.4 kN
F2 = 2 A2 = (140 MPa)(1,963.495 mm 2 ) = 274,889 N = 274.9 kN

Substitute these values into Eq. (a) to obtain the allowable load P:
Pmax = F2 F1 = 274.9 kN (1,385.4 kN) = 1, 660 kN

## (b) The deflection of flange B is equal to the elongation of rod (2):

L (140 MPa)(900 mm)
u B = e2 = 2 2 =
= 1.260 mm
E2
100,000 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

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## 5.33 A pin-connected structure is supported and

loaded as shown in Fig. P5.33. Member ABCD is
rigid and is horizontal before the load P is applied.
Bars (1) and (2) are both made from steel [E =
30,000 ksi] and both have a cross-sectional area of
1.25 in.2. A concentrated load of P = 9 kips acts on
the structure at D. Determine:
(a) the normal stresses in both bars (1) and (2).
(b) the downward deflection of point D on the
rigid bar.

Fig. P5.33

Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces in
members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin A gives
the best information for this situation:
M A = (54 in.)F1 + (108 in.)F2 (132 in.)P = 0
(a)
Force-Deformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the
deformation of an axial member can be stated for members
(1) and (2):
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The deflections
of the rigid bar are related by similar triangles:
vC
vB
=
(c)
54 in. 108 in.
Since there are no gaps, clearances, or other misfits at pins B
and C, the elongation of member (1) will equal the deflection
of the rigid bar at B and the elongation of member (2) will
equal the deflection of the rigid bar at C. Therefore, Eq. (c)
can be rewritten in terms of the member elongations as:
e1
e2
=
54 in. 108 in.

(b)

(d)

Compatibility Equation
Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (d) to
derive the compatibility equation:
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1 F1 L1
1 F2 L2
=
54 in. A1 E1 108 in. A2 E2

(e)

## Solve the Equations

Solve Eq. (e) for F1:
54 in. L2 A1 E1
54 in. L2 A1 E1
F1 = F2
= F2
108 in. A2 E2 L1
108 in. L1 A2 E2
Substitute this expression into equilibrium equation (a) and solve for F2:
M A = (54 in.)F1 + (108 in.)F2 (132 in.)P = 0

(54 in.)F2

(f)

54 in. L2 A1 E1
+ (108 in.)F2 = (132 in.)P
108 in. L1 A2 E2

1 L2 A1 E1
+ (108 in.) = (132 in.)P
F2 (54 in.)
2 L1 A2 E2

(g)

For this structure, P = 9 kips, and the lengths, areas, and elastic moduli are given below:
L1 = 80 in.
L2 = 120 in.
A1 = 1.25 in.2

A2 = 1.25 in.2

## E1 = 30, 000 ksi

E2 = 30, 000 ksi
Substitute these values into Eq. (g) and calculate F2 = 8 kips. Backsubstitute into Eq. (f) to calculate F1
= 6 kips.

Normal Stresses
The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
F
6 kips
1 = 1 =
= 4.80 ksi
A1 1.25 in.2
F
8 kips
2 = 2 =
= 6.40 ksi
A2 1.25 in.2

Ans.
Ans.

## Deflections of the rigid bar

Calculate the elongation of one of the axial members, say member (1):
FL
(6 kips)(80 in.)
e1 = 1 1 =
= 0.01280 in.
(h)
A1 E1 (1.25 in.2 )(30, 000 ksi)
Since there are no gaps at pin B, the rigid bar deflection at B is equal to the elongation of member (1);
therefore, vB = e1 = 0.01280 in. (downward). From similar triangles, the deflection of the rigid bar at D
is related to vB by:
vB
vD
=
(i)
54 in. 132 in.
From Eq. (i), the deflection of the rigid bar at D is:
132 in.
132 in.
vD =
vB =
Ans.
(0.01280 in.) = 0.0313 in.
54 in.
54 in.

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## 5.34 A pin-connected structure is supported and

loaded as shown in Fig. P5.34. Member ABCD is
rigid and is horizontal before the load P is applied.
Bars (1) and (2) are both made from steel [E =
30,000 ksi] and both have a cross-sectional area of
1.25 in.2. If the normal stress in each steel bar must
be limited to 18 ksi, determine the maximum load
P that may be applied to the rigid bar.

Fig. P5.34

Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces
in members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin A
gives the best information for this situation:
M A = (54 in.)F1 + (108 in.)F2 (132 in.)P = 0
(a)
Force-Deformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the
deformation of an axial member can be stated for
members (1) and (2):
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The
deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar triangles:
vC
vB
=
(c)
54 in. 108 in.
Since there are no gaps, clearances, or other misfits at pins
B and C, the elongation of member (1) will equal the
deflection of the rigid bar at B and the elongation of
member (2) will equal the deflection of the rigid bar at C.
Therefore, Eq. (c) can be rewritten in terms of the member
elongations as:
e1
e2
=
54 in. 108 in.

(b)

(d)

Compatibility Equation
Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (d) to
derive the compatibility equation:
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1 F1 L1
1 F2 L2
=
54 in. A1 E1 108 in. A2 E2
Solve the Equations
Since allowable stresses are specifed, it is convenient to express Eq. (e) in terms of stress:
1 L1 54 in. 2 L2 1 2 L2
=
=
E1
108 in. E2
2 E2
and solve for 1:
L E
2 = 2 1 1 2
L2 E1
Since both bars have the same elastic modulus, E1/E2 = 1. Substitute 1 = 18 ksi and solve for 2:
L E
80 in.
2 = 2 1 1 2 = 2(18 ksi)
= 24.0 ksi 18 ksi
N.G.
L2 E1
120 in.

(e)

(f)

It is now evident that the stress in bar (2) controls. Substitute 2 = 18 ksi and solve for 1:
L E 18 ksi 120 in.
1 = 2 2 1 =
= 13.50 ksi 18 ksi
OK
2 L1 E2
2 80 in.
Now that the stresses are known, the allowable forces F1 and F2 can be computed:
F1 = 1 A1 = (13.50 ksi)(1.25 in.2 ) = 16.875 kips
F2 = 2 A2 = (18 ksi)(1.25 in.2 ) = 22.5 kips

Substitute these values into Eq. (a) to obtain the allowable load P:
M A = (54 in.)(16.875 kips) + (108 in.)(22.5 kips) (132 in.)P = 0
Pmax = 25.3125 kips = 25.3 kips

Ans.

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## 5.35 The pin-connected structure shown in Fig.

P5.35 consists of a rigid beam ABCD and two
supporting bars. Bar (1) is an aluminum alloy [E =
70 GPa] with a cross-sectional area of A1 = 2,400
mm2. Bar (2) is a bronze alloy [E = 100 GPa] with
a cross-sectional area of A2 = 6,000 mm2. The
normal stress in the aluminum bar must be limited
to 70 MPa, and the normal stress in the bronze rod
must be limited to 90 MPa. Determine:
(a) the maximum downward load P that may be
applied at B.
(b) the deflection of the rigid beam at B.

Fig. P5.35

Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces in
members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin D gives
the best information for this situation:
M D = (3.5 m)F1 (1.2 m)F2 + (2.7 m)P = 0
(a)
Force-Deformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the
deformation of an axial member can be stated for members
(1) and (2):
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
(b)
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The
deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar triangles:
v
vA
= C
(c)
3.5 m 1.2 m

## Since there are no gaps, clearances, or other misfits at pins

A and C, the elongation of member (1) will equal the
deflection of the rigid bar at A and the elongation of
member (2) will equal the deflection of the rigid bar at C.
Therefore, Eq. (c) can be rewritten in terms of the member
elongations as:
e1
e
= 2
3.5 m 1.2 m

(d)

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Compatibility Equation
Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (d) to
derive the compatibility equation:
1 F1 L1
1 F2 L2
(e)
=
3.5 m A1 E1 1.2 m A2 E2
Solve the Equations
Since allowable stresses are specified, it is convenient to express Eq. (e) in terms of stress:
1 L1 3.5 m 2 L2
L
=
= 2.9167 2 2
E1
1.2 m E2
E2
and solve for 1:
L E
1 = 2.9167 2 2 1
L1 E2
Substitute 2 = 90 MPa and solve for 1:
L E
3.3 m 70 GPa
1 = 2.9167 2 2 1 = 2.9167(90 MPa)
= 209.1 MPa 70 MPa
N.G.
L1 E2
2.9 m 100 GPa
It is now evident that the stress in bar (1) controls. Substitute 1 = 70 MPa and solve for 2:
L E
1
1
2.9 m 100 GPa
2 =
1 1 2 =
= 30.13 MPa 90 MPa
(70 MPa)
O.K.
2.9167 L2 E1 2.9167
3.3 m 70 GPa

(f)

Now that the stresses are known, the allowable forces F1 and F2 can be computed:
F1 = 1 A1 = (70 MPa)(2,400 mm 2 ) = 168, 000 N = 168.00 kN
F2 = 2 A2 = (30.13 MPa)(6,000 mm 2 ) = 180, 780 N = 180.78 kN
Substitute these values into Eq. (a) to obtain the allowable load P:
M D = (3.5 m)(168.00 kN) (1.2 m)(180.78 kN) + (2.7 m)P = 0

## Pmax = 298.12 kN = 298 kN

(b) Deflections of the rigid bar
Calculate the elongation of one of the axial members, say member (1):
FL
(168, 000 N)(2,900 mm)
e1 = 1 1 =
= 2.9000 mm
A1 E1 (2, 400 mm 2 )(70, 000 MPa)
Since there are no gaps at pin A, the rigid bar deflection at
A is equal to the elongation of member (1); therefore, vA =
e1 = 2.9000 mm (downward). From similar triangles, the
deflection of the rigid bar at B is related to vA by:
vA
v
(h)
= B
3.5 m 2.7 m

## From Eq. (h), the deflection of the rigid bar at B is:

2.7 m
2.7 m
vB =
vA =
(2.9000 mm) = 2.24 mm
3.5 m
3.5 m

Ans.

(g)

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## 5.36 The pin-connected structure shown in Fig.

P5.36 consists of a rigid beam ABCD and two
supporting bars. Bar (1) is an aluminum alloy [E =
70 GPa] with a cross-sectional area of A1 = 2,400
mm2. Bar (2) is a bronze alloy [E = 100 GPa] with
a cross-sectional area of A2 = 6,000 mm2. All bars
are unstressed before the load P is applied;
however, there is a 3-mm clearance in the pin
connection at A. If a load of P = 800 kN is applied
at B, determine:
(a) the normal stresses in both bars (1) and (2).
(b) the normal strains in bars (1) and (2).
(c) determine the downward deflection of point A
on the rigid bar.

Fig. P5.36

Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces in
members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin D gives
the best information for this situation:
M D = (3.5 m)F1 (1.2 m)F2 + (2.7 m)P = 0
(a)
Force-Deformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the
deformation of an axial member can be stated for members
(1) and (2):
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
(b)
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The deflections
of the rigid bar are related by similar triangles:
v
vA
= C
(c)
3.5 m 1.2 m

## Since there is no clearance at pin C, the elongation of

member (2) will equal the deflection of the rigid bar at C.
However, there is a 3-mm clearance at A. Consequently, not
all of the rigid beam deflection at A will go toward elongating
bar (1). The relationship between rigid beam deflection and
axial member elongation can be expressed:
v A = e1 + 3 mm
Equation (c) can be rewritten in terms of the member elongations as:
e1 + 3 mm
e
= 2
3.5 m
1.2 m

(d)
(e)

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Compatibility Equation
Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (e) to
derive the compatibility equation:
F1 L1
FL
3.5 m F2 L2
(f)
+ 3 mm =
= 2.9167 2 2
A1 E1
1.2 m A2 E2
A2 E2
Solve the Equations
Solve Eq. (f) for F2:

A2 E2 F1 L1
L1
A2 E2 (3 mm)A2 E2
F2 =
+ 3 mm = F1
+

2.9167 L2 A1 E1
2.9167 L2 A1 E1
2.9167 L2

## (3.5 m)F1 + (1.2 m)F2 = (2.7 m)(800 kN)

L1
A2 E2 (3 mm)A2 E2
+
(3.5 m)F1 + (1.2 m) F1
= (2.7 m)(800 kN)
2.9167 L2
2.9167 L2 A1 E1
L1
A2 E2
(3 mm)A2 E2
= (2.7 m)(800 kN) (1.2 m)
(3.5 m)F1 + (1.2 m)F1
2.9167 L2 A1 E1
2.9167 L2
(3 mm)A2 E2
2.9167 L2
L1
A2 E2
(3.5 m) + (1.2 m)
2.9167 L2 A1 E1

## (2.7 m)(800 kN) (1.2 m)

F1 =
The value of F1 is thus calculated as:

## (3 mm)(6,000 mm 2 )(100, 000 N/mm 2 )

2.9167(3,300 mm)
F1 =
2.9 m
6, 000 mm 2 100 GPa
3.5 m + (1.2 m)
2.9167(3.3 m) 2, 400 mm 2 70 GPa
= 403,982 N = 404 kN
(2.7 m)(800, 000 N) (1.2 m)

## and backsubstituting into Eq. (a) gives F2:

(2.7 m)(800 kN) (3.5 m)F1
F2 =
1.2 m
(2.7 m)(800 kN) (3.5 m)(403.982 kN)
=
1.2 m
= 621.719 kN
(a) Normal stresses:
F
403,982 N
1 = 1 =
= 168.3 MPa (T)
A1 2,400 mm 2
F
621, 719 N
2 = 2 =
= 103.6 MPa (T)
A2 6,000 mm 2

Ans.
Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## (b) Normal strains:

168.3 MPa
1 = 1 =
= 2.404 103 mm/mm = 2, 404
E1 70,000 MPa

103.6 MPa
2 = 2 =
= 1.036 103 mm/mm = 1, 036
E2 100,000 MPa

Ans.
Ans.

## (c) Deflections of the rigid bar

Calculate the elongation of member (1):
FL
(403,982 N)(2,900 mm)
e1 = 1 1 =
= 6.9735 mm
A1 E1 (2, 400 mm 2 )(70, 000 MPa)

## The relationship between the rigid bar deflection at A and

the elongation of member (1) was expressed in Eq. (d).
Therefore, the rigid bar deflection at A is:
v A = e1 + 3 mm
= 6.9735 mm + 3 mm
= 9.97 mm

Ans.

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## 5.37 The pin-connected structure shown in Fig.

P5.37 consists of a rigid bar ABCD and two 1,500mm-long bars. Bar (1) is steel [E = 200 GPa] with
a cross-sectional area of A1 = 510 mm2. Bar (2) is
an aluminum alloy [E = 70 GPa] with a crosssectional area of A2 = 1,300 mm2. A concentrated
load of P = 22 kN acts on the structure at D.
Determine:
(a) the normal stresses in both bars (1) and (2).
(b) the downward deflection of point D on the
rigid bar.

Fig. P5.37

Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces
in members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin
C gives the best information for this situation:
M C = (850 mm)F1 + (425 mm)F2
(1, 000 mm)P = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the
deformation of an axial member can be stated for
members (1) and (2):
FL
FL
(b)
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The
deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar
triangles:
vA
vB
vD
=
=
850 mm 425 mm 1, 000 mm

(c)

## Since there are no gaps or clearances at either pin A or

pin B, the elongations of members (1) and (2) will equal
the deflections of the rigid bar at A and B, respectively.
e1
e2
=
(d)
850 mm 425 mm
Compatibility Equation
Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (d) to
derive the compatibility equation:
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F1 L1 850 mm F2 L2
FL
=
= 2.0 2 2
A1 E1 425 mm A2 E2
A2 E2

(e)

## Solve the Equations

Solve Eq. (e) for F1:
L A E
F1 = 2.0 F2 2 1 1
L1 A2 E2
and substitute into Eq. (a) to solve for F2:
(850 mm)F1 + (425 mm)F2 = (1, 000 mm)P
(850 mm)(2.0) F2

(f)

L2 A1 E1
+ (425 mm)F2 = (1, 000 mm)P
L1 A2 E2

## 1,500 mm 510 mm 2 200 GPa

F2 (850 mm)(2.0)
+ 425 mm = (1, 000 mm)(22 kN)
2
1,500 mm 1,300 mm 70 GPa

F2 = 9.440 kN

## 1,500 mm 510 mm 2 200 GPa

F1 = (2.0)
(9.440 kN)
1,500 mm 1,300 mm 2 70 GPa

= 21.162 kN

## (a) Normal stresses:

F 21,162 N
1 = 1 =
= 41.5 MPa (T)
A1 510 mm 2
F
9, 440 N
2 = 2 =
= 7.26 MPa (T)
A2 1,300 mm 2
(b) Deflections of the rigid bar
Calculate the elongation of member (1):
FL
(21,162 N)(1,500 mm)
e1 = 1 1 =
= 0.3112 mm
A1 E1 (510 mm 2 )(200, 000 MPa)
Since the pin at A is assumed to have a perfect connection, vA = e1 = 0.3112 mm. From Eq. (c),
1, 000 mm
vD =
v A = 1.176471(0.3112 mm) = 0.366 mm
850 mm

Ans.
Ans.

Ans.

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## 5.38 The pin-connected structure shown in Fig.

P5.38 consists of a rigid bar ABCD and two 1,500mm-long bars. Bar (1) is steel [E = 200 GPa] with
a cross-sectional area of A1 = 510 mm2. Bar (2) is
an aluminum alloy [E = 70 GPa] with a crosssectional area of A2 = 1,300 mm2. All bars are
unstressed before the load P is applied; however,
there is a 5-mm clearance in the pin connection at
A. If a concentrated load of P = 200 kN acts on the
structure at D, determine:
(a) the normal stresses in both bars (1) and (2).
(b) the normal strains in bars (1) and (2).
(c) the downward deflection of point D on the
rigid bar.

Fig. P5.38

Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces
in members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin
C gives the best information for this situation:
M C = (850 mm)F1 + (425 mm)F2
(1, 000 mm)P = 0

(a)

Force-Deformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the
deformation of an axial member can be stated for
members (1) and (2):
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
(b)
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The
deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar
triangles:
vA
vB
vD
=
=
850 mm 425 mm 1, 000 mm

(c)

## Since there is no clearance at pin B, the elongation of

member (2) will equal the deflection of the rigid bar at
B. However, there is a 5-mm clearance in the
connection at A. Consequently, not all of the rigid bar
deflection at A will go toward elongating bar (1). The
relationship between rigid bar deflection and axial
member elongation can be expressed:
v A = e1 + 5 mm

(d)

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## Equation (c) can be rewritten in terms of the member elongations as:

e1 + 5 mm
e2
=
850 mm 425 mm

(e)

Compatibility Equation
Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (e) to
derive the compatibility equation:
F1 L1
FL
850 mm F2 L2
+ 5 mm =
= 2.0 2 2
(f)
A1 E1
425 mm A2 E2
A2 E2
Solve the Equations
Solve Eq. (f) for F2:

A E FL
L A2 E2 (5 mm)A2 E2
F2 = 2 2 1 1 + 5 mm = F1 1
+
2.0 L2 A1 E1
2.0 L2 A1 E1
2.0 L2

## and substitute into Eq. (a) to solve for F1:

(850 mm)F1 + (425 mm)F2 = (1, 000 mm)P

L A2 E2 (5 mm)A2 E2
(850 mm)F1 + (425 mm) F1 1
+
= (1, 000 mm)P
2.0 L2
2.0 L2 A1 E1

L A2 E2
(5 mm)A2 E2
(850 mm)F1 + (425 mm)F1 1
= (1, 000 mm)P (425 mm)
2.0 L2 A1 E1
2.0 L2
(5 mm)A2 E2
2.0 L2
L A2 E2
850 mm + (425 mm) 1
2.0 L2 A1 E1

F1 =

## The value of F1 is thus calculated as:

(5 mm)(1,300 mm 2 )(70,000 N/mm 2 )
2.0(1,500 mm)
F1 =
1,500 mm 1,300 mm 2 70,000 N/mm 2
850 mm + (425 mm)
2.0(1,500 mm) 510 mm 2 200,000 N/mm 2
= 130,381 N = 130.381 kN
(1,000 mm)(200,000 N) (425 mm)

## and backsubstituting into Eq. (a) gives F2:

(1,000 mm)(200 kN) (850 mm)F1
F2 =
425 mm
(1,000 mm)(200 kN) (850 mm)(130.381 kN)
=
425 mm
= 209.827 kN
(a) Normal stresses:
F 130,381 N
1 = 1 =
= 256 MPa (T)
A1 510 mm 2

Ans.

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2 =

F2 209,827 N
=
= 161.4 MPa (T)
A2 1,300 mm 2

## (b) Normal strains:

F
130,381 N
1 = 1 =
= 1.278 103 mm/mm = 1, 278
A1E1 (510 mm 2 )(200,000 N/mm 2 )
F
209,827 N
2 = 2 =
= 2.306 103 mm/mm = 2,310
2
2
A2 E2 (1,300 mm )(70,000 N/mm )
(c) Deflections of the rigid bar
Calculate the elongation of member (2):
FL
(209,827 N)(1,500 mm)
= 3.4587 mm
e2 = 2 2 =
A2 E2 (1,300 mm 2 )(70, 000 MPa)
Since the pin at B is assumed to have a perfect connection, vB = e2 = 3.4587 mm. From Eq. (c),
1, 000 mm
vD =
vB = 2.35294(3.4587 mm) = 8.14 mm
425 mm

Ans.

Ans.
Ans.

Ans.

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## 5.39 The assembly shown in Fig. P5.39 consists of

a solid aluminum alloy [E = 70 GPa] post (2)
surrounded by a bronze [E = 100 GPa] tube (1).
Before the load P is applied, there is a clearance of
2 mm between the post and the tube. The yield
stress for the aluminum post is 260 MPa and the
yield stress for the bronze tube is 340 MPa.
Determine:
(a) the maximum load P that may be applied to the
assembly without causing yielding of either the
post or the tube.
(b) the downward displacement of rigid cap B.
(c) the normal strain in the bronze tube.

Fig. P5.39

Solution
Section properties:
R1 = 35 mm r1 = 29 mm

R2 = 15 mm

## A1 = (35 mm) 2 (29 mm)2 = 1, 206.372 mm 2

A2 = (15 mm) 2 = 706.858 mm 2

Equilibrium: Consider a FBD around rigid cap B after the gap has been closed.
Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:
Fy = F1 F2 P = 0
(a)
Force-Deformation Relationships:
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations:
e2 = e1 + 2 mm

(b)

(c)

Compatibility Equation
Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (c) to
derive the compatibility equation:
F2 L2 F1 L1
=
+ 2 mm
(d)
A2 E2 A1 E1
Solve the Equations
Since allowable stresses are specified, it is convenient to express Eq. (d) in terms of stress:
2 L2 1 L1
=
+ 2 mm
E2
E1
and solve for 2:

(e)

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2 = 1

L1 E2
E
+ (2 mm) 2
L2 E1
L2

## 600 mm 70, 000 MPa

70, 000 MPa
+ (2 mm)
602 mm 100, 000 MPa
602 mm
Substitute 1 = 340 MPa and solve for 2:
70, 000 MPa
N.G.
2 = 0.697674(340 MPa) + (2 mm)
= 469.8 MPa 260 MPa
602 mm
It is now evident that the stress in post (2) controls. Substitute 2 = 260 MPa and solve for 1:
70, 000 MPa L2 E1

1 = 2 (2 mm)
602 mm L1 E2

= 1

## = 260 MPa (2 mm)

602 mm 600 mm 70, 000 MPa

OK
= 39.333 MPa < 340 MPa

(a) Maximum load: Now that the stresses are known, the allowable forces F1 and F2 can be computed:
F1 = 1 A1 = (39.333 MPa)(1,206.372 mm 2 ) = 47, 450 N = 47.450 kN
F2 = 2 A2 = (260 MPa)(706.858 mm 2 ) = 183, 783 N = 183.783 kN
Substitute these values into Eq. (a) to obtain the allowable load P. By inspection, the forces in the post
and the tube must be compression; therefore:
Fy = F1 F2 P = 0

Ans.

## (b) Displacement of cap B: The contraction of tube (1) is:

FL
(47, 451 N)(600 mm)
e1 = 1 1 =
= 0.2360 mm
A1 E1 (1,206.372 mm 2 )(100, 000 N/mm 2 )
The displacement of cap B is 2 mm greater:

## vB = 0.2360 mm 2 mm = 2.2360 mm = 2.24 mm

Ans.

(c) Normal strain in tube (1): The strain in bronze tube (1) is:
39.333 MPa
1 = 1 =
= 393
E1 100, 000 MPa

Ans.

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## 5.40 A 7-m-long aluminum tube (1) is to be connected to a 3-m-long

bronze pipe (2) at B. When put in place, however, a gap of 5 mm
exists between the two members, as shown in Fig P5-40. Aluminum
tube (1) has an elastic modulus of 70 GPa and a cross-sectional area
of 2,000 mm2. Bronze pipe (2) has an elastic modulus of 100 GPa
and a cross-sectional area of 3,600 mm2. If bolts are inserted in the
flanges and tightened so that the gap at B is closed, determine:
(a) the normal stresses produced in each of the members.
(b) the final position of flange B with respect to support A.

Fig. P5.40

Solution
Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B after the bolts have been tightened
and the gap at B has been closed. Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:
Fy = F1 F2 = 0
F1 = F2
(a)
Force-Deformation Relationships:
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
A1 E1
A2 E2

(b)

Geometry of Deformations:
e1 + e2 = 5 mm

(c)

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:
F1 L1 F2 L2
+
= 5 mm
A1 E1 A2 E2

(d)

Solve the Equations: Substitute Eq. (a) into Eq. (d) and solve for F1:
L
L
F1 1 + 2 = 5 mm
A1 E1 A2 E2

F1 =

5 mm

7, 000 mm
3,000 mm
+
2
2
(2,000 mm )(70, 000 N/mm ) (3, 600 mm 2 )(100, 000 N/mm 2 )
= 85, 714 N

## (a) Normal stresses:

F
85, 714 N
1 = 1 =
= 42.8570 MPa = 42.9 MPa (T)
A1 2,000 mm 2
F
85, 714 N
2 = 2 =
= 23.8094 MPa = 23.8 MPa (T)
A2 3,600 mm 2

(f)

Ans.
Ans.

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(b) The deflection of flange B is equal to the elongation of bronze pipe (2):
FL
(85, 714 N)(3,000 mm)
e2 = 2 2 =
= 0.714 mm
A2 E2 (3,600 mm 2 )(100,000 N/mm 2 )

Ans.

## In its final position, flange B is located 3,000.714 mm away from support A.

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5.41 The assembly shown in Fig. P5.41 consists of a steel rod (1) [E1 =
30,000 ksi; A1 = 1.25 in.2], a rigid bearing plate B that is securely fastened
to rod (1), and a bronze post (2) [E2 = 15,000 ksi; A2 = 3.75 in.2]. The
yield strengths of the steel and bronze are 62 ksi and 75 ksi, respectively.
A clearance of 0.08 in. exists between the bearing plate B and bronze post
(2) before the assembly is loaded. After a load of P = 65 kips is applied to
the bearing plate, determine:
(a) the normal stresses in bars (1) and (2).
(b) the factors of safety with respect to yield for each of the members.
(c) the vertical displacement of bearing plate B.

Fig. P5.41

Solution
Elongation in rod (1) alone: Check to see if the bearing plate attached to rod (1) will contact the
bronze post for the 65-kip load.
F L (65 kips)(12 ft)(12 in./ft)
e1 = 1 1 =
= 0.2496 in. > 0.08 in. gap contact will occur
A1 E1
(1.25 in.2 )(30, 000 ksi)
This calculation proves that the bearing plate attached to rod (1) will contact the bronze post when the
65-kip load is applied; therefore, this structure must be analyzed as a statically indeterminate structure.
Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B after the gap at B has been closed.
Sum forces in the vertical direction to obtain:
Fy = F1 F2 P = 0
(a)
Force-Deformation Relationships:
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations:
e1 + e2 = 0.08 in.

(b)

(c)

Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (b) into Eq. (c) to derive the compatibility equation:
F1 L1 F2 L2
+
= 0.08 in.
A1 E1 A2 E2

(d)

## Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for F1:

F L AE
AE
L A E
F1 = 0.08 in. 2 2 1 1 = (0.08 in.) 1 1 F2 2 1 1
A2 E2 L1
L1
L1 A2 E2

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and substitute the resulting expression into Eq. (a) to determine an expression for F2:
AE
L A E
(0.08 in.) 1 1 F2 2 1 1 F2 65 kips = 0
L1
L1 A2 E2
L A E
AE
F2 1 + 2 1 1 = (0.08 in.) 1 1 65 kips
L1
L1 A2 E2
AE
(0.08 in.) 1 1 65 kips
L1
F2 =
L A E
1+ 2 1 1
L1 A2 E2
The axial force in post (2) is thus:
(1.25 in.2 )(30, 000 ksi)
(0.08 in.)
65 kips
(144 in.)
F2 =
= 39.75 kips
24 in. 1.25 in.2 30, 000 ksi
1+
144 in. 3.75 in.2 15, 000 ksi
and the axial force in rod (1) is:
F1 = F2 + P = 39.75 kips + 65 kips = 25.25 kips

## (a) Normal stresses:

F 25.25 kips
1 = 1 =
= 20.20 ksi = 20.2 ksi (T)
A1
1.25 in.2
F
39.75 kips
= 10.60 ksi = 10.60 ksi (C)
2 = 2 =
A2
3.75 in.2
(b) Factors of safety:
62 ksi
FS1 =
= 3.07
20.2 ksi

FS2 =

75 ksi
= 7.08
10.60 ksi

(c) Displacement of plate B: The displacement of plate B is equal to the elongation of rod (1).
FL
(25.25 kips)(144 in.)
e1 = 1 1 =
= 0.09696 in.
A1 E1 (1.25 in.2 )(30,000 ksi)

Ans.
Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

vB = 0.0970 in.

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## 5.42 A hollow steel [E = 30,000 ksi] tube (1)

with an outside diameter of 3.50 in. and a wall
thickness of 0.216 in. is fastened to a solid 2-in.diameter aluminum [E = 10,000 ksi] rod. The
assembly is attached to unyielding supports at the
left and right ends and is loaded as shown in Fig.
P5.42. Determine:
(a) the stresses in all parts of the axial structure.
(b) the deflections of joints B and C.

Fig. P5.42

Solution
Section properties: The steel tube cross-sectional area is:
D1 = 3.50 in.
d1 = 3.50 in. 2(0.216 in.) = 3.068 in.
A1 =

4

## and the aluminum rod has a cross-sectional area of:

D2 = D3 = 2.00 in.
A2 = A3 =

## Equilibrium: Consider a FBD of flange B. Sum forces in

the horizontal direction to obtain:
Fx = F1 + F2 34 kips = 0
(a)

## Consider a FBD of flange C. Sum forces in the horizontal

direction to obtain:
Fx = F2 + F3 + 26 kips = 0
(b)
Force-Deformation Relationships:
FL
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
e3 = 3 3
A1 E1
A2 E2
A3 E3

(c)

Geometry of Deformations:
e1 + e2 + e3 = 0
Compatibility Equation: Substitute Eqs. (c) into Eq. (d) to derive the compatibility equation:
F1 L1 F2 L2 F3 L3
+
+
=0
A1 E1 A2 E2 A3 E3
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (a) for F1:
F1 = F2 34 kips

(d)

(e)

(f)

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F3 = F2 26 kips

(g)

## Substitute Eqs. (f) and (g) into compatibility equation (e):

( F2 34 kips)L1 F2 L2 ( F2 26 kips)L3
+
+
=0
A1 E1
A2 E2
A3 E3
and expand terms:
F2 L1 (34 kips)L1 F2 L2 F2 L3 (26 kips)L3

+
+

=0
A1 E1
A1 E1
A2 E2 A3 E3
A3 E3
Regroup terms:
L
L (34 kips)L1 (26 kips)L3
L
F2 1 + 2 + 3 =
+
A1 E1
A3 E3
A1 E1 A2 E2 A3 E3
and solve for F2:
(34 kips)L1 (26 kips)L3
+
A1 E1
A3 E3
F2 =
L
L1
L
+ 2 + 3
A1 E1 A2 E2 A3 E3
(34 kips)(48 in.)
(26 kips)(60 in.)
+
2
(2.2285 in. )(30, 000 ksi) (3.1416 in.2 )(10, 000 ksi)
=
48 in.
60 in.
60 in.
+
+
2
2
(2.2285 in. )(30, 000 ksi) (3.1416 in. )(10, 000 ksi) (3.1416 in.2 )(10, 000 ksi)
= 16.3227 kips
Backsubstitute into Eqs. (f) and (g) to obtain F1 and F3:
F1 = F2 34 kips = 16.3227 kips 34 kips = 17.6773 kips
F3 = F2 26 kips = 16.3227 kips 26 kips = 9.6773 kips
(a) Normal stresses: The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
F 17.6773 kips
= 7.9325 ksi = 7.93 ksi (C)
1 = 1 =
A1
2.2285 in.2

Ans.

2 =

F2 16.3227 kips
=
= 5.1957 ksi = 5.20 ksi (T)
A2
3.1416 in.2

Ans.

3 =

F3 9.6773 kips
=
= 3.0834 ksi = 3.08 ksi (C)
A3
3.1416 in.2

Ans.

(b) Joint deflections: The deflection of flange B is equal to the elongation (i.e., contraction in this
instance) of member (1):
FL
(17.6773 kips)(48 in.)
uB = e1 = 1 1 =
= 0.012692 in. = 0.01269 in.
Ans.
A1 E1 (2.2285 in.2 )(30, 000 ksi)
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The deflection of flange C is equal to the sum of the elongations in members (1) and (2). The elongation
of member (2) is:
FL
(16.3227 kips)(60 in.)
e2 = 2 2 =
= 0.031174 in.
A2 E2 (3.1416 in.2 )(10, 000 ksi)
And thus, the deflection of flange C is:
uC = e1 + e2 = 0.012692 in. + 0.031174 in. = 0.018482 in. = 0.01848 in.

Ans.

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## 5.43 Rigid bar ABCD in Fig. P5.43 is supported by a

pin connection at A and by two axial bars (1) and (2).
Bar (1) is a 30-in.-long bronze [E = 15,000 ksi] bar
with a cross-sectional area of 1.25 in.2. Bar (2) is a
40-in.-long aluminum alloy [E = 10,000 ksi] bar with
a cross-sectional area of 2.00 in.2. Both bars are
unstressed before the load P is applied. If a
concentrated load of P = 27 kips is applied to the
rigid bar at D, determine:
(a) the normal stresses in bars (1) and (2).
(b) the deflection of the rigid bar at point D.

Fig. P5.43

Solution
Equilibrium
Consider a FBD of the rigid bar. Assume tension forces
in members (1) and (2). A moment equation about pin
A gives the best information for this situation:
M A = (36 in.)F1 + (84 in.)F2 (98 in.)P = 0
(a)
Force-Deformation Relationships
The relationship between the internal force and the
deformation of an axial member can be stated for
members (1) and (2):
FL
FL
e1 = 1 1
e2 = 2 2
A1 E1
A2 E2
Geometry of Deformations Relationship
Draw a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. The
deflections of the rigid bar are related by similar triangles:
v
vB
v
= C = D
(c)
36 in. 84 in. 98 in.
There are no gaps, clearances, or other misfits at the pins in
this structure. The vertical deflection of the rigid bar at C
will produce elongation in member (2); however, and the
vertical deflection of the rigid bar at B will create
contraction in member (1) (see the discussion under the
heading Structures with a rotating rigid bar in the text
and examine Fig. 5.11). Therefore, Eq. (c) can be rewritten
in terms of the member elongations as:
e
e
1 = 2
36 in. 84 in.

(b)

(d)

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Compatibility Equation
Substitute the force-deformation relationships (b) into the geometry of deformation relationship (d) to
derive the compatibility equation:
1 F1 L1
1 F2 L2

=
(e)
36 in. A1 E1 84 in. A2 E2
Solve the Equations
Solve Eq. (e) for F1:
36 in. L2 A1 E1
36 in. L2 A1 E1
F1 = F2
= F2
84 in. A2 E2 L1
84 in. L1 A2 E2
Substitute this expression into equilibrium equation (a) and solve for F2:
M A = (36 in.)F1 + (84 in.)F2 (98 in.)P = 0

(36 in.)F2

(f)

36 in. L2 A1 E1
+ (84 in.)F2 = (98 in.)P
84 in. L1 A2 E2

3 L2 A1 E1
+ (84 in.) = (98 in.)P
F2 (36 in.)
7 L1 A2 E2

(g)

For this structure, P = 27 kips, and the lengths, areas, and elastic moduli are given below:
L1 = 30 in.
L2 = 40 in.
A1 = 1.25 in.2

A2 = 2.00 in.2

## E1 = 15, 000 ksi

E2 = 10, 000 ksi
Substitute these values into Eq. (g) and calculate F2 = 25.6183 kips. Backsubstitute into Eq. (f) to
calculate F1 = 13.7241 kips.

## (a) Normal Stresses

The normal stresses in each axial member can now be calculated:
F 13.7241 kips
= 10.98 ksi (C)
1 = 1 =
A1
1.25 in.2
F
25.6183 kips
2 = 2 =
= 12.81 ksi (T)
A2
2.00 in.2

Ans.
Ans.

## (b) Deflections of the rigid bar

Calculate the elongation of one of the axial members, say member (2):
FL
(25.6183 kips)(40 in.)
e2 = 2 2 =
= 0.051237 in.
(h)
A2 E2 (2.00 in.2 )(10, 000 ksi)
Since there are no gaps at pin C, the rigid bar deflection at C is equal to the elongation of member (2);
therefore, vC = e2 = 0.051237 in. (downward). From similar triangles [Eq. (c)], the deflection of the
rigid bar at D is therefore:
98 in.
98 in.
(0.051237 in.) = 0.0598 in.
vD =
vC =
Ans.
84 in.
84 in.

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