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# 6.101 A torque of magnitude T = 1.

5
kip-in. is applied to each of the bars
shown in Fig. P6.101. If the allowable
shear stress is specified as allow = 8 ksi,
determine the minimum required
dimension b for each bar.

Fig. P6.101

Solution
(a) Circular Section
Rearrange the elastic torsion formula to group terms with D on the left-hand side:
D4
D3 T
T
=
which can be simplified to
=

32 ( D / 2)
16
From this equation, the unknown diameter of the solid shaft can be expressed as
16T
D=3

To support a torque of T = 1.5 kip-in. without exceeding the maximum shear stress of 8 ksi, the solid
shaft must have a diameter (i.e., dimension b shown in the problem statement) of
16T
16(1.5 kip-in.)
=3
= 0.985 in.
Ans.
bmin 3

(8 ksi)
(b) Square Section
From Table 6.1,

b
=1

= 0.208
a
The maximum shear stress in a rectangular section is given by Eq. (6.22):
T
max = 2
a b
For a square section where a = b,
T
1.5 kip-in.
b3 =
=
= 0.901442 in.3
bmin = 0.966 in.
max (0.208)(8 ksi)
a=b

aspect ratio

## (c) Rectangular Section

From Table 6.1,
2b
aspect ratio
=2
= 0.246
b
For a rectangular section where a = 2b,
T
1.5 kip-in.
b3 =
=
= 0.381098 in.3
2 max 2(0.246)(8 ksi)

## bmin = 0.725 in.

Ans.

Ans.

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## 6.102 A torque of magnitude T = 270 Nm is applied to each of the bars shown in

Fig. P6.102. If the allowable shear stress
is specified as allow = 70 MPa, determine
the minimum required dimension b for
each bar.

Fig. P6.102

Solution
(a) Circular Section
Rearrange the elastic torsion formula to group terms with D on the left-hand side:
D4
D3 T
T
=
which can be simplified to
=

32 ( D / 2)
16
From this equation, the unknown diameter of the solid shaft can be expressed as
16T
D=3

To support a torque of T = 270 N-m without exceeding the maximum shear stress of 70 MPa, the solid
shaft must have a diameter (i.e., dimension b shown in the problem statement) of
16T
16(270 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
bmin 3
=3
= 27.0 mm
Ans.

(70 N/mm 2 )
(b) Square Section
From Table 6.1,

b
=1

= 0.208
a
The maximum shear stress in a rectangular section is given by Eq. (6.22):
T
max = 2
a b
For a square section where a = b,
T
(270 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
b3 =
=
= 18,543.946 mm3
bmin = 26.5 mm
2
(0.208)(70 N/mm )
max
a=b

aspect ratio

## (c) Rectangular Section

From Table 6.1,
2b
aspect ratio
=2
= 0.246
b
For a rectangular section where a = 2b,
T
(270 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
b3 =
=
= 7,839.721 mm3
2
2 max
2(0.246)(70 N/mm )

bmin = 19.87 mm

Ans.

Ans.

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## 6.103 The bars shown in Fig. P6.103

have equal cross-sectional areas and they
are each subjected to a torque of T = 160
N-m. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress in each
bar.
(b) the rotation angle at the free end if
each bar has a length of 300 mm.
Assume G = 28 GPa.

Fig. P6.103

Solution
Theoretical Basis: The maximum shear stress in a rectangular section is given by Eq. (6.22):
T
max = 2
a b
and the angle of twist is given by Eq. (6.23)
TL
= 3
a bG
Rectangular Section 15 mm by 50 mm
From linear interpolation of the values given in Table 6.1,
50 mm
= 3.333
= 0.272
= 0.269
aspect ratio
15 mm
Shear stress:
T
(160 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
max = 2 =
= 52.3 MPa
a b (0.272)(15 mm) 2 (50 mm)
Angle of twist:
TL
(160 N-m)(300 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
= 3 =
a bG (0.269)(15 mm)3 (50 mm)(28,000 N/mm 2 )
Rectangular Section 25 mm by 30 mm
From Table 6.1,
30 mm
= 1.2

= 0.219
= 0.166
aspect ratio
25 mm
Shear stress:
T
(160 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
max = 2 =
= 39.0 MPa
a b (0.219)(25 mm) 2 (30 mm)
Angle of twist:
TL
(160 N-m)(300 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
= 3 =
a bG (0.166)(25 mm)3 (30 mm)(28,000 N/mm 2 )

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

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## 6.104 The allowable shear stress for each

bar shown in Fig. P6.104 is 75 MPa.
Determine:
(a) the largest torque T that may be
applied to each bar.
(b) the corresponding rotation angle at the
free end if each bar has a length of 300
mm. Assume G = 28 GPa.

Fig. P6.104

Solution
Theoretical Basis: The maximum shear stress in a rectangular section is given by Eq. (6.22):
T
max = 2
a b
and the angle of twist is given by Eq. (6.23)
TL
= 3
a bG
Rectangular Section 15 mm by 50 mm
From linear interpolation of the values given in Table 6.1,
50 mm
= 3.333
= 0.272
= 0.269
aspect ratio
15 mm
Maximum torque:
T = max a 2b = (75 N/mm 2 )(0.272)(15 mm) 2 (50 mm) = 229,500 N-mm = 230 N-m
Angle of twist:
TL
(229,500 N-mm)(300 mm)
= 3 =
a bG (0.269)(15 mm)3 (50 mm)(28,000 N/mm 2 )
Rectangular Section 25 mm by 30 mm
From Table 6.1,
30 mm
= 1.2

= 0.219
= 0.166
aspect ratio
25 mm
Maximum torque:
T = max a 2b = (75 N/mm 2 )(0.219)(25 mm) 2 (30 mm) = 307,979 N-mm = 308 N-m
Angle of twist:
TL
(307,979 N-mm)(300 mm)
= 3 =
a bG (0.166)(25 mm)3 (30 mm)(28,000 N/mm 2 )

Ans.
Ans.

Ans.
Ans.

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## 6.105 A solid circular rod having

diameter D is to be replaced by a
rectangular tube having cross-sectional
dimensions D 2D (which are
measured to the wall centerlines of the
cross section shown in Fig. P6.105).
Determine the required minimum
thickness tmin of the tube so that the
maximum shear stress in the tube will
not exceed the maximum shear stress
in the solid bar.

Fig. P6.105

Solution
For the solid circular rod, the maximum shear stress is given by
TR T ( D / 2) 16T
max =
=
=
4 D3
Ip
D
32
For the rectangular tube, the area enclosed by the median line is
Am = ( D)(2 D) = 2 D 2
The maximum shear stress for the thin-walled section is given by Eq. (6.25)
T
T
T
max =
=
=
2
2 Amt 2(2 D )t 4 D 2t
Equate Eqs. (a) and (b)
16T
T
=
3
D 4 D 2t
and solve for t:
D
tmin =
64

(a)

(b)

Ans.

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6.106 A 24 in. wide by 0.100 in. thick by 100 in. long steel sheet is to be formed into a hollow section
by bending through 360 and welding (i.e., butt-welding) the long edges together. Assume a crosssectional medial length of 24 in. (no stretching of the sheet due to bending). If the maximum shear stress
must be limited to 12 ksi, determine the maximum torque that can be carried by the hollow section if
(a) the shape of the section is a circle.
(b) the shape of the section is an equilateral triangle.
(c) the shape of the section is a square.
(d) the shape of the section is an 8 4 in. rectangle.

Solution
The maximum shear stress for a thin-walled section is given by Eq. (6.25)
T
max =
2 Amt
and thus, the maximum torque that can be carried by the hollow section is
Tmax = 2 max Amt
(a) Circle:
D = 24 in.

Am =
Tmax

D2 =

D = 7.639437 in.

## (7.639437 in.) 2 = 45.8366 in.2

4
4
= 2 max Amt = 2(12 ksi)(45.8366 in.2 )(0.100 in.) = 110.0 kip-in.

Ans.

## (b) Equilateral triangle:

triangle sides are each 24 in./3 = 8 in.

1
1
Am = bh = (8 in.)(8 in.) sin 60 = 27.7128 in.2
2
2
Tmax = 2 max Amt = 2(12 ksi)(27.7128 in.2 )(0.100 in.) = 66.5 kip-in.

Ans.

(c) Square:
sides of the square are each 24 in./4 = 6 in.
Am = bh = (6 in.)(6 in.) = 36 in.2
Tmax = 2 max Amt = 2(12 ksi)(36 in.2 )(0.100 in.) = 86.4 kip-in.

Ans.

## (d) 8 4 in. rectangle:

Am = bh = (8 in.)(4 in.) = 32 in.2

Tmax = 2 max Amt = 2(12 ksi)(32 in.2 )(0.100 in.) = 76.8 kip-in.

Ans.

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6.107 A 500 mm wide by 3 mm thick by 2 m long aluminum sheet is to be formed into a hollow section
by bending through 360 and welding (i.e., butt-welding) the long edges together. Assume a crosssectional medial length of 500 mm (no stretching of the sheet due to bending). If the maximum shear
stress must be limited to 75 MPa, determine the maximum torque that can be carried by the hollow
section if
(a) the shape of the section is a circle.
(b) the shape of the section is an equilateral triangle.
(c) the shape of the section is a square.
(d) the shape of the section is a 150 100 mm rectangle.

Solution
The maximum shear stress for a thin-walled section is given by Eq. (6.25)
T
max =
2 Amt
and thus, the maximum torque that can be carried by the hollow section is
Tmax = 2 max Amt
(a) Circle:
D = 500 mm

Am =
Tmax

D2 =

D = 159.155 mm
(159.155 mm) 2 = 19,894.382 mm 2

4
4
= 2 max Amt = 2(75 N/mm 2 )(19,894.382 mm 2 )(3 mm) = 8,952, 472 N-mm = 8.95 kN-m

Ans.

## (b) Equilateral triangle:

triangle sides are each 500 mm/3 = 166.667 mm

1
1
Am = bh = (166.667 mm)(166.667 mm) sin 60 = 12, 028.131 mm 2
2
2
Tmax = 2 max Amt = 2(75 N/mm 2 )(12, 028.131 mm 2 )(3 mm) = 5, 412, 659 N-mm = 5.41 kN-m

Ans.

(c) Square:
sides of the square are each 500 mm/4 = 125 mm

## Am = bh = (125 mm)(125 mm) = 15, 625 mm 2

Tmax = 2 max Amt = 2(75 N/mm 2 )(15, 625 mm 2 )(3 mm) = 7, 031, 250 N-mm = 7.03 kN-m

Ans.

## (d) 150 100 mm rectangle:

Am = bh = (150 mm)(100 mm) = 15, 000 mm 2

Tmax = 2 max Amt = 2(75 N/mm 2 )(15, 000 mm 2 )(3 mm) = 6, 750, 000 N-mm = 6.75 kN-m

Ans.

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## 6.108 A torque of T = 150 kip-in. will be applied to

the hollow, thin-walled aluminum alloy section
shown in Fig. P6.108. If the maximum shear stress
must be limited to 10 ksi, determine the minimum
thickness required for the section. (Note: The
dimensions shown are measured to the wall
centerline.)

Fig. P6.108

Solution
The maximum shear stress for a thin-walled section is given by Eq. (6.25)
T
max =
2 Amt
For the aluminum alloy section,
Am = (6 in.)(8 in.) +

## (6 in.) 2 = 76.274 in.2

The minimum thickness required for the section if the maximum shear stress must be limited to 10 ksi is
thus:
T
150 kip-in.
tmin =
=
= 0.0983 in.
Ans.
2 max Am 2(10 ksi)(76.274 in.2 )

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## 6.109 A torque of T = 2.5 kN-m will be applied to the hollow,

thin-walled aluminum alloy section shown in Fig. P6.109. If
the maximum shear stress must be limited to 50 MPa,
determine the minimum thickness required for the section.
(Note: The dimensions shown are measured to the wall
centerline.)

Fig. P6.109

Solution
The maximum shear stress for a thin-walled section is given by Eq. (6.25)
T
max =
2 Amt
For the aluminum alloy section,
1
Am = (100 mm) 2 = 7,853.982 mm 2
4
The minimum thickness required for the section if the maximum shear stress must be limited to 50 MPa
is thus:
T
(2.5 kN-m)(1,000 N/kN)(1,000 mm/m)
tmin =
=
= 3.18 mm
Ans.
2 max Am
2(50 N/mm 2 )(7,853.982 mm 2 )

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## 6.110 A torque of T = 100 kip-in. will be applied to

the hollow, thin-walled aluminum alloy section
shown in Fig. P6.110. If the section has a uniform
thickness of 0.100 in., determine the magnitude of
the maximum shear stress developed in the section.
(Note: The dimensions shown are measured to the
wall centerline.)

Fig. P6.110

Solution
The maximum shear stress for a thin-walled section is given by Eq. (6.25)
T
max =
2 Amt
For the aluminum alloy section,
Am =

## The maximum shear stress developed in the section is:

T
100 kip-in.
max =
=
= 12.73 ksi
2 Amt 2(39.2699 in.2 )(0.100 in.)

Ans.

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## 6.111 A torque of T = 2.75 kN-m will be

applied to the hollow, thin-walled aluminum
alloy section shown in Fig. P6.111. If the
section has a uniform thickness of 4 mm,
determine the magnitude of the maximum
shear stress developed in the section. (Note:
The dimensions shown are measured to the
wall centerline.)

Fig. P6.111

Solution
The maximum shear stress for a thin-walled section is given by Eq. (6.25)
T
max =
2 Amt
For the aluminum alloy section,
Am = (150 mm)(50 mm) +

## The maximum shear stress developed in the section is:

T
(2.75 kN-m)(1,000 N/kN)(1,000 mm/m)
max =
=
= 40.5 MPa
2 Amt
2(8, 481.748 mm 2 )(4 mm)

Ans.

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## 6.112 A cross section of the leading edge of an

airplane wing is shown in Fig. P6.112. The enclosed
area is 82 in.2. Sheet thicknesses are shown on the
diagram. For an applied torque of T = 100 kip-in.,
determine the magnitude of the maximum shear
stress developed in the section. (Note: The
dimensions shown are measured to the wall
centerline.)

Fig. P6.112

Solution
The maximum shear stress for a thin-walled section is given by Eq. (6.25)
T
max =
2 Amt
The maximum shear stress developed in the section is:
T
100 kip-in.
max =
=
= 12.20 ksi
2 Amt 2(82 in.2 )(0.050 in.)

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## 6.113 A cross section of an airplane fuselage made

of aluminum alloy is shown in Fig. P6.113. For an
applied torque of T = 1,250 kip-in. and an allowable
shear stress of = 7.5 ksi, determine the minimum
thickness of the sheet (which must be constant for
the entire periphery) required to resist the torque.
(Note: The dimensions shown are measured to the
wall centerline.)

Fig. P6.113

Solution
The maximum shear stress for a thin-walled section is given by Eq. (6.25)
T
max =
2 Amt
For the fuselage,
Am = (30 in.)(20 in.) + (15 in.) 2 = 1,306.858 in.2

The minimum thickness required for the sheet if the maximum shear stress must be limited to 7.5 ksi is
thus:
T
1, 250 kip-in.
=
= 0.0638 in.
Ans.
tmin =
2 max Am 2(7.5 ksi)(1,306.858 in.2 )

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