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# 8.42 A composite beam is fabricated by bolting two 3 in. wide 12 in.

## deep timber planks to the sides

of a 0.50 in. 12 in. steel plate (Fig. P8.42b). The moduli of elasticity of the timber and the steel are
1,800 ksi and 30,000 ksi, respectively. The simply supported beam spans a distance of 20 ft and carries
two concentrated loads P, which are applied at the quarter points of the span (Fig. P8.42a).
(a) Determine the maximum bending stresses produced in the timber planks and the steel plate if P = 3
kips.
(b) Assume that the allowable bending stresses of the timber and the steel are 1,200 psi and 24,000 psi,
respectively. Determine the largest acceptable magnitude for concentrated loads P. (You may neglect
the weight of the beam in your calculations.)

Fig. P8.42a
Fig. P8.42b

Solution
Let the timber be denoted as material (1) and the steel plate as material (2). The modular ratio is:
E
30, 000 ksi
n= 2 =
= 16.6667
E1
1,800 ksi
Transform the steel plate (2) into an equivalent amount of wood (1) by multiplying its width by the
modular ratio: b2, trans = 16.6667(0.50 in.) = 8.3333 in. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 12 in. 0.50
in. steel plate is replaced by a wood board that is 12 in. deep and 8.3333-in. thick.
Moment of inertia about the horizontal centroidal axis
d = yi y
Shape
IC
4
(in. )
(in.)
timber (1)
864
0
transformed steel plate (2)
1,200
0
Moment of inertia about the z axis =

dA
(in.4)
0
0

IC + dA
(in.4)
864
1,200
2,064 in.4

## Bending moment in beam for P = 3 kips

The bending moment in the simply supported beam with two 3-kip concentrated loads is:
M max = (3 kips)(5 ft) = 15 kip-ft = 180 kip-in.
Bending stress in timber (1)
From the flexure formula, the maximum bending stress in timber (1) is:
My
(180 kip-in.)( 6 in.)
1 =
=
= 0.5233 ksi = 523 psi
I
2, 064 in.4

Ans.

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## Bending stress in steel plate (2)

The bending stress in the transformed material must be multiplied by the modular ratio n. Therefore, the
maximum bending stress in steel plate (2) is:
My
(180 kip-in.)( 6 in.)
2 = n
= (16.6667)
= 8.7209 ksi = 8, 720 psi
Ans.
I
2, 064 in.4
Determine maximum P
If the allowable bending stress in the timber is 1,200 psi, then the maximum bending moment that may
be supported by the beam is:
I (1.200 ksi)(2, 064 in.4 )
My
M max 1 =
= 412.80 kip-in.
1 =
6 in.
I
y
If the allowable bending stress in the steel is 165 MPa, then the maximum bending moment that may be
supported by the beam is:
I (24.00 ksi)(2, 064 in.4 )
My
M max 2 =
= 495.36 kip-in.
2 = n
I
ny
(16.667)(6 in.)
Note: The negative signs were omitted in the previous two equations because only the moment
magnitude is of interest here.

From these two results, the maximum moment that the beam can support is 412.80 kip-in. The
maximum concentrated load magnitude P that can be supported is found from:
M max = (5 ft)P
P =

## M max 412.80 kip-in.

=
= 6.88 kips
5 ft
(5 ft)(12 in./ft)

Ans.

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## 8.43 The cross section of a composite beam that

consists of 3-mm-thick fiberglass faces bonded to a
20-mm-thick particleboard core is shown in Fig.
P8.43. The beam is subjected to a bending moment
of 35 N-m acting about the z axis. The elastic
moduli for the fiberglass and the particleboard are
30 GPa and 10 GPa, respectively. Determine:
(a) the maximum bending stresses in the fiberglass
faces and the particleboard core.
(b) the stress in the fiberglass at the joint where the
two materials are bonded together.

Fig. P8.43

Solution
Let the particleboard be denoted as material (1) and the fiberglass as material (2). The modular ratio is:
E
30 GPa
n= 2 =
=3
E1 10 GPa
Transform the fiberglass faces into an equivalent amount of particleboard by multiplying their width by
the modular ratio: b2, trans = 3(50 mm) = 150 mm. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 50 mm 3 mm
fiberglass faces are replaced by particleboard faces that are 150-mm wide and 3-mm thick.
Moment of inertia about the horizontal centroidal axis
d = yi y
Shape
IC
4
(mm)
(mm )
transformed fiberglass top face
337.50
11.5
particleboard core
33,333.33
0
transformed fiberglass bot face
337.50
11.5
Moment of inertia about the z axis =

dA
(mm4)
59,512.50
0
59,512.50

## Bending stress in particleboard core (1)

From the flexure formula, the maximum bending stress in the particleboard core is:
My
(35 N-m)( 10 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
1 =
=
= 2.29 MPa
I
153, 033.33 mm 4

IC + dA
(mm4)
59,850.00
33,333.33
59,850.00
153,033.33 mm4

Ans.

## Bending stress in fiberglass faces (2)

The bending stress in the transformed material must be multiplied by the modular ratio n. Therefore, the
maximum bending stress in the fiberglass faces (2) is:
My
(35 N-m)( 13 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
2 = n
Ans.
= (3)
= 8.92 MPa
I
153, 033.33 mm 4
Bending stress in fiberglass (2) at interface
At the interface between the particleboard and the fiberglass, y = 10 mm:
My
(35 N-m)( 10 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
2 = n
= (3)
= 6.86 MPa
I
153, 033.33 mm 4

Ans.

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## 8.44 A composite beam is made of two brass [E =

100 GPa] plates bonded to an aluminum [E = 75
GPa] bar, as shown in Fig. P8.44. The beam is
subjected to a bending moment of 1,750 N-m acting
(a) the maximum bending stresses in the brass
plates and the aluminum bar.
(b) the stress in the brass at the joints where the two
materials are bonded together.

Fig. P8.44

Solution
Let the aluminum be denoted as material (1) and the brass as material (2). The modular ratio is:
E 100 GPa
n= 2 =
= 1.3333
E1 75 GPa
Transform the brass plates into an equivalent amount of aluminum by multiplying their width by the
modular ratio: b2, trans = 1.3333(50 mm) = 66.6666 mm. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 50 mm 10
mm brass plates are replaced by aluminum plates that are 66.6666-mm wide and 10-mm thick.
Moment of inertia about the horizontal centroidal axis
d = yi y
Shape
IC
4
(mm)
(mm )
transformed top brass plate
5,555.55
20
aluminum bar
112,500.00
0
transformed bot brass plate
5,555.55
20
Moment of inertia about the z axis =

dA
(mm4)
266,666.40
0
266,666.40

## Bending stress in aluminum bar (1)

From the flexure formula, the maximum bending stress in the aluminum bar is:
My
(1,750 N-m)( 15 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
1 =
=
= 40.0 MPa
I
656,943.90 mm 4

IC + dA
(mm4)
272,221.95
112,500.00
272,221.95
656,943.90 mm4

Ans.

## Maximum bending stress in brass plates (2)

The bending stress in the transformed material must be multiplied by the modular ratio n. Therefore, the
maximum bending stress in the brass plates (2) is:
My
(1,750 N-m)( 25 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
2 = n
Ans.
= (1.3333)
= 88.8 MPa
I
656,943.90 mm 4
Bending stress in brass plates (2) at interface
At the interface between the brass plates and the aluminum bar, y = 15 mm:
My
(1,750 N-m)( 15 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
2 = n
= (1.3333)
= 53.3 MPa
I
656,943.90 mm 4

Ans.

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8.45 An aluminum [E = 10,000 ksi] bar is bonded to a steel [E = 30,000 ksi] bar to form a composite
beam (Fig. P8.45b). The composite beam is subjected to a bending moment of M = +300 lb-ft about the
z axis (Fig. P8.45a). Determine:
(a) the maximum bending stresses in the aluminum and steel bars.
(b) the stress in the two materials at the joint where they are bonded together.

Fig. P8.45a

Fig. P8.45b

Solution
Denote the aluminum as material (1) and denote the steel as material (2). The modular ratio is:
E
30, 000 ksi
n= 2 =
=3
E1 10,000 ksi
Transform the steel bar (2) into an equivalent amount of aluminum (1) by multiplying its width by the
modular ratio: b2, trans = 3(1.50 in.) = 4.50 in. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 1.50 in. 0.50 in. steel
bar is replaced by an aluminum bar that is 4.50-in. wide and 0.50-in. thick.
Centroid location of the transformed section in the vertical direction

Shape
aluminum bar (1)
transformed steel bar (2)

y=

yi Ai
Ai

Width b
(in.)
1.50
4.50

Height h
(in.)
0.50
0.50

Area Ai
(in.2)
0.75
2.25
3.00

yi
(from bottom)
(in.)
0.25
0.75

yi Ai
(in.3)
0.1875
1.6875
1.8750

1.8750 in.3
= 0.6250 in. (measured upward from bottom edge of section)
3.00 in.2

## Moment of inertia about the horizontal centroidal axis

d = yi y
Shape
IC
4
(in. )
(in.)
aluminum bar (1)
0.015625
0.375
transformed steel bar (2)
0.046875
0.125
Moment of inertia about the z axis =

dA
(in.4)
0.105469
0.035156

IC + dA
(in.4)
0.121094
0.082031
0.203125 in.4

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## (a) Maximum bending stress in aluminum bar (1)

From the flexure formula, the maximum bending stress in aluminum bar (1) is:
My
(300 lb-ft)( 0.6250 in.)(12 in./ft)
1 =
=
= 11, 080 psi (T)
I
0.203125 in.4

Ans.

## (a) Maximum bending stress in steel bar (2)

The bending stress in the transformed material must be multiplied by the modular ratio n. Therefore, the
maximum bending stress in steel bar (2) is:
My
(300 lb-ft)(1.000 in. 0.6250 in.)(12 in./ft)
Ans.
2 =
= (3)
= 19,940 psi (C)
I
0.203125 in.4
(b) Bending stress in aluminum bar (1) at interface
My
(300 lb-ft)(0.50 in. 0.6250 in.)(12 in./ft)
1 =
=
= 2, 220 psi (T)
I
0.203125 in.4
(b) Maximum bending stress in steel bar (2) at interface
My
(300 lb-ft)(0.50 in. 0.6250 in.)(12 in./ft)
2 =
= (3)
= 6, 650 psi (T)
I
0.203125 in.4

Ans.

Ans.

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8.46 An aluminum [E = 10,000 ksi] bar is bonded to a steel [E = 30,000 ksi] bar to form a composite
beam (Fig. P8.46b). The allowable bending stresses for the aluminum and steel bars are 20 ksi and 30
ksi, respectively. Determine the maximum bending moment M that can be applied to the beam.

Fig. P8.46a

Fig. P8.46b

Solution
Denote the aluminum as material (1) and denote the steel as material (2). The modular ratio is:
E
30, 000 ksi
n= 2 =
=3
E1 10,000 ksi
Transform the steel bar (2) into an equivalent amount of aluminum (1) by multiplying its width by the
modular ratio: b2, trans = 3(1.50 in.) = 4.50 in. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 1.50 in. 0.50 in. steel
bar is replaced by an aluminum bar that is 4.50-in. wide and 0.50-in. thick.
Centroid location of the transformed section in the vertical direction

Shape
aluminum bar (1)
transformed steel bar (2)

y=

yi Ai
Ai

Width b
(in.)
1.50
4.50

Height h
(in.)
0.50
0.50

Area Ai
(in.2)
0.75
2.25
3.00

yi
(from bottom)
(in.)
0.25
0.75

yi Ai
(in.3)
0.1875
1.6875
1.8750

1.8750 in.3
= 0.6250 in. (measured upward from bottom edge of section)
3.00 in.2

## Moment of inertia about the horizontal centroidal axis

d = yi y
Shape
IC
4
(in. )
(in.)
aluminum bar (1)
0.015625
0.375
transformed steel bar (2)
0.046875
0.125
Moment of inertia about the z axis =

dA
(in.4)
0.105469
0.035156

IC + dA
(in.4)
0.121094
0.082031
0.203125 in.4

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## (a) Maximum bending moment magnitude based on allowable aluminum stress

Based on an allowable bending stress of 20 ksi for the aluminum, the maximum bending moment
magnitude that be applied to the cross section is:
I
My
(20 ksi)(0.203125 in.4 )
(a)
1
M 1 =
= 6.50 kip-in.
I
y
0.6250 in.
Maximum bending moment magnitude based on allowable steel stress
Based on an allowable bending stress of 30 ksi for the steel, the maximum bending moment magnitude
that be applied to the cross section is:
My
2I
(30 ksi)(0.203125 in.4 )
(b)
2 n
M
=
= 5.4167 kip-in.
I
ny
(3)(1.00 in. 0.6250 in.)
Maximum bending moment magnitude
From the values obtained in Eqs. (a) and (b), the maximum bending moment that can be applied to the
cross section is
M max = 5.4167 kip-in. = 451 lb-ft
Ans.

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## 8.47 Two steel [E = 30,000 ksi] plates are securely

attached to a Southern pine [E = 1,800 ksi] timber
to form a composite beam (Fig. P8.47). The
allowable bending stress for the steel plates is
24,000 psi and the allowable bending stress for the
Southern pine is 1,200 psi. Determine the maximum
bending moment that can be applied about the
horizontal axis of the beam.

Fig. P8.47

Solution
Denote the timber as material (1) and denote the steel as material (2). The modular ratio is:
E
30, 000 ksi
n= 2 =
= 16.6667
E1
1,800 ksi
Transform the steel plates into an equivalent amount of timber by multiplying their width by the
modular ratio: b2, trans = 16.6667(8 in.) = 133.3333 in. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 8 in. 0.25 in.
steel plates can be replaced by wood plates that are 133.3333-in. wide and 0.25-in. thick.
Moment of inertia about the horizontal centroidal axis
d = yi y
Shape
IC
4
(in. )
(in.)
transformed steel plate at top
0.1736
8.125
timber (1)
3,413.3333
0
transformed steel plate at bottom
0.1736
8.125
Moment of inertia about the z axis =

dA
(in.4)
2,200.52
0
2,200.52

IC + dA
(in.4)
2,200.694
3,413.333
2,200.694
7,814.72 in.4

(a) Maximum bending moment magnitude based on allowable Southern pine stress
Based on an allowable bending stress of 1,200 psi for the Southern pine timber, the maximum bending
moment magnitude that be applied to the cross section is:
I
My
(1.200 ksi)(7,814.72 in.4 )
(a)
1
M 1 =
= 1,172.208 kip-in.
I
y
8 in.
Maximum bending moment magnitude based on allowable steel stress
Based on an allowable bending stress of 24,000 psi for the steel plates, the maximum bending moment
magnitude that be applied to the cross section is:
2I
My
(24 ksi)(7,814.72 in.4 )
(b)
2 n
M
=
= 1,364.021 kip-in.
I
ny
(16.6667)(8.25 in.)
Maximum bending moment magnitude
From the values obtained in Eqs. (a) and (b), the maximum bending moment that can be applied to the
cross section is
M max = 1,172.208 kip-in. = 97.7 kip-ft
Ans.

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8.48 A simply supported composite beam 5 m long carries a uniformly distributed load w (Fig. P8.48a).
The beam is constructed of a Southern pine [E = 12 GPa] timber, 200 mm wide by 360 mm deep, that is
reinforced on its lower surface by a steel [E = 200 GPa] plate that is 150 mm wide by 12 mm thick (Fig.
P8.48b).
(a) Determine the maximum bending stresses produced in the timber and the steel if w = 12 kN/m.
(b) Assume that the allowable bending stresses of the timber and the steel are 9 MPa and 165 MPa,
respectively. Determine the largest acceptable magnitude for distributed load w. (You may neglect the
weight of the beam in your calculations.)

Fig. P8.48a

Fig. P8.48b

Solution
Let the timber be denoted as material (1) and the steel plate as material (2). The modular ratio is:
E
200 GPa
n= 2 =
= 16.6667
E1 12 GPa
Transform the steel plate (2) into an equivalent amount of wood (1) by multiplying its width by the
modular ratio: b2, trans = 16.6667(150 mm) = 2,500 mm. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 150 mm
12 mm steel plate is replaced by a wood board that is 2,500-mm wide and 12-mm thick.
Centroid location of the transformed section in the vertical direction

Shape
timber (1)
transformed steel plate (2)

y=

yi Ai
Ai

Width b
(mm)
200
2,500

Height h
(mm)
360
12

Area Ai
(mm2)
72,000
30,000
102,000

yi
(from bottom)
(mm)
192
6

yi Ai
(mm3)
13,824,000
180,000
14,004,000

## 14, 004, 000 mm3

= 137.294 mm (measured upward from bottom edge of section)
102,000 mm 2

## Moment of inertia about the horizontal centroidal axis

d = yi y
Shape
IC
4
(mm)
(mm )
timber (1)
777,600,000
54.71
transformed steel plate (2)
360,000
131.29

## Moment of inertia about the z axis =

dA
(mm4)
215,476,817
517,144,360

IC + dA
(mm4)
993,076,817
517,504,360
1,510,581,176 mm4
= 1.5106 109 mm4

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## Bending moment in beam for w = 12 kN/m

The bending moment in the simply supported beam with a uniformly distributed load of 12 kN/m is:
wL2 (12 kN/m)(5 m)2
M max =
=
= 37.5 kN-m = 37.5 106 N-mm
8
8
Bending stress in timber (1)
From the flexure formula, the maximum bending stress in timber (1) is:
My
(37.5 106 N-mm)(372 mm 137.294 mm)
=
= 5.83 MPa (C)
1 =
I
1.5106 109 mm 4

Ans.

## Bending stress in steel plate (2)

The bending stress in the transformed material must be multiplied by the modular ratio n. Therefore, the
maximum bending stress in steel plate (2) is:
My
(37.5 106 N-mm)( 137.294 mm)
= (16.6667)
= 56.8 MPa (T)
2 =
Ans.
I
1.5106 109 mm 4
Determine maximum w
If the allowable bending stress in the timber is 9 MPa, then the maximum bending moment that may be
supported by the beam is:
I (9 N/mm 2 )(1.5106 109 mm 4 )
My
1 =
M max 1 =
= 57.925 106 N-mm
I
y
(372 mm 137.294 mm)
If the allowable bending stress in the steel is 165 MPa, then the maximum bending moment that may be
supported by the beam is:
I (165 N/mm 2 )(1.5106 109 mm 4 )
My
M max 2 =
= 108.926 106 N-mm
2 = n
I
ny
(16.6667)(137.294 mm)
Note: The negative signs were omitted in the previous two equations because only the moment
magnitude is of interest here.

From these two results, the maximum moment that the beam can support is 57.925106 N-mm. The
maximum distributed load magnitude w that can be supported is found from:
wL2
M max =
8
8M max 8(57.925 106 N-mm)(1 m/1000 mm)
w =
=
= 18,536 N/m = 18.54 kN/m
Ans.
L2
(5 m) 2

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8.49 A glue-laminated timber beam is reinforced by carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) material
bonded to its bottom surface. The cross section of the composite beam is shown in Fig. P8.49b. The
elastic modulus of the wood is E = 12 GPa and the elastic modulus of the CFRP is 112 GPa. The simply
supported beam spans 6 m and carries a concentrated load P at midspan (Fig. P8.49a).
(a) Determine the maximum bending stresses produced in the timber and the CFRP if P = 4 kN.
(b) Assume that the allowable bending stresses of the timber and the CFRP are 9 MPa and 1,500 MPa,
respectively. Determine the largest acceptable magnitude for concentrated load P. (You may neglect the
weight of the beam in your calculations.)

Fig. P8.49a
Fig. P8.49b

Solution
Denoted the timber as material (1) and denote the CFRP as material (2). The modular ratio is:
E 112 GPa
n= 2 =
= 9.3333
E1 12 GPa
Transform the CFRP into an equivalent amount of wood by multiplying its width by the modular ratio:
b2, trans = 9.3333(40 mm) = 373.33 mm. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 40 mm 3 mm CFRP is
replaced by a wood board that is 373.33-mm wide and 3-mm thick.
Centroid location of the transformed section in the vertical direction

Shape
timber (1)
transformed CFRP (2)

Width b
(mm)
90
373.33

Height h
(mm)
250
3

Area Ai
(mm2)
22,500
1,120
23,620

yi
(from bottom)
(mm)
128
1.5

yi Ai
(mm3)
2,880,000
1,680
2,881,680

yi Ai

2,881,680 mm3
=
= 122.00 mm (measured upward from bottom edge of section)
y=
Ai
23,620 mm 2

## Moment of inertia about the horizontal centroidal axis

d = yi y
Shape
IC
4
(mm)
(mm )
timber (1)
117,187,500
6.00
transformed CFRP (2)
840
120.50

## Moment of inertia about the z axis =

dA
(mm4)
810,000
16,262,680

IC + dA
(mm4)
117,997,500
16,263,520
134,261,020 mm4
= 134.261 106 mm4

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## Bending moment in beam for P = 4 kN

The bending moment in the simply supported beam with a concentrated load of 4 kN at midspan is:
PL (4 kN)(6 m)
M max =
=
= 6 kN-m = 6 106 N-mm
4
4
(a) Bending stress in timber (1)
From the flexure formula, the maximum bending stress in timber (1) is:
My
(6 106 N-mm)(253 mm 122.00 mm)
=
= 5.85 MPa (C)
1 =
I
134.261106 mm 4

Ans.

## (a) Bending stress in CFRP (2)

The bending stress in the transformed material must be multiplied by the modular ratio n. Therefore, the
maximum bending stress in the CFRP is:
My
(6 106 N-mm)( 122.00 mm)
= (9.3333)
= 50.9 MPa (T)
2 =
Ans.
I
134.261106 mm 4
(b) Determine maximum P
If the allowable bending stress in the timber is 9 MPa, then the maximum bending moment that may be
supported by the beam is:
I (9 N/mm 2 )(134.261106 mm 4 )
My
1 =
M max 1 =
= 9.224 106 N-mm
I
y
(253 mm 122.00 mm)
If the allowable bending stress in the CFRP is 1,500 MPa, then the maximum bending moment that may
be supported by the beam is:
I (1,500 N/mm 2 )(134.261106 mm 4 )
My
M max 2 =
= 176.867 106 N-mm
2 = n
I
ny
(9.3333)(122.00 mm)
Note: The negative signs were omitted in the previous two equations because only the moment
magnitude is of interest here.

From these two results, the maximum moment that the beam can support is 9.224106 N-mm. The
maximum concentrated load magnitude P that can be supported is found from:
PL
M max =
4
4M max 4(9.224 106 N-mm)(1 m/1000 mm)
Ans.
P =
=
= 6,149 N = 6.15 kN
L
(6 m)

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8.50 Two steel plates, each 4 in. wide and 0.25 in.
thick, reinforce a wood beam that is 3 in. wide and
8 in. deep. The steel plates are attached to the
vertical sides of the wood beam in a position such
that the composite shape is symmetric about the z
axis, as shown in the sketch of the beam cross
section (Fig. P8.50). Determine the maximum
bending stresses produced in both the wood and the
steel if a bending moment of Mz = +50 kip-in is
applied about the z axis. Assume Ewood = 2,000 ksi
and Esteel = 30,000 ksi.

Fig. P8.50

Solution
Let the wood be denoted as material (1) and the steel plates as material (2). The modular ratio is:
E
30, 000 ksi
n= 2 =
= 15
E1
2,000 ksi
Transform the steel plates (2) into an equivalent amount of wood (1) by multiplying the plate
thicknesses by the modular ratio: b2, trans = 15(0.25 in.) = 3.75 in. (each). Thus, for calculation purposes,
each 4 in. 0.25 in. steel plate is replaced by a wood board that is 4-in. tall and 3.75-in. wide.
Centroid location: Since the transformed section is doubly symmetric, the centroid location is found
from symmetry.
Moment of inertia about the z centroidal axis
Shape
IC
(in.4)
wood beam (1)
128
two transformed steel plates (2)
40
Moment of inertia about the z axis =

d = yi y
(in.)
0
0

dA
(in.4)
0
0

## Bending stress in wood beam (1)

From the flexure formula, the maximum bending stress in wood beam (1) is:
M c (50 kip-in.)(4 in.)
1 = z =
= 1.190 ksi = 1,190 psi
168 in.4
Iz

IC + dA
(in.4)
128
40
168 in.4

Ans.

## Bending stress in steel plates (2)

The bending stress in the transformed material must be multiplied by the modular ratio n. Therefore, the
maximum bending stress in the steel plates (2) is:
M c
(50 kip-in.)(2 in.)
Ans.
2 = n z = (15)
= 8.93 ksi = 8,930 psi
Iz
168 in.4

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8.51 A glue-laminated timber beam is reinforced by carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) material
bonded to its bottom surface. The cross section of the composite beam is shown in Fig. P8.51b. The
elastic modulus of the wood is 1,700 ksi and the elastic modulus of the CFRP is 23,800 ksi. The simply
supported beam spans 24 ft and carries two concentrated loads P, which act at the quarter-points of the
span (Fig. P8.51a). The allowable bending stresses of the timber and the CFRP are 2,400 psi and
175,000 psi, respectively. Determine the largest acceptable magnitude for the concentrated loads P.
(You may neglect the weight of the beam in your calculations.)

Fig. P8.51a
Fig. P8.51b

Solution
Denoted the timber as material (1) and denote the CFRP as material (2). The modular ratio is:
E
23,800 ksi
n= 2 =
= 14
E1
1,700 ksi
Transform the CFRP into an equivalent amount of wood by multiplying its width by the modular ratio:
b2, trans = 14(3 in.) = 42 in. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 3 in. 0.125 in. CFRP is replaced by a
wood board that is 42-in. wide and 0.125-in. thick.
Centroid location of the transformed section in the vertical direction

Shape
timber (1)
transformed CFRP (2)
y=

yi Ai
Ai

Width b
(in.)
5.5
42.0

Height h
(in.)
12
0.125

Area Ai
(in.2)
66
5.25
71.25

yi
(from bottom)
(in.)
6.125
0.0625

yi Ai
(in.3)
404.25
0.3281
404.5781

404.5781 in.3
= 5.6783 in. (measured upward from bottom edge of section)
71.25 in.2

## Moment of inertia about the horizontal centroidal axis

d = yi y
Shape
IC
4
(in. )
(in.)
timber (1)
792
0.4467
transformed CFRP (2)
0.00684
5.6158
Moment of inertia about the z axis =

dA
(in.4)
13.1703
165.5697

IC + dA
(in.4)
805.170
165.577
970.747 in.4

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Determine maximum P
If the allowable bending stress in the timber is 2,400 psi, then the maximum bending moment that may
be supported by the beam is:
I (2.40 ksi)(970.747 in.4 )
My
1 =
M max 1 =
= 361.393 kip-in.
I
y
(12.125 in. 5.6783 in.)
If the allowable bending stress in the CFRP is 175,000 psi, then the maximum bending moment that may
be supported by the beam is:
I (175 ksi)(970.747 in.4 )
My
2 = n
M max 2 =
= 2,137 kip-in.
I
ny
(14)(5.6783 in.)
Note: The negative signs were omitted in the previous two equations because only the moment
magnitude is of interest here.

From these two results, the maximum moment that the beam can support is 351.393 kip-in. = 30.116
kip-ft. The maximum concentrated load magnitude P that can be supported is found from:
M max = (6 ft)P
P =

## M max 30.116 kip-ft

=
= 5.02 kips
6 ft
6 ft

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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