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Mechanics of Materials Solutions Chapter08 Probs42 51

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- ch7 31-50

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of a 0.50 in. 12 in. steel plate (Fig. P8.42b). The moduli of elasticity of the timber and the steel are

1,800 ksi and 30,000 ksi, respectively. The simply supported beam spans a distance of 20 ft and carries

two concentrated loads P, which are applied at the quarter points of the span (Fig. P8.42a).

(a) Determine the maximum bending stresses produced in the timber planks and the steel plate if P = 3

kips.

(b) Assume that the allowable bending stresses of the timber and the steel are 1,200 psi and 24,000 psi,

respectively. Determine the largest acceptable magnitude for concentrated loads P. (You may neglect

the weight of the beam in your calculations.)

Fig. P8.42a

Fig. P8.42b

Solution

Let the timber be denoted as material (1) and the steel plate as material (2). The modular ratio is:

E

30, 000 ksi

n= 2 =

= 16.6667

E1

1,800 ksi

Transform the steel plate (2) into an equivalent amount of wood (1) by multiplying its width by the

modular ratio: b2, trans = 16.6667(0.50 in.) = 8.3333 in. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 12 in. 0.50

in. steel plate is replaced by a wood board that is 12 in. deep and 8.3333-in. thick.

Moment of inertia about the horizontal centroidal axis

d = yi y

Shape

IC

4

(in. )

(in.)

timber (1)

864

0

transformed steel plate (2)

1,200

0

Moment of inertia about the z axis =

dA

(in.4)

0

0

IC + dA

(in.4)

864

1,200

2,064 in.4

The bending moment in the simply supported beam with two 3-kip concentrated loads is:

M max = (3 kips)(5 ft) = 15 kip-ft = 180 kip-in.

Bending stress in timber (1)

From the flexure formula, the maximum bending stress in timber (1) is:

My

(180 kip-in.)( 6 in.)

1 =

=

= 0.5233 ksi = 523 psi

I

2, 064 in.4

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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The bending stress in the transformed material must be multiplied by the modular ratio n. Therefore, the

maximum bending stress in steel plate (2) is:

My

(180 kip-in.)( 6 in.)

2 = n

= (16.6667)

= 8.7209 ksi = 8, 720 psi

Ans.

I

2, 064 in.4

Determine maximum P

If the allowable bending stress in the timber is 1,200 psi, then the maximum bending moment that may

be supported by the beam is:

I (1.200 ksi)(2, 064 in.4 )

My

M max 1 =

= 412.80 kip-in.

1 =

6 in.

I

y

If the allowable bending stress in the steel is 165 MPa, then the maximum bending moment that may be

supported by the beam is:

I (24.00 ksi)(2, 064 in.4 )

My

M max 2 =

= 495.36 kip-in.

2 = n

I

ny

(16.667)(6 in.)

Note: The negative signs were omitted in the previous two equations because only the moment

magnitude is of interest here.

From these two results, the maximum moment that the beam can support is 412.80 kip-in. The

maximum concentrated load magnitude P that can be supported is found from:

M max = (5 ft)P

P =

=

= 6.88 kips

5 ft

(5 ft)(12 in./ft)

Ans.

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consists of 3-mm-thick fiberglass faces bonded to a

20-mm-thick particleboard core is shown in Fig.

P8.43. The beam is subjected to a bending moment

of 35 N-m acting about the z axis. The elastic

moduli for the fiberglass and the particleboard are

30 GPa and 10 GPa, respectively. Determine:

(a) the maximum bending stresses in the fiberglass

faces and the particleboard core.

(b) the stress in the fiberglass at the joint where the

two materials are bonded together.

Fig. P8.43

Solution

Let the particleboard be denoted as material (1) and the fiberglass as material (2). The modular ratio is:

E

30 GPa

n= 2 =

=3

E1 10 GPa

Transform the fiberglass faces into an equivalent amount of particleboard by multiplying their width by

the modular ratio: b2, trans = 3(50 mm) = 150 mm. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 50 mm 3 mm

fiberglass faces are replaced by particleboard faces that are 150-mm wide and 3-mm thick.

Moment of inertia about the horizontal centroidal axis

d = yi y

Shape

IC

4

(mm)

(mm )

transformed fiberglass top face

337.50

11.5

particleboard core

33,333.33

0

transformed fiberglass bot face

337.50

11.5

Moment of inertia about the z axis =

dA

(mm4)

59,512.50

0

59,512.50

From the flexure formula, the maximum bending stress in the particleboard core is:

My

(35 N-m)( 10 mm)(1,000 mm/m)

1 =

=

= 2.29 MPa

I

153, 033.33 mm 4

IC + dA

(mm4)

59,850.00

33,333.33

59,850.00

153,033.33 mm4

Ans.

The bending stress in the transformed material must be multiplied by the modular ratio n. Therefore, the

maximum bending stress in the fiberglass faces (2) is:

My

(35 N-m)( 13 mm)(1,000 mm/m)

2 = n

Ans.

= (3)

= 8.92 MPa

I

153, 033.33 mm 4

Bending stress in fiberglass (2) at interface

At the interface between the particleboard and the fiberglass, y = 10 mm:

My

(35 N-m)( 10 mm)(1,000 mm/m)

2 = n

= (3)

= 6.86 MPa

I

153, 033.33 mm 4

Ans.

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100 GPa] plates bonded to an aluminum [E = 75

GPa] bar, as shown in Fig. P8.44. The beam is

subjected to a bending moment of 1,750 N-m acting

about the z axis. Determine:

(a) the maximum bending stresses in the brass

plates and the aluminum bar.

(b) the stress in the brass at the joints where the two

materials are bonded together.

Fig. P8.44

Solution

Let the aluminum be denoted as material (1) and the brass as material (2). The modular ratio is:

E 100 GPa

n= 2 =

= 1.3333

E1 75 GPa

Transform the brass plates into an equivalent amount of aluminum by multiplying their width by the

modular ratio: b2, trans = 1.3333(50 mm) = 66.6666 mm. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 50 mm 10

mm brass plates are replaced by aluminum plates that are 66.6666-mm wide and 10-mm thick.

Moment of inertia about the horizontal centroidal axis

d = yi y

Shape

IC

4

(mm)

(mm )

transformed top brass plate

5,555.55

20

aluminum bar

112,500.00

0

transformed bot brass plate

5,555.55

20

Moment of inertia about the z axis =

dA

(mm4)

266,666.40

0

266,666.40

From the flexure formula, the maximum bending stress in the aluminum bar is:

My

(1,750 N-m)( 15 mm)(1,000 mm/m)

1 =

=

= 40.0 MPa

I

656,943.90 mm 4

IC + dA

(mm4)

272,221.95

112,500.00

272,221.95

656,943.90 mm4

Ans.

The bending stress in the transformed material must be multiplied by the modular ratio n. Therefore, the

maximum bending stress in the brass plates (2) is:

My

(1,750 N-m)( 25 mm)(1,000 mm/m)

2 = n

Ans.

= (1.3333)

= 88.8 MPa

I

656,943.90 mm 4

Bending stress in brass plates (2) at interface

At the interface between the brass plates and the aluminum bar, y = 15 mm:

My

(1,750 N-m)( 15 mm)(1,000 mm/m)

2 = n

= (1.3333)

= 53.3 MPa

I

656,943.90 mm 4

Ans.

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permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

8.45 An aluminum [E = 10,000 ksi] bar is bonded to a steel [E = 30,000 ksi] bar to form a composite

beam (Fig. P8.45b). The composite beam is subjected to a bending moment of M = +300 lb-ft about the

z axis (Fig. P8.45a). Determine:

(a) the maximum bending stresses in the aluminum and steel bars.

(b) the stress in the two materials at the joint where they are bonded together.

Fig. P8.45a

Fig. P8.45b

Solution

Denote the aluminum as material (1) and denote the steel as material (2). The modular ratio is:

E

30, 000 ksi

n= 2 =

=3

E1 10,000 ksi

Transform the steel bar (2) into an equivalent amount of aluminum (1) by multiplying its width by the

modular ratio: b2, trans = 3(1.50 in.) = 4.50 in. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 1.50 in. 0.50 in. steel

bar is replaced by an aluminum bar that is 4.50-in. wide and 0.50-in. thick.

Centroid location of the transformed section in the vertical direction

Shape

aluminum bar (1)

transformed steel bar (2)

y=

yi Ai

Ai

Width b

(in.)

1.50

4.50

Height h

(in.)

0.50

0.50

Area Ai

(in.2)

0.75

2.25

3.00

yi

(from bottom)

(in.)

0.25

0.75

yi Ai

(in.3)

0.1875

1.6875

1.8750

1.8750 in.3

= 0.6250 in. (measured upward from bottom edge of section)

3.00 in.2

d = yi y

Shape

IC

4

(in. )

(in.)

aluminum bar (1)

0.015625

0.375

transformed steel bar (2)

0.046875

0.125

Moment of inertia about the z axis =

dA

(in.4)

0.105469

0.035156

IC + dA

(in.4)

0.121094

0.082031

0.203125 in.4

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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From the flexure formula, the maximum bending stress in aluminum bar (1) is:

My

(300 lb-ft)( 0.6250 in.)(12 in./ft)

1 =

=

= 11, 080 psi (T)

I

0.203125 in.4

Ans.

The bending stress in the transformed material must be multiplied by the modular ratio n. Therefore, the

maximum bending stress in steel bar (2) is:

My

(300 lb-ft)(1.000 in. 0.6250 in.)(12 in./ft)

Ans.

2 =

= (3)

= 19,940 psi (C)

I

0.203125 in.4

(b) Bending stress in aluminum bar (1) at interface

My

(300 lb-ft)(0.50 in. 0.6250 in.)(12 in./ft)

1 =

=

= 2, 220 psi (T)

I

0.203125 in.4

(b) Maximum bending stress in steel bar (2) at interface

My

(300 lb-ft)(0.50 in. 0.6250 in.)(12 in./ft)

2 =

= (3)

= 6, 650 psi (T)

I

0.203125 in.4

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

8.46 An aluminum [E = 10,000 ksi] bar is bonded to a steel [E = 30,000 ksi] bar to form a composite

beam (Fig. P8.46b). The allowable bending stresses for the aluminum and steel bars are 20 ksi and 30

ksi, respectively. Determine the maximum bending moment M that can be applied to the beam.

Fig. P8.46a

Fig. P8.46b

Solution

Denote the aluminum as material (1) and denote the steel as material (2). The modular ratio is:

E

30, 000 ksi

n= 2 =

=3

E1 10,000 ksi

Transform the steel bar (2) into an equivalent amount of aluminum (1) by multiplying its width by the

modular ratio: b2, trans = 3(1.50 in.) = 4.50 in. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 1.50 in. 0.50 in. steel

bar is replaced by an aluminum bar that is 4.50-in. wide and 0.50-in. thick.

Centroid location of the transformed section in the vertical direction

Shape

aluminum bar (1)

transformed steel bar (2)

y=

yi Ai

Ai

Width b

(in.)

1.50

4.50

Height h

(in.)

0.50

0.50

Area Ai

(in.2)

0.75

2.25

3.00

yi

(from bottom)

(in.)

0.25

0.75

yi Ai

(in.3)

0.1875

1.6875

1.8750

1.8750 in.3

= 0.6250 in. (measured upward from bottom edge of section)

3.00 in.2

d = yi y

Shape

IC

4

(in. )

(in.)

aluminum bar (1)

0.015625

0.375

transformed steel bar (2)

0.046875

0.125

Moment of inertia about the z axis =

dA

(in.4)

0.105469

0.035156

IC + dA

(in.4)

0.121094

0.082031

0.203125 in.4

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Based on an allowable bending stress of 20 ksi for the aluminum, the maximum bending moment

magnitude that be applied to the cross section is:

I

My

(20 ksi)(0.203125 in.4 )

(a)

1

M 1 =

= 6.50 kip-in.

I

y

0.6250 in.

Maximum bending moment magnitude based on allowable steel stress

Based on an allowable bending stress of 30 ksi for the steel, the maximum bending moment magnitude

that be applied to the cross section is:

My

2I

(30 ksi)(0.203125 in.4 )

(b)

2 n

M

=

= 5.4167 kip-in.

I

ny

(3)(1.00 in. 0.6250 in.)

Maximum bending moment magnitude

From the values obtained in Eqs. (a) and (b), the maximum bending moment that can be applied to the

cross section is

M max = 5.4167 kip-in. = 451 lb-ft

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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attached to a Southern pine [E = 1,800 ksi] timber

to form a composite beam (Fig. P8.47). The

allowable bending stress for the steel plates is

24,000 psi and the allowable bending stress for the

Southern pine is 1,200 psi. Determine the maximum

bending moment that can be applied about the

horizontal axis of the beam.

Fig. P8.47

Solution

Denote the timber as material (1) and denote the steel as material (2). The modular ratio is:

E

30, 000 ksi

n= 2 =

= 16.6667

E1

1,800 ksi

Transform the steel plates into an equivalent amount of timber by multiplying their width by the

modular ratio: b2, trans = 16.6667(8 in.) = 133.3333 in. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 8 in. 0.25 in.

steel plates can be replaced by wood plates that are 133.3333-in. wide and 0.25-in. thick.

Moment of inertia about the horizontal centroidal axis

d = yi y

Shape

IC

4

(in. )

(in.)

transformed steel plate at top

0.1736

8.125

timber (1)

3,413.3333

0

transformed steel plate at bottom

0.1736

8.125

Moment of inertia about the z axis =

dA

(in.4)

2,200.52

0

2,200.52

IC + dA

(in.4)

2,200.694

3,413.333

2,200.694

7,814.72 in.4

(a) Maximum bending moment magnitude based on allowable Southern pine stress

Based on an allowable bending stress of 1,200 psi for the Southern pine timber, the maximum bending

moment magnitude that be applied to the cross section is:

I

My

(1.200 ksi)(7,814.72 in.4 )

(a)

1

M 1 =

= 1,172.208 kip-in.

I

y

8 in.

Maximum bending moment magnitude based on allowable steel stress

Based on an allowable bending stress of 24,000 psi for the steel plates, the maximum bending moment

magnitude that be applied to the cross section is:

2I

My

(24 ksi)(7,814.72 in.4 )

(b)

2 n

M

=

= 1,364.021 kip-in.

I

ny

(16.6667)(8.25 in.)

Maximum bending moment magnitude

From the values obtained in Eqs. (a) and (b), the maximum bending moment that can be applied to the

cross section is

M max = 1,172.208 kip-in. = 97.7 kip-ft

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

8.48 A simply supported composite beam 5 m long carries a uniformly distributed load w (Fig. P8.48a).

The beam is constructed of a Southern pine [E = 12 GPa] timber, 200 mm wide by 360 mm deep, that is

reinforced on its lower surface by a steel [E = 200 GPa] plate that is 150 mm wide by 12 mm thick (Fig.

P8.48b).

(a) Determine the maximum bending stresses produced in the timber and the steel if w = 12 kN/m.

(b) Assume that the allowable bending stresses of the timber and the steel are 9 MPa and 165 MPa,

respectively. Determine the largest acceptable magnitude for distributed load w. (You may neglect the

weight of the beam in your calculations.)

Fig. P8.48a

Fig. P8.48b

Solution

Let the timber be denoted as material (1) and the steel plate as material (2). The modular ratio is:

E

200 GPa

n= 2 =

= 16.6667

E1 12 GPa

Transform the steel plate (2) into an equivalent amount of wood (1) by multiplying its width by the

modular ratio: b2, trans = 16.6667(150 mm) = 2,500 mm. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 150 mm

12 mm steel plate is replaced by a wood board that is 2,500-mm wide and 12-mm thick.

Centroid location of the transformed section in the vertical direction

Shape

timber (1)

transformed steel plate (2)

y=

yi Ai

Ai

Width b

(mm)

200

2,500

Height h

(mm)

360

12

Area Ai

(mm2)

72,000

30,000

102,000

yi

(from bottom)

(mm)

192

6

yi Ai

(mm3)

13,824,000

180,000

14,004,000

= 137.294 mm (measured upward from bottom edge of section)

102,000 mm 2

d = yi y

Shape

IC

4

(mm)

(mm )

timber (1)

777,600,000

54.71

transformed steel plate (2)

360,000

131.29

dA

(mm4)

215,476,817

517,144,360

IC + dA

(mm4)

993,076,817

517,504,360

1,510,581,176 mm4

= 1.5106 109 mm4

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The bending moment in the simply supported beam with a uniformly distributed load of 12 kN/m is:

wL2 (12 kN/m)(5 m)2

M max =

=

= 37.5 kN-m = 37.5 106 N-mm

8

8

Bending stress in timber (1)

From the flexure formula, the maximum bending stress in timber (1) is:

My

(37.5 106 N-mm)(372 mm 137.294 mm)

=

= 5.83 MPa (C)

1 =

I

1.5106 109 mm 4

Ans.

The bending stress in the transformed material must be multiplied by the modular ratio n. Therefore, the

maximum bending stress in steel plate (2) is:

My

(37.5 106 N-mm)( 137.294 mm)

= (16.6667)

= 56.8 MPa (T)

2 =

Ans.

I

1.5106 109 mm 4

Determine maximum w

If the allowable bending stress in the timber is 9 MPa, then the maximum bending moment that may be

supported by the beam is:

I (9 N/mm 2 )(1.5106 109 mm 4 )

My

1 =

M max 1 =

= 57.925 106 N-mm

I

y

(372 mm 137.294 mm)

If the allowable bending stress in the steel is 165 MPa, then the maximum bending moment that may be

supported by the beam is:

I (165 N/mm 2 )(1.5106 109 mm 4 )

My

M max 2 =

= 108.926 106 N-mm

2 = n

I

ny

(16.6667)(137.294 mm)

Note: The negative signs were omitted in the previous two equations because only the moment

magnitude is of interest here.

From these two results, the maximum moment that the beam can support is 57.925106 N-mm. The

maximum distributed load magnitude w that can be supported is found from:

wL2

M max =

8

8M max 8(57.925 106 N-mm)(1 m/1000 mm)

w =

=

= 18,536 N/m = 18.54 kN/m

Ans.

L2

(5 m) 2

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permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

8.49 A glue-laminated timber beam is reinforced by carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) material

bonded to its bottom surface. The cross section of the composite beam is shown in Fig. P8.49b. The

elastic modulus of the wood is E = 12 GPa and the elastic modulus of the CFRP is 112 GPa. The simply

supported beam spans 6 m and carries a concentrated load P at midspan (Fig. P8.49a).

(a) Determine the maximum bending stresses produced in the timber and the CFRP if P = 4 kN.

(b) Assume that the allowable bending stresses of the timber and the CFRP are 9 MPa and 1,500 MPa,

respectively. Determine the largest acceptable magnitude for concentrated load P. (You may neglect the

weight of the beam in your calculations.)

Fig. P8.49a

Fig. P8.49b

Solution

Denoted the timber as material (1) and denote the CFRP as material (2). The modular ratio is:

E 112 GPa

n= 2 =

= 9.3333

E1 12 GPa

Transform the CFRP into an equivalent amount of wood by multiplying its width by the modular ratio:

b2, trans = 9.3333(40 mm) = 373.33 mm. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 40 mm 3 mm CFRP is

replaced by a wood board that is 373.33-mm wide and 3-mm thick.

Centroid location of the transformed section in the vertical direction

Shape

timber (1)

transformed CFRP (2)

Width b

(mm)

90

373.33

Height h

(mm)

250

3

Area Ai

(mm2)

22,500

1,120

23,620

yi

(from bottom)

(mm)

128

1.5

yi Ai

(mm3)

2,880,000

1,680

2,881,680

yi Ai

2,881,680 mm3

=

= 122.00 mm (measured upward from bottom edge of section)

y=

Ai

23,620 mm 2

d = yi y

Shape

IC

4

(mm)

(mm )

timber (1)

117,187,500

6.00

transformed CFRP (2)

840

120.50

dA

(mm4)

810,000

16,262,680

IC + dA

(mm4)

117,997,500

16,263,520

134,261,020 mm4

= 134.261 106 mm4

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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The bending moment in the simply supported beam with a concentrated load of 4 kN at midspan is:

PL (4 kN)(6 m)

M max =

=

= 6 kN-m = 6 106 N-mm

4

4

(a) Bending stress in timber (1)

From the flexure formula, the maximum bending stress in timber (1) is:

My

(6 106 N-mm)(253 mm 122.00 mm)

=

= 5.85 MPa (C)

1 =

I

134.261106 mm 4

Ans.

The bending stress in the transformed material must be multiplied by the modular ratio n. Therefore, the

maximum bending stress in the CFRP is:

My

(6 106 N-mm)( 122.00 mm)

= (9.3333)

= 50.9 MPa (T)

2 =

Ans.

I

134.261106 mm 4

(b) Determine maximum P

If the allowable bending stress in the timber is 9 MPa, then the maximum bending moment that may be

supported by the beam is:

I (9 N/mm 2 )(134.261106 mm 4 )

My

1 =

M max 1 =

= 9.224 106 N-mm

I

y

(253 mm 122.00 mm)

If the allowable bending stress in the CFRP is 1,500 MPa, then the maximum bending moment that may

be supported by the beam is:

I (1,500 N/mm 2 )(134.261106 mm 4 )

My

M max 2 =

= 176.867 106 N-mm

2 = n

I

ny

(9.3333)(122.00 mm)

Note: The negative signs were omitted in the previous two equations because only the moment

magnitude is of interest here.

From these two results, the maximum moment that the beam can support is 9.224106 N-mm. The

maximum concentrated load magnitude P that can be supported is found from:

PL

M max =

4

4M max 4(9.224 106 N-mm)(1 m/1000 mm)

Ans.

P =

=

= 6,149 N = 6.15 kN

L

(6 m)

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

8.50 Two steel plates, each 4 in. wide and 0.25 in.

thick, reinforce a wood beam that is 3 in. wide and

8 in. deep. The steel plates are attached to the

vertical sides of the wood beam in a position such

that the composite shape is symmetric about the z

axis, as shown in the sketch of the beam cross

section (Fig. P8.50). Determine the maximum

bending stresses produced in both the wood and the

steel if a bending moment of Mz = +50 kip-in is

applied about the z axis. Assume Ewood = 2,000 ksi

and Esteel = 30,000 ksi.

Fig. P8.50

Solution

Let the wood be denoted as material (1) and the steel plates as material (2). The modular ratio is:

E

30, 000 ksi

n= 2 =

= 15

E1

2,000 ksi

Transform the steel plates (2) into an equivalent amount of wood (1) by multiplying the plate

thicknesses by the modular ratio: b2, trans = 15(0.25 in.) = 3.75 in. (each). Thus, for calculation purposes,

each 4 in. 0.25 in. steel plate is replaced by a wood board that is 4-in. tall and 3.75-in. wide.

Centroid location: Since the transformed section is doubly symmetric, the centroid location is found

from symmetry.

Moment of inertia about the z centroidal axis

Shape

IC

(in.4)

wood beam (1)

128

two transformed steel plates (2)

40

Moment of inertia about the z axis =

d = yi y

(in.)

0

0

dA

(in.4)

0

0

From the flexure formula, the maximum bending stress in wood beam (1) is:

M c (50 kip-in.)(4 in.)

1 = z =

= 1.190 ksi = 1,190 psi

168 in.4

Iz

IC + dA

(in.4)

128

40

168 in.4

Ans.

The bending stress in the transformed material must be multiplied by the modular ratio n. Therefore, the

maximum bending stress in the steel plates (2) is:

M c

(50 kip-in.)(2 in.)

Ans.

2 = n z = (15)

= 8.93 ksi = 8,930 psi

Iz

168 in.4

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

8.51 A glue-laminated timber beam is reinforced by carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) material

bonded to its bottom surface. The cross section of the composite beam is shown in Fig. P8.51b. The

elastic modulus of the wood is 1,700 ksi and the elastic modulus of the CFRP is 23,800 ksi. The simply

supported beam spans 24 ft and carries two concentrated loads P, which act at the quarter-points of the

span (Fig. P8.51a). The allowable bending stresses of the timber and the CFRP are 2,400 psi and

175,000 psi, respectively. Determine the largest acceptable magnitude for the concentrated loads P.

(You may neglect the weight of the beam in your calculations.)

Fig. P8.51a

Fig. P8.51b

Solution

Denoted the timber as material (1) and denote the CFRP as material (2). The modular ratio is:

E

23,800 ksi

n= 2 =

= 14

E1

1,700 ksi

Transform the CFRP into an equivalent amount of wood by multiplying its width by the modular ratio:

b2, trans = 14(3 in.) = 42 in. Thus, for calculation purposes, the 3 in. 0.125 in. CFRP is replaced by a

wood board that is 42-in. wide and 0.125-in. thick.

Centroid location of the transformed section in the vertical direction

Shape

timber (1)

transformed CFRP (2)

y=

yi Ai

Ai

Width b

(in.)

5.5

42.0

Height h

(in.)

12

0.125

Area Ai

(in.2)

66

5.25

71.25

yi

(from bottom)

(in.)

6.125

0.0625

yi Ai

(in.3)

404.25

0.3281

404.5781

404.5781 in.3

= 5.6783 in. (measured upward from bottom edge of section)

71.25 in.2

d = yi y

Shape

IC

4

(in. )

(in.)

timber (1)

792

0.4467

transformed CFRP (2)

0.00684

5.6158

Moment of inertia about the z axis =

dA

(in.4)

13.1703

165.5697

IC + dA

(in.4)

805.170

165.577

970.747 in.4

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Determine maximum P

If the allowable bending stress in the timber is 2,400 psi, then the maximum bending moment that may

be supported by the beam is:

I (2.40 ksi)(970.747 in.4 )

My

1 =

M max 1 =

= 361.393 kip-in.

I

y

(12.125 in. 5.6783 in.)

If the allowable bending stress in the CFRP is 175,000 psi, then the maximum bending moment that may

be supported by the beam is:

I (175 ksi)(970.747 in.4 )

My

2 = n

M max 2 =

= 2,137 kip-in.

I

ny

(14)(5.6783 in.)

Note: The negative signs were omitted in the previous two equations because only the moment

magnitude is of interest here.

From these two results, the maximum moment that the beam can support is 351.393 kip-in. = 30.116

kip-ft. The maximum concentrated load magnitude P that can be supported is found from:

M max = (6 ft)P

P =

=

= 5.02 kips

6 ft

6 ft

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

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