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8.

65 A beam with a box cross section is subjected to


a resultant moment magnitude of 2,100 N-m acting
at the angle shown in Fig. P8.65. Determine:
(a) the maximum tension and the maximum
compression bending stresses in the beam.
(b) the orientation of the neutral axis relative to the
+z axis. Show its location on a sketch of the cross
section.

Fig. P8.65

Solution
Section properties
(90 mm)(55 mm)3 (80 mm)(45 mm)3
Iy =

= 640,312.5 mm 4
12
12
3
(55 mm)(90 mm) (45 mm)(80 mm)3
Iz =

= 1, 421, 250.0 mm 4
12
12
Moment components
M y = (2,100 N-m) sin 30 = 1, 050 N-m
M z = (2,100 N-m) cos 30 = 1,818.65 N-m

(a) Maximum bending stresses


For a shape having at least one axis of symmetry, Eq. (8-24) can be used to determine bending stresses.
Compute normal stress at y = 45 mm, z = 27.5 mm:
M z M y
x = y z
Iy
Iz
(1, 050 N-m)(27.5 mm)(1,000 mm/m) (1,818.65 N-m)(45 mm)(1,000 mm/m)

640,312.5 mm 4
1, 421, 250.0 mm 4
= 45.0952 MPa + 57.5827 MPa
=

= 102.6779 MPa = 102.7 MPa (T)

Ans.

Compute normal stress at y = 45 mm, z = 27.5 mm:


M z M y
x = y z
Iy
Iz
(1, 050 N-m)( 27.5 mm)(1,000 mm/m) (1,818.65 N-m)( 45 mm)(1,000 mm/m)

640,312.5 mm 4
1, 421, 250.0 mm 4
= 45.0952 MPa 57.5827 MPa
=

= 102.6779 MPa = 102.7 MPa (C)

Ans.

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(b) Orientation of neutral axis


For a shape having at least one axis of symmetry, Eq. (8-25) can be used to determine the orientation of
the neutral axis:
M I
(1, 050 N-m)(1, 421, 250.0 mm 4 )
= 1.2815
tan = y z =
M z I y (1,818.65 N-m)(640,312.5 mm 4 )

= 52.03

(i.e., 52.03 CCW from + z axis)

Ans.

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8.66 The moment acting on the cross section of the


T-beam has a magnitude of 22 kip-ft and is oriented
as shown in Fig. P8.66. Determine:
(a) the bending stress at point H.
(b) the bending stress at point K.
(c) the orientation of the neutral axis relative to the
+z axis. Show its location on a sketch of the cross
section.

Fig. P8.66

Solution
Section properties
Centroid location in y direction:

Shape
top flange
stem

Width b
(in.)
7.00
0.75

Height h
(in.)
1.25
7.75

yi Ai

95.80469 in.3
y=
=
= 6.5789 in.
14.5625 in.2
Ai
= 2.4211 in.

Area Ai
(in.2)
8.7500
5.8125
14.5625

yi
(from bottom)
(in.)
8.375
3.875

yi Ai
(in.3)
73.28125
22.52344
95.80469

(from bottom of shape to centroid)


(from top of shape to centroid)

Moment of inertia about the z axis:


d = yi y
Shape
dA
IC
4
(in. )
(in.)
(in.4)
top flange
1.1393
1.7961
28.2273
stem
29.0928
2.7039
42.4956
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.4) =

IC + dA
(in.4)
29.3666
71.5884
100.9550

Moment of inertia about the y axis:


(1.25 in.)(7.00 in.)3 (7.75 in.)(0.75 in.)3
Iy =
+
= 36.0016 in.4
12
12
Moment components
M y = (22 kip-ft) cos 55 = 12.6187 kip-ft = 151.4242 kip-in.
M z = (22 kip-ft) sin 55 = 18.0213 kip-ft = 216.2561 kip-in.
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(a) Bending stress at H


For a shape having at least one axis of symmetry, Eq. (8-24) can be used to determine bending stresses.
To compute the normal stress at H, use the (y, z) coordinates y = 2.4211 in. and z = 3.5 in.:
M z M y
x = y z
Iy
Iz

(151.4242 kip-in.)( 3.50 in.) (216.2561 kip-in.)(2.4211 in.)

36.0016 in.4
100.9550 in.4
= 14.7211 ksi + 5.1862 ksi
=

= 19.9074 ksi = 19.91 ksi (T)

Ans.

(b) Bending stress at K


To compute the normal stress at K, use the (y, z) coordinates y = 6.5789 in. and z = 0.375 in.:
M z M y
x = y z
Iy
Iz

(151.4242 kip-in.)(0.375 in.) (216.2561 kip-in.)( 6.5789 in.)

36.0016 in.4
100.9550 in.4
= 1.5773 ksi 14.0927 ksi
=

= 15.6700 ksi = 15.67 ksi (C)

Ans.

(c) Orientation of neutral axis


For a shape having at least one axis of symmetry, Eq. (8-25) can be used to determine the orientation of
the neutral axis:
M I
(151.4242 kip-in.)(100.9550 in.4 )
tan = y z =
= 1.9635
(216.2561 kip-in.)(36.0016 in.4 )
MzIy

= 63.01

(i.e., 63.01 CW from + z axis)

Ans.

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8.67 A beam with a box cross section is subjected to


a resultant moment magnitude of 75 kip-in. acting
at the angle shown in Fig. P8.67. Determine:
(a) the bending stress at point H.
(b) the bending stress at point K.
(c) the maximum tension and the maximum
compression bending stresses in the beam.
(d) the orientation of the neutral axis relative to the
+z axis. Show its location on a sketch of the cross
section.

Fig. P8.67

Solution
Section properties
(4 in.)(6 in.)3 (3.25 in.)(5.25 in.)3
Iy =

= 32.8096 in.4
12
12
3
(6 in.)(4 in.) (5.25 in.)(3.25 in.)3
Iz =

= 16.9814 in.4
12
12
Moment components
M y = (75 kip-in.) cos 20 = 70.4769 kip-in.
M z = (75 kip-in.) sin 20 = 25.6515 kip-in.

(a) Bending stress at H


For a shape having at least one axis of symmetry, Eq. (8-24) can be used to determine bending stresses.
To compute the normal stress at H, use the (y, z) coordinates y = 2.0 in. and z = 3.0 in.:
M z M y
x = y z
Iy
Iz

(70.4769 kip-in.)( 3.0 in.) (25.6515 kip-in.)( 2.0 in.)

32.8096 in.4
16.9814 in.4
= 6.4442 ksi + 3.0211 ksi
=

= 3.4231 ksi = 3.42 ksi (C)

Ans.

(b) Bending stress at K


To compute the normal stress at K, use the (y, z) coordinates y = 2.0 in. and z = 3.0 in.:
M z M y
x = y z
Iy
Iz

(70.4769 kip-in.)(3.0 in.) (25.6515 kip-in.)(2.0 in.)

32.8096 in.4
16.9814 in.4
= 6.4442 ksi 3.0211 ksi
=

= 3.4231 ksi = 3.42 ksi (T)

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(c) Maximum bending stresses


The maximum tension normal stress occurs at the (y, z) coordinates y = 2.0 in. and z = 3.0 in.:
M z M y
x = y z
Iy
Iz

(70.4769 kip-in.)(3.0 in.) (25.6515 kip-in.)( 2.0 in.)

32.8096 in.4
16.9814 in.4
= 6.4442 ksi + 3.0211 ksi
=

= 9.4653 ksi = 9.47 ksi (T)

Ans.

The maximum compression normal stress occurs at the (y, z) coordinates y = 2.0 in. and z = 3.0 in.:
M z M y
x = y z
Iy
Iz
(70.4769 kip-in.)( 3.0 in.) (25.6515 kip-in.)(2.0 in.)

32.8096 in.4
16.9814 in.4
= 6.4442 ksi 3.0211 ksi
=

= 9.4653 ksi = 9.47 ksi (C)

Ans.

(d) Orientation of neutral axis


For a shape having at least one axis of symmetry, Eq. (8-25) can be used to determine the orientation of
the neutral axis:
M I
(70.4769 kip-in.)(16.9814 in.4 )
= 1.4220
tan = y z =
M z I y (25.6515 kip-in.)(32.8096 in.4 )

= 54.88

(i.e., 54.88 CW from + z axis)

Ans.

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8.68 The moment acting on the cross section of the


wide-flange beam has a magnitude of M = 12 kN-m and
is oriented as shown in Fig. P8.68. Determine:
(a) the bending stress at point H.
(b) the bending stress at point K.
(c) the orientation of the neutral axis relative to the +z
axis. Show its location on a sketch of the cross section.

Fig. P8.68

Solution
Section properties
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
d = yi y
Shape
dA
IC
4
(mm )
(mm)
(mm4)
top flange
59,062.5
97.5
29,944,687.5
web
4,860,000
0
0
bottom flange
59,062.5
97.5
29,944,687.5
Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm4) =

IC + dA
(mm4)
30,003,750
4,860,000
30,003,750
64,867,500

Moment of inertia about the y axis:


(15 mm)(210 mm)3 (180 mm)(10 mm)3
Iy = 2
+
= 23,167,500 mm 4
12
12
Moment components
M y = (12 kN-m) sin 35 = 6.8829 kN-m = 6.8829 106 N-mm

M z = (12 kN-m) cos 35 = 9.8298 kN-m = 9.8298 106 N-mm


(a) Bending stress at H
For a shape having at least one axis of symmetry, Eq. (8-24) can be used to determine bending stresses.
To compute the normal stress at H, use the (y, z) coordinates y = 105 mm and z = 105 mm:
M z M y
x = y z
Iy
Iz

(6.8829 106 N-mm)( 105 mm) (9.8298 106 N-mm)(105 mm)

23,167,500 mm 4
64,867,500 mm 4
= 31.1948 MPa 15.9114 MPa
=

= 47.1062 MPa = 47.1 MPa (C)

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(b) Bending stress at K


To compute the normal stress at K, use the (y, z) coordinates y = 105 mm and z = 105 mm:
M z M y
x = y z
Iy
Iz

(6.8829 106 N-mm)(105 mm) (9.8298 106 N-mm)( 105 mm)

23,167,500 mm 4
64,867,500 mm 4
= 31.1948 MPa + 15.9114 MPa
=

= 47.1062 MPa = 47.1 MPa (T)

Ans.

(b) Orientation of neutral axis


For a shape having at least one axis of symmetry, Eq. (8-25) can be used to determine the orientation of
the neutral axis:
M I
(6.8829 kN-m)(64,867,500 mm 4 )
tan = y z =
= 1.9605
M z I y (9.8298 kN-m)(23,167,500 mm 4 )

= 62.98

(i.e., 62.98 CW from + z axis)

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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8.69 For the cross section shown in Fig. P8.69,


determine the maximum magnitude of the bending
moment M so that the bending stress in the wideflange shape does not exceed 165 MPa.

Fig. P8.69

Solution
Section properties
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
d = yi y
Shape
dA
IC
4
(mm )
(mm)
(mm4)
top flange
59,062.5
97.5
29,944,687.5
web
4,860,000
0
0
bottom flange
59,062.5
97.5
29,944,687.5
Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm4) =

IC + dA
(mm4)
30,003,750
4,860,000
30,003,750
64,867,500

Moment of inertia about the y axis:


(15 mm)(210 mm)3 (180 mm)(10 mm)3
Iy = 2
+
= 23,167,500 mm 4
12
12
Moment components
M y = M sin 35

M z = M cos 35

Maximum bending moment magnitude


The maximum tension bending stress should occur at point K, which has the (y, z) coordinates y = 105
mm and z = 105 mm:
M z M y M sin 35(105 mm) M cos 35( 105 mm)
x = y z =

165 MPa
Iy
Iz
23,167,500 mm 4
64,867,500 mm 4

M 2.59957 106 mm 3 + 1.32595 106 mm 3 165 N/mm 2


M 42.0327 106 N-mm = 42.0 kN-m

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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8.70 The unequal-leg angle is subjected to a bending


moment of Mz = 20 kip-in. that acts at the orientation
shown in Fig. P8.70. Determine:
(a) the bending stress at point H.
(b) the bending stress at point K.
(c) the maximum tension and the maximum
compression bending stresses in the cross section.
(d) the orientation of the neutral axis relative to the +z
axis. Show its location on a sketch of the cross section.

Fig. P8.70

Solution
Section properties
Centroid location in y direction:

Shape

Width b
(in.)
0.375
2.625

upright leg
bottom leg
y=

yi Ai
Ai

Height h
(in.)
4.000
0.375

Area Ai
(in.2)
1.5000
0.9844
2.4844

yi
(from bottom)
(in.)
2.00
0.1875

yi Ai
(in.3)
3.00
0.18457
3.18457

3.18457 in.3
= 1.2818 in.(from bottom of shape to centroid)
2.4844 in.2
= 2.7182 in.

(from top of shape to centroid)

Centroid location in z direction:

Shape

zi
(from right edge)
(in.)
0.1875
1.6875

Area Ai
(in.2)
upright leg
1.5000
bottom leg
0.9844
2.4844
zi Ai 1.94243 in.3
=
= 0.7818 in.
z=
Ai
2.4844 in.2
= 2.2182 in.

zi Ai
(in.3)
0.2813
1.6612
1.94243

(from right edge of shape to centroid)


(from left edge of shape to centroid)

Moment of inertia about the z axis:


d = yi y
Shape
dA
IC
4
(in.)
(in.4)
(in. )
upright leg
2.000
0.7182
0.77372
bottom leg
0.011536
1.0943
1.17881
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.4) =

IC + dA
(in.4)
2.7737
1.1903
3.9640

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Moment of inertia about the y axis:


d = zi z
Shape
IC
dA
4
(in.)
(in.4)
(in. )
upright leg
0.017578
0.5943
0.52979
bottom leg
0.565247
0.9057
0.80750
Moment of inertia about the y axis (in.4) =
Product of inertia about the centroidal axes:
Shape
yc
zc
Iyz
(in.)
(in.)
(in.4)
upright leg
0
0.7182
0.5943
bottom leg
0
1.0943
0.9057

IC + dA
(in.4)
0.5474
1.3727
1.9201

Area Ai
yc zc Ai
(in.2)
(in.4)
1.5000
0.6402
0.9844
0.9757
Product of inertia (in.4) =

Iyz
(in.4)
0.6402
0.9757
1.6159

(a) Bending stress at H


Since the angle shape has no axis of symmetry, Eq. (8-21) or Eq. (8-22) must be used to determine the
bending stresses. Equation (8-22) will be used here. Note that the bending moment component about
the y axis is zero (i.e., My = 0); therefore, the first term in Eq. (8-22) is eliminated. To compute the
normal stress at H, use (y, z) coordinates of y = 2.7182 in. and z = 0.4068 in.:
I y + I yz z
Mz
x = y
2
I y I z I yz
(1.9201 in.4 )(2.7182 in.) + (1.6159 in.4 )(0.4068 in.)
=
(20 kip-in.)
(1.9201 in.4 )(3.9640 in.4 ) (1.6159 in.4 ) 2

5
4.5619 in.
=
(20 kip-in.)
8
5.0001 in.

= 18.2469 ksi = 18.25 ksi (C)

Ans.

(b) Bending stress at K


To compute the normal stress at K, use (y, z) coordinates of y = 0.9068 in. and z = 2.2182 in.:
I y + I yz z
Mz
x = y
2
I y I z I yz
(1.9201 in.4 )( 0.9068 in.) + (1.6159 in.4 )(2.2182 in.)
=
(20 kip-in.)
(1.9201 in.4 )(3.9640 in.4 ) (1.6159 in.4 ) 2

1.8432 in.5
=
(20 kip-in.)
8
5.0001 in.

= 7.3728 ksi = 7.37 ksi (C)

Ans.

(d) Orientation of neutral axis


Since the angle shape has no axis of symmetry, Eq. (8-23) must be used to determine the orientation of
the neutral axis:

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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tan =

M y I z + M z I yz
M z I y + M y I yz

(20 kip-in.)( 1.6159 in.4 )


= 0.8416
(20 kip-in.)(1.9201 in.4 )

= 40.08

(i.e., 40.08 CCW from + z axis)

Ans.

(c) Maximum bending stresses


Sketch the orientation of the neutral axis. By inspection, the points on the angle cross section that are
farthest from the neutral axis are point H and the corner of the angle. The bending stress at H has
already been computed. To compute the normal stress at the corner of the angle, use (y, z) coordinates
of y = 1.2818 in. and z = 0.7818 in.
I y + I yz z
Mz
x = y
2
I y I z I yz
(1.9201 in.4 )( 1.2818 in.) + (1.6159 in.4 )(0.7818 in.)
=
(20 kip-in.)
(1.9201 in.4 )(3.9640 in.4 ) (1.6159 in.4 ) 2

3.7245 in.5
=
(20 kip-in.)
8
5.0001 in.

= 14.8977 ksi = 14.90 ksi (T)


Therefore, the maximum compression bending stress is:
x = 18.25 ksi (C)

Ans.

and the maximum tension bending stress is:


x = 14.90 ksi (T)

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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8.71 For the cross section shown in Fig. P8.71,


determine the maximum magnitude of the bending
moment M so that the bending stress in the unequalleg angle shape does not exceed 24 ksi.

Fig. P8.71

Solution
Section properties
Centroid location in y direction:

Shape

Width b
(in.)
0.375
2.625

upright leg
bottom leg
y=

yi Ai
Ai

Height h
(in.)
4.000
0.375

Area Ai
(in.2)
1.5000
0.9844
2.4844

yi
(from bottom)
(in.)
2.00
0.1875

yi Ai
(in.3)
3.00
0.18457
3.18457

3.18457 in.3
= 1.2818 in.(from bottom of shape to centroid)
2.4844 in.2
= 2.7182 in.

(from top of shape to centroid)

Centroid location in z direction:

Shape

zi
(from right edge)
(in.)
0.1875
1.6875

Area Ai
(in.2)
upright leg
1.5000
bottom leg
0.9844
2.4844
zi Ai 1.94243 in.3
=
= 0.7818 in.
z=
Ai
2.4844 in.2
= 2.2182 in.

zi Ai
(in.3)
0.2813
1.6612
1.94243

(from right edge of shape to centroid)


(from left edge of shape to centroid)

Moment of inertia about the z axis:


d = yi y
Shape
IC
dA
4
(in. )
(in.)
(in.4)
upright leg
2.000
0.7182
0.77372
bottom leg
0.011536
1.0943
1.17881
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.4) =

IC + dA
(in.4)
2.7737
1.1903
3.9640

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Moment of inertia about the y axis:


d = zi z
Shape
IC
dA
4
(in. )
(in.)
(in.4)
upright leg
0.017578
0.5943
0.52979
bottom leg
0.565247
0.9057
0.80750
Moment of inertia about the y axis (in.4) =
Product of inertia about the centroidal axes:
Shape
Iyz
yc
zc
(in.4)
(in.)
(in.)
upright leg
0
0.7182
0.5943
bottom leg
0
1.0943
0.9057

IC + dA
(in.4)
0.5474
1.3727
1.9201

Area Ai
yc zc Ai
(in.2)
(in.4)
1.5000
0.6402
0.9844
0.9757
Product of inertia (in.4) =

Iyz
(in.4)
0.6402
0.9757
1.6159

Orientation of neutral axis


Since the angle shape has no axis of symmetry, it is helpful to determine the orientation of the neutral
axis from Eq. (8-23) before beginning the stress calculations:
M I + M z I yz (20 kip-in.)( 1.6159 in.4 )
=
= 0.8416
tan = y z
(20 kip-in.)(1.9201 in.4 )
M z I y + M y I yz

= 40.08

(i.e., 40.08 CCW from + z axis)

Allowable moments based on maximum tension and compression bending stresses


Sketch the orientation of the neutral axis. By inspection, the points on the angle cross section that are
farthest from the neutral axis are point H and the corner of the angle. To compute the normal stress at
H, use (y, z) coordinates of y = 2.7182 in. and z = 0.4068 in.:
I y + I yz z
(1.9201 in.4 )(2.7182 in.) + (1.6159 in.4 )(0.4068 in.)
=
x = y
M

Mz
2
(1.9201 in.4 )(3.9640 in.4 ) (1.6159 in.4 ) 2
I y I z I yz

4.5619 in.5
=
M z = (0.9124 in.3 )M z
8
5.0001
in.

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Therefore, based on an allowable bending stress of 24 ksi at H, the maximum magnitude of Mz is:
(0.9124 in.3 )M z 24 ksi
M z 26.3054 kip-in.

(a)

To compute the normal stress at the corner of the angle, use (y, z) coordinates of y = 1.2818 in. and z =
0.7818 in.
I y + I yz z
(1.9201 in.4 )( 1.2818 in.) + (1.6159 in.4 )(0.7818 in.)
=
x = y
M
z

Mz
2
(1.9201 in.4 )(3.9640 in.4 ) (1.6159 in.4 )2
I y I z I yz

3.7245 in.5
=
M z = (0.7449 in.3 ) M z
8
5.0001 in.

Therefore, based on the bending stress at the corner of the angle, the maximum magnitude of Mz is:
(0.7449 in.3 )M z 24 ksi

M z 32.2197 kip-in.

(b)

Maximum bending moment Mz


Compare the results in Eqs. (a) and (b) to find that the maximum bending moment that can be applied to
the angle shape is:
M z 26.3 kip-in.
Ans.

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8.72 The moment acting on the cross section of


the unequal-leg angle has a magnitude of M = 20
kip-in. and is oriented as shown in Fig. P8.72.
Determine:
(a) the bending stress at point H.
(b) the bending stress at point K.
(c) the maximum tension and the maximum
compression bending stresses in the cross section.
(d) the orientation of the neutral axis relative to
the +z axis. Show its location on a sketch of the
cross section.

Fig. P8.72

Solution
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
d = yi y
Area Ai
Shape
IC
dA
4
2
(mm)
(mm )
(mm4)
(mm )
top flange
130,208.3
112.5
2,500
31,640,625.0
web
10,666,666.7
0
3,200
0
bottom flange
130,208.3
112.5
2,500
31,640,625.0
Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm4) =

IC + dA
(mm4)
31,770,883.3
10,666,666.7
31,770,883.3
74,208,333.3

Moment of inertia about the y axis:


d = zi z
Shape
Area Ai
IC + dA
IC
dA
4
2
4
(mm )
(mm)
(mm )
(mm )
(mm4)
top flange
2,083,333.3
42.0
2,500
4,410,000
6,493,333.3
web
68,266.7
0
3,200
0
68,266.7
bottom flange
2,083,333.3
42.0
2,500
4,410,000
6,493,333.3
4
Moment of inertia about the y axis (mm ) = 13,054,933.3
Product of inertia about the centroidal axes:
Shape
yc
zc
(mm)
(mm)
top flange
112.5
42.0
web
0
0
bottom flange
112.5
42.0

Area Ai
yc zc Ai
Iyz
2
4
(mm )
(mm )
(mm4)
2,500
11,812,500
11,812,500
3,200
0
0
2,500
11,812,500
11,812,500
Product of inertia (mm4) = 23,625,000

Moment components
M y = (40 kN-m) sin15 = 10.3528 kN-m = 10.3528 106 N-mm

M z = (40 kN-m) cos15 = 38.6370 kN-m = 38.6370 106 N-mm


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(a) Bending stress at H


Since the zee shape has no axis of symmetry, Eq. (8-21) or Eq. (8-22) must be used to determine the
bending stresses. Equation (8-21) will be used here.
( M z I y + M y I yz ) y + ( M y I z + M z I yz ) z
x =
I y I z I yz2
I y I z I yz2
(38.6370 106 N-mm)(13,054,933.3 mm 4 ) + (10.3528 106 N-mm)(23,625,000 mm 4 )
=
y
(13,054,933.3 mm 4 )(74,208,333.3 mm 4 ) (23,625,000 mm 4 ) 2

6
4
6
(10.3528 10 N-mm)(74,208,333.3 mm ) + (38.6370 10 N-mm)(23,625,000 mm 4 )
+
z
(13,054,933.3 mm 4 )(74,208,333.3 mm 4 ) (23,625,000 mm 4 ) 2

= (0.63271 N/mm3 ) y + (0.35197 N/mm3 )z

To compute the normal stress at H, use (y, z) coordinates of y = 125 mm and z = 92 mm:
x = (0.63271 N/mm3 )(125 mm) + (0.35197 N/mm3 )(92 mm)
= 46.7073 MPa = 46.7 MPa (T)

Ans.

(b) Bending stress at K


To compute the normal stress at K, use (y, z) coordinates of y = 125 mm and z = 92 mm:
x = (0.63271 N/mm3 )(125 mm) + (0.35197 N/mm3 )(92 mm)

= 46.7073 MPa = 46.7 MPa (C)

Ans.

(d) Orientation of neutral axis


Since the zee shape has no axis of symmetry, it is helpful to determine the orientation of the neutral axis
from Eq. (8-23) to help identify points of maximum stress.
M I + M z I yz
tan = y z
M z I y + M y I yz

(10.3528 kN-m)(74,208,333.3 mm 4 ) + (38.6370 kN-m)( 23,625,000 mm 4 )


(38.6370 kN-m)(13,054,933.3 mm 4 ) + (10.3528 kN-m)( 23,625,000 mm 4 )
= 0.55629
=

= 29.09

(i.e., 29.09 CCW from + z axis)

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(c) Maximum tension and compression bending stresses


Sketch the orientation of the neutral axis. By inspection, the points on the zee cross section that are
farthest from the neutral axis are on the top and bottom surfaces at the outside corners of the web. To
compute bending stresses at the upper point, use (y, z) coordinates of y = 125 mm and z = 8 mm:
x = (0.63271 N/mm3 )(125 mm) + (0.35197 N/mm3 )(8 mm)

= 81.9045 MPa = 81.9 MPa (T)

Maximum tension bending stress

Ans.

To compute bending stresses at the lower point, use (y, z) coordinates of y = 125 mm and z = 8 mm:
x = (0.63271 N/mm3 )(125 mm) + (0.35197 N/mm3 )(8 mm)
= 81.9045 MPa = 81.9 MPa (C)

Maximum compression bending stress

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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8.73 The moment acting on the cross section of the


unequal-leg angle has a magnitude of 14 kN-m and
is oriented as shown in Fig. P8.73. Determine:
(a) the bending stress at point H.
(b) the bending stress at point K.
(c) the maximum tension and the maximum
compression bending stresses in the cross section.
(d) the orientation of the neutral axis relative to the
+z axis. Show its location on a sketch of the cross
section.

Fig. P8.73

Solution
Section properties
Centroid location in y direction:

Shape

Width b
(mm)
150
19

horizontal leg
vertical leg

y=

yi Ai
Ai

Height h
(mm)
19
181

Area Ai
(mm2)
2,850
3,439
6,289

854,154.5 mm3
= 135.82 mm
6,289 mm 2
= 64.18 mm

yi
(from bottom)
(mm)
190.50
90.50

yi Ai
(mm3)
542,925.0
311,229.5
854,154.5

(from bottom of shape to centroid)


(from top of shape to centroid)

Centroid location in z direction:

Shape

Area Ai
(mm2)
2,850
3,439
6,289

horizontal leg
vertical leg

z=

z i Ai
Ai

zi
(from right edge)
(mm)
75.0
9.5

246, 420.5 mm3


= 39.18 mm
6,289 mm 2
= 110.82 mm

zi Ai
(mm3)
213,750.0
32,670.5
246,420.5
(from right edge of shape to centroid)
(from left edge of shape to centroid)

Moment of inertia about the z axis:


d = yi y
Shape
IC
dA
4
(mm)
(mm4)
(mm )
horizontal leg
85,737.50
54.68
8,522,088.15
vertical leg
9,388,756.58
45.32
7,062,503.99
Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm4) =

IC + dA
(mm4)
8,607,825.65
16,451,260.58
25,059,086.23

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Moment of inertia about the y axis:


Shape
d = zi z
IC
dA
(mm)
(mm4)
(mm4)
horizontal leg
5,343,750.00
35.82
3,656,188.87
vertical leg
103,456.58
29.68
3,029,990.78
Moment of inertia about the y axis (mm4) =
Product of inertia about the centroidal axes:
Shape
yc
zc
Iyz
4
(mm)
(mm)
(mm )
horizontal leg
0
54.68
35.82
vertical leg
0
45.32
29.68

IC + dA
(mm4)
8,999,938.87
3,133,447.36
12,133,386.23

Area Ai
yc zc Ai
Iyz
2
4
(mm )
(mm )
(mm4)
2,850
5,582,117.16
5,582,117.16
3,439
4,625,790.65
4,625,790.65
4
Product of inertia (mm ) = 10,207,907.81

Since the angle shape has no axis of symmetry, Eq. (8-21) or Eq. (8-22) must be used to determine the
bending stresses. Equation (8-21) will be used here.
( M z I y + M y I yz ) y + ( M y I z + M z I yz ) z
x =
I y I z I yz2
I y I z I yz2

(14 106 N-mm)(12,133,386.23 mm 4 )


y
=
4
4
4 2
(12,133,386.23 mm )(25,059,086.23 mm ) (10, 207,907.81 mm )

(14 106 N-mm)(10, 207,907.81 mm 4 )


z
+
4
4
4 2
(12,133,386.23 mm )(25,059,086.23 mm ) (10, 207,907.81 mm )
= (0.84997 N/mm3 ) y + (0.71509 N/mm3 )z

To compute the normal stress at H, use (y, z) coordinates of y = 45.18 mm and z = 110.82 mm:
x = (0.84997 N/mm3 )(45.18 mm) + (0.71509 N/mm3 )(110.82 mm)
= 40.8444 MPa = 40.8 MPa (T)

Ans.

(b) Bending stress at K


To compute the normal stress at K, use (y, z) coordinates of y = 64.18 mm and z = 39.18 mm:
x = (0.84997 N/mm3 )(64.18 mm) + (0.71509 N/mm3 )(39.18 mm)

= 82.5685 MPa = 82.6 MPa (C)

Ans.

(d) Orientation of neutral axis


Since the angle shape has no axis of symmetry, it is helpful to determine the orientation of the neutral
axis from Eq. (8-23) to help identify points of maximum stress.
M I + M z I yz
tan = y z
M z I y + M y I yz

(14 kN-m)(10, 207,907.81 mm 4 )


(14 kN-m)(12,133,386.23 mm 4 )
= 0.84131
=

= 40.07

(i.e., 40.07 CW from + z axis)

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(c) Maximum tension and compression bending stresses


Sketch the orientation of the neutral axis. By inspection, the points on the angle cross section that are
farthest from the neutral axis are on the top corner (at K) and on the inside corner of the vertical leg.

To compute bending stresses at the lower point, use (y, z) coordinates of y = 135.82 mm and z = 20.18
mm:
x = (0.84997 N/mm3 )(135.82 mm) + (0.71509 N/mm3 )(20.18 mm)
= 101.0129 MPa = 101.0 MPa (T)

Maximum tension bending stress

Ans.

The maximum compression bending stress is


x = (0.84997 N/mm3 )(64.18 mm) + (0.71509 N/mm3 )(39.18 mm)
= 82.5685 MPa = 82.6 MPa (C)

Maximum compression bending stress

Ans.

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8.74 The moment acting on the cross section of


the zee shape has a magnitude of M = 4.75 kip-ft
and is oriented as shown in Fig. P8.74. Determine:
(a) the bending stress at point H.
(b) the bending stress at point K.
(c) the maximum tension and the maximum
compression bending stresses in the cross section.
(d) the orientation of the neutral axis relative to
the +z axis. Show its location on a sketch of the
cross section.

Fig. P8.74

Solution
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
d = yi y
Shape
Area Ai
dA
IC
4
(in.)
(in.2)
(in.4)
(in. )
top flange
0.0260
2.75
1.25
9.4531
web
3.6458
0
1.75
0
bottom flange
0.0260
2.75
1.25
9.4531
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.4) =

IC + dA
(in.4)
9.4792
3.6458
9.4792
22.6042

Moment of inertia about the y axis:


d = zi z
Shape
Area Ai
dA
IC
(in.)
(in.2)
(in.4)
(in.4)
top flange
0.6510
1.075
1.25
1.4445
web
68,266.7
0
1.75
0
bottom flange
0.6510
1.075
1.25
1.4445
Moment of inertia about the y axis (in.4) =

IC + dA
(in.4)
2.0956
0.0179
2.0956
4.2091

Product of inertia about the centroidal axes:


Shape
zc
yc
(in.)
(in.)
top flange
2.75
1.075
web
0
0
bottom flange
2.75
1.075

Area Ai
yc zc Ai
(in.4)
(in.2)
1.25
3.6953
1.75
0
1.25
3.6953
Product of inertia (in.4) =

Iyz
(in.4)
3.6953
0
3.6953
7.3906

(a) Bending stress at H


Since the zee shape has no axis of symmetry, Eq. (8-21) or Eq. (8-22) must be used to determine the
bending stresses. Equation (8-21) will be used here.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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x =

(M I

z y

+ M y I yz ) y

I yIz I

2
yz

(M

I + M z I yz ) z

y z

I y I z I yz2

(4.75 kip-ft)(12 in./ft)(4.2091 in.4 )

(4.75 kip-ft)(12 in./ft)(7.3906 in.4 )


=
+
z
y

4
4
4 2
4
4
4 2
(4.2091 in. )(22.6042 in. ) (7.3906 in. )
(4.2091 in. )(22.6042 in. ) (7.3906 in. )
= (5.92065 kips/in.3 ) y (10.39584 kips/in.3 )z

To compute the normal stress at H, use (y, z) coordinates of y = 3 in. and z = 2.325 in.:
x = (5.92065 kips/in.3 )(3 in.) (10.39584 kips/in.3 )(2.325 in.)
= 6.4084 ksi = 6.41 ksi (C)

Ans.

(b) Bending stress at K


To compute the normal stress at K, use (y, z) coordinates of y = 2.50 in. and z = 2.325 in.:
x = (5.92065 kips/in.3 )(2.50 in.) (10.39584 kips/in.3 )( 2.325 in.)

= 9.3687 ksi = 9.37 ksi (T)

Ans.

(d) Orientation of neutral axis


Since the zee shape has no axis of symmetry, it is helpful to determine the orientation of the neutral axis
from Eq. (8-23) to help identify points of maximum stress.
M I + M z I yz
tan = y z
M z I y + M y I yz

(4.75 kip-ft)(7.3906 in.4 )


(4.75 kip-ft)(4.2091 in.4 )
= 1.7559
=

= 60.34

(i.e., 60.34 CW from + z axis)

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(c) Maximum tension and compression bending stresses


Sketch the orientation of the neutral axis. By inspection, the points on the zee cross section that are
farthest from the neutral axis are on the top and bottom surfaces at the outside corners of the web. To
compute bending stresses at the upper point, use (y, z) coordinates of y = 3 in. and z = 0.175 in.:
x = (5.92065 kips/in.3 )(3 in.) (10.39584 kips/in.3 )( 0.175 in.)

= 19.5812 ksi = 19.58 ksi (T)

Maximum tension bending stress

Ans.

To compute bending stresses at the lower point, use (y, z) coordinates of y = 3 in. and z = 0.175 in.:
x = (5.92065 kips/in.3 )(3 in.) (10.39584 kips/in.3 )(0.175 in.)
= 19.5812 ksi = 19.58 ksi (C)

Maximum compression bending stress

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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8.75 For the cross section shown in Fig. P8.75,


determine the maximum magnitude of the bending
moment M so that the bending stress in the zee
shape does not exceed 24 ksi.

Fig. P8.75

Solution
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
d = yi y
Shape
Area Ai
dA
IC
4
(in.)
(in.2)
(in.4)
(in. )
top flange
0.0260
2.75
1.25
9.4531
web
3.6458
0
1.75
0
bottom flange
0.0260
2.75
1.25
9.4531
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.4) =

IC + dA
(in.4)
9.4792
3.6458
9.4792
22.6042

Moment of inertia about the y axis:


d = zi z
Shape
Area Ai
dA
IC
(in.)
(in.2)
(in.4)
(in.4)
top flange
0.6510
1.075
1.25
1.4445
web
68,266.7
0
1.75
0
bottom flange
0.6510
1.075
1.25
1.4445
Moment of inertia about the y axis (in.4) =

IC + dA
(in.4)
2.0956
0.0179
2.0956
4.2091

Product of inertia about the centroidal axes:


Shape
zc
yc
(in.)
(in.)
top flange
2.75
1.075
web
0
0
bottom flange
2.75
1.075

Area Ai
yc zc Ai
(in.4)
(in.2)
1.25
3.6953
1.75
0
1.25
3.6953
Product of inertia (in.4) =

Iyz
(in.4)
3.6953
0
3.6953
7.3906

Bending stresses in the section


Since the zee shape has no axis of symmetry, Eq. (8-21) or Eq. (8-22) must be used to determine the
bending stresses. Equation (8-21) will be used here. For this problem, My = 0 and from the sketch, Mz is
observed to be negative. The bending stress in the zee cross section is described by:

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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x =

(M I

z y

+ M y I yz ) y

I yIz I

2
yz

(M

I + M z I yz ) z

y z

I y I z I yz2

M z (4.2091 in.4 )
M z (7.3906 in.4 )
=
+
y
z

4
4
4 2
4
4
4 2
(4.2091 in. )(22.6042 in. ) (7.3906 in. )
(4.2091 in. )(22.6042 in. ) (7.3906 in. )
= (0.103871 in.4 ) M z y (0.182383 in.4 )M z z
= M z (0.103871 in.4 ) y (0.182383 in.4 )z

Orientation of neutral axis


Since the angle shape has no axis of symmetry, it is helpful to determine the orientation of the neutral
axis from Eq. (8-23) before beginning the stress calculations:
M I + M z I yz M z (7.3906 in.4 )
tan = y z
=
= 1.7559
M z I y + M y I yz M z (4.2091 in.4 )

= 60.34

(i.e., 60.34 CW from + z axis)

Allowable moments based on maximum tension and compression bending stresses


Sketch the orientation of the neutral axis. By inspection, the points on the zee cross section that are
farthest from the neutral axis are on the top and bottom surfaces at the outside corners of the web. To
compute bending stresses at the upper point, coordinates of y = 3 in. and z = 0.175 in. are used. Set the
bending stress at this point to the 24-ksi allowable bending stress and solve for the moment magnitude:
x = M z (0.103871 in.4 )(3 in.) (0.182383 in.4 )( 0.175 in.) 24 ksi

Mz

24 ksi
= 69.86287 kip-in. = 5.82 kip-ft
0.343530 in.3

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

8.76 A stainless-steel spring (shown in Fig.


P8.76) has a width of in. and a change in
height at section B from h1 = 3/8 in. to h2 =
in. Determine the minimum acceptable
radius r for the fillet if the stressconcentration factor must not exceed 1.40.

Fig. P8.76

Solution
From Fig. 8.17b
w 0.375 in.
=
= 1.50
h
0.25 in.
r
For K t = 1.40, 0.25
h
r
r = h = 0.25(0.25 in.) = 0.0625 in.
h

Ans.

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8.77 An alloy-steel spring (shown in Fig.


P8.77) has a width of 25 mm and a change in
height at section B from h1 = 75 mm to h2 = 60
mm. If the radius of the fillet between the two
sections is r = 6 mm, determine the maximum
moment that the spring can resist if the
maximum bending stress in the spring must not
exceed 100 MPa.

Fig. P8.77

Solution
From Fig. 8.17b
w 75 mm
=
= 1.25
h 60 mm
r 6 mm
=
= 0.10
h 60 mm
K t 1.70

Section properties
1
I = (25 mm)(60 mm)3 = 450,000 mm 4
12
Maximum bending moment
Mc
x = Kt
100 MPa
I
(100 N/mm 2 )(450,000 mm 4 )
M
= 882,353 N-mm = 882 N-m
(1.70)(60 mm/2)

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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8.78 A stainless-steel bar in. wide by in. deep has a pair of semicircular grooves cut in the edges of
the bar from top to bottom. If the grooves have a radius of 1/16 in., determine the percent reduction in
strength for flexural-type loadings.

Solution
From Fig. 8.17d
d 1/16 in.
=
= 1.00
r 1/16 in.
r 1/16 in.
=
= 0.10
b 5 / 8 in.
K t 2.30

B
3/ 4 in.
= 2.30
= 2.76
b
3/8 in.
I
I
M= g
MR = g
c
Kgc
K g = Kt

percentage reduction =

M MR
1
1

(100%) = 1
(100%) = 1
(100%) = 63.8%

M
K
2.76

Ans.

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8.79 A timber beam 150 mm wide by 200 mm deep has a 25-mm-diameter hole drilled from top to
bottom of the beam on the centerline of the cross section. Determine the percent reduction in strength for
flexure about the horizontal centroidal axis.

Solution
From Fig. 8.17c
h 200 mm
=
= 8.00
d
25 mm
d 25 mm
=
= 0.17
b 150 mm
K t 2.55
150 mm
b

K g = Kt
= 2.55
= 3.06
bd
150 mm 25 mm
I
I
M= g
MR = g
c
Kgc

percentage reduction =

M MR
1
1

(100%) = 1
(100%) = 1
(100%) = 67.3%

M
K
3.06

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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8.80 A 3-in.-diameter hot-rolled steel [Y =


53 ksi] shaft has a reduced diameter of 2.73
in. for 12 in. of its length, as shown in Fig.
P8.80. If the tool used to turn down the
section had a radius of 0.25 in., determine
the maximum allowable bending load P that
can be applied to the end of the shaft if a
factor of safety of 3 with respect to failure
by yielding is specified.

Fig. P8.80

Solution
For hot-rolled steel:

53 ksi
= 17.6667 ksi
allow = Y =
FS
3
At support A

I=

(3 in.) 4 = 3.97608 in.4

64
Mc (22 in.)P(3 in./2)
=
17.6667 ksi
=
I
3.97608 in.4
P 2.1286 kips
At the reduced section:
w
3 in.
=
= 1.09
h 2.75 in.

(a)

r 0.25 in.
=
= 0.09
h 2.75 in.

From Fig. 8.17b, K t 1.50


I=

64

(2.75 in.) 4 = 2.80738 in.4

Mc (1.50)(12 in.)P (2.75 in./2)


=
17.6667 ksi
I
2.80738 in.4
P 2.0039 kips

= Kt

Compare the values of P in Eqs. (a) and (b) to find the maximum allowable load:
Pmax = 2.00 kips

(b)

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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8.81 A hot-rolled steel [Y = 360 MPa] bar with a rectangular cross section will be loaded as a cantilever
beam. The bar has a depth of h = 200 mm and has a 25-mm-diameter hole drilled from top to bottom of
the beam on the centerline of a cross section where a bending moment of 60 kN-m must be supported. If
a factor of safety of 4 with respect to failure by yielding is specified, determine the minimum acceptable
width b for the bar.

Solution
For hot-rolled steel:

360 MPa
= 90 MPa
allow = Y =
FS
4
h 200 mm
=
=8
d
25 mm

Kg =

b
Kt
bd

Ig =

bh3
12

= Kg

Mc
Ig

Refer to Fig. 8.17c. Since Kg and Ig depend on b, use a trial-and-error solution:


b
(mm)

ratio d/b

200

0.125

2.65

250

0.10

300

0.08

Therefore:

bmin 300 mm

Kt

Kg

Ig
(106 mm4)

(MPa)

3.03

133.3

136.4

2.70

3.00

166.7

108.0

2.75

3.00

200.0

90.0
Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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