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of dimension lumber to form the I-beam cross section shown in Fig.

P9.38. The flanges of the beam are fastened to the web with nails that

can safely transmit a force of 100 lb in direct shear. If the beam is

simply supported and carries a 1000-lb load at the center of a 12-ft span,

determine:

(a) the horizontal force transferred from each flange to the web in a 12in. long segment of the beam.

(b) the maximum spacing s (along the length of the beam) required for

the nails.

(c) the maximum horizontal shear stress in the I-beam.

Fig. P9.38

Solution

Moment of inertia about the z axis:

Shape

Width b

Height h

(in.)

(in.)

top flange

4

2

web

2

8

bottom flange

4

2

d = yi y

(in.)

5

0

5

IC

(in.4)

2.6667

85.3333

2.6667

dA

(in.4)

200.0000

0.0000

200.0000

IC + dA

(in.4)

202.6667

85.3333

202.6667

490.6667

For P = 1,000 lb, V = P/2 = 500 lb

(a) Horizontal force transferred from each flange

(in a 12-in. length):

Q = (4 in.)(2 in.)(5 in.) = 40 in.3

q=

=

= 40.761 lb/in.

I

490.6667 in.4

Ans.

q s nfVf

s

nfVf

q

(1 nail)(100 lb/nail)

= 2.45 in.

40.761 lb/in.

Ans.

Q = (4 in.)(2 in.)(5 in.) + (2 in.)(4 in.)(2 in.) = 56 in.3

= 28.5 psi

(490.6667 in.4 )(2 in.)

Ans.

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of dimension lumber to form the I-beam cross section shown in Fig.

P9.39. The I-beam will be used as a simply supported beam to carry a

concentrated load P at the center of a 20-ft span. The wood has an

allowable bending stress of 1,200 psi and an allowable shear stress of 90

psi. The flanges of the beam are fastened to the web with nails that can

safely transmit a force of 100 lb in direct shear.

(a) If the nails are uniformly spaced at an interval of s = 3.5 in. along the

span, what is the maximum concentrated load P that can be supported by

the beam? Demonstrate that the bending and shear stresses produced by

P are acceptable.

(b) Determine the magnitude of load P that produces the allowable

bending stress in the span (i.e., b = 1,200 psi). What nail spacing s is

required to support this load magnitude?

Fig. P9.39

Solution

Moment of inertia about the z axis:

Shape

Width b

Height h

(in.)

(in.)

top flange

4

2

web

2

8

bottom flange

4

2

d = yi y

(in.)

5

0

5

IC

(in.4)

2.6667

85.3333

2.6667

dA

(in.4)

200.0000

0.0000

200.0000

IC + dA

(in.4)

202.6667

85.3333

202.6667

490.6667

For P = 1,000 lb, V = P/2 = 500 lb

(a) Maximum concentrated load P:

Q = (4 in.)(2 in.)(5 in.) = 40 in.3

q s nfVf

nfVf

s

(1 nail)(100 lb/nail)

= 28.571 lb/in.

3.5 in.

VQ

q=

I

q I (28.571 lb/in.)(490.6667 in.4 )

V =

=

= 350.5 lb

Q

40 in.3

P

Pmax = 701 lb

V=

Ans.

2

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(b) Magnitude of load P that produces the allowable bending stress in the span:

Mc

x =

1, 200 psi

I

(1, 200 psi)(490.6667 in.4 )

M

= 98,133.34 lb-in.

6 in.

PL

M max =

4

4 M max 4(98,133.34 lb-in.)

Pmax =

=

= 1,635.56 lb = 1,636 lb

L

(20 ft)(12 in./ft)

Ans.

P

1,635.56 lb

= 817.78 lb

Vmax = max =

2

2

VQ (817.78 lb)(40 in.3 )

=

= 66.67 lb/in.

q=

490.6667 in.4

I

q s nfVf

s

nfVf

q

(1 nail)(100 lb)

= 1.500 in.

66.67 lb/in.

Ans.

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9.40 A wooden box beam is fabricated from four boards, which are fastened together with nails, as

shown in Fig. P9.40b. The nails are installed at a spacing of s = 125 mm (Fig. P9.40a), and each nail can

provide a resistance of Vf = 500 N. In service, the box beam will be installed so that bending occurs

about the z axis. Determine the maximum shear force V that can be supported by the box beam based on

the shear capacity of the nailed connections.

Fig. P9.40a

Fig. P9.40b

Solution

Moment of inertia Iz:

(200 mm)(250 mm)3 (120 mm)(200 mm)3

Iz =

= 180, 416,667 mm 4

12

12

First moment of area Q:

Q = (200 mm)(25 mm)(112.5 mm) = 562,500 mm3

Shear flow q based on nail shear force:

q s nfVf

q

nfVf

s

(2 nails)(500 N/nail)

= 8 N/mm

125 mm

VQ

qI

(8 N/mm)(180,416,667 mm 4 )

q=

V = z =

= 2,566 N = 2.57 kN

Iz

Q

562,500 mm3

Ans.

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9.41 A wooden box beam is fabricated from four boards, which are fastened together with screws, as

shown in Fig. P9.41b. Each screw can provide a resistance of 800 N. In service, the box beam will be

installed so that bending occurs about the z axis, and the maximum shear force in the beam will be 7 kN.

Determine the maximum permissible spacing interval s for the screws (see Fig. P9.41a).

Fig. P9.41a

Fig. P9.41b

Solution

Moment of inertia Iz:

(190 mm)(250 mm)3 (140 mm)(150 mm)3

Iz =

= 208,020,833 mm 4

12

12

First moment of area Q:

Q = (140 mm)(50 mm)(100 mm) = 700,000 mm3

Shear flow q based on beam shear force V:

VQ (7,000 N)(750,000 mm3 )

q=

=

= 23.5553 N/mm

Iz

208,020,833 mm 4

Maximum spacing interval s:

q s nfVf

s

nfVf

q

(2 screws)(800 N/screw)

= 67.9 mm

23.5553 N/mm

Ans.

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9.42 A wooden beam is fabricated by nailing together three pieces of dimension lumber, as shown in

Fig. P9.42a. The cross-sectional dimensions of the beam are shown in Fig. P9.42b. The beam must

support an internal shear force of V = 600 lb.

(a) Determine the maximum horizontal shear stress in the cross section for V = 600 lb.

(b) If each nail can provide 120 lb of horizontal resistance, determine the maximum spacing s for the

nails.

(c) If the three boards were connected by glue instead of nails, what minimum shear strength would be

necessary for the glued joints?

Fig. P9.42a

Fig. P9.42b

Solution

Centroid location in y direction:

Shape

Width b

(in.)

2

4

2

left board

flange board

right board

y=

yi Ai

A i

Height h

(in.)

8

2

9

184 in.3

= 4.6 in.

40 in.2

Area Ai

(in.2)

16

8

16

40

yi

(from bottom)

(in.)

4

7

4

yi Ai

(in.3)

64

56

64

184

= 3.4 in.

(from top of shape to centroid)

Moment of inertia about the z axis:

d = yi y

Shape

IC

dA

4

(in.)

(in.4)

(in. )

left board

85.3333

0.60

5.7600

flange board

2.6667

2.40

46.0800

right board

85.3333

0.60

5.7600

Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.4) =

IC + dA

(in.4)

91.0933

48.7467

91.0933

230.9333

At neutral axis:

Q = 2(2 in.)(4.6 in.)(4.6 in./2) = 42.32 in.3

= 27.5 psi

(230.9333 in.4 )(4 in.)

Ans.

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Q = (4 in.)(2 in.)(3.4 in. 1 in.) = 19.20 in.3

q=

=

= 49.8845 lb/in.

Iz

230.9333 in.4

q s nfVf

s

nfVf

q

(2 nails)(120 lb/nail)

= 4.81 in.

49.8845 lb/in.

49.8845 lb/in.

=

= 12.47 psi

2(2 in.)

Ans.

Ans.

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boards, each 40-mm wide and 90-mm deep, to a 32 400 plywood

web, as shown in Fig. P9.43. Determine the maximum allowable

shear force and the maximum allowable bending moment that this

section can carry if the allowable bending stress is 6 MPa, the

allowable shear stress in the plywood is 640 kPa, and the allowable

shear stress in the glued joints is 250 kPa.

Fig. P9.43

Solution

Moment of inertia Iz:

(112 mm)(400 mm)3 (80 mm)(220 mm)3

Iz =

= 526,346,667 mm 4

12

12

Maximum allowable bending moment:

Mc

=

I

I (6 N/mm 2 )(526,346,667 mm 4 )

M max =

=

= 15,790, 400 N-mm = 15.79 kN-m

c

200 mm

Ans.

Consider maximum shear stress, which occurs at the neutral axis:

Q = (32 mm)(200 mm)(100 mm) + 2(40 mm)(90 mm)(200 mm 90 mm/2) = 1,756,000 mm3

VQ

It

V=

It

Q

= 6,138.7 N = 6.14 kN

1,756,000 mm3

(a)

Q = (40 mm)(90 mm)(200 mm 90 mm/2) = 558,000 mm3

The shear stress in the glue joints can be found from the shear flow across the glue joint divided by the

width of the glue joint; thus,

q

VQ / I

glue =

=

tglue

tglue

glue I tglue

= 21,224 N = 21.2 kN

Q

558,000 mm3

Compare results (a) and (b) to find that the maximum allowable shear force for the section is:

Vmax = 6.14 kN

V =

(b)

Ans.

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dimension lumber boards to form the double-tee cross section

shown in Fig. P9.44. The beam flange is fastened to the stem with

nails. Each nail can safely transmit a force of 150 lb in direct shear.

The allowable shear stress of the wood is 75 psi.

(a) If the nails are uniformly spaced at an interval of s = 4 in. along

the span, what is the maximum internal shear force V that can be

supported by the double-tee cross section?

(b) What nail spacing s would be necessary to develop the full

strength of the double-tee shape in shear? (Full strength means that

the maximum horizontal shear stress in the double-tee shape equals

the allowable shear stress of the wood.)

Fig. P9.44

Solution

Centroid location in y direction:

Shape

Width b

(in.)

12

2

2

top flange

left stem

right stem

y=

yi Ai

A i

Height h

(in.)

2

8

8

344 in.3

= 6.1429 in.

56 in.2

Area Ai

(in.2)

24

16

16

56

yi

(from bottom)

(in.)

9

4

4

yi Ai

(in.3)

216

64

64

344

= 3.8571 in.

(from top of shape to centroid)

Moment of inertia about the z axis:

d = yi y

Shape

dA

IC

4

(in.)

(in.4)

(in. )

left board

8.0000

2.8571

195.9184

flange board

85.3333

2.1429

73.4694

right board

85.3333

2.1429

73.4694

Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.4) =

IC + dA

(in.4)

203.9184

158.8027

158.8027

521.5238

Q = (12 in.)(2 in.)(3.8571 in. 2 in./2) = 68.5704 in.3

(2 nails)(150 lb/nail)

= 75 lb/in.

4 in.

VQ

q I (75 lb/in.)(521.5238 in.4 )

V =

=

= 570 lb

q=

I

Q

68.5704 in.3

q=

Ans.

At neutral axis:

Q = 2(2 in.)(6.1429 in.)(6.1429 in./2) = 75.4704 in.3

VQ

It

Vmax =

It

Q

= 2,073.1 lb

75.4704 in.3

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Consider nailed portion (i.e., top flange only) to establish required nail spacing:

V Q (2,073.1 lb)(68.5704 in.3 )

=

= 272.57 lb/in.

q=

I

521.5238 in.4

q s nfVf

smax

nfVf

q

(2 nails)(150 lb/nail)

= 1.101 in.

272.57 lb/in.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

9.45 A box beam is fabricated from two plywood webs that are

secured to dimension lumber boards at its top and bottom flanges

(Fig. P9.45b). The beam supports a concentrated load of P = 5,000 lb

at the center of a 15-ft span (Fig. P9.45a). Bolts (-in. diameter)

connect the plywood webs and the lumber flanges at a spacing of s =

12 in. along the span. Supports A and C can be idealized as a pin and

a roller, respectively. Determine:

(a) the maximum horizontal shear stress in the plywood webs.

(b) the shear stress in the bolts.

(c) the maximum bending stress in the lumber flanges.

Fig. P9.45a

Fig. P9.45b

Solution

Moment of inertia about the z axis:

d = yi y

Shape

IC

dA

4

(in. )

(in.)

(in.4)

left web

576

0

0

top flange

16

10

1,200

bottom flange

16

10

1,200

right web

576

0

0

Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.4) =

IC + dA

(in.4)

576

1,216

1,216

576

3,584

For P = 5,000 lb, V = P/2 = 2,500 lb

Maximum bending moment:

For P = 5,000 lb, M = PL/4 = 18,750 lb-ft = 225,000 lb-in.

(a) Maximum horizontal shear stress (in plywood webs):

Q = (3 in.)(4 in.)(10 in.)

VQ

(2,500 lb)(192 in.3 )

=

= 133.9 psi

I t (3,584 in.4 )(2 0.5 in.)

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Consider the dimension lumber boards that comprise the top flange.

Qflange = (3 in.)(4 in.)(10 in.) = 120 in.3

VQflange

= 83.7054 lb/in.

3,584 in.4

I

Determine the force carried by one bolt:

q s nfVf

q=

V f

=

= 1,004.4643 lb/bolt

1 bolt

nf

4

Each bolt acts in double shear; therefore, the shear stress in each bolt is:

1,004.4643 lb/bolt

bolt =

= 4,547.284 psi = 4,550 psi

2(0.110447 in.2 )

Abolt =

M c (225,000 lb-in.)(12 in.)

=

=

= 753 psi

3,584 in.4

I

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

9.46 A box beam is fabricated from two plywood webs that are secured to

dimension lumber boards at its top and bottom flanges (Fig. P9.46b). The

lumber has an allowable bending stress of 1,500 psi. The plywood has an

allowable shear stress of 300 psi. The -in. diameter bolts have an

allowable shear stress of 6,000 psi, and they are spaced at intervals of

s = 9 in. The beam span is L = 15 ft (Fig. P9.46a). Support A can be

assumed to be pinned and support C can be idealized as a roller.

(a) Determine the maximum load P that can be applied to the beam at

midspan.

(b) Report the bending stress in the lumber, the shear stress in the

plywood, and the shear stress in the bolts at the load P determined in part

(a).

Fig. P9.46a

Fig. P9.46b

Solution

Moment of inertia about the z axis:

d = yi y

Shape

IC

dA

4

(in. )

(in.)

(in.4)

left web

576

0

0

top flange

16

10

1,200

bottom flange

16

10

1,200

right web

576

0

0

Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.4) =

IC + dA

(in.4)

576

1,216

1,216

576

3,584

V = P/2

Maximum bending moment:

M = PL/4

(a) Determine maximum load P:

Consider maximum bending stress:

Mc

=

1,500 psi

I

(1,500 psi)(3,584 in.4 )

M

= 448,000 lb-in.

12 in.

PL

M=

448,000 lb-in.

4

4(448,000 lb-in.)

Pmax

= 9,956 lb

(15 ft)(12 in./ft)

(a)

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Q = (3 in.)(4 in.)(10 in.) + 2(0.5 in.)(12 in.)(6 in.) = 192 in.3

VQ

300 psi

=

It

Vmax

Vmax =

Pmax

= 5,600 lb

192 in.3

P

2

2Vmax = 2(5,600 lb) = 11, 200 lb

(b)

The bolt cross-sectional area is:

Abolt =

4

Each bolt acts in double shear; therefore, the maximum shear force that can be carried by one bolt is:

Vbolt = 2(0.110447 in.2 )(6,000 psi) = 1,325.364 lb

Determine the shear flow that can be allowed based on the bolt shear stress:

q s nfVf

nfVf

(1 bolt)(1,325.364 lb/bolt)

= 147.263 lb/in.

s

9 in.

Consider the dimension lumber boards that comprise the top flange.

Qflange = (3 in.)(4 in.)(10 in.) = 120 in.3

q

q=

VQflange

I

Vmax =

Vmax =

Pmax

qI

(147.263 lb/in.)(3,584 in.4 )

=

= 4,398.245 lb

Qflange

120 in.3

P

2

2Vmax = 2(4,398.245 lb) = 8,796 lb

Compare the three values obtained for Pmax in Eqs. (a), (b), and (c) to find

Pmax = 8,796 lb = 8.80 kips

(c)

Ans.

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PL (8,796 lb)(15 ft)

M=

=

= 32,985 lb-ft

4

4

M c (32,985 lb-ft)(12 in.)(12 in./ft)

=

=

= 1,325 psi

I

3,584 in.4

Maximum shear stress in plywood webs:

P 8,796 lb

= 4,398 lb

V= =

2

2

VQ

(4,398 lb)(192 in.3 )

=

=

= 236 psi

I t (3,584 in.4 )(2 0.5 in.)

Bolt shear stress:

bolt = 6,000 psi

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

9.47 A wooden beam is fabricated from three boards, which are fastened together with screws, as shown

in Fig. P9.47b. The screws are uniformly spaced along the span of the beam at intervals of 150 mm (see

Fig. P9.47a). In service, the beam will be positioned so that bending occurs about the z axis. The

maximum bending moment in the beam is Mz = 4.50 kN-m, and the maximum shear force in the beam

is Vy = 2.25 kN. Determine:

(a) the magnitude of the maximum horizontal shear stress in the beam.

(b) the shear force in each screw.

(c) the magnitude of the maximum bending stress in the beam.

Fig. P9.47b

Fig. P9.47a

Solution

Centroid location in y direction:

Shape

left board

bottom board

right board

yi Ai

Width b

(mm)

40

140

40

Height h

(mm)

180

40

180

1, 408,000 mm3

=

= 70.4 mm

y=

A i

20,000 mm 2

Area Ai

(mm2)

7,200

5,600

7,200

20,000

yi

(from bottom)

(mm)

90

20

90

yi Ai

(mm3)

648,000

112,000

648,000

1,408,000

= 109.6 mm

(from top of shape to centroid)

Moment of inertia about the z axis:

d = yi y

Shape

IC

dA

4

(mm)

(mm4)

(mm )

left board

19,440,000.00

19.60

2,765,952.00

bottom board

746,666.67

50.40

14,224,896.00

right board

19,440,000.00

19.60

2,765,952.00

Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm4) =

IC + dA

(mm4)

22,205,952.00

14,971,562.67

22,205,952.00

59,383,466.67

At neutral axis:

Q = 2(40 mm)(109.6 mm)(109.6 mm/2) = 480,486.4 mm3

VQ

(2, 250 N)(480,486.4 mm3 )

=

= 0.2276 MPa = 228 kPa

=

It

(59,383,466.67 mm 4 )(2 40 mm)

Ans.

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Consider bottom board, which is held in place by two screws:

Q = (140 mm)(40 mm)(70.4 mm 40 mm/2) = 282,240 mm3

=

= 10.6939 N/mm

I

59,383,466.67 mm 4

q s nfVf

q=

V f =

=

= 802 N per screw

nf

2 screws

M y

(4.50 106 N-mm)(109.6 mm)

x = z =

= 8.31 MPa (T)

Iz

59,383,466.67 mm 4

Ans.

Ans.

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members, as shown in Fig. P9.48a. The cross-sectional

dimensions are shown in Fig. P9.48b. The 8-mm-diameter

bolts are spaced at intervals of s = 200 mm along the x axis

of the beam. If the internal shear force in the beam is V = 7

kN, determine the shear stress in each bolt.

Fig. P9.48a

Fig. P9.48b

Solution

Centroid location in y direction:

Shape

Width b

(mm)

40

40

40

left board

center board

right board

y=

yi Ai

A i

Height h

(mm)

90

300

90

3,636,000 mm3

= 189.375 mm

19,200 mm 2

= 110.625 mm

Shape

IC

(mm4)

left board

2,430,000

center board

90,000,000

right board

2,430,000

Area Ai

(mm2)

3,600

12,000

3,600

19,200

yi

(from bottom)

(mm)

255

150

255

yi Ai

(mm3)

918,000

1,800,000

918,000

3,636,000

(from top of shape to centroid)

d = yi y

IC + dA

dA

4

(mm)

(mm )

(mm4)

65.625

15,503,906.25

17,933,906.25

-39.375

18,604,687.50

108,604,687.50

65.625

15,503,906.25

17,933,906.25

4

Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm ) = 144,472,500.00

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Consider left board, which is held in place by the bolt:

Q = (40 mm)(90 mm)(110.625 mm 90 mm/2) = 236, 250 mm3

=

= 11.4468 N/mm

I

144,472,500 mm 4

Note that this value of q is the shear flow that must be transmitted by one surface of the bolt cross

section. The cross-sectional area of the bolt is:

q=

Abolt =

(8 mm) 2 = 50.2655 mm 2

4

Relate the shear flow and the bolt shear stress with Eq. (9.14):

q s n f f Af

f =

qs

=

= 45.5 MPa

n f Af (1 bolt surface)(50.2655 mm 2 )

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

members, as shown in Fig. P9.49a. The cross-sectional

dimensions are shown in Fig. P9.49b. The allowable shear stress

of the wood is 850 kPa, and the allowable shear stress of the 10mm-diameter bolts is 40 MPa. Determine:

(a) the maximum internal shear force V that the cross section can

withstand based on the allowable shear stress in the wood.

(b) the maximum bolt spacing s required to develop the internal

shear force computed in part (a).

Fig. P9.49a

Fig. P9.49b

Solution

Centroid location in y direction:

Shape

Width b

(mm)

40

40

40

left board

center board

right board

y=

yi Ai

A i

Height h

(mm)

90

300

90

3,636,000 mm3

= 189.375 mm

19,200 mm 2

= 110.625 mm

Shape

IC

(mm4)

left board

2,430,000

center board

90,000,000

right board

2,430,000

Area Ai

(mm2)

3,600

12,000

3,600

19,200

yi

(from bottom)

(mm)

255

150

255

yi Ai

(mm3)

918,000

1,800,000

918,000

3,636,000

(from top of shape to centroid)

d = yi y

IC + dA

dA

(mm)

(mm4)

(mm4)

65.625

15,503,906.25

17,933,906.25

-39.375

18,604,687.50

108,604,687.50

65.625

15,503,906.25

17,933,906.25

4

Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm ) = 144,472,500.00

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Q = (40 mm)(189.375 mm)(189.375 mm/2) = 717, 257.813 mm3

VQ

850 kPa = 0.850 MPa

It

Vmax

= 6,848.4 N = 6.85 kN

717, 257.813 mm3

Ans.

Consider left board, which is held in place by the bolt:

Q = (40 mm)(90 mm)(110.625 mm 90 mm/2) = 236, 250 mm3

=

= 11.1989 N/mm

144,472,500 mm 4

I

Note that this value of q is the shear flow that must be transmitted by one surface of the bolt cross

section. The cross-sectional area of the bolt is:

q=

Abolt =

4

Relate the shear flow and the bolt shear stress with Eq. (9.14):

q s n f f Af

s

n f f Af

q

= 281 mm

11.1989 N/mm

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

9.50 A cantilever flexural member is fabricated by bolting two identical coldrolled steel channels back-to-back, as shown in Fig. P9.50a. The cantilever

beam has a span of L = 1,600 mm and supports a concentrated load of P = 600

N. The cross-sectional dimensions of the built-up shape are shown in Fig.

P9.50b. The effect of the rounded corners can be neglected in determining the

section properties for the built-up shape.

(a) If 4-mm-diameter bolts are installed at intervals of s = 75 mm, determine the

shear stress produced in the bolts.

(b) If the allowable shear stress in the bolts is 96 MPa, determine the minimum

bolt diameter required if a spacing of s = 400 mm is used.

Fig. P9.50a

Fig. P9.50b

Solution

Centroid location in y direction for a single channel shape:

Shape

Width b

(mm)

3

59

3

left element

center element

right element

y=

yi Ai

A i

Height h

(mm)

40

3

40

5,065.5 mm3

= 12.1475 mm

417 mm 2

Area Ai

(mm2)

120

177

120

417

yi

(from bottom)

(mm)

20

1.5

20

yi Ai

(mm3)

2400

265.5

2400

5065.5

(3 mm)(40 mm)3 (65 mm 2(3 mm))(3 mm)3

4

I = 2 2

+

= 257,062 mm

3

3

Shear flow:

Q = (12.1475 mm)(417 mm 2 ) = 5,065.51 mm3

=

= 11.8232 N/mm

257,062 mm 4

I

Bolt area:

q=

(4 mm) 2 = 12.5664 mm 2

4

(a) Bolt shear stress:

q s n f f Af

Abolt =

f =

qs

=

= 70.6 MPa

n f Af (1 bolt surface)(12.5664 mm 2 )

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

q s n f f Af

Af

Abolt =

Dbolt

qs

(11.8232 N/mm)(400 mm)

=

= 49.2633 mm 2

2

n f f (1 bolt surface)(96 N/mm )

D 2 49.2633 mm 2

4(49.2633 mm 2 )

= 7.92 mm

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

structure is to be strengthened by adding a 250 mm wide by 16

mm thick cover plate to its lower flange, as shown in Fig.

P9.51. The cover plate is attached to the lower flange by pairs

of 24-mm-diameter bolts spaced at intervals of s along the

beam span. Bending occurs about the z centroidal axis.

(a) If the allowable bolt shear stress is 96 MPa, determine the

maximum bolt spacing interval s required to support an internal

shear force in the beam of V = 50 kN.

(b) If the allowable bending stress is 150 MPa, determine the

allowable bending moment for the existing W310 60 shape,

the allowable bending moment for the W310 60 with the

added cover plate, and the percentage increase in moment

capacity that is gained by adding the cover plate.

Fig. P9.51

Solution

Centroid location in y direction:

Shape

Width b

(mm)

250

W310 60

cover plate

y=

yi A i

A i

Height h

(mm)

16

1, 292,850 mm3

= 111.935 mm

11,550 mm 2

Area Ai

(mm2)

7,550

4,000

11,550

yi

(from bottom)

(mm)

167

8

yi Ai

(mm3)

1,260,850

32,000

1,292,850

= 206.065 mm

(from top of shape to centroid)

Moment of inertia about the z axis:

d = yi y

Shape

IC + dA

IC

dA

4

(mm )

(mm)

(mm4)

(mm4)

W310 60

128,000,000

55.065

22,892,764

150,892,764

cover plate

85,333.33

103.935

43,209,937

43,295,270

4

194,188,035

Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm ) =

Consider the cover plate, which is connected to the W310 60 shape with two bolts:

Q = (250 mm)(16 mm)(111.935 mm 16 mm/2) = 415,740 mm3

=

= 107.0457 N/mm

194,188,035 mm 4

I

The cross-sectional area of a 24-mm-diameter bolt is:

q=

4

Relate the shear flow and the bolt shear stress with Eq. (9.14):

q s n f f Af

Abolt =

n f f Af

q

=

= 811 mm

107.0457 N/mm

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(b) Allowable bending moment for W310 60 shape (without cover plate):

Mc

=

150 MPa

I

(150 N/mm 2 )(128,000,000 mm 4 )

M allow =

= 127,152,318 N-mm = 127.2 kN-m

(302 mm/2)

Allowable bending moment for W310 60 shape (with cover plate):

Mc

=

150 MPa

I

(150 N/mm 2 )(194,188,035 mm 4 )

M allow =

= 141,354, 452 N-mm = 141.4 kN-m

(206.065 mm)

Percentage increase in moment capacity:

141,354, 452 N-mm 127,152,318 N-mm

% increase =

(100%) = 11.17%

127,152,318 N-mm

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

9.52 A W410 60 steel beam (see Appendix B) is simply supported at its ends and carries a

concentrated load P at the center of a 7-m span. The W410 60 shape will be strengthened by adding

two 250 mm wide by 16 mm thick cover plate to its flanges, as shown in Fig. P9.52. Each cover plate is

attached to its flange by pairs of 20-mm-diameter bolts spaced at intervals of s along the beam span. The

allowable bending stress is 150 MPa, the allowable shear stress in the bolts is 96 MPa, and bending

occurs about the z centroidal axis.

(a) Based on the 150 MPa allowable bending stress, determine the

maximum concentrated load P that may be applied at the center of

a 7-m span for a W410 60 steel beam without cover plates and

with two cover plates.

(b) Compute the ratio between P (with cover plates) and P

(without cover plates).

(c) Compute the section modulus of the W410 60 shape with

two cover plates. Then, compute the ratio between the section

moduli for the strengthened and the original cross sections.

Compare this ratio to the ratio computed in part (b).

(d) For the internal shear force V associated with the concentrated

load P determined in part (a), compute the maximum spacing

interval s required for the bolts that attach the cover plates to the

Fig. P9.52

flanges.

Solution

Moment of inertia about the z axis (with cover plates):

d = yi y

Shape

IC

dA

4

(mm )

(mm)

(mm4)

top cover plate

85,333.33

209

174,724,000

W410 60

216,000,000

0

0

bottom cover plate

85,333.33

209

174,724,000

Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm4) =

IC + dA

(mm4)

174,809,333

216,000,000

174,809,333

565,618,666

V = P/2

Maximum bending moment:

M = PL/4

(a) Determine maximum load P:

Consider W410 60 without cover plates:

Mc

=

150 MPa

I

(150 N/mm 2 )(216,000,000 mm3 )

M allow =

(402 mm/2)

= 161,194,030 N-mm = 161.194 kN-m

PL

M=

161.194 kN-m

4

4(161.194 kN-m)

Pmax

= 91.111 kN = 92.1 kN

7m

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Mc

=

150 MPa

I

(150 N/mm 2 )(565,618,666 mm3 )

M allow =

= 390,980,645 N-mm = 390.981 kN-m

(434 mm/2)

PL

M=

390.981 kN-m

4

4(390.981 kN-m)

Pmax

= 223.418 kN = 223 kN

7m

Ans.

(b) Ratio

ratio =

223.418 kN

=

= 2.43

P (without cover plates) 91.111 kN

Ans.

Section modulus of W410 60 without cover plates:

S = 1,060,000 mm3

I 565,618,666 mm 4

S= =

= 2,606,538 mm3

(434 mm/2)

c

2,606,538 mm3

ratio =

= 2.46

1,060,000 mm3

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

channel bolted to the top flange, as shown in Fig. P9.53. The beam

is simply supported at its ends and carries a concentrated load of

70 kN at the center of an 8-m span. If pairs of bolts are spaced at

500-mm intervals along the beam, determine:

(a) the shear force carried by each of the bolts.

(b) the bolt diameter required if the shear stress in the bolts must

be limited to 60 MPa.

Fig. P9.53

Solution

Centroid location in y direction:

Shape

Area Ai

(mm2)

7,550

5,680

13,230

W310 60

C250 45

y=

yi A i

A i

yi

(from bottom)

(mm)

151

302 + 17.1 16.5 = 302.6

2,858,818 mm3

= 216.086 mm

13,230 mm 2

= 103.014 mm

Shape

IC

(mm4)

W310 60

128,000,000

C250 45

1,640,000

yi Ai

(mm3)

1,140,050

1,718,768

2,858,818

d = yi y

dA

(mm)

(mm4)

65.086

31,983,215

86.5140

42,512,938

Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm4) =

IC + dA

(mm4)

159,983,315

44,152,938

204,136,153

V = P/2 = 70 kN/2 = 35 kN

(a) Shear force in each bolt

Consider the C250 45 shape, which is connected to the

W310 60 shape with two bolts:

Q = (5,680 mm 2 )(302.6 mm 216.086 mm)

= 491,399.5 mm3

VQ

I

(35,000 N)(491,399.5 mm3 )

=

204,136,153 mm 4

= 84.2525 N/mm

q=

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Relate the shear flow and the bolt shear force with Eq. (9.13):

q s nfVf

V f

=

= 21,063 N = 21.1 kN per bolt

nf

2 bolts

Ans.

V

V

21,063 N

bolt

Abolt bolt =

= 351.052 mm 2

2

Abolt

allow 60 N/mm

Abolt =

2

Dbolt

351.052 mm 2

Dbolt

4(351.052 mm 2 )

= 21.1 mm

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

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