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# 9.

## 38 A wooden beam is fabricated from one 2 8 and two 2 4 pieces

of dimension lumber to form the I-beam cross section shown in Fig.
P9.38. The flanges of the beam are fastened to the web with nails that
can safely transmit a force of 100 lb in direct shear. If the beam is
simply supported and carries a 1000-lb load at the center of a 12-ft span,
determine:
(a) the horizontal force transferred from each flange to the web in a 12in. long segment of the beam.
(b) the maximum spacing s (along the length of the beam) required for
the nails.
(c) the maximum horizontal shear stress in the I-beam.

Fig. P9.38

Solution
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
Shape
Width b
Height h
(in.)
(in.)
top flange
4
2
web
2
8
bottom flange
4
2

d = yi y
(in.)
5
0
5

IC
(in.4)
2.6667
85.3333
2.6667

dA
(in.4)
200.0000
0.0000
200.0000

IC + dA
(in.4)
202.6667
85.3333
202.6667
490.6667

## Maximum shear force

For P = 1,000 lb, V = P/2 = 500 lb
(a) Horizontal force transferred from each flange
(in a 12-in. length):
Q = (4 in.)(2 in.)(5 in.) = 40 in.3
q=

=
= 40.761 lb/in.
I
490.6667 in.4

Ans.

## (b) Maximum nail spacing:

q s nfVf
s

nfVf
q

(1 nail)(100 lb/nail)
= 2.45 in.
40.761 lb/in.

Ans.

## (c) Maximum horizontal shear stress:

Q = (4 in.)(2 in.)(5 in.) + (2 in.)(4 in.)(2 in.) = 56 in.3

## (500 lb)(56 in.3 )

= 28.5 psi
(490.6667 in.4 )(2 in.)

Ans.

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## 9.39 A wooden beam is fabricated from one 2 8 and two 2 4 pieces

of dimension lumber to form the I-beam cross section shown in Fig.
P9.39. The I-beam will be used as a simply supported beam to carry a
concentrated load P at the center of a 20-ft span. The wood has an
allowable bending stress of 1,200 psi and an allowable shear stress of 90
psi. The flanges of the beam are fastened to the web with nails that can
safely transmit a force of 100 lb in direct shear.
(a) If the nails are uniformly spaced at an interval of s = 3.5 in. along the
span, what is the maximum concentrated load P that can be supported by
the beam? Demonstrate that the bending and shear stresses produced by
P are acceptable.
(b) Determine the magnitude of load P that produces the allowable
bending stress in the span (i.e., b = 1,200 psi). What nail spacing s is
required to support this load magnitude?

Fig. P9.39

Solution
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
Shape
Width b
Height h
(in.)
(in.)
top flange
4
2
web
2
8
bottom flange
4
2

d = yi y
(in.)
5
0
5

IC
(in.4)
2.6667
85.3333
2.6667

dA
(in.4)
200.0000
0.0000
200.0000

IC + dA
(in.4)
202.6667
85.3333
202.6667
490.6667

## Maximum shear force

For P = 1,000 lb, V = P/2 = 500 lb
Q = (4 in.)(2 in.)(5 in.) = 40 in.3
q s nfVf

nfVf
s

(1 nail)(100 lb/nail)
= 28.571 lb/in.
3.5 in.

VQ
q=
I
q I (28.571 lb/in.)(490.6667 in.4 )
V =
=
= 350.5 lb
Q
40 in.3
P
Pmax = 701 lb
V=
Ans.
2

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(b) Magnitude of load P that produces the allowable bending stress in the span:
Mc
x =
1, 200 psi
I
(1, 200 psi)(490.6667 in.4 )
M
= 98,133.34 lb-in.
6 in.
PL
M max =
4
4 M max 4(98,133.34 lb-in.)
Pmax =
=
= 1,635.56 lb = 1,636 lb
L
(20 ft)(12 in./ft)

Ans.

## Required nail spacing s:

P
1,635.56 lb
= 817.78 lb
Vmax = max =
2
2
VQ (817.78 lb)(40 in.3 )
=
= 66.67 lb/in.
q=
490.6667 in.4
I
q s nfVf
s

nfVf
q

(1 nail)(100 lb)
= 1.500 in.
66.67 lb/in.

Ans.

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9.40 A wooden box beam is fabricated from four boards, which are fastened together with nails, as
shown in Fig. P9.40b. The nails are installed at a spacing of s = 125 mm (Fig. P9.40a), and each nail can
provide a resistance of Vf = 500 N. In service, the box beam will be installed so that bending occurs
about the z axis. Determine the maximum shear force V that can be supported by the box beam based on
the shear capacity of the nailed connections.

Fig. P9.40a

Fig. P9.40b

Solution
Moment of inertia Iz:
(200 mm)(250 mm)3 (120 mm)(200 mm)3
Iz =

= 180, 416,667 mm 4
12
12
First moment of area Q:
Q = (200 mm)(25 mm)(112.5 mm) = 562,500 mm3
Shear flow q based on nail shear force:
q s nfVf
q

nfVf
s

(2 nails)(500 N/nail)
= 8 N/mm
125 mm

## Maximum shear force V:

VQ
qI
(8 N/mm)(180,416,667 mm 4 )
q=
V = z =
= 2,566 N = 2.57 kN
Iz
Q
562,500 mm3

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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9.41 A wooden box beam is fabricated from four boards, which are fastened together with screws, as
shown in Fig. P9.41b. Each screw can provide a resistance of 800 N. In service, the box beam will be
installed so that bending occurs about the z axis, and the maximum shear force in the beam will be 7 kN.
Determine the maximum permissible spacing interval s for the screws (see Fig. P9.41a).

Fig. P9.41a

Fig. P9.41b

Solution
Moment of inertia Iz:
(190 mm)(250 mm)3 (140 mm)(150 mm)3
Iz =

= 208,020,833 mm 4
12
12
First moment of area Q:
Q = (140 mm)(50 mm)(100 mm) = 700,000 mm3
Shear flow q based on beam shear force V:
VQ (7,000 N)(750,000 mm3 )
q=
=
= 23.5553 N/mm
Iz
208,020,833 mm 4
Maximum spacing interval s:
q s nfVf
s

nfVf
q

(2 screws)(800 N/screw)
= 67.9 mm
23.5553 N/mm

Ans.

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9.42 A wooden beam is fabricated by nailing together three pieces of dimension lumber, as shown in
Fig. P9.42a. The cross-sectional dimensions of the beam are shown in Fig. P9.42b. The beam must
support an internal shear force of V = 600 lb.
(a) Determine the maximum horizontal shear stress in the cross section for V = 600 lb.
(b) If each nail can provide 120 lb of horizontal resistance, determine the maximum spacing s for the
nails.
(c) If the three boards were connected by glue instead of nails, what minimum shear strength would be
necessary for the glued joints?

Fig. P9.42a

Fig. P9.42b

Solution
Centroid location in y direction:

Shape

Width b
(in.)
2
4
2

left board
flange board
right board
y=

yi Ai
A i

Height h
(in.)
8
2
9

184 in.3
= 4.6 in.
40 in.2

Area Ai
(in.2)
16
8
16
40

yi
(from bottom)
(in.)
4
7
4

yi Ai
(in.3)
64
56
64
184

## (from bottom of shape to centroid)

= 3.4 in.
(from top of shape to centroid)
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
d = yi y
Shape
IC
dA
4
(in.)
(in.4)
(in. )
left board
85.3333
0.60
5.7600
flange board
2.6667
2.40
46.0800
right board
85.3333
0.60
5.7600
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.4) =

IC + dA
(in.4)
91.0933
48.7467
91.0933
230.9333

## (a) Maximum horizontal shear stress:

At neutral axis:
Q = 2(2 in.)(4.6 in.)(4.6 in./2) = 42.32 in.3

## (600 lb)(42.32 in.3 )

= 27.5 psi
(230.9333 in.4 )(4 in.)

Ans.

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## Shear flow q based on beam shear force V:

Q = (4 in.)(2 in.)(3.4 in. 1 in.) = 19.20 in.3
q=

=
= 49.8845 lb/in.
Iz
230.9333 in.4

## (b) Maximum spacing interval s:

q s nfVf
s

nfVf
q

(2 nails)(120 lb/nail)
= 4.81 in.
49.8845 lb/in.

## (c) Glue joint shear stress:

49.8845 lb/in.
=
= 12.47 psi
2(2 in.)

Ans.

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## 9.43 A wooden beam is fabricated by gluing four dimension lumber

boards, each 40-mm wide and 90-mm deep, to a 32 400 plywood
web, as shown in Fig. P9.43. Determine the maximum allowable
shear force and the maximum allowable bending moment that this
section can carry if the allowable bending stress is 6 MPa, the
allowable shear stress in the plywood is 640 kPa, and the allowable
shear stress in the glued joints is 250 kPa.

Fig. P9.43

Solution
Moment of inertia Iz:
(112 mm)(400 mm)3 (80 mm)(220 mm)3
Iz =

= 526,346,667 mm 4
12
12
Maximum allowable bending moment:
Mc
=
I
I (6 N/mm 2 )(526,346,667 mm 4 )
M max =
=
= 15,790, 400 N-mm = 15.79 kN-m
c
200 mm

Ans.

## Maximum allowable shear force:

Consider maximum shear stress, which occurs at the neutral axis:
Q = (32 mm)(200 mm)(100 mm) + 2(40 mm)(90 mm)(200 mm 90 mm/2) = 1,756,000 mm3

VQ
It

V=

It
Q

## (0.640 N/mm)(526,346,667 mm 4 )(32 mm)

= 6,138.7 N = 6.14 kN
1,756,000 mm3

(a)

## Consider shear stress in glue joints:

Q = (40 mm)(90 mm)(200 mm 90 mm/2) = 558,000 mm3
The shear stress in the glue joints can be found from the shear flow across the glue joint divided by the
width of the glue joint; thus,
q
VQ / I
glue =
=
tglue
tglue

glue I tglue

## (0.250 N/mm)(526,346,667 mm 4 )(90 mm)

= 21,224 N = 21.2 kN
Q
558,000 mm3
Compare results (a) and (b) to find that the maximum allowable shear force for the section is:
Vmax = 6.14 kN
V =

(b)
Ans.

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## 9.44 A wooden beam is fabricated from one 2 12 and two 2 8

dimension lumber boards to form the double-tee cross section
shown in Fig. P9.44. The beam flange is fastened to the stem with
nails. Each nail can safely transmit a force of 150 lb in direct shear.
The allowable shear stress of the wood is 75 psi.
(a) If the nails are uniformly spaced at an interval of s = 4 in. along
the span, what is the maximum internal shear force V that can be
supported by the double-tee cross section?
(b) What nail spacing s would be necessary to develop the full
strength of the double-tee shape in shear? (Full strength means that
the maximum horizontal shear stress in the double-tee shape equals
the allowable shear stress of the wood.)

Fig. P9.44

Solution
Centroid location in y direction:

Shape

Width b
(in.)
12
2
2

top flange
left stem
right stem
y=

yi Ai
A i

Height h
(in.)
2
8
8

344 in.3
= 6.1429 in.
56 in.2

Area Ai
(in.2)
24
16
16
56

yi
(from bottom)
(in.)
9
4
4

yi Ai
(in.3)
216
64
64
344

## (from bottom of shape to centroid)

= 3.8571 in.
(from top of shape to centroid)
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
d = yi y
Shape
dA
IC
4
(in.)
(in.4)
(in. )
left board
8.0000
2.8571
195.9184
flange board
85.3333
2.1429
73.4694
right board
85.3333
2.1429
73.4694
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.4) =

IC + dA
(in.4)
203.9184
158.8027
158.8027
521.5238

## (a) Maximum shear force for s = 4 in.:

Q = (12 in.)(2 in.)(3.8571 in. 2 in./2) = 68.5704 in.3

(2 nails)(150 lb/nail)
= 75 lb/in.
4 in.
VQ
q I (75 lb/in.)(521.5238 in.4 )
V =
=
= 570 lb
q=
I
Q
68.5704 in.3
q=

Ans.

## (a) Full strength of double tee shape (in shear):

At neutral axis:
Q = 2(2 in.)(6.1429 in.)(6.1429 in./2) = 75.4704 in.3

VQ
It

Vmax =

It
Q

## (75 psi)(521.5238 in.4 )(2 2 in.)

= 2,073.1 lb
75.4704 in.3

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Consider nailed portion (i.e., top flange only) to establish required nail spacing:
V Q (2,073.1 lb)(68.5704 in.3 )
=
= 272.57 lb/in.
q=
I
521.5238 in.4
q s nfVf
smax

nfVf
q

(2 nails)(150 lb/nail)
= 1.101 in.
272.57 lb/in.

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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9.45 A box beam is fabricated from two plywood webs that are
secured to dimension lumber boards at its top and bottom flanges
(Fig. P9.45b). The beam supports a concentrated load of P = 5,000 lb
at the center of a 15-ft span (Fig. P9.45a). Bolts (-in. diameter)
connect the plywood webs and the lumber flanges at a spacing of s =
12 in. along the span. Supports A and C can be idealized as a pin and
a roller, respectively. Determine:
(a) the maximum horizontal shear stress in the plywood webs.
(b) the shear stress in the bolts.
(c) the maximum bending stress in the lumber flanges.

Fig. P9.45a

Fig. P9.45b

Solution
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
d = yi y
Shape
IC
dA
4
(in. )
(in.)
(in.4)
left web
576
0
0
top flange
16
10
1,200
bottom flange
16
10
1,200
right web
576
0
0
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.4) =

IC + dA
(in.4)
576
1,216
1,216
576
3,584

## Maximum shear force:

For P = 5,000 lb, V = P/2 = 2,500 lb
Maximum bending moment:
For P = 5,000 lb, M = PL/4 = 18,750 lb-ft = 225,000 lb-in.
(a) Maximum horizontal shear stress (in plywood webs):
Q = (3 in.)(4 in.)(10 in.)

## +2(0.5 in.)(12 in.)(6 in.) = 192 in.3

VQ
(2,500 lb)(192 in.3 )
=
= 133.9 psi
I t (3,584 in.4 )(2 0.5 in.)

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## (b) Bolt shear stress:

Consider the dimension lumber boards that comprise the top flange.
Qflange = (3 in.)(4 in.)(10 in.) = 120 in.3
VQflange

## (2,500 lb)(120 in.3 )

= 83.7054 lb/in.
3,584 in.4
I
Determine the force carried by one bolt:
q s nfVf
q=

V f

## q s (83.7054 lb/in.)(12 in.)

=
= 1,004.4643 lb/bolt
1 bolt
nf

## (0.375 in.) 2 = 0.110447 in.2

4
Each bolt acts in double shear; therefore, the shear stress in each bolt is:
1,004.4643 lb/bolt
bolt =
= 4,547.284 psi = 4,550 psi
2(0.110447 in.2 )
Abolt =

## (c) Maximum bending stress in lumber flanges:

M c (225,000 lb-in.)(12 in.)
=
=
= 753 psi
3,584 in.4
I

Ans.

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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9.46 A box beam is fabricated from two plywood webs that are secured to
dimension lumber boards at its top and bottom flanges (Fig. P9.46b). The
lumber has an allowable bending stress of 1,500 psi. The plywood has an
allowable shear stress of 300 psi. The -in. diameter bolts have an
allowable shear stress of 6,000 psi, and they are spaced at intervals of
s = 9 in. The beam span is L = 15 ft (Fig. P9.46a). Support A can be
assumed to be pinned and support C can be idealized as a roller.
(a) Determine the maximum load P that can be applied to the beam at
midspan.
(b) Report the bending stress in the lumber, the shear stress in the
plywood, and the shear stress in the bolts at the load P determined in part
(a).

Fig. P9.46a

Fig. P9.46b

Solution
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
d = yi y
Shape
IC
dA
4
(in. )
(in.)
(in.4)
left web
576
0
0
top flange
16
10
1,200
bottom flange
16
10
1,200
right web
576
0
0
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.4) =

IC + dA
(in.4)
576
1,216
1,216
576
3,584

## Maximum shear force:

V = P/2
Maximum bending moment:
M = PL/4
Consider maximum bending stress:
Mc
=
1,500 psi
I
(1,500 psi)(3,584 in.4 )
M
= 448,000 lb-in.
12 in.
PL
M=
448,000 lb-in.
4
4(448,000 lb-in.)
Pmax
= 9,956 lb
(15 ft)(12 in./ft)

(a)

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## Consider maximum horizontal shear stress (in plywood webs):

Q = (3 in.)(4 in.)(10 in.) + 2(0.5 in.)(12 in.)(6 in.) = 192 in.3
VQ
300 psi
=
It
Vmax
Vmax =
Pmax

## (300 psi)(3,584 in.4 )(2 0.5 in.)

= 5,600 lb
192 in.3

P
2
2Vmax = 2(5,600 lb) = 11, 200 lb

(b)

## Consider bolt shear stress:

The bolt cross-sectional area is:
Abolt =

## (0.375 in.) 2 = 0.110447 in.2

4
Each bolt acts in double shear; therefore, the maximum shear force that can be carried by one bolt is:
Vbolt = 2(0.110447 in.2 )(6,000 psi) = 1,325.364 lb
Determine the shear flow that can be allowed based on the bolt shear stress:
q s nfVf
nfVf

(1 bolt)(1,325.364 lb/bolt)
= 147.263 lb/in.
s
9 in.
Consider the dimension lumber boards that comprise the top flange.
Qflange = (3 in.)(4 in.)(10 in.) = 120 in.3
q

q=

VQflange
I

Vmax =
Vmax =
Pmax

qI
(147.263 lb/in.)(3,584 in.4 )
=
= 4,398.245 lb
Qflange
120 in.3

P
2
2Vmax = 2(4,398.245 lb) = 8,796 lb

Compare the three values obtained for Pmax in Eqs. (a), (b), and (c) to find
Pmax = 8,796 lb = 8.80 kips

(c)

Ans.

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## (b) Bending stress in lumber flanges for Pmax:

PL (8,796 lb)(15 ft)
M=
=
= 32,985 lb-ft
4
4
M c (32,985 lb-ft)(12 in.)(12 in./ft)
=
=
= 1,325 psi
I
3,584 in.4
Maximum shear stress in plywood webs:
P 8,796 lb
= 4,398 lb
V= =
2
2
VQ
(4,398 lb)(192 in.3 )
=
=
= 236 psi
I t (3,584 in.4 )(2 0.5 in.)
Bolt shear stress:
bolt = 6,000 psi

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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9.47 A wooden beam is fabricated from three boards, which are fastened together with screws, as shown
in Fig. P9.47b. The screws are uniformly spaced along the span of the beam at intervals of 150 mm (see
Fig. P9.47a). In service, the beam will be positioned so that bending occurs about the z axis. The
maximum bending moment in the beam is Mz = 4.50 kN-m, and the maximum shear force in the beam
is Vy = 2.25 kN. Determine:
(a) the magnitude of the maximum horizontal shear stress in the beam.
(b) the shear force in each screw.
(c) the magnitude of the maximum bending stress in the beam.

Fig. P9.47b

Fig. P9.47a

Solution
Centroid location in y direction:

Shape
left board
bottom board
right board
yi Ai

Width b
(mm)
40
140
40

Height h
(mm)
180
40
180

1, 408,000 mm3
=
= 70.4 mm
y=
A i
20,000 mm 2

Area Ai
(mm2)
7,200
5,600
7,200
20,000

yi
(from bottom)
(mm)
90
20
90

yi Ai
(mm3)
648,000
112,000
648,000
1,408,000

## (from bottom of shape to centroid)

= 109.6 mm
(from top of shape to centroid)
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
d = yi y
Shape
IC
dA
4
(mm)
(mm4)
(mm )
left board
19,440,000.00
19.60
2,765,952.00
bottom board
746,666.67
50.40
14,224,896.00
right board
19,440,000.00
19.60
2,765,952.00
Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm4) =

IC + dA
(mm4)
22,205,952.00
14,971,562.67
22,205,952.00
59,383,466.67

## (a) Maximum horizontal shear stress:

At neutral axis:
Q = 2(40 mm)(109.6 mm)(109.6 mm/2) = 480,486.4 mm3

VQ
(2, 250 N)(480,486.4 mm3 )
=
= 0.2276 MPa = 228 kPa
=
It
(59,383,466.67 mm 4 )(2 40 mm)

Ans.

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## (b) Shear force in each screw

Consider bottom board, which is held in place by two screws:
Q = (140 mm)(40 mm)(70.4 mm 40 mm/2) = 282,240 mm3

## V Q (2, 250 N)(282, 240 mm3 )

=
= 10.6939 N/mm
I
59,383,466.67 mm 4
q s nfVf
q=

V f =

## q s (10.6939 N/mm)(150 mm)

=
= 802 N per screw
nf
2 screws

## (c) Maximum bending stress:

M y
(4.50 106 N-mm)(109.6 mm)
x = z =
= 8.31 MPa (T)
Iz
59,383,466.67 mm 4

Ans.

Ans.

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## 9.48 A wooden beam is fabricated by bolting together three

members, as shown in Fig. P9.48a. The cross-sectional
dimensions are shown in Fig. P9.48b. The 8-mm-diameter
bolts are spaced at intervals of s = 200 mm along the x axis
of the beam. If the internal shear force in the beam is V = 7
kN, determine the shear stress in each bolt.

Fig. P9.48a

Fig. P9.48b

Solution
Centroid location in y direction:

Shape

Width b
(mm)
40
40
40

left board
center board
right board

y=

yi Ai
A i

Height h
(mm)
90
300
90

3,636,000 mm3
= 189.375 mm
19,200 mm 2
= 110.625 mm

Shape
IC
(mm4)
left board
2,430,000
center board
90,000,000
right board
2,430,000

Area Ai
(mm2)
3,600
12,000
3,600
19,200

yi
(from bottom)
(mm)
255
150
255

yi Ai
(mm3)
918,000
1,800,000
918,000
3,636,000

## (from bottom of shape to centroid)

(from top of shape to centroid)

d = yi y
IC + dA
dA
4
(mm)
(mm )
(mm4)
65.625
15,503,906.25
17,933,906.25
-39.375
18,604,687.50
108,604,687.50
65.625
15,503,906.25
17,933,906.25
4
Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm ) = 144,472,500.00

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## Shear force in each bolt

Consider left board, which is held in place by the bolt:
Q = (40 mm)(90 mm)(110.625 mm 90 mm/2) = 236, 250 mm3

## V Q (7,000 N)(236, 250 mm3 )

=
= 11.4468 N/mm
I
144,472,500 mm 4
Note that this value of q is the shear flow that must be transmitted by one surface of the bolt cross
section. The cross-sectional area of the bolt is:
q=

Abolt =

(8 mm) 2 = 50.2655 mm 2

4
Relate the shear flow and the bolt shear stress with Eq. (9.14):
q s n f f Af
f =

## (11.4468 N/mm)(200 mm)

qs
=
= 45.5 MPa
n f Af (1 bolt surface)(50.2655 mm 2 )

Ans.

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## 9.49 A wooden beam is fabricated by bolting together three

members, as shown in Fig. P9.49a. The cross-sectional
dimensions are shown in Fig. P9.49b. The allowable shear stress
of the wood is 850 kPa, and the allowable shear stress of the 10mm-diameter bolts is 40 MPa. Determine:
(a) the maximum internal shear force V that the cross section can
withstand based on the allowable shear stress in the wood.
(b) the maximum bolt spacing s required to develop the internal
shear force computed in part (a).

Fig. P9.49a

Fig. P9.49b

Solution
Centroid location in y direction:

Shape

Width b
(mm)
40
40
40

left board
center board
right board

y=

yi Ai
A i

Height h
(mm)
90
300
90

3,636,000 mm3
= 189.375 mm
19,200 mm 2
= 110.625 mm

Shape
IC
(mm4)
left board
2,430,000
center board
90,000,000
right board
2,430,000

Area Ai
(mm2)
3,600
12,000
3,600
19,200

yi
(from bottom)
(mm)
255
150
255

yi Ai
(mm3)
918,000
1,800,000
918,000
3,636,000

## (from bottom of shape to centroid)

(from top of shape to centroid)

d = yi y
IC + dA
dA
(mm)
(mm4)
(mm4)
65.625
15,503,906.25
17,933,906.25
-39.375
18,604,687.50
108,604,687.50
65.625
15,503,906.25
17,933,906.25
4
Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm ) = 144,472,500.00

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## Consider maximum horizontal shear stress:

Q = (40 mm)(189.375 mm)(189.375 mm/2) = 717, 257.813 mm3

VQ
850 kPa = 0.850 MPa
It

Vmax

## (0.850 N/mm 2 )(144,472,500 mm 4 )(40 mm)

= 6,848.4 N = 6.85 kN
717, 257.813 mm3

Ans.

## Maximum bolt spacing

Consider left board, which is held in place by the bolt:
Q = (40 mm)(90 mm)(110.625 mm 90 mm/2) = 236, 250 mm3

## V Q (6,848.4 N)(236, 250 mm3 )

=
= 11.1989 N/mm
144,472,500 mm 4
I
Note that this value of q is the shear flow that must be transmitted by one surface of the bolt cross
section. The cross-sectional area of the bolt is:
q=

Abolt =

## (10 mm) 2 = 78.5398 mm 2

4
Relate the shear flow and the bolt shear stress with Eq. (9.14):
q s n f f Af
s

n f f Af
q

## (1 bolt surface)(40 N/mm 2 )(78.5398 mm 2 )

= 281 mm
11.1989 N/mm

Ans.

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9.50 A cantilever flexural member is fabricated by bolting two identical coldrolled steel channels back-to-back, as shown in Fig. P9.50a. The cantilever
beam has a span of L = 1,600 mm and supports a concentrated load of P = 600
N. The cross-sectional dimensions of the built-up shape are shown in Fig.
P9.50b. The effect of the rounded corners can be neglected in determining the
section properties for the built-up shape.
(a) If 4-mm-diameter bolts are installed at intervals of s = 75 mm, determine the
shear stress produced in the bolts.
(b) If the allowable shear stress in the bolts is 96 MPa, determine the minimum
bolt diameter required if a spacing of s = 400 mm is used.

Fig. P9.50a
Fig. P9.50b

Solution
Centroid location in y direction for a single channel shape:

Shape

Width b
(mm)
3
59
3

left element
center element
right element
y=

yi Ai
A i

Height h
(mm)
40
3
40

5,065.5 mm3
= 12.1475 mm
417 mm 2

Area Ai
(mm2)
120
177
120
417

yi
(from bottom)
(mm)
20
1.5
20

yi Ai
(mm3)
2400
265.5
2400
5065.5

## Moment of inertia (both channels):

(3 mm)(40 mm)3 (65 mm 2(3 mm))(3 mm)3
4
I = 2 2
+
= 257,062 mm
3
3

Shear flow:
Q = (12.1475 mm)(417 mm 2 ) = 5,065.51 mm3

## VQ (600 N)(5,065.51 mm3 )

=
= 11.8232 N/mm
257,062 mm 4
I
Bolt area:
q=

(4 mm) 2 = 12.5664 mm 2
4
(a) Bolt shear stress:
q s n f f Af
Abolt =

f =

## (11.8232 N/mm)(75 mm)

qs
=
= 70.6 MPa
n f Af (1 bolt surface)(12.5664 mm 2 )

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## (b) Minimum bolt diameter for s = 400 mm:

q s n f f Af

Af
Abolt =
Dbolt

qs
(11.8232 N/mm)(400 mm)
=
= 49.2633 mm 2
2
n f f (1 bolt surface)(96 N/mm )

D 2 49.2633 mm 2
4(49.2633 mm 2 )

= 7.92 mm

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## 9.51 A W310 60 steel beam (see Appendix B) in an existing

structure is to be strengthened by adding a 250 mm wide by 16
mm thick cover plate to its lower flange, as shown in Fig.
P9.51. The cover plate is attached to the lower flange by pairs
of 24-mm-diameter bolts spaced at intervals of s along the
beam span. Bending occurs about the z centroidal axis.
(a) If the allowable bolt shear stress is 96 MPa, determine the
maximum bolt spacing interval s required to support an internal
shear force in the beam of V = 50 kN.
(b) If the allowable bending stress is 150 MPa, determine the
allowable bending moment for the existing W310 60 shape,
the allowable bending moment for the W310 60 with the
added cover plate, and the percentage increase in moment
capacity that is gained by adding the cover plate.

Fig. P9.51

Solution
Centroid location in y direction:

Shape

Width b
(mm)
250

W310 60
cover plate
y=

yi A i
A i

Height h
(mm)
16

1, 292,850 mm3
= 111.935 mm
11,550 mm 2

Area Ai
(mm2)
7,550
4,000
11,550

yi
(from bottom)
(mm)
167
8

yi Ai
(mm3)
1,260,850
32,000
1,292,850

## (from bottom of shape to centroid)

= 206.065 mm
(from top of shape to centroid)
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
d = yi y
Shape
IC + dA
IC
dA
4
(mm )
(mm)
(mm4)
(mm4)
W310 60
128,000,000
55.065
22,892,764
150,892,764
cover plate
85,333.33
103.935
43,209,937
43,295,270
4
194,188,035
Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm ) =

## (a) Maximum bolt spacing

Consider the cover plate, which is connected to the W310 60 shape with two bolts:
Q = (250 mm)(16 mm)(111.935 mm 16 mm/2) = 415,740 mm3

## V Q (50,000 N)(415,740 mm3 )

=
= 107.0457 N/mm
194,188,035 mm 4
I
The cross-sectional area of a 24-mm-diameter bolt is:
q=

## (24 mm) 2 = 452.389 mm 2

4
Relate the shear flow and the bolt shear stress with Eq. (9.14):
q s n f f Af
Abolt =

n f f Af
q

## (2 bolts)(96 N/mm 2 )(452.389 mm 2 )

=
= 811 mm
107.0457 N/mm

Ans.

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(b) Allowable bending moment for W310 60 shape (without cover plate):
Mc
=
150 MPa
I
(150 N/mm 2 )(128,000,000 mm 4 )
M allow =
= 127,152,318 N-mm = 127.2 kN-m
(302 mm/2)
Allowable bending moment for W310 60 shape (with cover plate):
Mc
=
150 MPa
I
(150 N/mm 2 )(194,188,035 mm 4 )
M allow =
= 141,354, 452 N-mm = 141.4 kN-m
(206.065 mm)
Percentage increase in moment capacity:
141,354, 452 N-mm 127,152,318 N-mm
% increase =
(100%) = 11.17%
127,152,318 N-mm

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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9.52 A W410 60 steel beam (see Appendix B) is simply supported at its ends and carries a
concentrated load P at the center of a 7-m span. The W410 60 shape will be strengthened by adding
two 250 mm wide by 16 mm thick cover plate to its flanges, as shown in Fig. P9.52. Each cover plate is
attached to its flange by pairs of 20-mm-diameter bolts spaced at intervals of s along the beam span. The
allowable bending stress is 150 MPa, the allowable shear stress in the bolts is 96 MPa, and bending
occurs about the z centroidal axis.
(a) Based on the 150 MPa allowable bending stress, determine the
maximum concentrated load P that may be applied at the center of
a 7-m span for a W410 60 steel beam without cover plates and
with two cover plates.
(b) Compute the ratio between P (with cover plates) and P
(without cover plates).
(c) Compute the section modulus of the W410 60 shape with
two cover plates. Then, compute the ratio between the section
moduli for the strengthened and the original cross sections.
Compare this ratio to the ratio computed in part (b).
(d) For the internal shear force V associated with the concentrated
load P determined in part (a), compute the maximum spacing
interval s required for the bolts that attach the cover plates to the
Fig. P9.52
flanges.

Solution
Moment of inertia about the z axis (with cover plates):
d = yi y
Shape
IC
dA
4
(mm )
(mm)
(mm4)
top cover plate
85,333.33
209
174,724,000
W410 60
216,000,000
0
0
bottom cover plate
85,333.33
209
174,724,000
Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm4) =

IC + dA
(mm4)
174,809,333
216,000,000
174,809,333
565,618,666

## Maximum shear force:

V = P/2
Maximum bending moment:
M = PL/4
Consider W410 60 without cover plates:
Mc
=
150 MPa
I
(150 N/mm 2 )(216,000,000 mm3 )
M allow =
(402 mm/2)
= 161,194,030 N-mm = 161.194 kN-m
PL
M=
161.194 kN-m
4
4(161.194 kN-m)
Pmax
= 91.111 kN = 92.1 kN
7m

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## Consider W410 60 with two cover plates:

Mc
=
150 MPa
I
(150 N/mm 2 )(565,618,666 mm3 )
M allow =
= 390,980,645 N-mm = 390.981 kN-m
(434 mm/2)
PL
M=
390.981 kN-m
4
4(390.981 kN-m)
Pmax
= 223.418 kN = 223 kN
7m

Ans.

(b) Ratio

ratio =

## P (with cover plates)

223.418 kN
=
= 2.43
P (without cover plates) 91.111 kN

Ans.

## (c) Section moduli comparison

Section modulus of W410 60 without cover plates:
S = 1,060,000 mm3

## Section modulus of W410 60 with two cover plates:

I 565,618,666 mm 4
S= =
= 2,606,538 mm3
(434 mm/2)
c
2,606,538 mm3
ratio =
= 2.46
1,060,000 mm3

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## 9.53 A W310 60 steel beam (see Appendix B) has a C250 45

channel bolted to the top flange, as shown in Fig. P9.53. The beam
is simply supported at its ends and carries a concentrated load of
70 kN at the center of an 8-m span. If pairs of bolts are spaced at
500-mm intervals along the beam, determine:
(a) the shear force carried by each of the bolts.
(b) the bolt diameter required if the shear stress in the bolts must
be limited to 60 MPa.

Fig. P9.53

Solution
Centroid location in y direction:

Shape

Area Ai
(mm2)
7,550
5,680
13,230

W310 60
C250 45

y=

yi A i
A i

yi
(from bottom)
(mm)
151
302 + 17.1 16.5 = 302.6

2,858,818 mm3
= 216.086 mm
13,230 mm 2

= 103.014 mm

Shape
IC
(mm4)
W310 60
128,000,000
C250 45
1,640,000

yi Ai
(mm3)
1,140,050
1,718,768
2,858,818

## (from top of shape to centroid)

d = yi y
dA
(mm)
(mm4)
65.086
31,983,215
86.5140
42,512,938
Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm4) =

IC + dA
(mm4)
159,983,315
44,152,938
204,136,153

## Maximum shear force:

V = P/2 = 70 kN/2 = 35 kN
(a) Shear force in each bolt
Consider the C250 45 shape, which is connected to the
W310 60 shape with two bolts:
Q = (5,680 mm 2 )(302.6 mm 216.086 mm)
= 491,399.5 mm3
VQ
I
(35,000 N)(491,399.5 mm3 )
=
204,136,153 mm 4
= 84.2525 N/mm

q=

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Relate the shear flow and the bolt shear force with Eq. (9.13):
q s nfVf
V f

## q s (84.2525 N/mm)(500 mm)

=
= 21,063 N = 21.1 kN per bolt
nf
2 bolts

Ans.

## (b) Required bolt diameter

V
V
21,063 N
bolt
Abolt bolt =
= 351.052 mm 2
2
Abolt
allow 60 N/mm
Abolt =

2
Dbolt
351.052 mm 2

Dbolt

4(351.052 mm 2 )

= 21.1 mm

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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