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12.9 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed body.

Determine the normal and shear stresses at this point on the inclined
plane shown.

Fig. P12.9

Solution
The given stress values are:
x = 4, 200 psi, y = 1,800 psi, xy = 0 psi, = +50

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] gives n:


n = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (4, 200 psi) cos 2 (50) + (1,800 psi)sin 2 (50) + 2(0 psi) sin(50) cos(50)
= 2, 791.6222 psi = 2, 790 psi (T)

Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives nt:


nt = ( x y ) sin cos + xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
= [(4, 200 psi) (1,800 psi)]sin(50) cos(50) + (0 psi)[cos 2 (50) sin 2 (50)]
= 1,181.7693 psi = 1,182 psi

Ans.

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12.10 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a


stressed body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this
point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.10

Solution
The given stress values are:
x = 90 MPa, y = 140 MPa, xy = 0 MPa, = +65
The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] gives n:
n = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (90 MPa) cos 2 (65) + (140 MPa) sin 2 (65) + 2(0 MPa)sin(65) cos(65)
= 131.0697 MPa = 131.1 MPa (C)

Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives nt:


nt = ( x y ) sin cos + xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
= [(90 MPa) (140 MPa)]sin(65) cos(65) + (0 MPa)[cos 2 (65) sin 2 (65)]
= 19.1511 MPa = 19.15 MPa

Ans.

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12.11 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed


body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this point on the
inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.11

Solution
The given stress values are:
x = 5.5 ksi, y = 18.7 ksi, xy = 0 ksi, = 20
The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] gives n:
n = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (5.5 ksi) cos 2 (20) + (18.7 ksi)sin 2 (20) + 2(0 ksi) sin(20) cos(20)
= 2.6691 ksi = 2.67 ksi (C)

Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives nt:


nt = ( x y ) sin cos + xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
= [(5.5 ksi) (18.7 ksi)]sin(20) cos(20) + (0 ksi)[cos 2 (20) sin 2 (20)]
= 7.7777 ksi = 7.78 ksi

Ans.

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12.12 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a


stressed body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this
point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.12

Solution
The given stress values are:
x = 17, 700 psi, y = 12,500 psi, xy = 0 psi, = 60
The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] gives n:
n = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (17, 700 psi) cos 2 (60) + (12,500 psi)sin 2 (60) + 2(0 psi) sin(60) cos(60)
= 4,950.0000 psi = 4,950 psi (C)

Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives nt:


nt = ( x y ) sin cos + xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
= [(17, 700 psi) (12,500 psi)]sin(60) cos(60) + (0 psi)[cos 2 (60) sin 2 (60)]
= 13,076.9836 psi = 13, 080 psi

Ans.

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12.13 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a


stressed body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this
point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.13

Solution
The given stress values are:
x = 8 ksi, y = 6 ksi, xy = 10 ksi, = 75
The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] gives n:
n = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (8) cos 2 (75) + (6 ksi)sin 2 (75) + 2(10 ksi)sin(75) cos(75)
= 10.0622 ksi = 10.06 ksi (T)

Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives nt:


nt = ( x y ) sin cos + xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
= [(8 ksi) (6 ksi)]sin(75) cos(75) + (10 ksi)[cos 2 (75) sin 2 (75)]
= 5.1603 ksi = 5.16 ksi

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.14 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a


stressed body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this
point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.14

Solution
The given stress values are:
x = 82 MPa, y = 48 MPa, xy = 26 MPa, = 25
The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] gives n:
n = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (82 MPa) cos 2 (25) + (48 MPa)sin 2 (25) + 2(26 MPa) sin( 25) cos( 25)
= 95.8445 MPa = 95.8 MPa (T)

Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives nt:


nt = ( x y ) sin cos + xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
= [(82 MPa) (48 MPa)]sin( 25) cos( 25) + ( 26 MPa)[cos 2 (25) sin 2 (25)]
= 3.6897 MPa = 3.69 MPa

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.15 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a


stressed body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this
point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.15

Solution
The given stress values are:
x = 108 MPa, y = 14 MPa, xy = 72 MPa, = 50
The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] gives n:
n = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (108 MPa) cos 2 (50) + (14 MPa)sin 2 (50) + 2(72 MPa) sin(50) cos(50)
= 34.4987 MPa = 34.5 MPa (C)

Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives nt:


nt = ( x y ) sin cos + xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
= [(108 MPa) ( 14 MPa)]sin(50) cos(50) + ( 72 MPa)[cos 2 (50) sin 2 (50)]
= 47.5706 MPa = 47.6 MPa

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.16 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed


body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this point on
the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.16

Solution
The given stress values are:
x = 2,150 psi, y = 860 psi, xy = 1, 460 psi, = 40
The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] gives n:
n = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (2,150 psi) cos 2 (40) + (860 psi)sin 2 (40) + 2(1, 460 psi) sin( 40) cos( 40)
= 531.4788 psi = 531 psi (T)

Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives nt:


nt = ( x y ) sin cos + xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
= [(2,150 psi) (860 psi)]sin(40) cos(40) + (1, 460 psi)[cos 2 (40) sin 2 (40)]
= 1, 735.6620 psi = 1, 736 psi

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.17 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed


body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this point on
the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.17

Solution
The given stress values are:
x = 18 MPa, y = 42 MPa, xy = 30 MPa, = 68.1986
The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] gives n:
n = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (18 MPa) cos 2 (68.1986) + (42 MPa) sin 2 (68.1986)
+2(30 MPa)sin(68.1986) cos(68.1986)
= 13.0345 MPa = 13.03 MPa (C)

Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives nt:


nt = ( x y ) sin cos + xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
= [(18 MPa) (42 MPa)]sin(68.1986) cos(68.1986)
+ (30 MPa)[cos 2 (68.1986) sin 2 (68.1986)]
= 42.4138 MPa = 42.4 MPa

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.18 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a


stressed body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this
point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.18

Solution
The given stress values are:
x = 24 MPa, y = 80 MPa, xy = 32 MPa, = 33.6901
The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] gives n:
n = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (24 MPa) cos 2 (33.6901) + (80 MPa) sin 2 (33.6901)
+2(32 MPa)sin(33.6901) cos(33.6901)
= 70.7693 MPa = 70.8 MPa (T)

Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives nt:


nt = ( x y ) sin cos + xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
= [(24 MPa) (80 MPa)]sin( 33.6901) cos(33.6901)
+ (32 MPa)[cos 2 (33.6901) sin 2 (33.6901)]
= 38.1538 MPa = 38.2 MPa

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.19 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a


stressed body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this
point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.19

Solution
The given stress values are:
x = 3,800 psi, y = 2,500 psi, xy = 8, 200 psi, = 59.0362
The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] gives n:
n = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (3,800 psi) cos 2 (59.0362) + (2,500 psi)sin 2 (59.0362)
+2(8, 200 psi)sin(59.0362) cos(59.0362)
= 10,079.4185 psi = 10, 080 psi (C)

Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives nt:


nt = ( x y ) sin cos + xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
= [(3,800 psi) (2,500 psi)]sin(59.0362) cos(59.0362)
+ (8, 200 psi)[cos 2 (59.0362) sin 2 (59.0362)]
= 4, 432.3424 psi = 4, 430 psi

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.20 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed


body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this point on the
inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.20

Solution
The given stress values are:
x = 3.8 ksi, y = 9.4 ksi, xy = 5.7 ksi, = 38.6598
The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] gives n:
n = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (3.8) cos 2 (38.6598) + (9.4 ksi) sin 2 (38.6598)
+2(5.7 ksi)sin(38.6598) cos(38.6598)
= 6.9122 ksi = 6.91 ksi (T)

Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives nt:


nt = ( x y ) sin cos + xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
= [(3.8 ksi) (9.4 ksi)]sin(38.6598) cos(38.6598)
+ (5.7 ksi)[cos 2 (38.6598) sin 2 (38.6598)]
= 7.6902 ksi = 7.69 ksi

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.21 The stresses shown in Fig.


P12.21a act at a point on the free
surface of a stressed body.
Determine the normal stresses n
and t and the shear stress nt at
this point if they act on the rotated
stress element shown in Fig.
P12.21b.

(a)

(b)
Fig. P12.21

Solution
The given stress values are:
x = 50 MPa, y = 15 MPa, xy = 40 MPa, = 36
The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] gives n:
n = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (50 MPa) cos 2 (36) + (15 MPa)sin 2 (36) + 2(40 MPa) sin( 36) cos( 36)
= 65.5853 MPa = 65.6 MPa (T)

Ans.

To find t, add 90 to the value of used in Eq. (12-3):


t = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (50 MPa) cos 2 ( 36 + 90) + (15 MPa)sin 2 ( 36 + 90)
+2(40 MPa)sin(36 + 90) cos(36 + 90)
= (50 MPa) cos 2 (54) + (15 MPa) sin 2 (54) + 2( 40 MPa)sin(54) cos(54)
= 30.5853 MPa = 30.6 MPa (C)

Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives nt:


nt = ( x y ) sin cos + xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
= [(50 MPa) (15 MPa)]sin( 36) cos( 36) + (40 MPa)[cos 2 ( 36) sin 2 (36)]
= 18.5487 MPa = 18.55 MPa

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.22 The stresses shown in


Fig. P12.22a act at a point on the
free surface of a stressed body.
Determine the normal stresses n
and t and the shear stress nt at
this point if they act on the
rotated stress element shown in
Fig. P12.22b.

(a)

(b)
Fig. P12.22

Solution
The given stress values are:
x = 1, 200 psi, y = 700 psi, xy = 400 psi, = 20
The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] gives n:
n = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (1, 200 psi) cos 2 (20) + (700 psi)sin 2 (20) + 2(400 psi)sin(20) cos(20)
= 1,398.6262 psi = 1,399 psi (T)

Ans.

To find t, add 90 to the value of used in Eq. (12-3):


n = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos

= (1, 200 psi) cos 2 (20 + 90) + (700 psi)sin 2 (20 + 90)
+2(400 psi) sin(20 + 90) cos(20 + 90)
= (1, 200 psi) cos 2 (110) + (700 psi) sin 2 (110) + 2(400 psi) sin(110) cos(110)
= 501.3738 psi = 501 psi (T)

Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives nt:


nt = ( x y ) sin cos + xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
= [(1, 200 psi) (700 psi)]sin(20) cos(20) + (400 psi)[cos 2 (20) sin 2 (20)]
= 145.7209 psi = 145.7 psi

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.23 The stresses shown in Fig.


P12.23 act at a point on the free
surface of a machine component.
Determine the normal stresses x and
y and the shear stress xy at the point.

Fig. P12.23

Solution
Redefine the axes, calling the rotated axes x and y. The angle from the rotated element to the unrotated
element is now a positive value (since it is counterclockwise). Thus, the given stress values can be
expressed as:
x = 35 MPa, y = 27 MPa, xy = 50 MPa, = 30
The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] gives n, which is actually the normal stress in
the horizontal direction (i.e., the original x direction) on the unrotated element:
n = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (35 MPa) cos 2 (30) + (27 MPa) sin 2 (30) + 2( 50 MPa)sin(30) cos(30)
= 23.8013 MPa = 23.8 MPa (C)

Ans.

To find t, which is actually the normal stress in the vertical direction (i.e., the original y direction) on
the unrotated element, add 90 to the value of used in Eq. (12-3):
t = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (35 MPa) cos 2 (30 + 90) + (27 MPa) sin 2 (30 + 90) + 2( 50 MPa) sin(30 + 90) cos(30 + 90)
= (35 MPa) cos 2 (120) + (27 MPa) sin 2 (120) + 2(50 MPa) sin(120) cos(120)
= 31.8013 MPa = 31.8 MPa (T)

Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives nt, which is actually the shear stress on the
horizontal and vertical faces of the unrotated element:
nt = ( x y ) sin cos + xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
= [(35 MPa) ( 27 MPa)]sin(30) cos(30) + (50 MPa)[cos 2 (30) sin 2 (30)]
= 51.8468 MPa = 51.8 MPa

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.24 The stresses shown in


Fig. P12.24 act at a point on the
free surface of a machine
component. Determine the
normal stresses x and y and
the shear stress xy at the point.

Fig. P12.24

Solution
Redefine the axes, calling the rotated axes x and y. The angle from the rotated element to the unrotated
element is now a negative value (since it is clockwise) . Thus, the given stress values can be expressed
as:
x = 18.2 ksi, y = 2.8 ksi, xy = 5.0 ksi, = 24

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] gives n, which is actually the normal stress in
the horizontal direction (i.e., the original x direction) on the unrotated element:
n = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (18.2 ksi) cos 2 (24) + (2.8 ksi)sin 2 (24) + 2(5.0 ksi)sin(24) cos(24)
= 11.9366 ksi = 11.94 ksi (T)

Ans.

To find t, which is actually the normal stress in the vertical direction (i.e., the original y direction) on
the unrotated element, add 90 to the value of used in Eq. (12-3):
t = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + 2 xy sin cos
= (18.2 ksi) cos 2 (24 + 90) + (2.8 ksi)sin 2 (24 + 90)
+2(5.0 ksi)sin(24 + 90) cos(24 + 90)
= (18.2 ksi) cos 2 (66) + (2.8 ksi)sin 2 (66) + 2(5.0 ksi) sin(66) cos(66)
= 9.0634 ksi = 9.06 ksi (T)

Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives nt, which is actually the shear stress on the
horizontal and vertical faces of the unrotated element:
nt = ( x y ) sin cos + xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
= [(18.2 ksi) (2.8 ksi)]sin(24) cos(24) + (5.0 ksi)[cos 2 (24) sin 2 (24)]
= 9.0679 ksi = 9.07 ksi

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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