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Mechanics of Materials Solutions Chapter12 Probs75 83

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75 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 40 MPa (T), y = 20 MPa (C), z = 20

MPa (T), xy = +40 MPa, yz = 0, and zx = +30 MPa. Determine:

(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal is oriented at angles of 40, 75,

and 54 with the x, y, and z axes, respectively.

(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Solution

The known stresses are

x = 40 MPa

y = 20 MPa

xy = 40 MPa

yz = 0 MPa

z = 20 MPa

zx = 30 MPa

l = cos(40) = 0.7660

m = cos(75) = 0.2588

n = cos(54) = 0.5878

S x = x l + xy m + zx n = (40)(0.7660) + (40)(0.2588) + (30)(0.5878) = 58.63 MPa

S y = xy l + y m + yz n = (40)(0.7660) + (20)(0.2588) + (0)(0.5878) = 25.47 MPa

S z = zx l + yz m + z n = (30)(0.7660) + (0)(0.2588) + (20)(0.5878) = 34.74 MPa

The normal component n of the resultant stress is

n = Sx l + S y m + Sz n

= (58.63)(0.7660) + (25.47)(0.2588) + (34.74)(0.5878)

= 71.92 MPa = 71.9 MPa (T)

Ans.

The shear stress nt on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation S 2 = n2 + nt2 .

S 2 = S x2 + S y2 + S z2 = (58.63) 2 + (25.47) 2 + (34.74) 2 = 5, 292.40

and thus;

Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0

The three invariants have values of

I1 = x + y + z

= (40) + (20) + (20) = 40

I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2

= (40)(20) + (20)(20) + (20)(40) (40) 2 (0) 2 (30) 2 = 2,900

I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )

= (40)(20)(20) + 2(40)(0)(30) [(40)(0) 2 + (20)(30) 2 + (20)(40) 2 ] = 30,000

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3p (40) p2 + (2,900) p (30,000) = 0

The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

p1 = 73.8 MPa (T)

Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

min 73.8 (43.2)

abs max = max

=

= 58.5 MPa

2

2

Ans.

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12.76 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 14 ksi (T), y = 12 ksi (T), z = 10 ksi

(T), xy = +4 ksi, yz = 4 ksi, and zx = 0. Determine:

(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal is oriented at angles of 40, 60,

and 66.2 with the x, y, and z axes, respectively.

(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Solution

The known stresses are

x = 14 ksi

y = 12 ksi

xy = 4 ksi

yz = 4 ksi

z = 10 ksi

zx = 0 ksi

l = cos(40) = 0.7660

m = cos(60) = 0.5000

n = cos(66.2) = 0.4035

S x = x l + xy m + zx n = (14)(0.7660) + (4)(0.5000) + (0)(0.4035) = 12.725 ksi

S y = xy l + y m + yz n = (4)(0.7660) + (12)(0.5000) + (4)(0.4035) = 7.450 ksi

S z = zx l + yz m + z n = (0)(0.7660) + (4)(0.5000) + (10)(0.4035) = 2.035 ksi

n = Sx l + S y m + Sz n

= (12.725)(0.7660) + (7.450)(0.5000) + (2.035)(0.4035)

= 14.294 ksi = 14.29 ksi (T)

Ans.

The shear stress nt on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation S 2 = n2 + nt2 .

S 2 = S x2 + S y2 + S z2 = (12.725) 2 + (7.450) 2 + (2.035) 2 = 221.562

and thus;

Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0

The three invariants have values of

I1 = x + y + z

= (14) + (12) + (10) = 36

I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2

I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )

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3p (36) p2 + (396) p (1, 296) = 0

The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

p1 = 18.00 ksi (T)

Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

min 18.00 (6.00)

abs max = max

=

= 6.00 ksi

2

2

Ans.

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12.77 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 60 MPa (T), y = 90 MPa (T), z = 60

MPa (T), xy = +120 MPa, yz = +75 MPa, and zx = +90 MPa. Determine:

(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal is oriented at angles of 60, 70,

and 37.3 with the x, y, and z axes, respectively.

(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Solution

The known stresses are

x = 60 MPa

y = 90 MPa

xy = 120 MPa

yz = 75 MPa

z = 60 MPa

zx = 90 MPa

l = cos(60) = 0.5000

m = cos(70) = 0.3420

n = cos(37.3) = 0.7955

S x = x l + xy m + zx n = (60)(0.5000) + (120)(0.3420) + (90)(0.7955) = 142.635 MPa

S y = xy l + y m + yz n = (120)(0.5000) + (90)(0.3420) + (75)(0.7955) = 150.442 MPa

S z = zx l + yz m + z n = (90)(0.5000) + (75)(0.3420) + (60)(0.7955) = 118.380 MPa

n = Sx l + S y m + Sz n

= (142.635)(0.5000) + (150.442)(0.3420) + (118.380)(0.7955)

= 216.940 MPa = 217 MPa (T)

Ans.

The shear stress nt on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation S 2 = n2 + nt2 .

S 2 = S x2 + S y2 + S z2 = (142.635) 2 + (150.442) 2 + (118.380) 2 = 56,991.450

and thus;

Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0

The three invariants have values of

I1 = x + y + z

= (60) + (90) + (60) = 210

I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2

I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )

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3p (210) p2 + (13,725) p (13,500) = 0

The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

p1 = 262 MPa (T)

Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

min 262.485 (51.486)

abs max = max

=

= 157.0 MPa

2

2

Ans.

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12.78 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 0, y = 0, z = 0, xy = +6 ksi, yz = +10

ksi, and zx = +8 ksi. Determine:

(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal makes equal angles with the x, y,

and z axes.

(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Solution

The known stresses are

x = 0 ksi

y = 0 ksi

xy = 6 ksi

yz = 10 ksi

z = 0 ksi

zx = 8 ksi

(a) The plane of interest is defined by its direction cosines, and in this case, all three angles are the same.

Therefore, l = m = n. The direction cosines are related by the identity:

l 2 + m2 + n2 = 1

Since l = m = n in this instance,

1

l 2 + m 2 + n 2 = 3l 2 = 1

l = m = n =

= 0.5774

3

The three orthogonal components of the resultant stress are:

S x = x l + xy m + zx n = (0)(0.5774) + (6)(0.5774) + (8)(0.5774) = 8.0836 ksi

S y = xy l + y m + yz n = (6)(0.5774) + (0)(0.5774) + (10)(0.5774) = 9.2384 ksi

S z = zx l + yz m + z n = (8)(0.5774) + (10)(0.5774) + (0)(0.5774) = 10.3932 ksi

n = Sx l + S y m + Sz n

= (8.0836)(0.5774) + (9.2384)(0.5774) + (10.3932)(0.5774)

= 16.0028 ksi = 16.00 ksi (T)

Ans.

The shear stress nt on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation S 2 = n2 + nt2 .

S 2 = S x2 + S y2 + S z2 = (8.0836) 2 + (9.2384)2 + (10.3932)2 = 258.7112

and thus;

Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0

The three invariants have values of

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I1 = x + y + z

I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2

I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )

therefore, Eq. (12.27) is

3p (0) p2 + (200) p (960) = 3p 200 p 960 = 0

The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

p1 = 16.11 ksi (T)

Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

min 16.1116 (10.3605)

abs max = max

=

= 13.24 ksi

2

2

Ans.

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12.79 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 72 MPa (T), y = 32 MPa (C), z = 0, xy

= +21 MPa, yz = 0, and zx = +21 MPa. Determine:

(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal makes equal angles with the x, y,

and z axes.

(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Solution

The known stresses are

x = 72 MPa

y = 32 MPa

xy = 21 MPa

yz = 0 MPa

z = 0 MPa

zx = 21 MPa

(a) The plane of interest is defined by its direction cosines, and in this case, all three angles are the same.

Therefore, l = m = n. The direction cosines are related by the identity:

l 2 + m2 + n2 = 1

Since l = m = n in this instance,

1

l 2 + m 2 + n 2 = 3l 2 = 1

l = m = n =

= 0.5774

3

The three orthogonal components of the resultant stress are:

S x = x l + xy m + zx n = (72)(0.5774) + (21)(0.5774) + (21)(0.5774) = 65.8236 MPa

S y = xy l + y m + yz n = (21)(0.5774) + (32)(0.5774) + (0)(0.5774) = 6.3514 MPa

S z = zx l + yz m + z n = (21)(0.5774) + (0)(0.5774) + (0)(0.5774) = 12.1254 MPa

n = Sx l + S y m + Sz n

= (65.8236)(0.5774) + (6.3514)(0.5774) + (12.1254)(0.5774)

= 41.3405 MPa = 41.3 MPa (T)

Ans.

The shear stress nt on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation S 2 = n2 + nt2 .

S 2 = S x2 + S y2 + S z2 = (65.8236) 2 + (6.3514) 2 + (12.1254) 2 = 4,520.1119

and thus;

Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0

The three invariants have values of

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I1 = x + y + z

I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2

I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )

therefore, Eq. (12.27) is

3p (40) p2 + (3,186) p (14,112) = 0

The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

p1 = 81.3 MPa (T)

Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

min 81.3151 (36.5695)

abs max = max

=

= 58.9 MPa

2

2

Ans.

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12.80 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 60 MPa (T), y = 50 MPa (C), z = 40

MPa (T), xy = +40 MPa, yz = 50 MPa, and zx = +60 MPa. Determine:

(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal is oriented at angles of 30, 80,

and 62 with the x, y, and z axes, respectively.

(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Solution

The known stresses are

x = 60 MPa

y = 50 MPa

xy = 40 MPa

yz = 50 MPa

z = 40 MPa

zx = 60 MPa

l = cos(30) = 0.8660

m = cos(80) = 0.1736

n = cos(62) = 0.4695

S x = x l + xy m + zx n = (60)(0.8660) + (40)(0.1736) + (60)(0.4695) = 87.0757 MPa

S y = xy l + y m + yz n = (40)(0.8660) + (50)(0.1736) + (50)(0.4695) = 2.4850 MPa

S z = zx l + yz m + z n = (60)(0.8660) + (50)(0.1736) + (40)(0.4695) = 62.0580 MPa

n = Sx l + S y m + Sz n

= (87.0757)(0.8660) + (2.4850)(0.1736) + (62.0580)(0.4695)

= 104.9758 MPa = 105.0 MPa (T)

Ans.

The shear stress nt on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation S 2 = n2 + nt2 .

S 2 = S x2 + S y2 + S z2 = (87.0757) 2 + (2.4850) 2 + (62.0580) 2 = 11, 439.5534

and thus;

Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0

The three invariants have values of

I1 = x + y + z

= (60) + (50) + (40) = 50

I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2

I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )

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3p (50) p2 + (10,300) p (394,000) = 3p 50 p2 10,300 p + 394,000 = 0

The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

p1 = 110.9 MPa (T)

Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

min 110.8530 (97.3595)

abs max = max

=

= 104.1 MPa

2

2

Ans.

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12.81 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 60 MPa (T), y = 40 MPa (C), z = 20

MPa (T), xy = +40 MPa, yz = +20 MPa, and zx = +30 MPa. Determine:

(a) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

(b) the orientation of the plane on which the maximum tensile stress acts.

Solution

The known stresses are

x = 60 MPa

y = 40 MPa

xy = 40 MPa

yz = 20 MPa

z = 20 MPa

zx = 30 MPa

(a) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0

The three invariants have values of

I1 = x + y + z

= (60) + (40) + (20) = 40

I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2

I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )

therefore, Eq. (12.27) is

3p (40) p2 + (4,900) p (20,000) = 3p 40 p2 4,900 p + 20,000 = 0

The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

p1 = 91.3 MPa (T)

Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

min 91.2804 (55.2464)

abs max = max

=

= 73.3 MPa

2

2

Ans.

( x p )l + xy m + zx n = 0

( y p )m + yz n + xy l = 0

( z p )n + zx l + yz m = 0

Since we are interested in the orientation of the maximum tensile stress, set p = p1 = 91.2804 MPa and

rewrite these equations as:

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[(40) (91.2804)] m + (20)n + (40)l = 0

[(20) (91.2804)] n + (30)l + (20)m = 0

which can be simplified and rearranged to these three equations.

31.2804 l + 40 m + 30 n = 0

(a)

40 l 131.2804 m + 20 n = 0

(b)

30 l + 20 m 71.2804 n = 0

(c)

Consider Eqs. (a) and (b). Eliminate n from these two equations to obtain the relationship

m = 0.3853 l

(d)

Repeat the process with Eqs. (b) and (c), eliminating m to obtain the relationship

n = 0.5290 l

(e)

l 2 + m2 + n2 = 1

Substitute Eqs. (d) and (e) into this identity and solve for the direction cosine l:

l 2 + (0.3853 l ) 2 + (0.5290 l ) 2 = 1.428254 l 2 = 1

l = 0.8368

Backsubstitute this result into Eqs. (d) and (e) to determine direction cosines m and n:

m = 0.3853(0.8368) = 0.3224

n = 0.5290 (0.8368) = 0.4426

From l, m, and n, determine the angles , , and :

cos = 0.8368

= 33.2

cos = 0.3324

= 71.2

cos = 0.4426

= 63.7

Ans.

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12.82 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 18 ksi (T), y = 12 ksi (T), z = 6 ksi

(T), xy = +12 ksi, yz = 6 ksi, and zx = +9 ksi. Determine:

(a) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

(b) the orientation of the plane on which the maximum tensile stress acts.

Solution

The known stresses are

x = 18 ksi

y = 12 ksi

xy = 12 ksi

yz = 6 ksi

z = 6 ksi

zx = 9 ksi

(a) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0

The three invariants have values of

I1 = x + y + z

= (18) + (12) + (6) = 36

I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2

= (18)(12) + (12)(6) + (6)(18) (12) 2 (6) 2 (9) 2 = 135

I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )

= (18)(12)(6) + 2(12)(6)(9) [(18)(6) 2 + (12)(9) 2 + (6)(12) 2 ] = 2, 484

therefore, Eq. (12.27) is

3p (36) p2 + (135) p (2, 484) = 3p 36 p2 + 135 p + 2, 484 = 0

The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

p1 = 28.0 ksi (T)

Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

min 28.0170 (6.2355)

=

= 17.13 ksi

abs max = max

2

2

Ans.

( x p )l + xy m + zx n = 0

( y p )m + yz n + xy l = 0

( z p )n + zx l + yz m = 0

Since we are interested in the orientation of the maximum tensile stress, set p = p1 = 28.0170 ksi and

rewrite these equations as:

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[(12) (28.0170)] m + (6)n + (12)l = 0

[(6) (28.0170)] n + (9)l + (6)m = 0

which can be simplified and rearranged to these three equations.

10.0170 l + 12 m + 9 n = 0

(a)

12 l 16.0170 m 6 n = 0

(b)

9 l 6 m 22.0170 n = 0

(c)

Consider Eqs. (a) and (b). Eliminate n from these two equations to obtain the relationship

m = 0.6638 l

(d)

Repeat the process with Eqs. (b) and (c), eliminating m to obtain the relationship

n = 0.2279 l

(e)

l 2 + m2 + n2 = 1

Substitute Eqs. (d) and (e) into this identity and solve for the direction cosine l:

l 2 + (0.6638 l ) 2 + (0.2279 l ) 2 = 1.492615 l 2 = 1

l = 0.8185

Backsubstitute this result into Eqs. (d) and (e) to determine direction cosines m and n:

m = 0.6638(0.8185) = 0.5434

n = 0.2279 (0.8185) = 0.1865

From l, m, and n, determine the angles , , and :

cos = 0.8185

= 35.1

cos = 0.5434

= 57.1

cos = 0.1865

= 79.3

Ans.

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12.83 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 18 ksi (C), y = 15 ksi (C), z = 12 ksi

(C), xy = 15 ksi, yz = +12 ksi, and zx = 9 ksi. Determine:

(a) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

(b) the orientation of the plane on which the maximum tensile stress acts.

Solution

The known stresses are

x = 18 ksi

y = 15 ksi

xy = 15 ksi

yz = 12 ksi

z = 12 ksi

zx = 9 ksi

(a) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0

The three invariants have values of

I1 = x + y + z

= (18) + (15) + (12) = 45

I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2

= (18)(15) + (15)(12) + (12)(18) (15) 2 (12) 2 (9) 2 = 216

I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )

= (18)(15)(12) + 2(15)(12)(9) [(18)(12) 2 + (15)(9) 2 + (12)(15) 2 ] = 6,507

therefore, Eq. (12.27) is

3p (45) p2 + (216) p (6,507) = 3p + 45 p2 + 216 p 6,507 = 0

The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

p1 = 9.15 ksi (T)

Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

min 9.1477 (31.7286)

=

= 20.4 ksi

abs max = max

2

2

Ans.

( x p )l + xy m + zx n = 0

( y p )m + yz n + xy l = 0

( z p )n + zx l + yz m = 0

Since we are interested in the orientation of the maximum tensile stress, set p = p1 = 9.1477 ksi and

rewrite these equations as:

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[(15) (9.1477)] m + (12)n + (15)l = 0

[(12) (9.1477)] n + (9)l + (12)m = 0

which can be simplified and rearranged to these three equations.

27.1477 l 15 m 9 n = 0

(a)

15 l 24.1477 m + 12 n = 0

(b)

9 l + 12 m 21.1477 n = 0

(c)

Consider Eqs. (a) and (b). Eliminate n from these two equations to obtain the relationship

m = 1.2117 l

(d)

Repeat the process with Eqs. (b) and (c), eliminating m to obtain the relationship

n = 0.3595 l

(e)

l 2 + m2 + n2 = 1

Substitute Eqs. (d) and (e) into this identity and solve for the direction cosine l:

l 2 + (1.2117 l ) 2 + (0.3595 l ) 2 = 2.597426 l 2 = 1

l = 0.6205

Backsubstitute this result into Eqs. (d) and (e) to determine direction cosines m and n:

m = 1.2117 (0.6205) = 0.7518

n = 0.3595(0.6205) = 0.2231

From l, m, and n, determine the angles , , and :

cos = 0.6205

= 51.6

cos = 0.7518

= 138.7

cos = 0.2231

= 102.9

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

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