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12.

75 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 40 MPa (T), y = 20 MPa (C), z = 20
MPa (T), xy = +40 MPa, yz = 0, and zx = +30 MPa. Determine:
(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal is oriented at angles of 40, 75,
and 54 with the x, y, and z axes, respectively.
(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Solution
The known stresses are
x = 40 MPa
y = 20 MPa

xy = 40 MPa

yz = 0 MPa

z = 20 MPa
zx = 30 MPa

(a) The plane of interest is defined by its direction cosines:


l = cos(40) = 0.7660
m = cos(75) = 0.2588

n = cos(54) = 0.5878

The three orthogonal components of the resultant stress are:


S x = x l + xy m + zx n = (40)(0.7660) + (40)(0.2588) + (30)(0.5878) = 58.63 MPa
S y = xy l + y m + yz n = (40)(0.7660) + (20)(0.2588) + (0)(0.5878) = 25.47 MPa
S z = zx l + yz m + z n = (30)(0.7660) + (0)(0.2588) + (20)(0.5878) = 34.74 MPa
The normal component n of the resultant stress is
n = Sx l + S y m + Sz n
= (58.63)(0.7660) + (25.47)(0.2588) + (34.74)(0.5878)
= 71.92 MPa = 71.9 MPa (T)

Ans.

The shear stress nt on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation S 2 = n2 + nt2 .
S 2 = S x2 + S y2 + S z2 = (58.63) 2 + (25.47) 2 + (34.74) 2 = 5, 292.40
and thus;

nt = ( S 2 n2 ) = 5, 292.40 (71.92) 2 = 10.95 MPa

Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]
3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0
The three invariants have values of
I1 = x + y + z
= (40) + (20) + (20) = 40
I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2
= (40)(20) + (20)(20) + (20)(40) (40) 2 (0) 2 (30) 2 = 2,900
I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )
= (40)(20)(20) + 2(40)(0)(30) [(40)(0) 2 + (20)(30) 2 + (20)(40) 2 ] = 30,000
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therefore, Eq. (12.27) is


3p (40) p2 + (2,900) p (30,000) = 0
The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:
p1 = 73.8 MPa (T)

p 2 = 9.41 MPa (T)

Ans.

p 3 = 43.2 MPa (C)


The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from
min 73.8 (43.2)
abs max = max
=
= 58.5 MPa
2
2

Ans.

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12.76 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 14 ksi (T), y = 12 ksi (T), z = 10 ksi
(T), xy = +4 ksi, yz = 4 ksi, and zx = 0. Determine:
(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal is oriented at angles of 40, 60,
and 66.2 with the x, y, and z axes, respectively.
(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Solution
The known stresses are
x = 14 ksi
y = 12 ksi

xy = 4 ksi

yz = 4 ksi

z = 10 ksi
zx = 0 ksi

(a) The plane of interest is defined by its direction cosines:


l = cos(40) = 0.7660
m = cos(60) = 0.5000

n = cos(66.2) = 0.4035

The three orthogonal components of the resultant stress are:


S x = x l + xy m + zx n = (14)(0.7660) + (4)(0.5000) + (0)(0.4035) = 12.725 ksi
S y = xy l + y m + yz n = (4)(0.7660) + (12)(0.5000) + (4)(0.4035) = 7.450 ksi
S z = zx l + yz m + z n = (0)(0.7660) + (4)(0.5000) + (10)(0.4035) = 2.035 ksi

The normal component n of the resultant stress is


n = Sx l + S y m + Sz n
= (12.725)(0.7660) + (7.450)(0.5000) + (2.035)(0.4035)
= 14.294 ksi = 14.29 ksi (T)

Ans.

The shear stress nt on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation S 2 = n2 + nt2 .
S 2 = S x2 + S y2 + S z2 = (12.725) 2 + (7.450) 2 + (2.035) 2 = 221.562

and thus;

nt = ( S 2 n2 ) = 221.562 (14.294)2 = 4.152 ksi = 4.15 ksi

Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]
3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0
The three invariants have values of
I1 = x + y + z
= (14) + (12) + (10) = 36
I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2

= (14)(12) + (12)(10) + (10)(14) (4)2 (4) 2 (0) 2 = 396


I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )

= (14)(12)(10) + 2(4)(4)(0) [(14)(4) 2 + (12)(0)2 + (10)(4) 2 ] = 1, 296


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therefore, Eq. (12.27) is


3p (36) p2 + (396) p (1, 296) = 0
The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:
p1 = 18.00 ksi (T)

p 2 = 12.00 ksi (T)

Ans.

p 3 = 6.00 ksi (T)


The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from
min 18.00 (6.00)
abs max = max
=
= 6.00 ksi
2
2

Ans.

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12.77 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 60 MPa (T), y = 90 MPa (T), z = 60
MPa (T), xy = +120 MPa, yz = +75 MPa, and zx = +90 MPa. Determine:
(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal is oriented at angles of 60, 70,
and 37.3 with the x, y, and z axes, respectively.
(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Solution
The known stresses are
x = 60 MPa
y = 90 MPa

xy = 120 MPa

yz = 75 MPa

z = 60 MPa
zx = 90 MPa

(a) The plane of interest is defined by its direction cosines:


l = cos(60) = 0.5000
m = cos(70) = 0.3420

n = cos(37.3) = 0.7955

The three orthogonal components of the resultant stress are:


S x = x l + xy m + zx n = (60)(0.5000) + (120)(0.3420) + (90)(0.7955) = 142.635 MPa
S y = xy l + y m + yz n = (120)(0.5000) + (90)(0.3420) + (75)(0.7955) = 150.442 MPa
S z = zx l + yz m + z n = (90)(0.5000) + (75)(0.3420) + (60)(0.7955) = 118.380 MPa

The normal component n of the resultant stress is


n = Sx l + S y m + Sz n
= (142.635)(0.5000) + (150.442)(0.3420) + (118.380)(0.7955)
= 216.940 MPa = 217 MPa (T)

Ans.

The shear stress nt on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation S 2 = n2 + nt2 .
S 2 = S x2 + S y2 + S z2 = (142.635) 2 + (150.442) 2 + (118.380) 2 = 56,991.450

and thus;

nt = ( S 2 n2 ) = 56,991.450 (216.940) 2 = 99.642 MPa = 99.6 MPa

Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]
3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0
The three invariants have values of
I1 = x + y + z
= (60) + (90) + (60) = 210
I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2

= (60)(90) + (90)(60) + (60)(60) (120)2 (75) 2 (90)2 = 13,725


I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )

= (60)(90)(60) + 2(120)(75)(90) [(60)(75) 2 + (90)(90) 2 + (60)(120) 2 ] = 13,500


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therefore, Eq. (12.27) is


3p (210) p2 + (13,725) p (13,500) = 0
The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:
p1 = 262 MPa (T)

p 2 = 0.999 MPa (C)

Ans.

p 3 = 51.5 MPa (C)


The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from
min 262.485 (51.486)
abs max = max
=
= 157.0 MPa
2
2

Ans.

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12.78 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 0, y = 0, z = 0, xy = +6 ksi, yz = +10
ksi, and zx = +8 ksi. Determine:
(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal makes equal angles with the x, y,
and z axes.
(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Solution
The known stresses are
x = 0 ksi
y = 0 ksi

xy = 6 ksi

yz = 10 ksi

z = 0 ksi
zx = 8 ksi

(a) The plane of interest is defined by its direction cosines, and in this case, all three angles are the same.
Therefore, l = m = n. The direction cosines are related by the identity:
l 2 + m2 + n2 = 1
Since l = m = n in this instance,
1
l 2 + m 2 + n 2 = 3l 2 = 1
l = m = n =
= 0.5774
3
The three orthogonal components of the resultant stress are:
S x = x l + xy m + zx n = (0)(0.5774) + (6)(0.5774) + (8)(0.5774) = 8.0836 ksi
S y = xy l + y m + yz n = (6)(0.5774) + (0)(0.5774) + (10)(0.5774) = 9.2384 ksi
S z = zx l + yz m + z n = (8)(0.5774) + (10)(0.5774) + (0)(0.5774) = 10.3932 ksi

The normal component n of the resultant stress is


n = Sx l + S y m + Sz n
= (8.0836)(0.5774) + (9.2384)(0.5774) + (10.3932)(0.5774)
= 16.0028 ksi = 16.00 ksi (T)

Ans.

The shear stress nt on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation S 2 = n2 + nt2 .
S 2 = S x2 + S y2 + S z2 = (8.0836) 2 + (9.2384)2 + (10.3932)2 = 258.7112

and thus;

nt = ( S 2 n2 ) = 258.7112 (16.0028)2 = 1.620 ksi

Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]
3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0
The three invariants have values of

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I1 = x + y + z

= (0) + (0) + (0) = 0


I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2

= (0)(0) + (0)(0) + (0)(0) (6)2 (10) 2 (8) 2 = 200


I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )

= (0)(0)(0) + 2(6)(10)(8) [(0)(10) 2 + (0)(8) 2 + (0)(6) 2 ] = 960


therefore, Eq. (12.27) is
3p (0) p2 + (200) p (960) = 3p 200 p 960 = 0
The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:
p1 = 16.11 ksi (T)

p 2 = 5.75 ksi (C)

Ans.

p 3 = 10.36 ksi (C)


The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from
min 16.1116 (10.3605)
abs max = max
=
= 13.24 ksi
2
2

Ans.

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12.79 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 72 MPa (T), y = 32 MPa (C), z = 0, xy
= +21 MPa, yz = 0, and zx = +21 MPa. Determine:
(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal makes equal angles with the x, y,
and z axes.
(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Solution
The known stresses are
x = 72 MPa
y = 32 MPa

xy = 21 MPa

yz = 0 MPa

z = 0 MPa
zx = 21 MPa

(a) The plane of interest is defined by its direction cosines, and in this case, all three angles are the same.
Therefore, l = m = n. The direction cosines are related by the identity:
l 2 + m2 + n2 = 1
Since l = m = n in this instance,
1
l 2 + m 2 + n 2 = 3l 2 = 1
l = m = n =
= 0.5774
3
The three orthogonal components of the resultant stress are:
S x = x l + xy m + zx n = (72)(0.5774) + (21)(0.5774) + (21)(0.5774) = 65.8236 MPa
S y = xy l + y m + yz n = (21)(0.5774) + (32)(0.5774) + (0)(0.5774) = 6.3514 MPa
S z = zx l + yz m + z n = (21)(0.5774) + (0)(0.5774) + (0)(0.5774) = 12.1254 MPa

The normal component n of the resultant stress is


n = Sx l + S y m + Sz n
= (65.8236)(0.5774) + (6.3514)(0.5774) + (12.1254)(0.5774)
= 41.3405 MPa = 41.3 MPa (T)

Ans.

The shear stress nt on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation S 2 = n2 + nt2 .
S 2 = S x2 + S y2 + S z2 = (65.8236) 2 + (6.3514) 2 + (12.1254) 2 = 4,520.1119

and thus;

nt = ( S 2 n2 ) = 4,520.1119 (41.3405) 2 = 53.0 MPa

Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]
3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0
The three invariants have values of

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I1 = x + y + z

= (72) + (32) + (0) = 40


I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2

= (72)(32) + (32)(0) + (0)(72) (21) 2 (0) 2 (21) 2 = 3,186


I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )

= (72)(32)(0) + 2(21)(0)(21) [(72)(0) 2 + (32)(21) 2 + (0)(21) 2 ] = 14,112


therefore, Eq. (12.27) is
3p (40) p2 + (3,186) p (14,112) = 0
The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:
p1 = 81.3 MPa (T)

p 2 = 4.75 MPa (C)

Ans.

p 3 = 36.6 MPa (C)


The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from
min 81.3151 (36.5695)
abs max = max
=
= 58.9 MPa
2
2

Ans.

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12.80 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 60 MPa (T), y = 50 MPa (C), z = 40
MPa (T), xy = +40 MPa, yz = 50 MPa, and zx = +60 MPa. Determine:
(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal is oriented at angles of 30, 80,
and 62 with the x, y, and z axes, respectively.
(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Solution
The known stresses are
x = 60 MPa
y = 50 MPa

xy = 40 MPa

yz = 50 MPa

z = 40 MPa
zx = 60 MPa

(a) The plane of interest is defined by its direction cosines:


l = cos(30) = 0.8660
m = cos(80) = 0.1736

n = cos(62) = 0.4695

The three orthogonal components of the resultant stress are:


S x = x l + xy m + zx n = (60)(0.8660) + (40)(0.1736) + (60)(0.4695) = 87.0757 MPa
S y = xy l + y m + yz n = (40)(0.8660) + (50)(0.1736) + (50)(0.4695) = 2.4850 MPa
S z = zx l + yz m + z n = (60)(0.8660) + (50)(0.1736) + (40)(0.4695) = 62.0580 MPa

The normal component n of the resultant stress is


n = Sx l + S y m + Sz n
= (87.0757)(0.8660) + (2.4850)(0.1736) + (62.0580)(0.4695)
= 104.9758 MPa = 105.0 MPa (T)

Ans.

The shear stress nt on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation S 2 = n2 + nt2 .
S 2 = S x2 + S y2 + S z2 = (87.0757) 2 + (2.4850) 2 + (62.0580) 2 = 11, 439.5534

and thus;

nt = ( S 2 n2 ) = 11, 439.5534 (104.9758) 2 = 20.4851 MPa = 20.5 MPa

Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]
3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0
The three invariants have values of
I1 = x + y + z
= (60) + (50) + (40) = 50
I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2

= (60)(50) + (50)(40) + (40)(60) (40)2 (50) 2 (60)2 = 10,300


I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )

= (60)(50)(40) + 2(40)(50)(60) [(60)(50) 2 + (50)(60) 2 + (40)(40) 2 ] = 394,000


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therefore, Eq. (12.27) is


3p (50) p2 + (10,300) p (394,000) = 3p 50 p2 10,300 p + 394,000 = 0
The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:
p1 = 110.9 MPa (T)

p 2 = 36.5 MPa (T)

Ans.

p 3 = 97.4 MPa (C)


The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from
min 110.8530 (97.3595)
abs max = max
=
= 104.1 MPa
2
2

Ans.

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12.81 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 60 MPa (T), y = 40 MPa (C), z = 20
MPa (T), xy = +40 MPa, yz = +20 MPa, and zx = +30 MPa. Determine:
(a) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.
(b) the orientation of the plane on which the maximum tensile stress acts.

Solution
The known stresses are
x = 60 MPa
y = 40 MPa

xy = 40 MPa

yz = 20 MPa

z = 20 MPa
zx = 30 MPa

(a) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]
3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0
The three invariants have values of
I1 = x + y + z
= (60) + (40) + (20) = 40
I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2

= (60)(40) + (40)(20) + (20)(60) (40) 2 (20) 2 (30)2 = 4,900


I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )

= (60)(40)(20) + 2(40)(20)(30) [(60)(20) 2 + (40)(30)2 + (20)(40) 2 ] = 20,000


therefore, Eq. (12.27) is
3p (40) p2 + (4,900) p (20,000) = 3p 40 p2 4,900 p + 20,000 = 0
The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:
p1 = 91.3 MPa (T)

p 2 = 3.97 MPa (T)

Ans.

p 3 = 55.2 MPa (C)


The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from
min 91.2804 (55.2464)
abs max = max
=
= 73.3 MPa
2
2

Ans.

(b) From Eqs. (b) in Section 12.10,


( x p )l + xy m + zx n = 0
( y p )m + yz n + xy l = 0
( z p )n + zx l + yz m = 0
Since we are interested in the orientation of the maximum tensile stress, set p = p1 = 91.2804 MPa and
rewrite these equations as:
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[(60) (91.2804)] l + (40)m + (30)n = 0


[(40) (91.2804)] m + (20)n + (40)l = 0
[(20) (91.2804)] n + (30)l + (20)m = 0
which can be simplified and rearranged to these three equations.
31.2804 l + 40 m + 30 n = 0

(a)

40 l 131.2804 m + 20 n = 0

(b)

30 l + 20 m 71.2804 n = 0

(c)

Consider Eqs. (a) and (b). Eliminate n from these two equations to obtain the relationship
m = 0.3853 l

(d)

Repeat the process with Eqs. (b) and (c), eliminating m to obtain the relationship
n = 0.5290 l

(e)

The direction cosines are related by the identity:


l 2 + m2 + n2 = 1
Substitute Eqs. (d) and (e) into this identity and solve for the direction cosine l:
l 2 + (0.3853 l ) 2 + (0.5290 l ) 2 = 1.428254 l 2 = 1
l = 0.8368

Backsubstitute this result into Eqs. (d) and (e) to determine direction cosines m and n:
m = 0.3853(0.8368) = 0.3224
n = 0.5290 (0.8368) = 0.4426
From l, m, and n, determine the angles , , and :
cos = 0.8368
= 33.2
cos = 0.3324

= 71.2

cos = 0.4426

= 63.7

Ans.

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12.82 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 18 ksi (T), y = 12 ksi (T), z = 6 ksi
(T), xy = +12 ksi, yz = 6 ksi, and zx = +9 ksi. Determine:
(a) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.
(b) the orientation of the plane on which the maximum tensile stress acts.

Solution
The known stresses are
x = 18 ksi
y = 12 ksi

xy = 12 ksi

yz = 6 ksi

z = 6 ksi
zx = 9 ksi

(a) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]
3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0
The three invariants have values of
I1 = x + y + z
= (18) + (12) + (6) = 36
I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2
= (18)(12) + (12)(6) + (6)(18) (12) 2 (6) 2 (9) 2 = 135
I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )
= (18)(12)(6) + 2(12)(6)(9) [(18)(6) 2 + (12)(9) 2 + (6)(12) 2 ] = 2, 484
therefore, Eq. (12.27) is
3p (36) p2 + (135) p (2, 484) = 3p 36 p2 + 135 p + 2, 484 = 0
The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:
p1 = 28.0 ksi (T)

p 2 = 14.22 ksi (T)

Ans.

p 3 = 6.24 ksi (C)


The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from
min 28.0170 (6.2355)
=
= 17.13 ksi
abs max = max
2
2

Ans.

(b) From Eqs. (b) in Section 12.10,


( x p )l + xy m + zx n = 0
( y p )m + yz n + xy l = 0
( z p )n + zx l + yz m = 0
Since we are interested in the orientation of the maximum tensile stress, set p = p1 = 28.0170 ksi and
rewrite these equations as:
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[(18) (28.0170)] l + (12)m + (9)n = 0


[(12) (28.0170)] m + (6)n + (12)l = 0
[(6) (28.0170)] n + (9)l + (6)m = 0
which can be simplified and rearranged to these three equations.
10.0170 l + 12 m + 9 n = 0

(a)

12 l 16.0170 m 6 n = 0

(b)

9 l 6 m 22.0170 n = 0

(c)

Consider Eqs. (a) and (b). Eliminate n from these two equations to obtain the relationship
m = 0.6638 l

(d)

Repeat the process with Eqs. (b) and (c), eliminating m to obtain the relationship
n = 0.2279 l

(e)

The direction cosines are related by the identity:


l 2 + m2 + n2 = 1
Substitute Eqs. (d) and (e) into this identity and solve for the direction cosine l:
l 2 + (0.6638 l ) 2 + (0.2279 l ) 2 = 1.492615 l 2 = 1
l = 0.8185
Backsubstitute this result into Eqs. (d) and (e) to determine direction cosines m and n:
m = 0.6638(0.8185) = 0.5434
n = 0.2279 (0.8185) = 0.1865
From l, m, and n, determine the angles , , and :
cos = 0.8185
= 35.1
cos = 0.5434

= 57.1

cos = 0.1865

= 79.3

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.83 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are x = 18 ksi (C), y = 15 ksi (C), z = 12 ksi
(C), xy = 15 ksi, yz = +12 ksi, and zx = 9 ksi. Determine:
(a) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.
(b) the orientation of the plane on which the maximum tensile stress acts.

Solution
The known stresses are
x = 18 ksi
y = 15 ksi

xy = 15 ksi

yz = 12 ksi

z = 12 ksi
zx = 9 ksi

(a) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]
3p I1 p2 + I 2 p I 3 = 0
The three invariants have values of
I1 = x + y + z
= (18) + (15) + (12) = 45
I 2 = x y + y z + z x xy2 yz2 zx2
= (18)(15) + (15)(12) + (12)(18) (15) 2 (12) 2 (9) 2 = 216
I 3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx ( x yz2 + y zx2 + z xy2 )
= (18)(15)(12) + 2(15)(12)(9) [(18)(12) 2 + (15)(9) 2 + (12)(15) 2 ] = 6,507
therefore, Eq. (12.27) is
3p (45) p2 + (216) p (6,507) = 3p + 45 p2 + 216 p 6,507 = 0
The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:
p1 = 9.15 ksi (T)

p 2 = 22.4 ksi (C)

Ans.

p 3 = 31.7 ksi (C)


The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from
min 9.1477 (31.7286)
=
= 20.4 ksi
abs max = max
2
2

Ans.

(b) From Eqs. (b) in Section 12.10,


( x p )l + xy m + zx n = 0
( y p )m + yz n + xy l = 0
( z p )n + zx l + yz m = 0
Since we are interested in the orientation of the maximum tensile stress, set p = p1 = 9.1477 ksi and
rewrite these equations as:
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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[(18) (9.1477)] l + (15)m + (9)n = 0


[(15) (9.1477)] m + (12)n + (15)l = 0
[(12) (9.1477)] n + (9)l + (12)m = 0
which can be simplified and rearranged to these three equations.
27.1477 l 15 m 9 n = 0

(a)

15 l 24.1477 m + 12 n = 0

(b)

9 l + 12 m 21.1477 n = 0

(c)

Consider Eqs. (a) and (b). Eliminate n from these two equations to obtain the relationship
m = 1.2117 l

(d)

Repeat the process with Eqs. (b) and (c), eliminating m to obtain the relationship
n = 0.3595 l

(e)

The direction cosines are related by the identity:


l 2 + m2 + n2 = 1
Substitute Eqs. (d) and (e) into this identity and solve for the direction cosine l:
l 2 + (1.2117 l ) 2 + (0.3595 l ) 2 = 2.597426 l 2 = 1
l = 0.6205
Backsubstitute this result into Eqs. (d) and (e) to determine direction cosines m and n:
m = 1.2117 (0.6205) = 0.7518
n = 0.3595(0.6205) = 0.2231
From l, m, and n, determine the angles , , and :
cos = 0.6205
= 51.6
cos = 0.7518

= 138.7

cos = 0.2231

= 102.9

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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