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# 6.42 The driveshaft of an automobile is being designed to transmit 280 hp at 3,500 rpm.

Determine the
minimum diameter required for a solid steel shaft if the allowable shear stress in the shaft is not to
exceed 4,000 psi.

Solution
The torque in the driveshaft is:
550 lb-ft/s
( 280 hp )
1 hp
P

= 420.169 lb-ft
T= =
3,500 rev 2 rad 1 min

min 1 rev 60 s
The minimum diameter required for the shaft can be found from:
3
T
(420.169 lb-ft)(12 in./ft)
=
= 1.260507 in.3
D
16
allow
4,000 psi

## D 1.858539 in. = 1.859 in.

Ans.

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6.43 A tubular steel shaft transmits 150 hp at 4,000 rpm. Determine the maximum shear stress produced
in the shaft if the outside diameter is D = 3.000 in. and the wall thickness is t = 0.125 in.

Solution
The torque in the tubular steel shaft is:
550 lb-ft/s
(150 hp )

P
1 hp
= 196.954 lb-ft
T= =
4,000 rev 2 rad 1 min

min 1 rev 60 s
The polar moment of inertia of the shaft is:

Ip =

D 4 d 4 =
(3.000 in.) 4 (2.750 in.) 4 = 2.337403 in.4
32
32

## and the maximum shear stress in the shaft is

TR (196.954 lb-ft)(3.000 in./2)(12 in./ft)
=
=
= 1,516.71 psi = 1,517 psi
Ip
2.337403 in.4

Ans.

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6.44 A tubular steel shaft is being designed to transmit 225 kW at 1,700 rpm. The maximum shear stress
in the shaft must not exceed 30 MPa. If the outside diameter of the shaft is D = 75 mm, determine the
minimum wall thickness for the shaft.

Solution
The torque in the tubular steel shaft is:
1,000 N-m/s
225 kW )
(

P
1 kW

= 1, 263.877 N-m
T= =
1,700 rev 2 rad 1 min

min 1 rev 60 s
The maximum shear stress in the shaft will be determined from the elastic torsion formula:
TR

=
where I p = D 4 d 4
Ip
32
Rearrange this equation, grouping the diameter terms on the left-hand side of the equation:
4
4
D d T

32 D / 2

Substitute the known values for T, , and D and solve for the inside diameter d:
4
4
(75 mm) d (1, 263.877 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)

32
75 mm / 2
30 N/mm 2
(75 mm) 4 d 4 16, 092,181.76 mm 4
d 4 (75 mm) 4 16, 092,181.76 mm 4 = 15,548, 443.24 mm 4
d 62.7945 mm
The minimum wall thickness for the tubular steel shaft is thus
D = d + 2t
D d 75 mm 62.7945 mm
t
=
= 6.10275 mm = 6.10 mm
2
2

Ans

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6.45 A solid 20-mm-diameter bronze shaft transmits 9 kW at 25 Hz to the propeller of a small sailboat.
Determine the maximum shear stress produced in the shaft.

Solution
The torque in the tubular steel shaft is:
1,000 N-m/s
9 kW )
(

P
1 kW
= 57.295780 N-m
T= =

s 1 rev
The polar moment of inertia of the shaft is:
Ip =

32

D4 =

32

## and the maximum shear stress in the shaft is

TR (57.295780 N-m)(20 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
=
=
= 36.476 MPa = 36.5 MPa
Ip
15, 707.963 mm 4

Ans.

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6.46 A steel propeller for a windmill transmits 11 kW at 57 rpm. If the allowable shear stress in the shaft
must be limited to 60 MPa, determine the minimum diameter required for a solid shaft.

Solution
The torque in the tubular steel shaft is:
1,000 N-m/s
11 kW )
(

P
1 kW
= 1,842.847 N-m
T= =
57 rev 2 rad 1 min

min 1 rev 60 s
The minimum diameter required for the shaft can be found from:
3
T
(1,842.847 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
=
= 30,714.117 mm3
D
2
allow
16
60 N/mm
D 53.881 mm = 53.9 mm

Ans.

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6.47 A solid steel [G = 12,000 ksi] shaft with a 3-in. diameter must not twist more than 0.06 rad in a 16ft length. Determine the maximum horsepower that the shaft can transmit at 7 Hz.

Solution
Section properties: The polar moment of inertia of the shaft is:

Ip =

32

D4 =

32

## (3 in.) 4 = 7.952156 in.4

Angle of twist relationship: From the angle of twist relationship, compute the allowable torque:
G I p (0.06 rad)(12,000 ksi)(7.952156 in.4 )
=
= 29.820585 kip-in. = 2, 485.05 lb-ft
T=
L
(16 ft)(12 in./ft)
Power transmission: The maximum power that can be transmitted at 7 Hz is:
P = T = (2, 485.05 lb-ft)

## = 109, 298.21 lb-ft/s

s 1 rev
or in units of horsepower,
109, 298.21 lb-ft/s
P=
= 198.7 hp
550 lb-ft/s
1 hp

Ans.

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6.48 A tubular steel [G = 80 GPa] shaft with an outside diameter of D = 90 mm and a wall thickness of t
= 8 mm must not twist more than 0.05 rad in a 7-m length. Determine the maximum power that the shaft
can transmit at 335 rpm.

Solution
Section properties: The polar moment of inertia of the shaft is:

Ip =

## D 4 d 4 = (90 mm) 4 (74 mm) 4 = 3, 497,321.47 mm 4

32
32

Angle of twist relationship: From the angle of twist relationship, compute the allowable torque:
G I p (0.05 rad)(80,000 N/mm 2 )(3,497,321.47 mm 4 )
T=
=
= 1,998, 469.41 N-mm = 1,998.5 N-m
L
(7 m)(1,000 mm/m)
Power transmission: The maximum power that can be transmitted at 335 rpm is:
335 rev 2 rad 1 min
P = T = (1998.5 N-m)

## = 70,109.6 N-m/s = 70.1 kW

min 1 rev 60 s

Ans.

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6.49 A solid 3-in.-diameter steel [G = 12,000 ksi] shaft is 7-ft long. The allowable shear stress in the
shaft is 8 ksi and the angle of twist must not exceed 0.03 rad. Determine the maximum horsepower that
this shaft can deliver
(a) when rotating at 150 rpm.
(b) when rotating at 540 rpm.

Solution
Section properties: The polar moment of inertia of the shaft is:

Ip =

32

D4 =

32

## (3 in.) 4 = 7.952156 in.4

Torque based on allowable shear stress: Compute the allowable torque if the shear stress must not
exceed 8 ksi:
I p (8 ksi)(7.952156 in.4 )
=
= 42.4115 kip-in.
(a)
T
R
1.5 in.
Torque based on angle of twist: Compute the allowable torque if the angle of twist must not exceed
G I p (0.03 rad)(12,000 ksi)(7.952156 in.4 )
=
= 34.0807 kip-in.
(b)
T
(7 ft)(12 in./ft)
L
Controlling torque: From comparison of Eqs. (a) and (b), the maximum torque allowed for this shaft
is:
Tmax = 34.0807 kip-in. = 2,840.06 lb-ft
(a) Power transmission at 150 rpm: The maximum power that can be transmitted at 150 rpm is:
150 rev 2 rad 1 min
P = T = (2,840.06 lb-ft)

## = 44, 611.56 lb-ft/s

min 1 rev 60 s
or in units of horsepower,
44, 611.56 lb-ft/s
P=
= 81.1 hp
Ans.
550 lb-ft/s
1 hp
(b) Power transmission at 540 rpm: The maximum power that can be transmitted at 540 rpm is:
540 rev 2 rad 1 min
P = T = (2,840.06 lb-ft)

## = 160, 701.61 lb-ft/s

min 1 rev 60 s
or in units of horsepower,
160, 701.61 lb-ft/s
Ans.
P=
= 292 hp
550 lb-ft/s
1 hp

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6.50 A 3-m-long hollow steel [G = 80 GPa] shaft has an outside diameter of D = 100 mm and a wall
thickness of t = 15 mm. The maximum shear stress in the shaft must be limited to 40 MPa. Determine:
(a) the maximum power that can be transmitted by the shaft if the rotation speed must be limited to 5 Hz.
(b) the magnitude of the angle of twist in a 5-m length of the shaft when 160 kW is being transmitted at 8
Hz.

Solution
Section properties: The polar moment of inertia of the shaft is:

Ip =

## D 4 d 4 = (100 mm) 4 (70 mm) 4 = 7, 460,300.81 mm 4

32
32

Torque based on allowable shear stress: Compute the allowable torque if the shear stress must not
exceed 40 MPa:
I p (40 N/mm 2 )(7,460,300.81 mm 4 )
=
= 5,968, 240.65 N-mm = 5,968.24 N-m
T
R
100 mm/2
(a) Power transmission: The maximum power that can be transmitted at 5 Hz is:
P = T = (5,968.24 N-m)

## = 187, 498 N-m/s = 187.5 kW

s 1 rev

Ans.

(b) Angle of twist: The torque in the shaft when 160 kW is being transmitted at 8 Hz is:
160, 000 N-m/s
P
= 3,183.10 N-m
T= =

s 1 rev

## The corresponding angle of twist is:

TL
(3,183.10 N-m)(5 m)(1,000 mm/m) 2
=
=
GI p (80, 000 N/mm 2 )(7, 460,300.81 mm 4 )

Ans.

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6.51 A tubular aluminum alloy [G = 4,000 ksi] shaft is being designed to transmit 400 hp at 1,500 rpm.
The maximum shear stress in the shaft must not exceed 6 ksi and the angle of twist is not to exceed 5 in
an 8-ft length. Determine the minimum permissible outside diameter if the inside diameter is to be threefourths of the outside diameter.

Solution
Torque from power transmission equation: The torque in the shaft when 400 hp is being transmitted
at 1,500 rpm is:
550 lb-ft/s
(400 hp)

P
1 hp
T= =
= 1, 400.56 lb-ft
1,500 rev 2 rad 1 min

min 1 rev 60 s
Polar moment of inertia: The inside diameter of the shaft is to be three-fourths of the outside
diameter; therefore, d = 0.75D. From this, the polar moment of inertia can be expressed as:

D4 4
D4
4
4
4
4
4

Ip =
D d =
D (0.75D) =
1 (0.75) = 0.683594
= 0.067112 D 4
(a)

32
32
32
32
Diameter based on shear stress: The maximum shear stress must not exceed 6 ksi; thus, from the
elastic torsion formula:
Ip T
TR

Ip
R

Use the results of Eq. (a) to simplify the left-hand side of this equation, giving an expression in terms of
the outside diameter D:
I p 0.067112 D 4
=
= 0.134224 D 3
R
D/2
Solve for the outside diameter D:
(1, 400.56 lb-ft)(12 in./ft)
0.134224 D 3
= 2.801120 in.3
D 2.753175 in.
(b)
6,000 psi
Diameter based on twist angle: The angle of twist is not to exceed 5 in an 8-ft length; thus, from the
angle of twist formula:
TL
TL

Ip
G
GI p

Use the results of Eq. (a) to simplify this equation and solve for the outside diameter D:
(1, 400.56 lb-ft)(8 ft)(12 in./ft) 2
4
= 4.622180 in.4
D 2.881972 in.
0.067112 D
(5)( /180)(4,000,000 psi)

(c)

From the results of Eqs. (b) and (c), the minimum outside diameter D acceptable in this instance is:
Dmin = 2.88 in.
Ans.

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6.52 A tubular steel [G = 80 GPa] shaft is being designed to transmit 150 kW at 30 Hz. The maximum
shear stress in the shaft must not exceed 80 MPa and the angle of twist is not to exceed 6 in a 4-m
length. Determine the minimum permissible outside diameter if the ratio of the inside diameter to the
outside diameter is 0.80.

Solution
Torque from power transmission equation: The torque in the shaft when 150 kW is being transmitted
at 1,500 rpm is:
P
150, 000 N-m/s
T= =
= 795.7747 N-m

s 1 rev
Polar moment of inertia: The ratio of inside diameter to outside diameter for the shaft is to be d/D =
0.80 or in other words d = 0.80D. From this, the polar moment of inertia can be expressed as:

D4 4
D4
4
4
4
4
4

Ip =
D d =
D (0.80 D) =
1 (0.80) = 0.590400
= 0.057962 D 4
(a)

32
32
32
32
Diameter based on shear stress: The maximum shear stress must not exceed 80 MPa; thus, from the
elastic torsion formula:
Ip T
TR

Ip
R

Use the results of Eq. (a) to simplify the left-hand side of this equation, giving an expression in terms of
the outside diameter D:
I p 0.057962 D 4
=
= 0.115925D 3
R
D/2
Solve for the outside diameter D:
(795.7747 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
0.115925D 3
= 9,947.18375 mm3
2
80 N/mm

D 44.1070 mm

(b)

Diameter based on twist angle: The angle of twist is not to exceed 6 in an 4-m length; thus, from the
angle of twist formula:
TL
TL

Ip
GI p
G

Use the results of Eq. (a) to simplify this equation and solve for the outside diameter D:
(795.7747 N-m)(4 m)(1,000 mm/m) 2
4
0.057962 D
= 379,954.43 mm 4 D 50.5996 mm
2
(6)( /180)(80,000 N/mm )

(c)

From the results of Eqs. (b) and (c), the minimum outside diameter D acceptable in this instance is:
Dmin = 50.6 mm
Ans.

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6.53 An automobile engine supplies 180 hp at 4,200 rpm to a driveshaft. If the allowable shear stress in
the driveshaft must be limited to 5 ksi, determine:
(a) the minimum diameter required for a solid driveshaft.
(b) the maximum inside diameter permitted for a hollow driveshaft if the outside diameter is 2.00 in.
(c) the percent savings in weight realized if the hollow shaft is used instead of the solid shaft. (Hint: The
weight of a shaft is proportional to its cross-sectional area.)

Solution
Power transmission equation: The torque in the shaft is
550 lb-ft/s
(180 hp )
1 hp
P

= 225.0906 lb-ft
T= =
4,200 rev 2 rad 1 min

min 1 rev 60 s
(a) Solid driveshaft: The minimum diameter required for a solid shaft can be found from:
3
T
(225.0906 lb-ft)(12 in./ft)
D
=
= 0.540217 in.3
16
5,000 psi
allow

Ans.

4
4
I p D d T
TR
=

Ip
R 32 D / 2

## Solve this equation for the maximum inside diameter:

4
4
(2.00 in.) d (225.0906 lb-ft)(12 in./ft)

= 0.540217 in.3
32
2.00 in./ 2
5, 000 psi
(2.00 in.) 4 d 4 5.502605 in.4
d 4 16 in.4 5.502605 in.4 = 10.497395 in.4
d 1.800 in.

Ans.

(c) Weight savings: The weights of the solid and hollow shafts are proportional to their respective
cross-sectional areas. The cross-sectional area of the solid shaft is

Asolid =

## (1.401 in.) 2 = 1.5416 in.2

4
and the cross-sectional area of the hollow shaft is
Ahollow =

4

## The weight savings can be determined from

( A Ahollow ) (1.5416 in.2 0.5929 in.2 )
weight savings (in percent) = solid
=
= 61.5%
Asolid
1.5416 in.2

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6.54 The impeller shaft of a fluid agitator transmits 28 kW at 440 rpm. If the allowable shear stress in
the impeller shaft must be limited to 80 MPa, determine:
(a) the minimum diameter required for a solid impeller shaft.
(b) the maximum inside diameter permitted for a hollow impeller shaft if the outside diameter is 40 mm.
(c) the percent savings in weight realized if the hollow shaft is used instead of the solid shaft. (Hint: The
weight of a shaft is proportional to its cross-sectional area.)

Solution
Power transmission equation: The torque in the shaft is
P
28, 000 N-m/s
= 607.6825 N-m
T= =
440 rev 2 rad 1 min

min 1 rev 60 s
(a) Solid impeller shaft: The minimum diameter required for a solid shaft can be found from:
3
(607.6825 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
T
=
= 7,596.0313 mm3
D
2
allow
16
80 N/mm

Ans.

4
4
I p D d T
TR
=

Ip
R 32 D / 2

## Solve this equation for the maximum inside diameter:

4
4
(40 mm) d (607.6825 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)

= 7,596.0313 mm3
2
32
40 mm / 2
80 N/mm
4
4
(40 mm) d 1,547, 450.779 mm 4
d 4 2,560, 000 mm 4 1,547, 450.779 mm 4 = 1, 012,549.221 mm 4
d 31.7 mm

Ans.

(c) Weight savings: The weights of the solid and hollow shafts are proportional to their respective
cross-sectional areas. The cross-sectional area of the solid shaft is

Asolid =

## (33.8 mm)2 = 897.270 mm 2

4
and the cross-sectional area of the hollow shaft is

## (40 mm) 2 (31.7 mm) 2 = 467.398 mm 2

4
The weight savings can be determined from
( Asolid Ahollow ) (897.270 mm 2 467.398 mm 2 )
weight savings (in percent) =
=
= 47.9%
Asolid
897.270 mm 2
Ahollow =

Ans.

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6.55 A motor supplies 200 kW at 6 Hz to flange A of the shaft shown in Fig. P6.55. Gear B transfers 125
kW of power to operating machinery in the factory, and the remaining power in the shaft is transferred
by gear D. Shafts (1) and (2) are solid aluminum [G = 28 GPa] shafts that have the same diameter and an
allowable shear stress of = 40 MPa. Shaft (3) is a solid steel [G = 80 GPa] shaft with an allowable
shear stress of = 55 MPa. Determine:
(a) the minimum permissible diameter for
aluminum shafts (1) and (2).
(b) the minimum permissible diameter for
steel shaft (3).
(c) the rotation angle of gear D with respect
to flange A if the shafts have the minimum
permissible diameters as determined in (a)
and (b).
Fig. P6.55

Solution
Power transmission: The torque on flange A is
P
200, 000 N-m/s
= 5,305.165 N-m
TA = =

s 1 rev
thus, the torque in shaft segment (1) is T1 = 5,305.165 N-m. The torque transferred by gear B is
P
125, 000 N-m/s
= 3,315.728 N-m
TB = =

s 1 rev
therefore, the remaining torque in segments (2) and (3) of the shaft is
T2 = TA TB = 5,305.165 N-m 3,315.728 N-m = 1,989.437 N-m
(a) Minimum diameter for solid aluminum shaft: The minimum diameter required for the solid
aluminum shaft can be found from:
T
3
(5,305.165 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
D1 1 =
= 132, 629.125 mm3
2
16
1,allow
40 N/mm
D1 87.7 mm

Ans.

(b) Minimum diameter for solid steel shaft: The minimum diameter required for the solid steel shaft
can be found from:
T
3
(1,989.437 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
= 36,171.582 mm3
D3 3 =
2
3,allow
16
55 N/mm
D3 56.9 mm

Ans.

(c) Angles of twist: The polar moments of inertia of the aluminum and steel shafts are:

I p1 = I p 2 =
I p3 =

32

32

## (56.9 mm) 4 = 1, 029, 080 mm 4

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## The angles of twist in the three shaft segments are:

TL
(5,305.165 N-m)(0.8 m)(1,000 mm/m) 2
1 = 1 1 =
(28,000 N/mm 2 )(5,807, 621 mm 4 )
G1 I p1
T2 L2
(1,989.437 N-m)(0.4 m)(1,000 mm/m) 2
2 =
=
(28,000 N/mm 2 )(5,807, 621 mm 4 )
G2 I p 2

3 =

T3 L3
(1,989.437 N-m)(0.8 m)(1,000 mm/m) 2
=
G3 I p 3
(80,000 N/mm 2 )(1, 029, 080 mm 4 )

Rotation angle at D: The rotation angle at D is equal to the sum of the angles of twist in the three shaft
segments:
D = 1 + 2 + 3

Ans.

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6.56 A motor supplies 150 hp at 520 rpm to flange A of the shaft shown in Fig. P6.56. Gear B transfers
90 hp of power to operating machinery in the factory, and the remaining power in the shaft is transferred
by gear D. Shafts (1) and (2) are solid aluminum [G = 4,000 ksi] shafts that have the same diameter and
an allowable shear stress of = 6 ksi. Shaft (3) is a solid steel [G = 12,000 ksi] shaft with an allowable
shear stress of = 8 ksi. Determine:
(a) the minimum permissible diameter for
aluminum shafts (1) and (2).
(b) the minimum permissible diameter for
steel shaft (3).
(c) the rotation angle of gear D with respect
to flange A if the shafts have the minimum
permissible diameters as determined in (a)
and (b).
Fig. P6.56

Solution
Power transmission: The torque on flange A is
550 lb-ft/s
(150 hp )
1 hp
P

TA = =
= 1,515.033 lb-ft
520 rev 2 rad 1 min

min 1 rev 60 s
thus, the torque in shaft segment (1) is T1 = 1,515.033 lb-ft. The torque transferred by gear B is
550 lb-ft/s
( 90 hp )
1 hp
P

= 909.020 lb-ft
TB = =
520 rev 2 rad 1 min

min 1 rev 60 s
therefore, the remaining torque in segments (2) and (3) of the shaft is
T2 = TA TB = 1,515.033 lb-ft 909.020 lb-ft = 606.013 lb-ft
(a) Minimum diameter for solid aluminum shaft: The minimum diameter required for the solid
aluminum shaft can be found from:
T
3
(1,515.033 lb-ft)(12 in./ft)
= 3.030066 in.3
D1 1 =
1,allow
16
6, 000 psi
D1 2.49 in.

Ans.

(b) Minimum diameter for solid steel shaft: The minimum diameter required for the solid steel shaft
can be found from:
T
3
(606.013 lb-ft)(12 in./ft)
= 0.909020 in.3
D3 3 =
3,allow
16
8, 000 psi
D3 1.667 in.

Ans.

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(c) Angles of twist: The polar moments of inertia of the aluminum and steel shafts are:

I p1 = I p 2 =
I p3 =

32

32

## The angles of twist in the three shaft segments are:

TL
(1,515.033 lb-ft)(2 ft)(12 in./ft) 2
1 = 1 1 =
G1 I p1
(4,000,000 psi)(3.773960 in.4 )
T2 L2
(606.013 lb-ft)(1 ft)(12 in./ft) 2
2 =
=
G2 I p 2 (4,000,000 psi)(3.773960 in.4 )

3 =

T3 L3
(606.013 lb-ft)(2 ft)(12 in./ft) 2
=
G3 I p 3 (12,000,000 psi)(0.758128 in.4 )

Rotation angle at D: The rotation angle at D is equal to the sum of the angles of twist in the three shaft
segments:
D = 1 + 2 + 3

Ans.

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## 6.57 A motor supplies sufficient power to the

system shown in Fig. P6.57 so that gears C and
D provide torques of TC = 700 N-m and TD =
450 N-m, respectively, to machinery in a
factory. Power shaft segments (1) and (2) are
hollow steel tubes with an outside diameter of D
= 60 mm and an inside diameter of d = 50 mm.
If the power shaft [i.e., segments (1) and (2)]
rotates at 80 rpm, determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress in power shaft
segments (1) and (2).
(b) the power (in kW) that must be provided by
the motor as well as the rotation speed (in rpm).
(c) the torque applied to gear A by the motor.

Fig. P6.57

Solution
Equilibrium:
M x = TD T2 = 0

T2 = TD = 450 N-m

M x = TC + TD T1 = 0
T1 = TC + TD
= 700 N-m + 450 N-m
= 1,150 N-m
Section properties:

I p1 =

32

## (a) Shear stresses:

T R (1,150 N-m)(60 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
1 = 1 1 =
= 52.372 MPa = 52.4 MPa
658,752.71 mm 4
I p1

Ans.

## T2 R2 (450 N-m)(60 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)

=
= 20.493 MPa = 20.5 MPa
I p2
658,752.71 mm 4

Ans.

2 =

## (b) Power transmission: Compute the power in shaft segment (1):

80 rev 2 rad 1 min
P = T1 = (1,150 N-m)

min 1 rev 60 s

## This power in the shaft must be provided by the motor. Therefore:

Pmotor = 9.63 kW

Ans.

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The rotation speed of the motor is found with the use of the gear ratio:
72 teeth
A = B
= 3B = 3(80 rpm) = 240 rpm = motor
24 teeth
(c) Motor torque: The motor must provide a torque of
N
24 teeth
TA = TB A = (1,150 N-m)
= 383 N-m
NB
72 teeth

Ans.

Ans.

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## 6.58 A motor supplies sufficient power to the

system shown in Fig. P6.58 so that gears C and
D provide torques of TC = 125 lb-ft and TD = 90
lb-ft, respectively, to machinery in a factory.
Power shaft segments (1) and (2) are hollow
steel tubes with an outside diameter of D = 1.75
in. and an inside diameter of d = 1.50 in. If the
power shaft [i.e., segments (1) and (2)] rotates
at 160 rpm, determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress in power shaft
segments (1) and (2).
(b) the power (in hp) that must be provided by
the motor as well as the rotation speed (in rpm).
(c) the torque applied to gear A by the motor.

Fig. P6.58

Solution
Equilibrium:
M x = TD T2 = 0

T2 = TD = 90 lb-ft

M x = TC + TD T1 = 0
T1 = TC + TD
= 125 lb-ft + 90 lb-ft
= 215 lb-ft
Section properties:

I p1 =

32

## (a) Shear stresses:

T R (215 lb-ft)(1.75 in./2)(12 in./ft)
1 = 1 1 =
= 5,327.28 psi = 5,330 psi
I p1
0.423762 in.4

1 =

## T1 R1 (90 lb-ft)(1.75 in./2)(12 in./ft)

=
= 2, 230.03 psi = 2, 230 psi
I p1
0.423762 in.4

Ans.
Ans.

## (b) Power transmission: Compute the power in shaft segment (1):

160 rev 2 rad 1 min
P = T1 = (215 lb-ft)

min 1 rev 60 s

## This power in the shaft must be provided by the motor. Therefore:

Pmotor = 6.55 hp

Ans.

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The rotation speed of the motor is found with the use of the gear ratio:
72 teeth
A = B
= 3B = 3(160 rpm) = 480 rpm = motor
24 teeth
(c) Motor torque: The motor must provide a torque of
N
24 teeth
TA = TB A = (215 lb-ft)
= 71.7 lb-ft = 860 lb-in.
NB
72 teeth

Ans.

Ans.

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## 6.59 A motor supplies 12 hp at 4 Hz to gear A

of the drive system shown in Fig. P6.59. Shaft
(1) is a solid 2.25-in.-diameter aluminum [G =
4,000 ksi] shaft with a length of L1 = 16 in.
Shaft (2) is a solid 1.5-in.-diameter steel [G =
12,000 ksi] shaft with a length of L2 = 12 in.
Shafts (1) and (2) are connected at flange C, and
the bearings shown permit free rotation of the
shaft. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress in shafts (1) and
(2).
(b) the rotation angle of gear D with respect to
gear B.

Fig. P6.59

Solution
Power transmission: The torque acting on gear A is:
550 lb-ft/s
(12 hp )
1 hp
P

= 262.606 lb-ft
TA = =

s 1 rev
Equilibrium: The torque applied to gear B is:
N
60 teeth
TB = TA B = (262.606 lb-ft)
= 656.515 lb-ft
NA
24 teeth
The torque on shaft segments (1) and (2) as well as gear D is equal to the torque applied to gear B.
T1 = T2 = TD = TB = 656.515 lb-ft
Section properties: The polar moments of inertia for aluminum shaft (1) and steel shaft (2) are:

I p1 =

32

D14 =

32

I p2 =

32

D24 =

32

## (a) Maximum shear stresses:

T R (656.515 lb-ft)(2.25 in./2)(12 in./ft)
1 = 1 1 =
= 3,522.48 psi = 3,520 psi
I p1
2.516112 in.4

2 =

## T2 R2 (656.515 lb-ft)(1.5 in./2)(12 in./ft)

=
= 11,888.36 psi = 11,890 psi
I p2
0.497010 in.4

Ans.
Ans.

(b) Angles of twist: The angles of twist in the two shaft segments are:
TL
(656.515 lb-ft)(16 in.)(12 in./ft)
1 = 1 1 =
G1 I p1 (4,000,000 psi)(2.516112 in.4 )

2 =

T2 L2
(656.515 lb-ft)(12 in.)(12 in./ft)
=
G2 I p 2 (12,000,000 psi)(0.497010 in.4 )

## Rotation angle of D relative to B:

Ans.

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## 6.60 A motor supplies 13 kW at 400 rpm to

gear A of the drive system shown in Fig. P6.60.
Shaft (1) is a solid 50-mm-diameter aluminum
[G = 28 GPa] shaft with a length of L1 = 600
mm. Shaft (2) is a solid 40-mm-diameter steel
[G = 80 GPa] shaft with a length of L2 = 400
mm. Shafts (1) and (2) are connected at flange
C, and the bearings shown permit free rotation
of the shaft. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress in shafts (1) and
(2).
(b) the rotation angle of gear D with respect to
gear B.

Fig. P6.60

Solution
Power transmission: The torque acting on gear A is:
P
13, 000 N-m/s
= 310.35 N-m
TA = =
400 rev 2 rad 1 min

min 1 rev 60 s
Equilibrium: The torque applied to gear B is:
N
60 teeth
= 775.88 N-m
TB = TA B = (310.35 N-m)
24 teeth
NA
The torque on shaft segments (1) and (2) as well as gear D is equal to the torque applied to gear B.
T1 = T2 = TD = TB = 775.88 N-m
Section properties: The polar moments of inertia for aluminum shaft (1) and steel shaft (2) are:

I p1 =

32

D14 =

32

I p2 =

32

D24 =

32

## (a) Maximum shear stresses:

T R (775.88 N-m)(50 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
1 = 1 1 =
= 31.612 MPa = 31.6 MPa
I p1
613,592.32 mm 4

2 =

## T2 R2 (775.88 N-m)(40 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)

=
= 61.743 MPa = 61.7 MPa
I p2
251,327.41 mm 4

Ans.
Ans.

(b) Angles of twist: The angles of twist in the two shaft segments are:
TL
(775.88 N-m)(600 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
1 = 1 1 =
G1 I p1
(28,000 N/mm 2 )(613,592.32 mm 4 )

2 =

T2 L2
(775.88 N-m)(400 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
=
G2 I p 2
(80,000 N/mm 2 )(251,327.41 mm 4 )

## Rotation angle of D relative to B:

Ans.

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## 6.61 The motor shown in Fig. P6.61 supplies 60 hp

at 700 rpm at A. The bearings shown permit free
rotation of the shafts.
(a) Shaft (1) is a solid 1.75-in.-diameter steel shaft.
Determine the maximum shear stress produced in
shaft (1).
(b) If the shear stress in shaft (2) must be limited to
6,000 psi, determine the minimum acceptable
diameter for shaft (2) if a solid shaft is used.

Fig. P6.61

Solution
Power transmission: The torque acting in shaft (1) and on gear B is:
550 lb-ft/s
( 60 hp )
1 hp
P

= 450.181 lb-ft
T1 = TB = =
700 rev 2 rad 1 min

min 1 rev 60 s
Section properties: The polar moment of inertia for shaft (1) is:

I p1 =

32

D14 =

32

## (a) Maximum shear stress in shaft (1):

T R (450.181 lb-ft)(1.75 in./2)(12 in./ft)
1 = 1 1 =
= 5,133.63 psi = 5,130 psi
I p1
0.920772 in.4

Ans.

## (b) Equilibrium: The torque applied to gear C is:

N
30 teeth
TC = TB C = (450.181 lb-ft)
= 281.363 lb-ft
NB
48 teeth
The torque on shaft segment (2) as well as gear D is equal to the torque applied to gear C.
T2 = TD = TC = 281.363 lb-ft

The minimum diameter required for solid shaft (2) can be found from:
T
3
(281.363 lb-ft)(12 in./ft)
= 0.562726 in.3
D2 2 =
16
2,allow
6, 000 psi
D2 1.420438 in. = 1.420 in.

Ans.

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## 6.62 The motor shown in Fig. P6.62 supplies 25

kW at 6 Hz at A. The bearings shown permit free
rotation of the shafts.
(a) Shaft (2) is a solid 30-mm-diameter steel shaft.
Determine the maximum shear stress produced in
shaft (2).
(b) If the shear stress in shaft (1) must be limited to
40 MPa, determine the minimum acceptable
diameter for shaft (1) if a solid shaft is used.

Fig. P6.62

Solution
Power transmission: The torque acting in shaft (1) and on gear B is:
P
25, 000 N-m/s
= 663.146 N-m
T1 = TB = =

s 1 rev

## The torque applied to gear C is:

N
30 teeth
TC = TB C = (663.146 N-m)
= 414.466 N-m
NB
48 teeth
The torque on shaft segment (2) as well as gear D is equal to the torque applied to gear C.
T2 = TD = TC = 414.466 N-m
Section properties: The polar moment of inertia for shaft (2) is:

I p2 =

32

D24 =

32

## (a) Maximum shear stress in shaft (2):

TR
(414.466 N-m)(30 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
2 = 2 2 =
= 78.180 MPa = 78.2 MPa
I p2
79,521.56 mm 4

Ans.

## (b) Minimum diameter for solid shaft (1):

T
3
(663.146 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
= 16,578.65 mm3
D1 1 =
2
1,allow
16
40 N/mm

D1 43.8706 mm = 43.9 mm

Ans.

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## 6.63 The motor shown in Fig. P6.63 supplies 4

kW at 2 Hz at A. Shafts (1) and (2) are each solid
30-mm-diameter steel [G = 80 GPa] shafts with
lengths of L1 = 900 mm and L2 = 1,200 mm,
respectively. The bearings shown permit free
rotation of the shafts. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress produced in shafts
(1) and (2).
(b) the rotation angle of gear D with respect to
flange A.

Fig. P6.63

Solution
Power transmission: The magnitude of the torque acting in shaft (1) and on gear B is:
P
4, 000 N-m/s
= 318.310 N-m
T1 = TB = =

s 1 rev

## The magnitude of the torque applied to gear C is:

N
54 teeth
TC = TB C = (318.310 N-m)
= 477.465 N-m
NB
36 teeth
The torque magnitude in shaft segment (2) as well as the magnitude of the torque acting on gear D is
equal to the torque applied to gear C.
T2 = TD = TC = 477.465 N-m
To determine the proper signs for T1 and T2, consider equilibrium. First,
consider a FBD that cuts through shaft (2) and includes gear D.
M x = TD T2 = 0
T2 = TD = +477.465 N-m
Since T2 is positive, the torque in shaft (2) must be negative; therefore,
T1 = 318.310 N-m
Section properties: The polar moments of inertia for shafts (1) and (2) are equal:

I p1 =

32

D14 =

32

## (a) Maximum shear stress magnitudes:

T R (318.310 N-m)(30 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
1 = 1 1 =
= 60.042 MPa = 60.0 MPa
I p1
79,521.56 mm 4

Ans.

## T2 R2 (477.465 N-m)(30 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)

=
= 90.063 MPa = 90.1 MPa
I p2
79,521.56 mm 4

Ans.

2 =

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## Angles of twist in shafts (1) and (2):

TL
(318.310 N-m)(900 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
1 = 1 1 =
G1 I p1
(80,000 N/mm 2 )(79,521.56 mm 4 )

2 =

T2 L2
(477.465 N-m)(1,200 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
=
G2 I p 2
(80,000 N/mm 2 )(79,521.56 mm 4 )

Rotation angles of gears B and C: The rotation of gear B is found from the angle of twist in shaft (1):
1 = B A
As gear B rotates, gear C also rotates but it rotates in the opposite direction. The magnitude of the
rotation is dictated by the gear ratio:
N
36 teeth
C = B B = (0.045032 rad)
NC
54 teeth
(b) Rotation angle of gear D: The rotation of gear D with respect to flange A is found from:

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## 6.64 The motor shown in Fig. P6.64 supplies 50

hp at 400 rpm at A. Shafts (1) and (2) are each
solid 2-in.-diameter steel [G = 12,000 ksi] shafts
with lengths of L1 = 100 in. and L2 = 120 in.,
respectively. The bearings shown permit free
rotation of the shafts.
(a) Determine the maximum shear stress
produced in shafts (1) and (2).
(b) Determine the rotation angle of gear D with
respect to flange A.

Fig. P6.64

Solution
Power transmission: The magnitude of the torque acting in shaft (1) and on gear B is:
550 lb-ft/s
( 50 hp )
1 hp
P

= 656.514 lb-ft
T1 = TB = =
400 rev 2 rad 1 min

min 1 rev 60 s

## The magnitude of the torque applied to gear C is:

N
54 teeth
TC = TB C = (656.514 lb-ft)
= 984.771 lb-ft
NB
36 teeth
The torque magnitude in shaft segment (2) as well as the magnitude of the torque acting on gear D is
equal to the torque applied to gear C.
T2 = TD = TC = 984.771 lb-ft
To determine the proper signs for T1 and T2, consider equilibrium. First,
consider a FBD that cuts through shaft (2) and includes gear D.
M x = TD T2 = 0
T2 = TD = +984.771 lb-ft
Since T2 is positive, the torque in shaft (2) must be negative; therefore,
T1 = 656.514 lb-ft
Section properties: The polar moments of inertia for shafts (1) and (2) are equal:
I p1 =

32

D14 =

32

## (a) Maximum shear stress magnitudes:

T R (656.514 lb-ft)(2 in./2)(12 in./ft)
1 = 1 1 =
= 5, 015.40 psi = 5,020 psi
I p1
1.570796 in.4

Ans.

## T2 R2 (984.771 lb-ft)(2 in./2)(12 in./ft)

=
= 7,523.10 psi = 7,520 psi
I p2
1.570796 in.4

Ans.

2 =

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## Angles of twist in shafts (1) and (2):

TL
(656.514 lb-ft)(100 in.)(12 in./ft)
1 = 1 1 =
G1 I p1
(12,000,000 psi)(1.570796 in.4 )

2 =

T2 L2
(984.771 lb-ft)(120 in.)(12 in./ft)
=
G2 I p 2 (12,000,000 psi)(1.570796 in.4 )

Rotation angles of gears B and C: The rotation of gear B is found from the angle of twist in shaft (1):
1 = B A
As gear B rotates, gear C also rotates but it rotates in the opposite direction. The magnitude of the
rotation is dictated by the gear ratio:
N
36 teeth
C = B B = (0.041795 rad)
54 teeth
NC
(b) Rotation angle of gear D: The rotation of gear D with respect to flange A is found from:

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## 6.65 The gear train shown in Fig. P6.65

transmits power from a motor to a machine at E.
The motor turns at a frequency of 21 Hz. The
diameter of solid shaft (1) is 25 mm, the
diameter of solid shaft (2) is 32 mm, and the
allowable shear stress for each shaft is 60 MPa.
Determine:
(a) the maximum power that can be transmitted
by the gear train.
(b) the torque provided at gear E.
(c) the rotation speed of gear E (in Hz).

Fig. P6.65

Solution
Section properties:

I p1 =
I p2 =

32

32

D14 =
D24 =

32

32

## (25 mm) 4 = 38,349.52 mm 4

(32 mm) 4 = 102,943.71 mm 4

## Allowable torques in the shafts:

allow I p1 (60 N/mm 2 )(38,349.52 mm 4 )
=
= 184, 078 N-mm
T1,allow =
R1
25 mm/2
allow I p 2 (60 N/mm 2 )(102,943.71 mm 4 )
=
= 386, 039 N-mm
T2,allow =
R2
32 mm/2
Torque relationships at the gears: The magnitudes of the torques acting on the gears are related by:
N
N
(a)
TB = TA B
TD = TC D
NA
NC
Equilibrium: The magnitudes of the torques in the gears and shafts are related by:
TB = T1 = TC
TD = T2 = TE

(b)

Equations (a) and (b) express the relationship between the torque in shafts (1) and (2):
N
T2 = T1 D
NC

(c)

Controlling shaft torque: In Eq. (c), let T1 = T1,allow and compare the result with the allowable torque
for shaft (2):
N
check T1,allow D T2,allow
NC

60 teeth
(184, 078 N-mm)
= 368,156 N-mm 386, 039 N-m
30 teeth

O.K.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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This calculation shows that the torque in shaft (1) controls the capacity of the gear train. Using this fact,
the torques throughout the gear train can be determined:
T1 = 184, 078 N-mm
T2 = 368,156 N-mm
TB = TC = 184, 078 N-mm
TA = TB

TD = TE = 368,156 N-mm

NA
24 teeth
= (184, 078 N-mm)
= 61,359 N-mm
NB
72 teeth

(a) Power transmission: The maximum power that can be transmitted by the gear train can be found
from the torque and rotation speed at A:
Ans.
P = TA A = (61.359 N-m)

## = 8, 096.13 N-m/s = 8.10 kW

s 1 rev
(b) Torque at gear E: Equations (a) and (b) can be combined to express the relationship between the
torque supplied by the motor at A and the torque available at gear E:
N N
N N
N
N
(d)
TE = TD = TC D = TB D = TA B D = TA B D
NC
NC N A NC
N A N C
The torque available at gear E is thus:
N N
72 teeth 60 teeth
TE = TA B D = (61.359 N-m)

## = 368.154 N-m = 368 N-m

24 teeth 30 teeth
N A N C

Ans.

This result could also be found from the torque in shaft (2), as calculated previously.
(c) Rotation speed of gear E: There are a couple of ways to compute this speed. Using the gear ratios,
the speed of gear E can be found from:
N N
24 teeth 30 teeth
Ans.
E = A A C = (21 Hz)

= 3.5 Hz
72 teeth 60 teeth
N B N D

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## 6.66 The gear train shown in Fig. P6.66

transmits power from a motor to a machine at
E. The motor turns at 750 rpm. The diameter
of solid shaft (1) is 1.50 in., the diameter of
solid shaft (2) is 2.00 in., and the allowable
shear stress for each shaft is 6 ksi. Determine:
(a) the maximum power that can be
transmitted by the gear train.
(b) the torque provided at gear E.
(c) the rotation speed of gear E (in Hz).

Fig. P6.66

Solution
Section properties:
I p1 =
I p2 =

32

32

D14 =
D24 =

32

32

## (1.50 in.) 4 = 0.497010 in.4

(2.00 in.) 4 = 1.570796 in.4

## Allowable torques in the shafts:

allow I p1 (6,000 psi)(0.497010 in.4 )
=
= 3,976.1 lb-in.
T1,allow =
1.50 in./2
R1
allow I p 2 (6,000 psi)(1.570796 in.4 )
=
= 9, 424.8 lb-in.
T2,allow =
2.00 in./2
R2
Torque relationships at the gears: The magnitudes of the torques acting on the gears are related by:
N
N
(a)
TB = TA B
TD = TC D
NA
NC
Equilibrium: The magnitudes of the torques in the gears and shafts are related by:
TB = T1 = TC
TD = T2 = TE
Equations (a) and (b) express the relationship between the torque in shafts (1) and (2):
N
T2 = T1 D
NC

(b)

(c)

Controlling shaft torque: In Eq. (c), let T1 = T1,allow and compare the result with the allowable torque
for shaft (2):
N
check T1,allow D T2,allow
NC
60 teeth
(3,976.1 lb-in.)
= 7,952.2 lb-in. 9, 424.8 lb-in.
30 teeth

O.K.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

This calculation shows that the torque in shaft (1) controls the capacity of the gear train. Using this fact,
the torques throughout the gear train can be determined:
T1 = 3,976.1 lb-in.
T2 = 7,952.2 lb-in.
TB = TC = 3,976.1 lb-in.
TA = TB

TD = TE = 7,952.2 lb-in.

NA
24 teeth
= (3,976.1 lb-in.)
= 1,325.4 lb-in. = 110.45 lb-ft
NB
72 teeth

(a) Power transmission: The maximum power that can be transmitted by the gear train can be found
from the torque and rotation speed at A:
750 rev 2 rad 1 min
Ans.
P = TA A = (110.45 lb-ft)

## = 8,675.723 lb-ft/s = 15.77 hp

min 1 rev 60 s
(b) Torque at gear E: Equations (a) and (b) can be combined to express the relationship between the
torque supplied by the motor at A and the torque available at gear E:
N N
N N
N
N
(d)
TE = TD = TC D = TB D = TA B D = TA B D
NC
NC N A NC
N A N C
The torque available at gear E is thus:
N N
72 teeth 60 teeth
TE = TA B D = (110.45 lb-ft)

## = 662.7 lb-ft = 663 lb-ft

24 teeth 30 teeth
N A N C

Ans.

This result could also be found from the torque in shaft (2), as calculated previously.
(c) Rotation speed of gear E: There are a couple of ways to compute this speed. Using the gear ratios,
the speed of gear E can be found from:
N N
24 teeth 30 teeth
Ans.
E = A A C = (750 rpm)

= 125 rpm
72 teeth 60 teeth
N B N D

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.