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# 6.

## 26 A torque of TA = 525 lb-ft is applied to gear A

of the gear train shown in Fig. P6.26. The bearings
shown allow the shafts to rotate freely.
(a) Determine the torque TD required for equilibrium
of the system.
(b) Assume shafts (1) and (2) are solid 1.5-in.diameter steel shafts. Determine the magnitude of
the maximum shear stresses acting in each shaft.
(c) Assume shafts (1) and (2) are solid steel shafts,
which have an allowable shear stress of 12,000 psi.
Determine the minimum diameter required for each
shaft.
Fig. P6.26

Solution
(a) Torque TD required for equilibrium:
10 in.
10 in.
TD = TA
= (525 lb-ft)
= 875 lb-ft
6 in.
6 in.
(b) Shear stress magnitudes if shafts are solid 1.5-in.-diameter:

Ip =

D4 =

## (1.5 in.) 4 = 0.497010 in.4

32
32
T1 R1 (525 lb-ft)(1.5 in./2)(12 in./ft)
1 =
=
= 9,506.85 psi = 9,510 psi
I p1
0.497010 in.4

2 =

## T2 R2 (875 lb-ft)(1.5 in./2)(12 in./ft)

=
= 15,844.75 psi = 15,840 psi
0.497010 in.4
I p2

Ans.
Ans.

(c) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in
terms of the unknown diameter D:
TR
=
Ip

Ip

D4

= 32
= D3 =
R
D / 2 16

Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:
16 T1
16(525 lb-ft)(12 in./ft)
D13
=
= 2.673803 in.3
allow
(12, 000 psi)
D1 1.387958 in. = 1.388 in.
D23

16 T2

allow

Ans.

= 4.456338 in.3
(12, 000 psi)

## D2 1.645607 in. = 1.646 in.

Ans.

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## 6.27 A torque of TD = 1,200 N-m is applied to gear

D of the gear train shown in Fig. P6.27. The bearings
shown allow the shafts to rotate freely.
(a) Determine the torque TA required for equilibrium
of the system.
(b) Assume shafts (1) and (2) are solid 30-mmdiameter steel shafts. Determine the magnitude of
the maximum shear stresses acting in each shaft.
(c) Assume shafts (1) and (2) are solid steel shafts,
which have an allowable shear stress of 60 MPa.
Determine the minimum diameter required for each
shaft.

Fig. P6.27

Solution
(a) Torque TA required for equilibrium:
150 mm
150 mm
TA = TD
= (1, 200 N-m)
= 782.609 N-m
230 mm
230 mm
(b) Shear stress magnitudes if shafts are solid 30-mm-diameter:

Ip =

D4 =

## (30 mm)4 = 79,521.564 mm 4

32
32
T R (782.609 N-m)(30 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
1 = 1 1 =
= 147.622 MPa = 147.6 MPa
79,521.564 mm 4
I p1

2 =

## T2 R2 (1, 200 N-m)(30 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)

=
= 226.354 MPa = 226 MPa
79,521.564 mm 4
I p2

Ans.
Ans.

(c) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in
terms of the unknown diameter D:
TR
=
Ip

Ip

D4

T
= 32
= D3 =

R
D / 2 16

Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:
16 T1
16(782.609 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
=
= 66, 429.915 mm3
D13
2
allow
(60 N/mm )
D1 40.500 mm = 40.5 mm
D23

16 T2

allow

Ans.

## 16(1, 200 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)

= 101,859.164 mm3
2
(60 N/mm )

D2 46.702 mm = 46.702 mm

Ans.

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## 6.28 The gear train system shown in Fig. P6.28

includes shafts (1) and (2), which are solid 1.375-in.diameter steel shafts. The allowable shear stress of
each shaft is 5,000 psi. The bearings shown allow
the shafts to rotate freely. Determine the maximum
torque TD that can be applied to the system without
exceeding the allowable shear stress in either shaft.

Fig. P6.28

Solution
Section properties:

I p1 =

32

D4 =

32

## Maximum torque in either shaft:

allow I p1 (5,000 psi)(0.350922 in.4 )
Tmax =
=
= 2,552.16 lb-in.
1.375 in./2
R1
Torque relationship:
T1
T
8 in.
= 2
or T1 = T2
= 1.60 T2
8 in. 5 in.
5 in.

T1 controls

The torque in shaft (1) controls; therefore, T1 = 2,552.16 lb-in. Consequently, the maximum torque in
shaft (2) must be limited to:
5 in.
T2 = T1
= 0.625(2,552.16 lb-in.) = 1,595.10 lb-in. = 132.9 lb-ft
Ans.
8 in.

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## 6.29 The gear train system shown in Fig. P6.29

includes shafts (1) and (2), which are solid 20-mmdiameter steel shafts. The allowable shear stress of
each shaft is 30 MPa. The bearings shown allow the
shafts to rotate freely. Determine the maximum
torque TD that can be applied to the system without
exceeding the allowable shear stress in either shaft.

Fig. P6.29

Solution
Section properties:

I p1 =

32

D4 =

32

## Maximum torque in either shaft:

allow I p1 (30 N/mm 2 )(15,707.963 mm 4 )
Tmax =
=
= 47,123.890 N-mm
20 mm/2
R1
Torque relationship:
T1
T2
=
200 mm 80 mm

or T1 = T2

200 mm
= 2.50 T2
80 mm

T1 controls

The torque in shaft (1) controls; therefore, T1 = 47,123.890 N-mm. Consequently, the maximum torque
in shaft (2) must be limited to:
80 mm
T2 = T1
= 0.4(47,123.890 N-mm) = 18,849.556 N-mm = 18.85 N-m
Ans.
200 mm

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## 6.30 In the gear system shown in Fig. P6.30, the

motor applies a 160 lb-ft torque to the gear at A. A
torque of TC = 250 lb-ft is removed from the shaft
at gear C, and the remaining torque is removed at
gear D. Segments (1) and (2) are solid 1.5-in.diameter steel [G = 12,000 ksi] shafts, and the
bearings shown allow free rotation of the shaft.
Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress in segments (1) and
(2) of the shaft.
(b) the rotation angle of gear D relative to gear B.

Fig. P6.30

Solution
Section properties:

I p1 =

32

D4 =

32

## (1.5 in.) 4 = 0.497010 in.4 = I p 2

Torque relationship:
TA
T
10 in.
= B
= 2.50 TA = 2.50(160 lb-ft) = 400 lb-ft
hence TB = TA
4 in. 10 in.
4 in.

Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 400 lb-ft. A torque of 250 lb-ft is removed from
the shaft at gear C; therefore, TC = 250 lb-ft. The torque in shaft (2) must satisfy equilibrium:
M x = T1 + TC + T2 = 0
T2 = T1 TC = 400 lb-ft 250 lb-ft = 150 lb-ft
To summarize:
T1 = 400 lb-ft
T2 = 150 lb-ft
(a) Maximum shear stress in shafts (1) and (2):
T R (400 lb-ft)(1.5 in./2)(12 in./ft)
1 = 1 1 =
= 7, 243.315 psi = 7, 240 psi
0.497010 in.4
I p1

Ans.

## T2 R2 (150 lb-ft)(1.5 in./2)(12 in./ft)

=
= 2, 716.243 psi = 2, 720 psi
0.497010 in.4
I p2

Ans.

2 =

## (b) Angles of twist in shafts (1) and (2):

TL
(400 lb-ft)(60 in.)(12 in./ft)
1 = 1 1 =
G1 I p1 (12, 000, 000 psi)(0.497010 in.4 )

2 =

T2 L2
(150 lb-ft)(40 in.)(12 in./ft)
=
G2 I p 2 (12, 000, 000 psi)().497010 in.4 )

Note: There is not enough information given to say whether these twist angles are positive or negative.
However, both twist angles will have the same sign.
(since this is our reference)

D = B + 1 + 2

Ans.

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6.31 In the gear system shown in Fig. P6.31, the motor applies a 300 lb-ft torque to the gear at A. A torque
of TC = 500 lb-ft is removed from the shaft at gear C, and the remaining torque is removed at gear D.
Segments (1) and (2) are solid steel [G = 12,000 ksi] shafts, and the bearings shown allow free rotation of
the shaft.
(a) Determine the minimum permissible
diameters for segments (1) and (2) of the shaft if
the maximum shear stress must not exceed 6,000
psi.
(b) If the same diameter is to be used for both
segments (1) and (2), determine the minimum
permissible diameter that can be used for the
shaft if the maximum shear stress must not
exceed 6,000 psi and the rotation angle of gear D
relative to gear B must not exceed 0.10 rad.
Fig. P6.31

Solution
Torque relationship: The motor applies a torque of 300 lb-ft to gear A. Since gear B is bigger than
gear A, the torque on gear B will be increased in proportion to the gear ratio:
TA
T
10 in.
= B
= 2.50 TA = 2.50(300 lb-ft) = 750 lb-ft
hence TB = TA
4 in. 10 in.
4 in.
Let the positive x axis for shaft BCD extend from gear B toward gear D. In order for shaft BCD to be in
equilibrium with the torques as shown on gears C and D, the torque at B must act in the negative x
direction. Consequently, TB = 750 lb-ft.

Draw a free-body diagram that cuts through shaft (1) and includes gear B. From this FBD, the torque in
shaft (1) is:
M x = 750 lb-ft + T1 = 0
T1 = 750 lb-ft
From the problem statement, we are told that a torque of
500 lb-ft is removed from the shaft at gear C. In other
words, TC = 500 lb-ft. Draw a FBD that cuts through shaft
(2) and includes both gears B and C. From this FBD, the
torque in shaft (2) is:
M x = 750 lb-ft + 500 lb-ft + T2 = 0
T2 = 250 lb-ft
To summarize:
T1 = 750 lb-ft

T2 = 250 lb-ft

(a) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in
terms of the unknown diameter D:
TR
=
Ip

D4
T

32
=
= D3 =
R
D / 2 16

Ip

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Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:
16 T1
16(750 lb-ft)(12 in./ft)
=
= 7.639437 in.3
D13
allow
(6, 000 psi)
D1 1.969490 in. = 1.969 in.
D23

16 T2

allow

Ans.

= 2.546479 in.3
(6, 000 psi)

## D2 1.365568 in. = 1.366 in.

Ans.

(b) The rotation angle of gear D with respect to gear B is equal to the sum of the angles of twist in shaft
segments (1) and (2):
D B = 1 + 2 0.10 rad
Since the same solid steel shaft is to be used for both segments (1) and (2):
TL
TL
1
0.01 rad 1 1 + 2 2 =
[T1 L1 + T2 L2 ]
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 GI p

or rearranging:
Ip =

32

D4

## (750 lb-ft)(60 in.)(12 in./ft) + (250 lb-ft)(40 in.)(12 in./ft)

= 0.5500 in.4

D 1.538 in.

Since the shaft has already been designed for stresses and since the diameter that is required to satisfy
the rotation angle requirement is smaller than D1 determined in part (a), the minimum diameter required
for a constant diameter shaft between gears B and D is:
Dmin = 1.969 in.
Ans.

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## 6.32 In the gear system shown in Fig. P6.32, the

motor applies a torque of 220 N-m to the gear at
A. A torque of TC = 400 N-m is removed from the
shaft at gear C, and the remaining torque is
removed at gear D. Segments (1) and (2) are solid
40-mm-diameter steel [G = 80 GPa] shafts, and
the bearings shown allow free rotation of the
shaft.
(a) Determine the maximum shear stress in
segments (1) and (2) of the shaft.
(b) Determine the rotation angle of gear D
relative to gear B.

Fig. P6.32

Solution
Section properties:

I p1 =

32

D4 =

32

## (40 mm) 4 = 251,327.41 mm 4 = I p 2

Torque relationship:
TA
TB
=
100 mm 300 mm

hence TB = TA

300 mm
= 3TA = 3(220 N-m) = 660 N-m
100 mm

Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 660 N-m. A torque of TC = 400 N-m is removed
from the shaft at gear C. The torque in shaft (2) must satisfy equilibrium:
M x = T1 + TC + T2 = 0
T2 = T1 TC = 660 N-m 400 N-m = 260 N-m
To summarize:
T1 = 660 N-m
T2 = 260 N-m
(a) Maximum shear stress in shafts (1) and (2):
T R (660 N-m)(40 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
1 = 1 1 =
= 52.521 MPa = 52.5 MPa
251,327.41 mm 4
I p1

2 =

## T2 R2 (260 N-m)(40 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)

=
= 20.690 MPa = 20.7 MPa
251,327.41 mm 4
I p2

Ans.
Ans.

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## (b) Angles of twist in shafts (1) and (2):

TL
(660 N-m)(1.5 m)(1,000 mm/m) 2
1 = 1 1 =
G1 I p1 (80,000 N/mm 2 )(251,327.41 mm 4 )
T2 L2
(260 N-m)(1.0 m)(1,000 mm/m) 2
2 =
=
G2 I p 2 (80,000 N/mm 2 )(251,327.41 mm 4 )

Note: There is not enough information given to say whether these twist angles are positive or negative.
However, both twist angles will have the same sign.

## (since this is our reference)

D = B + 1 + 2

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## 6.33 In the gear system shown in Fig. P6.33, the

motor applies a torque of 400 N-m to the gear at
A. A torque of TC = 700 N-m is removed from the
shaft at gear C, and the remaining torque is
removed at gear D. Segments (1) and (2) are solid
steel [G = 80 GPa] shafts, and the bearings shown
allow free rotation of the shaft.
(a) Determine the minimum permissible
diameters for segments (1) and (2) of the shaft if
the maximum shear stress must not exceed 40
MPa.
(b) If the same diameter is to be used for
segments (1) and (2), determine the minimum
permissible diameter that can be used for the
shaft if the maximum shear stress must not
exceed 40 MPa and the rotation angle of gear D
relative to gear B must not exceed 3.0.

Fig. P6.33

Solution
Torque relationship:
TA
TB
=
100 mm 300 mm

hence TB = TA

300 mm
= 3TA = 3(400 N-m) = 1, 200 N-m
100 mm

Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 1,200 N-m. A torque of TC = 700 N-m is
removed from the shaft at gear C. The torque in shaft (2) must satisfy equilibrium:
M x = T1 + TC + T2 = 0
T2 = T1 TC = 1, 200 N-m 700 N-m = 500 N-m
To summarize:
T1 = 1, 200 N-m
T2 = 500 N-m
(a) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in
terms of the unknown diameter D:
TR
=
Ip

Ip

D4

= 32
= D3 =
R
D / 2 16

Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:
16 T1
16(1, 200 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
=
= 152, 788.745 mm3
D13
allow
(40 N/mm 2 )
D1 53.460 mm = 53.5 mm
D23

16 T2

allow

Ans.

## 16(500 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)

= 63, 661.977 mm3
2
(40 N/mm )

D2 39.929 mm = 39.9 mm

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(b) The rotation angle of gear D with respect to gear B is equal to the sum of the angles of twist in shaft
segments (1) and (2):
D B = 1 + 2 (3)( /180) = 0.052360 rad
Since the same solid steel shaft is to be used for both segments (1) and (2):
TL
TL
1
0.052360 rad 1 1 + 2 2 =
[T1 L1 + T2 L2 ]
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 GI p

or rearranging:
Ip =

32

D4

## (1, 200 N-m)(1.5 m)(1,000 mm/m) 2 + (500 N-m)(1.0 m)(1,000 mm/m) 2

= 549, 083.270 mm 4
2

D 48.6 mm

Since the shaft has already been designed for stresses and since the diameter that is required to satisfy
the rotation angle requirement is smaller than D1 determined in part (a), the minimum diameter required
for a constant diameter shaft between gears B and D is:
Dmin = 53.5 mm
Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## 6.34 In the gear system shown in Fig. P6.34, the

motor applies a torque of 250 N-m to the gear at A.
Shaft (1) is a solid 35-mm-diameter shaft, and
shaft (2) is a solid 50-mm-diameter shaft. The
bearings shown allow free rotation of the shafts.
(a) Determine the torque TE provided by the gear
system at gear E.
(b) Determine the maximum shear stresses in
shafts (1) and (2).

Fig. P6.34

Solution
(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear B is:
72
TB = TA
= 3TA = 3(250 N-m) = 750 N-m
24
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 750 N-m and TC = 750 N-m. The torque on gear
D is found from:
60
TD = TC
= 2 TC = 2(750 N-m) = 1,500 N-m
30
Shaft (2) has the same torque as gear D; therefore, T2 = 1,500 N-m and
TE = 1,500 N-m
Ans.

To summarize:
T1 = 750 N-m

T2 = 1,500 N-m

I p1 =
I p2 =

32

32

D14 =
D24 =

32

32

## (35 mm) 4 = 147,323.51 mm 4

(50 mm) 4 = 613,592.32 mm 4

## Maximum shear stress in shafts (1) and (2):

T R (750 N-m)(35 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
1 = 1 1 =
= 89.090 MPa = 89.1 MPa
I p1
147,323.51 mm 4

2 =

## T2 R2 (1,500 N-m)(50 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)

=
= 61.115 MPa = 61.1 MPa
I p2
613,592.32 mm 4

Ans.
Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## 6.35 In the gear system shown in Fig. P6.35, the

motor applies a torque of 600 N-m to the gear at A.
Shafts (1) and (2) are solid shafts, and the bearings
shown allow free rotation of the shafts.
(a) Determine the torque TE provided by the gear
system at gear E.
(b) If the allowable shear stress in each shaft must
be limited to 50 MPa, determine the minimum
permissible diameter for each shaft.

Fig. P6.35

Solution
(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear B is:
72
TB = TA
= 3TA = 3(600 N-m) = 1,800 N-m
24
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 1,800 N-m and TC = 1,800 N-m. The torque on
gear D is found from:
60
TD = TC
= 2 TC = 2(1,800 N-m) = 3, 600 N-m
30
Shaft (2) has the same torque as gear D; therefore, T2 = 3,600 N-m and
TE = 3, 600 N-m
Ans.

To summarize:
T1 = 1,800 N-m

T2 = 3, 600 N-m

(b) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in
terms of the unknown diameter D:
TR
=
Ip

Ip

D4

= 32
= D3 =
R
D / 2 16

Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:
16 T1
16(1,800 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
=
= 183,346.494 mm3
D13
2
allow
(50 N/mm )
D1 56.810 mm = 56.8 mm
D23

16 T2

allow

Ans.

## 16(3, 600 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)

= 366, 692.989 mm3
2
(50 N/mm )

D2 71.576 mm = 71.6 mm

Ans.

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## 6.36 In the gear system shown in Fig. P6.36, a

torque of TE = 900 lb-ft is delivered at gear E.
Shafts (1) and (2) are solid shafts, and the bearings
shown allow free rotation of the shafts.
(a) Determine the torque provided by the motor to
gear A.
(b) If the allowable shear stress in each shaft must
be limited to 4,000 psi, determine the minimum
permissible diameter for each shaft.

Fig. P6.36

Solution
(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear E creates a torque in shaft (2) of T2 = 900 lb-ft.
Accordingly, the torque applied to gear D is also equal to 900 lb-ft. The torque on gear C is found with
the gear ratio:
30
TC = TD
= 0.5 TD = 0.5(900 lb-ft) = 450 lb-ft
60
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear C; therefore, T1 = 450 lb-ft and TB = 450 N-m. The torque on gear
A is found from:
24 TC 450 lb-ft
Ans.
TA = TB
=
=
= 150 lb-ft
72 3
3

To summarize:
T1 = 450 lb-ft

T2 = 900 lb-ft

(b) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in
terms of the unknown diameter D:
TR
=
Ip

D4
T

32
=
= D3 =
R
D / 2 16

Ip

Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:
16 T1
16(450 lb-ft)(12 in./ft)
=
= 6.875494 in.3
D13
allow
(4, 000 psi)
D1 1.9015 in. = 1.902 in.
D23

16 T2

allow

Ans.

= 13.750987 in.3
(4, 000 psi)

## D2 2.3958 in. = 2.40 in.

Ans.

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## 6.37 In the gear system shown in Fig. P6.37, a

torque of TE = 720 lb-ft is delivered at gear E.
Shaft (1) is a solid 1.50-in.-diameter shaft, and
shaft (2) is a solid 2.00-in.-diameter shaft. The
bearings shown allow free rotation of the shafts.
(a) Determine the torque provided by the motor to
gear A.
(b) Determine the maximum shear stresses in
shafts (1) and (2).

Fig. P6.37

Solution
(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear E creates a torque in shaft (2) of T2 = 720 lb-ft.
Accordingly, the torque applied to gear D is also equal to 720 lb-ft. The torque on gear C is found with
the gear ratio:
30
TC = TD
= 0.5 TD = 0.5(720 lb-ft) = 360 lb-ft
60
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear C; therefore, T1 = 360 lb-ft and TB = 360 N-m. The torque on gear
A is found from:
24 TC 360 lb-ft
Ans.
TA = TB
=
=
= 120 lb-ft
72 3
3

To summarize:
T1 = 360 lb-ft

T2 = 720 lb-ft

I p1 =
I p2 =

32

32

D14 =
D24 =

32

32

## (1.50 in.) 4 = 0.497010 in.4

(2.00 in.) 4 = 1.570796 in.4

## Maximum shear stress in shafts (1) and (2):

T R (360 lb-ft)(1.50 in./2)(12 in./ft)
1 = 1 1 =
= 6,519.98 psi = 6,520 psi
I p1
0.497010 in.4

2 =

## T2 R2 (720 lb-ft)(2.00 in./2)(12 in./ft)

=
= 5,500.396 psi = 5,500 psi
I p2
1.570796 in.4

Ans.
Ans.

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## 6.38 Two solid 30-mm-diameter steel shafts are

connected by the gears shown in Fig. P6.38. The
shaft lengths are L1 = 300 mm and L2 = 500 mm.
Assume that the shear modulus of both shafts is
G = 80 GPa and that the bearings shown allow
free rotation of the shafts. If the torque applied at
gear D is TD = 160 N-m,
(a) determine the internal torques T1 and T2 in
the two shafts.
(b) determine the angles of twist 1 and 2.
(c) determine the rotation angles B and C of
gears B and C.
(d) determine the rotation angle of gear D.

Fig. P6.38

Solution
(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear D creates a torque in shaft (2)
of T2 = 160 N-m.
M x = TD T2 = 0
T2 = TD = 160 N-m

Accordingly, the torque applied to gear C is also equal to 160 N-m. The
torque on gear B is found with the gear ratio:
54 teeth
TB = TC
= 1.8 TC = 1.8(160 N-m) = 288 N-m
30 teeth
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 288 N-m. To summarize:
T1 = 288 N-m
T2 = 160 N-m

Ans.

Section properties:

I p1 =

D14 =

## (30 mm) 4 = 79,521.56 mm 4 = I p 2

32
32
(b) Angles of twist in shafts (1) and (2):
TL
(288 N-m)(300 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
1 = 1 1 =
G1 I p1
(80,000 N/mm 2 )(79,521.56 mm 4 )

2 =

T2 L2
(160 N-m)(500 mm)(1,000 mm/m)
=
G2 I p 2 (80,000 N/mm 2 )(79,521.56 mm 4 )

Ans.
Ans.

(c) Rotation angles of gears B and C: The rotation of gear B is found from the angle of twist in shaft
(1):
1 = B A
Ans.
As gear B rotates, gear C also rotates but it rotates in the opposite direction. The magnitude of the
rotation is dictated by the gear ratio:
54 teeth
54 teeth
C = B
Ans.
30 teeth
30 teeth
The rotation of gear D is found from:
Ans.
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## 6.39 Two solid 1.75-in.-diameter steel shafts are

connected by the gears shown in Fig. P6.39. The
shaft lengths are L1 = 6 ft and L2 = 10 ft. Assume
that the shear modulus of both shafts is G =
12,000 ksi and that the bearings shown allow
free rotation of the shafts. If the torque applied at
gear D is TD = 225 lb-ft,
(a) determine the internal torques T1 and T2 in
the two shafts.
(b) determine the angles of twist 1 and 2.
(c) determine the rotation angles B and C of
gears B and C.
(d) determine the rotation angle of gear D.

Fig. P6.39

Solution
(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear D creates a torque in shaft (2)
of T2 = 225 lb-ft.
M x = TD T2 = 0
T2 = TD = 225 lb-ft

Accordingly, the torque applied to gear C is also equal to 225 lb-ft. The
torque on gear B is found with the gear ratio:
54 teeth
TB = TC
= 1.8 TC = 1.8(225 lb-ft) = 405 lb-ft
30 teeth
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 405 lb-ft. To summarize:
T1 = 405 lb-ft
T2 = 225 lb-ft

Ans.

Section properties:

I p1 =

D14 =

## (1.75 in.) 4 = 0.920772 in.4 = I p 2

32
32
(b) Angles of twist in shafts (1) and (2):
TL
(405 lb-ft)(6 ft)(12 in./ft)2
1 = 1 1 =
G1 I p1 (12,000,000 psi)(0.920772 in.4 )

2 =

T2 L2
(225 lb-ft)(10 ft)(12 in./ft) 2
=
G2 I p 2 (12,000,000 psi)(0.920772 in.4 )

Ans.
Ans.

(c) Rotation angles of gears B and C: The rotation of gear B is found from the twist angle in shaft (1):
1 = B A
Ans.
As gear B rotates, gear C also rotates but it rotates in the opposite direction. The magnitude of the
rotation is dictated by the gear ratio:
54 teeth
54 teeth
C = B
Ans.
30 teeth
30 teeth
The rotation of gear D is found from:
Ans.

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## 6.40 Two solid steel shafts are connected by the

gears shown in Fig. P6.40. The design
requirements for the system require (1) that both
shafts must have the same diameter, (2) that the
maximum shear stress in each shaft must be less
than 6,000 psi, and (3) that the rotation angle of
gear D must not exceed 3. Determine the
minimum required diameter of the shafts if the
torque applied at gear D is TD = 1,000 lb-ft. The
shaft lengths are L1 = 10 ft and L2 = 8 ft.
Assume that the shear modulus of both shafts is
G = 12,000 ksi and that the bearings shown
allow free rotation of the shafts.

Fig. P6.40

Solution
Torque relationship: The torque on gear D creates a torque in shaft (2) of
T2 = 1,000 lb-ft.
M x = TD T2 = 0
T2 = TD = 1, 000 lb-ft = 12, 000 lb-in.

Accordingly, the torque applied to gear C is also 12,000 lb-in. The torque on
gear B is found with the gear ratio:
48 teeth
TB = TC
= 0.6667 TC = 0.6667(12, 000 lb-in.) = 8, 000 lb-in.
72 teeth
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 8,000 lb-in.
Diameters based on allowable shear stresses: The elastic torsion formula gives the relationship
between shear stress and torque in a shaft.
TR
=
Ip
The torques in both shafts have been determined, and the allowable shear stress is specified. Rearrange
the elastic torsion formula, putting the known terms on the right-hand side of the equation:
Ip T
=
R
Express the left-hand side of this equation in terms of the shaft diameter D:

D4
T

32
= D3 =
D / 2 16

## Solve for the minimum acceptable diameter in shaft (1):

16 T1 16(8, 000 lb-in.)
=
= 6.790614 in.3
D13
2
(6, 000 lb/in. )
D1 1.894 in.

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## Solve for the minimum acceptable diameter in shaft (2):

16 T2 16(12, 000 lb-in.)
D23
=
= 10.185916 in.3
(6, 000 lb/in.2 )
D2 2.17 in.
Of these two values, D2 controls. Therefore, both shafts could have a diameter of 2.17 in. or more and
the shear stress constraint would be satisfied.
The angles of twists in shafts (1) and (2) can be expressed as:
TL
TL
1 = 1 1
2 = 2 2
G1 I p1
G2 I p 2
The rotations of gears B and C are related since the arclengths turned by the two gears have the same
magnitude. The gears turn in opposite directions; therefore, a negative sign is introduced.
RCC = RBB
The rotation angle of gear B is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (1): B = 1. Therefore, the rotation
angle of gear C can be expressed in terms of T1.
R
R
R TL
N TL
C = B B = B 1 = B 1 1 = B 1 1
RC
RC
RC G1 I p1
N C G1 I p1
The rotation angle of gear D is equal to the rotation angle of gear C plus the twist that occurs in shaft
(2):
D = C + 2
and so the rotation angle of gear D can be expressed in terms of the torques T1 and T2:
N TL
TL
D = B 1 1 + 2 2 3
N C G1 I p1 G2 I p 2
Shafts having the same diameters and the same shear moduli are required for this system; therefore, Ip1 =
Ip2 = Ip and G1 = G2 = G. Factor these terms out to obtain:

1 NB
1 NB
T1 L1 + T2 L2 3 I p
T1 L1 + T2 L2

G I p NC
G (3) N C

Express the polar moment of inertia in terms of diameter to obtain the following relationship:
D4
=

32 N B
T1 L1 + T2 L2

G (3) N C

32

48 teeth

## 72 teeth (8, 000 lb-in.)(120 in.) + (12, 000 lb-in.)(96 in.)

= 29.050810 in.4
D 2.32 in.

Since this minimum diameter is greater than the diameter needed to satisfy the shear stress requirements,
the rotation angle constraint controls.
Therefore, the minimum shaft diameter that satisfies all requirements is D 2.32 in.

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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## 6.41 Two solid steel shafts are connected by the

gears shown in Fig. P6.41. The design
requirements for the system require (1) that both
shafts must have the same diameter, (2) that the
maximum shear stress in each shaft must be less
than 40 MPa, and (3) that the rotation angle of
gear D must not exceed 3. Determine the
minimum required diameter of the shafts if the
torque applied at gear D is TD = 1,200 N-m. The
shaft lengths are L1 = 2.5 m and L2 = 2.0 m.
Assume that the shear modulus of both shafts is
G = 80 GPa and that the bearings shown allow
free rotation of the shafts.

Fig. P6.41

Solution
Torque relationship: The torque on gear D creates a torque in shaft (2) of
T2 = 1,200 N-m.
M x = TD T2 = 0
T2 = TD = 1, 200 N-m

Accordingly, the torque applied to gear C is also 1,200 N-m. The torque on
gear B is found with the gear ratio:
48 teeth
TB = TC
= 0.6667 TC = 0.6667(1, 200 N-m) = 800 N-m
72 teeth
Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 800 N-m.
Diameters based on allowable shear stresses: The elastic torsion formula gives the relationship
between shear stress and torque in a shaft. This equation can be rearranged in terms of the outside
diameter:
TR
3 T
=
D =

Ip

16

## Solve for the minimum acceptable diameter in shaft (1):

16 T1 16(800 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
D13
=
= 101,859.16 mm3

(40 N/mm 2 )
D1 46.70 mm
Solve for the minimum acceptable diameter in shaft (2):
16 T2 16(1, 200 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
D23
=
= 152, 788.75 mm3
2

(40 N/mm )
D2 53.46 mm
Of these two values, D2 controls. Therefore, both shafts could have a diameter of 53.46 mm or more
and the shear stress constraint would be satisfied.
The angles of twists in shafts (1) and (2) can be expressed as:
TL
TL
1 = 1 1
2 = 2 2
G1 I p1
G2 I p 2
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The rotations of gears B and C are related since the arclengths turned by the two gears have the same
magnitude. The gears turn in opposite directions; therefore, a negative sign is introduced.
RCC = RBB
The rotation angle of gear B is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (1): B = 1. Therefore, the rotation
angle of gear C can be expressed in terms of T1.
R
R
R TL
N TL
C = B B = B 1 = B 1 1 = B 1 1
RC
RC
RC G1 I p1
N C G1 I p1
The rotation angle of gear D is equal to the rotation angle of gear C plus the twist that occurs in shaft
(2):
D = C + 2
and so the rotation angle of gear D can be expressed in terms of the torques T1 and T2:
N TL
TL
D = B 1 1 + 2 2 3
N C G1 I p1 G2 I p 2
Shafts having the same diameters and the same shear moduli are required for this system; therefore, Ip1 =
Ip2 = Ip and G1 = G2 = G. Factor these terms out to obtain:

1 NB
1 NB
T1 L1 + T2 L2 3 I p
T1 L1 + T2 L2

G I p NC
G (3) N C

Express the polar moment of inertia in terms of diameter to obtain the following relationship:

32 N B
D4
T1 L1 + T2 L2

G (3) N C

48 teeth

32
(800 N-m)(2.5 m) + (1, 200 N-m)(2.0 m) (1,000 mm/m) 2
72 teeth

=
(80, 000 N/mm 2 )(3)( /180)
= 9, 078,378.05 mm 4
D 54.89 mm
Since this minimum diameter is greater than the diameter needed to satisfy the shear stress requirements,
the rotation angle constraint controls.
Therefore, the minimum shaft diameter that satisfies all requirements is D 54.9 mm.

Ans.

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