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Objective of the Lecture
Lecturer: To introduce intersection
types and respective design
The learner should be able to: Select
appropriate intersection type for a
given situation and carry out detailed

TR 320 Lecture 9: General controls


• Intersection: A general area where to or more highways
join or cross. (Excludes grade separation)
• Includes the areas needed for all modes of travel:
pedestrian, bicycle, passenger vehicles, truck, and
• It encompasses not only the pavement, but also
adjacent sidewalks and pedestrian ramps

TR 320 Lecture 9: General controls


• Intersections are key features of roadway design in four aspects
• Focus of activity- The land near intersections often contains a concentration
of travel destinations
• Conflicting movement- Pedestrian crossings and bicycle and motor vehicle
turning and crossing movements occur at intersections.
• Traffic control—Movement of users is assigned through traffic control devices
such as yield signs, stop signs, and traffic signals. This often results into delay
• Capacity— Traffic control at intersections limits the capacity of the
intersecting roadways

..Functional Vs Physical Area of Intersection • Functional area of intersection extends upstream and downstream from the physical intersection area.

. and (3) queuestorage distance. (2) maneuver distance. (1) perceptionreaction decision distance.Functional area • Functional area consists of three basic elements.

trucks. buses. while facilitating the necessary maneuvers. ease and comfort of people traversing the intersection • While at the same time • enhancing efficient movement of passenger cars. or between vehicles and pedestrians. . bicycles and pedestrians • Other • To ensure effective utilization of the road network • To reduce the severity of the potential conflicts between vehicles.Design Objectives • Main objective is to • facilitate the convenience.

Elements to be considered in design • Human factors: • Traffic considerations • Physical elements • Economic factors .

Design considerations of User groups • Motor vehicles other than trucks • • • • • Type of traffic control Vehicular capacity (number of lanes and traffic control) Ability and capacity to make turning movements Visibility of approaching pedestrian and bicyclists Speed of the approaching and crossing motor vehicles • Trucks • • • • Same as above but in addition May be three to four times longer Much slower than most motor vehicles Need much larger turning radii .

like sight impairment etc.) . sidewalk and crosswalk width • Crossing distance and resulting duration of exposure to motor vehicle • Accessibility: (Special needs by users. incl. unique features should be taken into account • Pedestrians • Amount of right-of-way provided for pedestrians.Design considerations… • Transit • Same as other motor vehicles but in addition • May involve transit stop in the intersection area • If light rail transit exists. then.

• Bicyclists • • • • • Degree of roadway surface sharing (whether exclusive or not) Turning and through movements in relation to motor vehicles Traffic control for bicyclists Speed differences with motor vehicles Off-street path for bicyclists and pedestrians crossing.Design considerations…. .

Intersection capacity • Roadway capacity usually depend on constraints present at intersection • Capacity and level of service analysis is one of most important considerations in the intersections. • It is the maximum hourly rate at which vehicles can reasonably be expected to pass through intersection under prevailing traffic. . roadway and signalization conditions.

• Auxiliary lanes. • Turning roadways and channelization. • Median openings.Design elements of an intersection • Alignment and profile. . • Intersection sight distance.

. • Indirect left turns and U-turns. • Other intersection design elements. • Roundabouts. and • Railroad-highway grade crossings. .Design elements….

Intersection types • Types: • Three leg intersections – channelized or plain types • T-junction or Y-junction • Four-leg intersections – channelized and Plain • Multi-leg intersections – five or more intersection legs (not recommended – consider the container bus stop example) • Roundabouts 1/20/2016 TR 320 Lecture 9: General controls 15 .

and channelized intersections . flared.Further classifications • Unchannelized.

Definition of elements – see figure below • Approach/Departure • Leg • Channelizing island • Turning roadway • Crosswalk • Major/minor street • Auxiliary lanes – deceleration/acceleration lanes. storage lanes 1/20/2016 TR 320 Lecture 9: General controls 17 .

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1/20/2016 TR 320 Lecture 9: General controls 19 . which in turn establishes the pavement corner radius and therefore the size of the intersection.Design Motor Vehicle • The design motor vehicle is the type of vehicle expected to be accommodated on the street. the most important attribute of design vehicles is their turning radius. • At intersections.

1/20/2016 TR 320 Lecture 9: General controls 20 .e.• The design motor vehicle for intersections is the larger of the design motor vehicles for the intersecting streets.. the appropriate design vehicles for the intersection is that selected for the minor arterial (i. at the intersection of a minor arterial and a local street. “larger”) street. • For example.

Single-unit Truck • Minor Collector Passenger Car (P) • Local Roads and Street Passenger Car (P) 1/20/2016 TR 320 Lecture 9: General controls 21 .Typical Design Motor Vehicles at Intersections • Major Arterial Tractor-trailer Truck (WB-50) • Minor Arterial Tractor-trailer Truck (WB-50) • Major Collector Tractor-trailer Truck (WB-50).

Template for transit bus – Obtain minimum radius and turning path width from the guidelines (AASHTO) 1/20/2016 TR 320 Lecture 9: General controls 22 .

Turning templates Passenger car 1/20/2016 TR 320 Lecture 9: General controls 23 .

Hierarchy of intersection control • Three basic levels of control can be implemented: • Level I-Basic rules of the road • Level II-Direct assignment of right-of-way using YIELD or STOP signs • Level Ill-Traffic signalization .

when the vehicle on the left is approaching in a manner of causing an impending hazard • For this type. • Sight distance for this type is achieved through provision of sight triangle . the drivers must be able to see each other in time.Level I –Basic rules of road • Drivers on the right must yield to the driver on the left.

Sight triangle .

Sight triangle formulae • 𝑏 𝑑𝐵 −𝑎 • 𝑑𝐵 = = 𝑑𝐴 −𝑏 𝑎 𝑎𝑑𝐴 𝑑𝐴 −𝑏 • Where: • dA = distance in meters from Vehicle A to the collision point • dB = distance in meters from Vehicle B to the collision point • a = distance from driver position in vehicle A to the sight obstruction. measured parallel to the path of Vehicle B .

• When the position of one vehicle is known.e. i.Sight triangle • Sight distances are normally limited by buildings or other sight-line obstructions located on or near the corners • The drivers should be able to stop before reaching the collision point when they first see each other. the position of the other can be determined. the triangle is dynamic .

278𝑉𝐵 𝑉𝐵 • 𝑑𝐵 = 𝑑𝐴 + 18 + 12 where VA and VB are vehicle speeds for A 𝑉𝐴 and B respectively. some buffer distances are added to ensure safe operations. • However. • Vehicle A must travel 18 feet past the collision point in the same time that Vehicle B travels to a point 12 feet before the collision point • Thus: 𝑑𝐴 +18 0.Sight triangle • The distances dA and dB should be equal to or greater than Stopping sight distances.278𝑉𝐴 = 𝑑𝐵 −12 0. .

and general complexity of the intersection environment .Level II.YIELD and STOP Control • If a check of the sight triangle seems inadequate. then level II control is imposed • Other reasons also might justify the use of this type of control such as: intensity of traffic demand.

Level III-Use of traffic signals • This is the ultimate form of intersection control • This can reduce the number and nature of intersection conflicts as no other form of control can. • The costs associated with installation are considerably higher than for STOP and YIELD signs installation. .

• Some signal warrants exists to justify the use of this type of traffic control. hence they should not be overused • For such reasons.. • In addition. . traffic signals introduce a fixed delay into the system.Level III…. they should only be installed when no other solution or form of control would be effective.

•The dimensions depend on the design speed of the meeting roadways 1/20/2016 TR 320 Lecture 9: General controls 33 .•Approach and Departure sight triangles (no sight obstructions within the triangles) should be available for an intersection controlled by the basic road rule.

• For Signalized intersections • Drivers of the first stopped vehicles in all approaches should be able to see one another • Turning vehicles should be able to select gaps from the opposing traffic • No other requirements • Signalization may be used to resolve problems of crashes when volume is high and SD is inadequate 1/20/2016 TR 320 Lecture 9: General controls 34 .

Horizontal alignment • Angle of Intersection • Should mostly be 90 degrees approximately. This should be met especially when re-alignment is done. • Accepable range is between 60 and 105 degrees • Re-alignment can be done for the ranges outside acceptable one • Flat curvature if major roadway is on curve – Why? (SD as it affects needs for TCD and superelevation considerations) • The approaching tangent should be at least 150m or with sight distance of at least 15km/h less the design speed. .

Horizontal alignment guidelines 1/20/2016 TR 320 Lecture 9: General controls 36 .

Acceptable angle and re-alignment directions .

Re-alignment possibilities .

the maximum recommended grade is 3% and should be kept well 30m on either sides of the intersecting roadway. • Tipping of tall vehicles when passing on minor roadway at the crossing • In most cases.Vertical Alignment • Intersection grades of the major roadway should be kept below maximum allowable to avoid: • Difficulty in acceleration or deceleration of vehicles (especially trucks )when they are required to stop at an intersection. .

Vertical alignment guideline 1/20/2016 TR 320 Lecture 9: General controls 40 .

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consideration on successful turning . • Safe operation of roundabout involves its ability to force traffic to enter and circulate it at slow speeds.Roundabouts • Roundabout is an intersection with central island around whicn traffic must travel clockwise and in which entering traffic must yield to circulating traffic. • However.

Roundabout features (for definitions see section 9.10.1 of AASHTO Green book) .

etc.) .Principles in roundabout design • Slow entry speeds and consistent speeds through the roundabout ( adequate deflection…radius of the roundabout ) • Provide appropriate number of lanes and lane assignment to achieve adequate capacity. and lane continuity ( • Provision of smooth and intuitive channelization so that drivers can use intended lanes ( splitter islands etc. lane volume.) • Provide for accommodation of design vehicles ( Check turning radii etc) • Consider pedestrian and cyclists needs (bike lanes. splitter island etc) etc) • Provide appropriate sight distance and visibility ( Stopping sight distance. sidewalk.

• The central island.Roundabout: Design Elements • The key elements of geometric design • The circulating roadway. defining the inner radius of the circulating roadway around it. which carries motor vehicles and bicycles around the roundabout in a clockwise direction. • A core area within the central island 1/20/2016 TR 320 Lecture 9: General controls 46 .

Roundabout design • Inscribed circle – defined by the outer edge of the circulating roadway • Splitter islands – separating the entry and exit lanes • Crosswalk crossing approach and departure roadways 1/20/2016 TR 320 Lecture 9: General controls 47 .

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