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Hardness of water

Hardness of water is a characteristic property by which water “prevents lathering
of soap”. It contains dissolved Ca and Mg salts. There are two types of
i) Temporary hardness (Carbonate hardness)
ii) Permanent hardness (Non-Carbonate hardness)
Temporary hardness:-It is due to the presence of dissolved bicarbonates of Ca
(Calcium) and Mg (Magnesium) ions. On heating bicarbonates decompose to give
respective carbonates.
These insoluble carbonates can be removed by filtration.
Permanent hardness:- It is due to the presence of chlorides and sulphates of Ca +2
and Mg+2 .
It cannot be removed by boiling.

Total hardness = Carbonate hardness + Non-carbonate hardness (mg/L as
CaCO3) (mg/L as CaCO3) (mg/L as CaCO3)

ppm = 1 mg/L CaCO3
ppm = 0.058 grains/US gallon
ppm = 0.07 Clark degrees
ppm = 0.10 French degrees
Clark degree = 1 grain / Imperial gallon as calcium carbonate
French degree = 1 part / 100,000 calcium carbonate