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Physics

Investigatory
Project
By Yash G.Desai
th
Class 12 A

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the PHYSICS project titled
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION has been
successfully completed by Yash G.Desai of Class XII
in partial fulfillment of curriculum of CENTRAL
BOARD OF SECONDARYEDUCATION (CBSE)
leading to the award of annual examination of the
year 2016.
Boards Roll No. 4637457
Date of Submission
Sign of Internal Examiner
Sign of External Examiner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It gives me great pleasure to express my gratitude
towards our Physics teacher
__________________________for his guidance, support
and encouragement throughout the duration of
the project. Without her motivation and help the
successful completion of this project would not
have been possible.

ELECTROMAG
NETIC

Contents

ntroduction
Aim of the experiment
Materials required
Theory
Procedure
Observation
Experiment photos
Conclusion
Bibliography

troduction
A bit about Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday was an English scientist who contributed to
the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main
discoveries include those of electromagnetic induction,
diamagnetism and electrolysis.

Law of Electromagnetic Induction

Faraday's lawofinductionis a basiclaw of electromagnetism


predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric
circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF)a
phenomenon called electromagnetic induction.
It is the fundamental operating principle oftransformers,
inductors, and many types
Faraday and his Law
ofelectricalmotorsandgenerators.
Electromagnetic inductionwas discovered independently
byMichael FaradayandJoseph Henryin 1831; however,
Faraday was the first to publish the results of his
experiments. Faraday explained electromagnetic induction
using a concept he calledlines of force. These equations for
electromagnetics are extremely important since they provide

Something IMPORTANT
An important aspect of the equation that quantifies Faradays
Law comes from the work of Heinrich Lenz, a Russian
physicist who made his contribution to Faradays Law, now
known as Lenzs Law, in 1834.
<Faradays Law describes Electromagnetic Induction,
whereas Lenzs Law defines it>
<Faraday's first experimental demonstration of
electromagnetic induction (August 29, 1831), he wrapped two
wires around opposite sides of an iron ring or "torus" (an
arrangement similar to a moderntoroidal transformer) to
induce current>

Aim of the Experiment


To determine electromagnetic Induction, and the
effect on current flowing through the copper wire
for the increase in no of turns of the copper loop

terials Required

wire
vanometer
gnet

Theory

<Electromotive force, also calledemf(denoted and measured


in volt), is the voltage developed by any source of electrical
energy such as a battery or dynamo. It is generally defined as
the electrical potential for a source in a circuit>
<Amagnetic fieldis themagneticeffect of electric currents
andmagneticmaterials. Themagnetic fieldat any given point
is specified by both a direction and a magnitude (or
strength); as such it is a vectorfield>
<Magnetic flux(most often denoted as m), is the number
ofmagneticfield lines (also called "magnetic fluxdensity")
passing through a closed surface (such as a conducting coil).
The SI unit ofmagnetic fluxis the weber (Wb)
(in derived
Illustration
units: volt-seconds). Magnetic flux is proportional to the area
mathematically
of
the closed surface>
=B.A

here B is magnetic field


d A is area

e Law (mathematically)>
<where
it states that the electromotive force
By Faraday:
EMF
is equalto
t the change in magnetic flux with
change in time>

By Lenz:
he actual
emf is negative of what the Faraday told,
rather say that the direction of induced current opposes
hange in flux , since for an ideal circuit(loop) emf is directly p
current>
North
illustra
tion:

Current
Magnetic Field

South

<where the field in the diagram is


the opposing and induced
field to the actual, applied
field(magnetic) due to induced
current which was produced due
to applied magnetic field>

Procedure

e was divided into three parts(randomly).


was coiled into 1 loop, the second into 10 loops, and
loops by keeping front area const.
was connected to dc galvanometer and the bar magn
and the results were noted.
ng was done with 10 loop and 70 loop coil and the res

bservation
It was observed that the deflection in the
galvanometer was greater for the 70 loop
coil and was least for 1 loop coil.

periment Photos

Conclusion
Magnetic field passes through every area of
each interface no matter the common area if
same therefore the flux will be n times for
the loop of copper
Coil of n-terns. Like
In the given picture
there are 5 turns in
the loop so the area
of each interface is 5
times the common
area

ibliography
wikipedia.com
ocw.mit.edu