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4000 Essential English W ords 4

4000 Essential English W ords 4
Paul Nation
© 2009 Compass Publishing
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habitat. patch. slippery. disagree. perish. current. bid. volunteer. condensed. brew. proclaim. hint. sort. subconscious. folk. constant. crack. perfect. humid. essay. trivial. influence. weird 32 6 absolute. replace. texture. particle. hay. blow. muscle. roost. semester. legal. van. vain 68 12 alternative. admiral. beware. slight. display. rapid. grip. whatsoever 50 9 alongside. envision. surrender. string. grapefruit. gratitude. rescue. beverage. diagram. fist. eventual. melt. brag.6 0 Unit Target Words 1 aroma. beloved. conduct. tend. divine. utter 86 15 although. mischief. rate. switch. due. architect. landmark. exception. combine. snap. majestic. sour. slap. pit. horrified. impact. suit 38 7 account. except. rim. alas. harsh. signature. belly. leash. feeble. halt. subject. diverse. crime. measure. soothing. idiot. detail. irritable. timid. dough. shrink. complain. stuff. nightmare. indirect. express. utterly. midst. echo. violence 74 13 affect. sentence. charm. succession. concede. entire. shelter. concept. prior. soar. awesome. torment 20 4 beak. disapprove. applause. vary 8 2 accident. nor. review. arc. enthusiasm. authoritative. paradise. classify. wage. pleasure. flight. sift. workout. cultivate. genre. soak. plea. appetite. lecture. refrain. conscious. sly. obstacle. crumble. fond. ferry. rally. handy. global. worthwhile 62 11 alliance. flesh. destiny. furnace. culture. lag. upright. shutter. perspire. edit. resolve. mature. warn. ignorant. evenly. typical. injure. await. damp. isolate. weep 26 5 awhile. wreck 14 3 admonish. recent. moral. pop. kerosene. immense. variety 92 . breeze. law. defense. pastime. spirit. smash. device. research. lean. oblivious. nutritious. supply. deed. spark. pessimistic. thorn. autograph. gymnasium. enclose. witness 44 8 access. establish. stake. version. ceremony. recipe. rumor. cluster. confuse. lively. evaluate. role. enchant. conflict. cyberspace. reconcile. attentive. bury. faint. raft. ruin. climate. construct. avenue. longing. palate. equip. conscience. pinpoint. defy. decade. typewritten. index. contemporary. resource. intervene. ivy. maximize. immoral. operate. moan. sophisticated. impending. valid. pudding. mode. shatter. misery. apply. character. resolution. whereas 56 10 animate. efficient. memorable. assist. numerous. paddle. conceal. private. oblige. toxic. lump. stale. audible. mixture. odor. cape. armed. fiery. steward. loop. offence. flexible. subtle. meantime. highlight. plantation. terrain. thorough. continent. disrespect. flush. zoom 80 14 brick. outraged. forgive. rail. sparkle. bead. horn. sprinkle. lure. protein. option.

stagger. blast. shield. 128 myth. hermit. dizzy. linger. basement. commerce. religion. justly. federal. barley. retain. rife. infect. formation. incorporate. economy. stormy. doomed. cargo. sweep. riot. genome. nutrition. promptly. rainforest. decisive. stern. idle. scramble. cozy. trustworthy. martial. decline. swamp. beast. ridicule. barber. concrete. connect. transportation 176 30 bill. wail. fundamental. exit. integrate. flint. hardy. drastic. vomit 116 20 betray. vein. neutral. civil. glove. lining. cease. pollute. plead. deformed. interact. victor 134 23 accurate. cyclone. withhold 146 25 aircraft. lid. dent. sane. evolve. author. organic. foresee. leather. notify. pea. scribe. stitch. reed. presently. stance. errand. zoology 26 assumption. cunning. reserve. poultry. native. tuck 122 21 background. throne. cure. atmosphere. identical. esteemed. heed. sergeant. reinforce. candidate. hitchhike. phenomenon. exotic. corpse. 158 embassy. interval. crucial. tornado. disobedient. grind. literature. slam. worsen 170 29 automobile. persecute. pray. urban. loom. update. paraphrase. sole.Unit Target Words 16 altogether. dew. guideline. summon. script. multiply. teller. 152 migrate. typhoon. sheer. sake. colonel. blink. vehement 98 17 civilization. chronicle. technician. secluded. mushroom. folklore. sway. comparative. stumble. found. plague. stark. vivid. species. wade 104 18 accent. core. state. organism. rip. pity. reduce. cumulative. heir. flip. treachery. complicate. bind. foster. misfortune. chapter. pesticide. comment. confidential. define. capacity. mammal. traverse. ethical. thump. equilibrium. institute. telegraph. mighty. modify. scrape. birthplace. conserve. oxygen. contagious. glimpse. vegetarian 140 24 cherish. corporate. comprehensive. solar. fold. disease. distribute. nurture. etc. custom. enhance. solitude. predator. discriminate. ponder. horrifying. regulate. incredulous. bruise. growl. deposit. copper. deplete. controversy. stricken. fort. bracelet. promote. expand. consent. moderation. miniature. saucer. distrust. flock. breakdown. compassion. relate. overhead principle. boundary. den. negative. snatch. millennium. objective. per. condemn. mobile. choke. consistent. poison. shrine. rural. bait. wardrobe 182 9 .. harass. intellectual. vast. asteroid. territory. textile. offspring. tray. era. cross. chaos. extinguish. factor. strategy. aisle . celebrity. unfortunate. choir. search. convenient. extinct. majority. scribble. goods. itch. analyze. crisis. staircase 110 19 afflicted. venom 22 charity. tumble. wooded 164 28 avail. sum. blank. dread. empire. mock. hoop. comic. parallel. source. tense. unity. tropics 27 beneficial. equator. frequency. genetic. raisin. random. mass. jealousy. temper. tournament.

This means that the effort in learning the words is well repaid by the number of times learners have a chance to encounter or use them. They also cover at least 90% of the words in conversation. These word/image associations aim to help students grasp the meaning of the word as well as recall the word later. Moreover. The words included in this series were chosen because they occurred many times in different levels of these materials. Firstly. 1 2 Each word in these books is a high-frequency word. each unit ends with a story containing the target words. Illustrations for each target word are provided to help learners visualize the word as it is being used in the example sentence. The activities that follow in the units encourage learners to recall the meanings and forms of the words. While reading the story. Some activities also make the learners think about the meaning of the words in the context of a sentence— a sentence different from the sentences that occurred in the introduction of the words. Such activities help learners develop a better understanding of a common meaning for a given word which fits the different uses. About the Books The activities in these books are specially designed to make use of important learning conditions. They were found by analysis of a collection of English course books from various levels in the primary.T R f f h u . 3 These books as a whole cover a large proportion of the words in any spoken or written text. . secondary and tertiary school systems. ■ About the Vocabulary The 600 words in each book of this series along with the additional target words presented in the appendices included in the first three books of the series are the most useful words in English. They cover at least 80% of the words in newspapers and academic texts. the words are introduced using sentence definitions and an example sentence. these words have the following characteristics: 1 They are useful in both spoken and written English. No matter what English course you are studying. Because of the way that they were chosen. and at least 90% of the words in novels. the words in these books will be of value to you. the learners have to recall the meanings of the words and suit them to the context of the story.

Supporting Learning with Outside Activities A well-balanced language course provides four major opportunities for learning: learning through input. learning can further be supported through the following activities: 1 Have students create vocabulary cards with one word from the unit on one side of the card and the translation of the word in the student’s first language on the other side. students will find that quick repeated studying for brief periods of time is more effective than studying for hours at one sitting. He has taught in Indonesia. the United States. and fluency development. His specialist interests are lan gu age teaching m ethodology and vocabulary learning. However. 2 Assign graded readers at students’ appropriate levels. speaking. Finland. Compass Publishing’s Reading for Speed and Fluency is a good resource for reading fluency material. Students should use the cards for study in free moments during the day. and writing activities in classes. Reinforcement of the high-frequency vocabulary presented in this series is important across all the four language skills. Author Paul Nation Paul Nation is professor of Applied Linguistics in the Scho o l of Linguistics and Applied Language Stu dies at Victoria University of Wellington. . This is mentioned to remind learners that just because a word is labeled and utilized as a noun in this series does not mean that it can never be used in another form such as an adjective. In addition. New Zealand. Over several weeks. learning through output. 3 Practice reading fluency to promote faster recall of word meaning for both sight recognition and usage. deliberate learning. Reading such books provides both enjoyment as well as meaning-focused input which will help the words stick in students’ memory. This series has simply focused on the word in the form that it is most likely to be expressed.It should be noted that words have more than one grammatical category. Thailand. 4 Include listening. this series focuses on the word’s most common form. and japan. The highly structured activities in these books support all four types of learning opportunities.

it is related to the present time. — The waiter brought our beverages first. -+ She held a large cluster of grapes in her hand. -* I love the aroma of coffee in the morning. To cultivate plants is to care for them and help them grow. odor [oudar] n. An odor is a very distinct smell. When something is contemporary.a r o m a [arouma] n. cluster [klAstar] n. -» He knew there was a leak when he noticed the strong odor of natural gas. A beverage is a drink. -► One way to make a dessert thick and sweet is to use condensed milk. When it is humid. To combine is to join together to make a single thing or group. contemporary [kantempareri] adj. -» Mina combined peanut butter and jelly to make a sandwich. humid [/?ju:mid] adj. When a liquid is condensed. condensed [kandenst] adj. -+ Contemporary scientists have learned quite a bit about DNA. A cluster of things is a small group of them placed close together. it is related to gods. -* It is very humid inside of a sauna. beverage [bevaridj] n. -* Legends say that music was given to men as a divine gift from the gods. . -» A research company is cultivating new kinds of rice to aid poor countries. combine [kambain] v. there is a lot of water in the air. An aroma is a scent or smell. When something is divine. d i v i n e [divain] adj. cultivate [kAltaveit] v. it is made thicker. Then he brought our food.

palate [paelit] n. -* My vacation in Hawaii was like being in paradise. c rapid [raepid] adj. -> You can touch your palate with your tongue. -» Please check the label to see if the product is toxic. there were many cotton plantations in the southern US. r texture [tekstj9:r] n. c paradise [pseredais] n. When something is soothing. When something is toxic. -» The heights of the people in my class vary by a large amount. A rate is the speed at which something happens. -* In the 1800s. -* The soothing music helped the baby fall asleep. it moves or changes very quickly. r vary [veari] v. The texture of something is the way its surface looks and feels. To vary means to be different from another thing in size or amount. A plantation is a big farm that only grows certain kinds of crops. Toxic things are very dangerous. When something is rapid. r soothing [su:flinl adj. Paradise is the place or condition of happiness where things are perfect. it is not easy to see or notice. it makes you calm or relaxed. r rate [reit] n. it is poisonous. -♦ The handsome man has a subtle smile. The texture of a rock found in the water is typically very smooth. P tO X iC [taksik] adj. 9 . When something is subtle. -♦ His mother was surprised by her son’s rapid growth. -♦ Grass tends to grow at a very slow rate. plantation r [plaenteijan] n. r subtle [sAtl] adj. The palate is the top part of the mouth.

The perfect___________ for this is. 2. plantations / paradise The island of Oahu is not a natural like Maui. This has an overall calming and___________ effect on the viewer. the specific laws in different countries___________ greatly. texture / aroma The cheese has a smooth__________ . condensed / divine . some of these plants are__________ to humans. a species of rare plants gave off an unpleasant__________ . However. 7. 6.___________way. 10. A boy is given a __________ message. humid/toxic Because it is quite___________ on the island. 1. soothing / subtle The artist uses___________differences of color in her landscapes. It is quite surprising that people settled there at such a fast__________ . everyone__________ their efforts and defeated the invaders. cluster / combined A ___________of people suggested that nearby cities could fight the invaders if they cooperated with each other. 1 I 8. However. 4. water. cultivated / odor A huge garden was___________ in the middle of the city.Choose the word that is the better fit for each blank. rapid / rate The population growth in the city was incredibly__________ . some people find it hard to eat because of its powerful__________ . one should drink something to clean the __________ between courses. beverage / palate During a four or five course meal. 5. of course. I can explain the basic story in a simple. various kinds of plants grow well there. However. As a result. and he begins an exciting adventure. However. However. 3. 9. tourists still . contemporary / vary Many___________ laws make it illegal for business to compete in unfairways.

c. 2. 6.P/MT A Match the phrases to make complete sentences. f. 10. I prefer mocha to coffee . d. 9. c. . e. Many new jobs were created. The doctor asked him to open his mouth. 5. e. 5. 2. 3._____. 6. i. The thick and humid forest . 9. g. d.___ She walked in the door. j. 7. so economic growth was rapid people call it a paradise and she looked at his palate so they combined the chemicals but I wanted my own beverage b. The pot’s texture____ The chemical is toxic______. g. a. 1. 8. 8. The report was ten pages long. 4. 10. The contemporary fiction class_____ The rate at which these flowers grew _ My mother cultivates_____ ._____ . f. and Jim thought it was a divine message the effects of the medicine will vary and she smelled the aroma of cookies because it has a subtle taste of chocolate but the condensed version was shorter . . The scientists wanted to find a cure for the sickness. was surprisingly fast feels so smooth was too strong to be enjoyable to insects and small animals is good for a sore throat b. h. a. . includes work from the 21st century covered almost a third of the country several species of flowers as a hobby twenty workers who grew cotton the shoulder of Taurus the Bull B Match the clauses to make complete sentences. The plantation had . 1.. 3.__ It didn’t rain all summer. A soothing cup of tea _ The odor of the cheese. j. Because the island is so warm and beautiful. He offered to share his water. That cluster of stars in the sky makes. i. 4. . h. 7. Because patients’ bodies are so different.

Wild chocolate trees can grow easily in the humid Amazon rainforest. . chocolate had spread all across Europe. The beans were combined with condensed milk to give the chocolate a smooth texture. New machines allowed chocolate makers to perfect their products and produce them at a very rapid rate. The first chocolate was very different from contemporary chocolate. he took cacao beans with him. When he returned to Europe. the Spanish explorer Cortes met the Aztecs. Surprisingly. About 20 to 60 cacao beans can be found in the seeds. and members of the upper class enjoyed drinking chocolate. queens.The 1 „JI . Cacao beans are the ingredient needed to create sweet. soothing. Clusters of flowers growing on these trees turn to seeds. jl L^~M -v-M *1 w& m r* r History of Chocolate Many people believe that chocolate originally came from Europe. contemporary chocolates with subtle flavors fill the shelves of expensive chocolate shops. Preparing the beans in special ways brought out the aroma of chocolate. He introduced the people of Spain to the Aztecs’ chocolate beverage. The Mayans and Aztecs used the beans from this divine tree to create a special beverage with a very pleasant odor. The Mayan and Aztec cultures both thought that chocolate trees were brought from paradise by gods. chocolate. They enjoyed it even more once they learned to add sugar to the beverage! Soon.” was first made in the Americas. though. Cortes became quite interested in the plantations where the Aztecs cultivated chocolate trees. called the “food of the gods. Today. kings. They will tell you that the flavor of high quality chocolate stays on the palate long after you finish it. and delicious chocolate treats. However. In the 1500s. the Aztecs believed that it would be toxic to women and children. True chocolate lovers can tell which is best. Over the next 100 years or so. The different types of chocolate available today vary widely.

1. Mayan gods d. Aroma b. Soothing d. Kings and queens 13 . 3. The first chocolate beverages were made in Europe. The Mayans and Aztecs said chocolate was a divine plant brought from paradise. Cortes of Spain b. The different types of chocolate available today vary widely. The upper class in Europe d. New machines d. Beans were combined with condensed milk to give chocolate a smooth texture.A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. B Answer the questions. The Aztecs 3. 2. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. Which word is NOT used to describe chocolate in the reading? a. 6. Europeans in the 1500s c. What allowed chocolate to be produced at a rapid rate? a. Chocolate makers b. The Aztecs 4. Plantation owners c. Which of the following did NOT consume chocolate as a beverage? a. 1. Cortes b. Sweet 2. Wild chocolate trees grow well in humid weather. Delicious c. Which group of people believed that chocolate was toxic to women and children? a. 4. 5. The Mayans cultivated chocolate trees on plantations. Cacao beans c.

Your character is your personality.accident [seksidant] n. it is burning strongly. Hay is dry grass used to feed animals or used as a covering. -* I recycle everything I can. — My sister’s character is fun and very outgoing. -» A rainbow has the shape of an arc. She had to go to the hospital after she was in a serious car accident. If something is fiery. -» They won the sea battle because of the admiral’s great leadership. horrified [hoirafaid] adj. An admiral is someone who controls many military ships. If you are horrified. Flesh is the skin. conscience [kdnjans] n. -♦ Would you like a grapefruit with your breakfast? h a y [hei] n. -» The fiery blaze burned all night long. -* I need to buy some more hay for the horse to sleep on. you are very shocked and feel upset. but bigger and not as sweet. a r c la:rk] n. . muscle and fat on your body. -» The zebra’s flesh has black and white stripes. An arc is a curved shape. so my conscience is clear! fiery [faiari] adj. Your conscience is your inner sense of what is right and wrong. An accident is an unexpected undesirable event. -* I was horrified when I read about the old lady who was attacked. grapefruit [greipfru :t] n. A grapefruit is a fruit similar to an orange. character [k^nkted n. a d m i r a l [aedmaral] n. flesh [flej] n.

r steward [syu. it has a sharp and unpleasant taste. A stake is a small. r S O U r [sauax] adj. -» Be careful of the thorns when you pick the roses! r wreck [rek] v. -* Many people in poor countries cook on kerosene stoves.ard] n. -* We need a paddle to help us move across the water. C raft [raeft] n. A thorn is a sharp part of a plant. A loop is a line made into the shape of a circle. -» The steward is bringing some tea. r stake isteik] n. r thorn [eorn] n. -+ The teenagers wrecked the house for no reason at all. A steward is a person like a waiter who serves food on planes and ships. -* We marked our property by placing stakes into the ground. To wreck something means to destroy or ruin it. Kerosene is a type of oil. It is used in some lamps and stoves. sharp piece of wood or metal that is put into the ground. -» He made a loop with the rope and placed it over the post. -* I found a large ball of string. r paddle [p&di] n. When something is sour.r kerosene [kerasi:n] n. A paddle is a piece of wood or plastic that moves a boat across water. String is a thin piece of fabric or rope. -* I don’t like lemons because I think they are too sour. r lo o p [lu:p] n. A raft is a floating platform made from pieces of wood tied together. -► The man made a raft out of bamboo and floated out to sea. r string [strinl n. .

hay a. fiery b. sour 3. something you use to move a boat a. a curved shape 3. a part of your mind d. steward 5. admiral c. raft d. skin and muscle PjGMJ B Choose the right word for the given definition. wrecked c. dry grass d. someone who serves food b. a captain on a ship d. loop 2. where something is bought c. character b. arc c. hay d. raft a. a piece of wood in the ground a. kerosene b. an undesirable event d. a fruit 5. a waiter c. a piece of wood that moves a boat 2. a sharp part on a plant c. 1. a piece of wood in the ground b. character a. personality d. conscience c. thorn a. 1. grapefruit b.Exercise 1 PAR'D' A Choose the right definition for the given word. frightened a. thorn c. a curved shape a. a thin rope c. a circle in a rope b. flesh d. stake b. horrified d. part of your mind that stops you from doing bad things a. arc a. paddle . string 4. oil c. accident d. a floating platform 4. on fire b. difficulties b.

10.Write a word that is similar in meaning to the underlined part. New drivers are more likely to__________ 4. 2. . character accident flesh 1. After lightning struck the tree. 9. The oil in lamps and stoves is a very cheap form of heat. Can you buy three yellow pieces of fruit that are like oranges from the supermarket please? 6. I threw the ball through the line in the shape of a circle. _ their cars than experienced drivers. is still pink. You shouldn’t eat the chicken. I’m going to tie the cow to a ____________ 2. Why did you steal the woman’s bag? Don’t you have a mind that understands what is wrong? 5. Some people thought that the meal was too sharp and unpleasant tasting. Use this thin rope to tie the package. 7. I hope that the waiter on the plane will bring some water soon. and now he is an important sea officer that controls military ships. 4. Tom was promoted. The______ 3. 1. Fill in the blanks with the correct words from the word bank. 3. Many people were hurt in the boating____ 5. the forest turned into a burning blaze. My brother has a very friendly and cheerful stake wreck in the ground. I cleaned the rabbit’s cage and left some dry grass for it to eat. 8.

they slept on branches with sharp thorns that cut into the monkeys’ flesh. they saw a little island in the distance. One monkey ran into a kerosene lamp. “I could sell these monkeys and become very rich! I’m going to take them to England. and it fell over. The admiral’s character was mean. The monkeys ran and played all over the ship! They attacked the admiral and the steward and ate their food.” So the admiral set traps to catch the monkeys. The cages were small and uncomfortable. their feet got caught in the loops. In the morning. There was no soft hay for the monkeys to sleep on. But one day. the admiral hired a new steward. he gave them tiny pieces of sour grapefruit to eat. For dinner.Monkey Island In the middle of the ocean. He put stakes in the ground. He thought. They felt so happy to find a new home. Here. The monkeys used a piece of wood as a paddle. and they went toward it. Instead. an English admiral was exploring Africa when he found hundreds of monkeys. They completely wrecked the ship. The ship caught fire and began to sink! The whole crew was lost except for the monkeys. Then the admiral put the monkeys in cages on his ship and sailed away. the monkeys jumped onto a raft. When the monkeys ran through the forest. So one night he let them out. and they still live there today. tied string around them and made loops in the string. . After the accident. He was horrified to see the thin monkeys in the cages. and they couldn’t escape. He was a kind man with a good conscience. monkeys play on the beach and in the trees. there is a small island shaped like an arc. The monkeys grew hungry and weak. They found the island shaped like an arc. They floated away from the fiery blaze of the ship. But how did the monkeys get there? Once.

The admiral put hay in the monkeys’ cages. B Answer the questions. 2. 3. The monkeys jumped on a raft after the accident. The admiral was horrified because the monkeys were muscular. Sour d. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. To England c. 5. A paddle b. A rope . 4. Where did the admiral plan to take the monkeys? a. An arc c. To the wrecked ship b. What shape was the island that the monkeys found? a. The admiral caught the monkeys using loops of string and stakes.P/MT A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. Grapefruit d. 1. Thorns b. Generous b. Which adjective describes the admiral’s character? a. To an island d. Fiery 2. Flesh 4. What did the monkeys eat while they were in the cages? a. To Africa 3. 6. A circle d. The admiral thought that selling the monkeys would make him rich. 1. Hay c. Mean c. The steward had no conscience.

b r a g [brseg] v. To disagree with someone means to have a different opinion from them. -* The child yelled over the canyon. . -* He had strong muscles and bragged about it to the entire class. they are impressive or frightening. disagree [disagri:] v. If someone is conscious of something. If something is audible. If something or someone is awesome. hint [hint] n. -* You should beware of driving fast on wet roads. then they are aware of it. A hint is information that suggests something will happen or is true. -* I quietly passed on a hint to my sister about the test. audible [5 :dabl] adj. conscious [kanjas] adj. -* The constant training and planning led the team to an eventual victory. eventual [iventjual] adj. -» The sound of the drums was audible from miles away. -► The new student was conscious of the other students staring at her. beware [biwear] v. and the wall echoed the sound. it will happen at the end of a series of events. e c h o [ekou] v. -* The teacher admonished Mark because he was chewing gum in class. awesome [d:sam] adj. -*• The lawyers disagreed about the best way to settle the case. -* The huge military plane was an awesome sight. then it is able to be heard. To brag means to talk of one’s abilities or achievements in a proud way. If something is eventual. To beware means to be careful of something or someone that is dangerous.admonish fedmanij] * To admonish someone is to tell them you disapprove of their behavior. To echo means that a sound repeats itself because it bounced off an object.

-» Tina did a thorough job of cleaning the stains out of the carpet. then they are complete in everyway. To pinpoint something means to locate it exactly. o p t io n [dpjan] n. -♦ The navigation system in my car is able to pinpoint my exact location. torment [torment] v. indirect [indirekt] adj. then it is without any mistakes. -* He chose to take the most indirect route to the coast. switch [switj] v. An option is a choice between two or more things. -♦ In the US. If something or someone is thorough. pastime [paestaim] n. To switch means to change something to something else. immense [imens] adj. then it is not the easiest or straightest way. If something is indirect. -» She tormented her little brother by taking his favorite toy. so her score was perfect. pinpoint [pinpoint] v. perfect [pa:rfikt] adj. A pastime is an activity done for fun that you do often. If something is immense. If something is perfect. — Because he got lost in the forest. An idiot is a person who is not smart or who has done something silly. baseball is considered the national pastime. -* She got all the questions right. it is very large. -+ An immense amount of money was needed to buy such a large boat. -* The children were given the option of three houses to pick from.idiot [fdiat] n. . the man felt like an idiot. thorough [ea:rou] adj. -* Mom switched the TV station from the news to her favorite show. To torment someone means to cause them to suffer on purpose.

beware / switch When you___________the machine on. brag / perfect My sister likes to___________ about how my mother and father think her behavior is 5. echoed / pinpoint It was difficult to___________the dog’s location because its cries___________ off of the hills. her__________ steps made her parents___________ of her. 6. admonished / torment Because he liked to___________the kitten by pouring water on it. I felt like an __________ for the choice I made. which gave a ___________as to how___________the thief had been. 2.Choose the word that is the better fit for each blank. you need to___________ because the machine is dangerous. eventual / pastime All of the accidents at the swimming pool led to the__________ closing of it and the end of a favorite summer__________ . idiot /option I had the___________ of going with them or staying home. forcing the travelers to take a more __________ route through the countryside. hint / thorough The police could not find a single clue to the crime. the boy’s mother ___________ him for his cruel behavior. 1. audible / conscious Even though the little girl was trying to sneak up on her parents. He would put people in jail if they___________with him. 9. 4. 8. . 10. disagreed / awesome The king wanted people to think that his power was__________ . 3. 7. immense / indirect An___________tree fell across the road.

3. 3. c. 1. i. . because they gave him so many hints and it led to her eventual illness if they wanted to get a perfect grade d._____ . The doctor did a thorough check The two friends disagreed . f. j.Exercise 2 W R A Match the phrases to make complete sentences. The awesome storm caused_____ . . g. She didn’t eat good food and didn’t exercise. The students had to answer all the questions correctly ._____ . We knew he broke his leg when he fell_____ . b. 4. 6. He knew his friends were having a surprise party for him . 9. 1. a. then people might think you’re an idiot but it was just the echo of her voice h. of the hole in the bridge was the reason for the bad smell of the sick man’s health fear that his home would be damaged is listening to music 1iKMT B Match the clauses to make complete sentences. 9. 2. 7. 10. You should beware . He had to choose the blue car_____ . about which game was better for talking during the test about how good she is at sports took an hour more to drive from her left hand to her right . i. 8. She thought someone was calling to her from the other cliff. The captain did not see the ship approaching behind him. My favorite pastime . 6. The hiker always carried a compass and map. h. j. She switched the bag_____ . e. 5. His proud sister brags_____ . The indirect route . e. An immense pile of garbage_____ . c. She admonished the student . He couldn’t sleep at night . 4. If you can’t tie your own shoes by the time you’re twelve years old a. 5. 2. d. 8. 10. but he was conscious of the other boats because bad dreams tormented him f. g. because there weren’t any other options so he could pinpoint his location in the wild because the sound of the bone breaking was audible . b. 7.

After a while. Because his course through the wilderness was so indirect.” the old man said. he was not conscious of which direction he was going. he decided to return home. When he arrived home. he had no idea where he was. The thought of the eventual storm tormented the young man. Awesome sounds of thunder were audible from all directions. As he started his stroll.” But the young man disagreed with the old man and bragged that he had a perfect understanding of the park.” he said. he knew that he had acted like an idiot. “Beware. I won’t become lost. In addition. He walked one path after another but soon realized he was lost. He hurried in one direction. The paths are not clear.” The old man listened to the young man and then admonished him for his pride. “Don’t go this way. He looked at his map but could not pinpoint his location. He heard about people hiking in the national parks and decided to try it for himself. he always chose the more difficult option. Luckily. “I have walked these trails my entire life. Immense clouds filled the sky.The Young Man and the Old Man A proud young man was looking for a new pastime. It echoed off the mountains. then go ahead. “I believe I have a thorough knowledge of these trails. it led him out of the park. The sun was going down. It’s easy to become lost. “If you think you will be safe.” he told him. Whenever he had to choose between an easy or difficult route. an old man walked up to him. He realized he was lucky to be alive. He decided to listen to people with more experience than himself. but soon switched out of confusion. and sudden strong winds gave a hint that it might rain.” The young man ignored the old man and started along the trail. “I studied maps of this area. .

Picking trails b. b. The young man disagreed with the old man.P/MT A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. The young man bragged that he was perfect. The young man decided to hike in the national parks. 5. 1. Why did the old man admonish the young man? a. He listened to the old man’s advice. Hiking in parks 2. Talking with old men d. 3. The young man was tormented by the thought of the eventual storm. d. When the young man got home. The lightining flashing in the sky . The sparse clouds in the sky c. c. 1. He was not conscious of where he went. he knew that the old man had acted like an idiot. 3. The young man believed that his knowledge of the park’s trails was thorough. When the young man had an option of two trails. Climbing mountains c. He did not switch to an easier trail. P/MT B Answer the questions. Why did the young man become lost? a. 2. The weather getting colder d. Which of the following gave a hint of an eventual storm? a. He pinpointed his location on his map. 4. he always chose the easier one. c. The young man was awesome. The sudden strong winds b. 6. What did the young man choose as his new pastime? a. The young man’s route was too indirect. 4. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. The young man chose difficult trails. d. b.

-* The sick man moaned from his bed. damp [dsemp] adj. -»■ The airplane made a flight around the world. it is somewhat wet. often in an airplane.Wmmtm List b e a k [beak] n. To moan is to make a low sound when feeling pain or sadness. If something is damp. A flight is an act of flying. disapprove [disapru:v] v. If someone is oblivious of something. who felt ill the whole time. When someone is fond of something. -♦ The bird used her beak to dig a small hole in the ground. -+ Alex. -* Stealing money from one’s mother is an immoral act. -* Everyone had fun on the trip except Jim. they are evil or do bad things. they like it. -*■ I am very fond of chocolate cake. disapproved of his son’s behavior. immoral [imdcM adj. Ivy is a plant with long vines that grows upward typically on walls. A beak is the hard curved part of a bird’s mouth. -* I was late to school because I was oblivious of the time. except [iksept] prep. To disapprove of something is to think that it is wrong. m o a n [moun] v. When something or someone is immoral. ivy [aivi] n. -» The walls of the castle are covered with ivy. oblivious [ablivias] adj. You use except to talk about the only thing that a statement does not apply to. fond [fand] adj. they are unaware of it. flight [flait] n. . -» My hair is still damp from my shower.

like a cup or bottle. -» The family of doves made a roost at the top of the tree. A roost is a place where birds can land and rest or sleep. rim [rim] n. utterly [Atari i] adv. -+ My sister told me the dramatic movie would make me weep. To soar means to fly high in the air. If something is slippery. — Many people perish in wars. rOOSt [ru:st] n. To perish means to die. usually because of bad conditions or bad events. A pit is a big hole in the ground. -* Barking is typical behavior for dogs. it is normal for a certain type of thing. trivial [trivial] adj. two eagles soared through the sky. -+ When the sun was blocked by the moon. To weep means to cry. — Michael fell into the pit and needed some help to get out.perish [perij] V. slippery [slipari] adj. The rim is the outside edge of a round thing. pit [pit] n. -*• Television is trivial. If something is utterly a way. 27 . it is completely that way. it is not important or meaningful. soar [sot] v. it is wet or smooth and causes people to slip. weep [wi:p] V. -* As the sun rose. typical [tipikal] adj. it was utterly dark outside. If something is trivial. but learning to read is very important. -► The repairman fell down on the floor because it was too slippery. -* I put my lips to the rim of the bottle and took a drink. If something is typical.

A cup c. A fireman 28 . A judge d. 1. A thought b. Fond 4. A lion 8. Where would a bird build a home? a. One type can sing. To perish d. A bird b. Which person has been proven to have committed an immoral act? a. Which word describes something that has a beak? a. A hurt woman 10. Some can live for close to 50 years 9. They can swim. d. A person d. What does a sad movie cause people to do? a. On a rim c. A teacher b. 3.Choose the answer that best fits the question. A car d. b. To weep b. A boat c. They can live on land. To except c. To be typical 5. A criminal c. Which word would best describe a smooth. Which word describes something that would have a rim? a. On a flight Which word best describes awet towel? a. On a roost b. To moan d. To disapprove 2. To soar c. Trivial b. Utterly c. Which of these people would most likely be moaning? a. In a pit d. Ivy b. c. Slippery d. A smell 7. Immoral c. A happy boy c. A wife d. What is typical about fish? a. To be oblivious b. wet stone? a. A doctor b. What does it mean to fly? a. Immoral 6. Damp d.

1. itis ___________ of using an empty barn. . moan / weep Every time the sick woman would___________ in pain._____ for its short. flight / soars The eagle___________ into the clouds when it goes on a long__________ 5. then tossed it far down into the 4. oblivious / perish All of the people in the movie will___________ if they remain___________ of the monster. her daughter would 6. trivial / disapprove Because his assistant is teaching them__ __________ of the time wasted. ugly 8. 3. immoral / typical It is not___________for a policeman to do things like stealing.Choose the word that is the better fit for each blank. the coach will 9. 7. utterly / ivy Because it__________ covered the fence. pit /rim He grabbed the can by its__________ . 2. the gardener had to remove all of the 10. plays. beak/except Every part of the bird was beautiful. roost/fond When the owl wants to make a __________ . slippery / damp The ground became dangerous and___________ because everyone placed their __________ towels there.

Fox laughed and ran away. Tomorrow. I’ll help you if you promise to be nice. he jumped out and pushed Rabbit into the pit. he is completely immoral. We all disapprove of his actions. The angry Rabbit climbed out and told the other animals what happened. I will perish!” Eagle said. Sometimes. “Eagle. Fox thanked Eagle and kept his promise. He hid in a tree until Rabbit came to the pit’s edge. he saw Eagle watching him from her roost. Just then. All the animals laughed and cheered.” Fox said. he used the sharp rim of a bottle to dig a pit in the ground. all of the animals hid near the pit and waited for Fox. we’ll push Fox into that pit. He was nice to the other animals. except Fox. He was utterly helpless. the other animals ran up to Fox and pushed him in. “You may think your tricks are trivial. please help me! If I don’t get out of here. He moaned and began to weep. The Tricky Fox There was a fox that lived in the forest. “That is typical behavior for Fox. At last. He yelled. One day. It was too slippery for him to climb out. Fox was oblivious to the hidden animals. but you hurt others when you do mean things. Then. so we should teach him a lesson. of course. The others said. “I promise!” Eagle began her flight to the bottom of the pit. He does mean things all the time. Fox couldn’t get out! The walls of the pit were covered in damp ivy.” The next day. She picked up Fox with her beak and soared out of the pit. Fox loved to play mean tricks on the other animals.. She dropped Fox safely on the ground. He walked up to the pit to see if Rabbit was still trapped. The .

. Immoral and mean behavior was typical with Fox. 4. He felt utterly helpless. 2. 2. She picked up Fox with her beak. 6. Fox was oblivious to the hidden pit. Why did Fox moan and weep? a. The damp ivy was too slippery for Fox to climb out. Rabbit ran into the pit. She made Fox promise to leave the forest. She got stuck in the pit. Fox used the rim of a bottle to dig a deep pit. d. b. 1. 1. Fox pushed him into the pit. 5. Eagle flew into the pit to save Fox. She became fond of Fox. c. The animals taught him a lesson. d. b. c. c. What happened after Eagle’s flight to the bottom of the pit? a. She did not let Fox perish. 4. b. He saw Eagle in her roost. She gave him money. GflBCTB Answer the questions. b. Fox had a roost near the pit. 3. Fox laughed and ran away. d. d. 3. Why did Fox thank Eagle? a. She gave Fox some rope to climb out. She disapproved of Fox. Rabbit sat on the edge. c. He felt trivial.PCM? A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. How did Rabbit fall into the pit? a.

awhile [a/?wail] adv. -* Wait here awhile. -* When I go to the gymnasium. It probably got lost in cyberspace. Can you explain them to me? . -»Joe and Ken evaluated the plan and agreed that it would work. it happens all around the world. and I’ll bring some tea. To evaluate something means to study it. highlight [hailait] v. -* Pollution is a global problem. ignorant [ignarant] adj. To highlight something means to mark it with a color so that it is easy to see -* I read my vocabulary list and highlighted the most difficult words. -* Carol fainted because she hadn’t eaten in over a day. so a decision can be made. e v a l u a t e [ivaeljueit] v. edit [edit] v. cyberspace [saibarspeis] n. global [gloubal] adj. -> I’m a bit ignorant about his theories. -+ I didn’t receive your email. A gymnasium is a building with equipment that you can use to get exercise. If something is global. An essay is a short piece of writing on a certain subject. you do it for a short time. faint [feint] v. I use the treadmill for 20 minutes. they have no knowledge about it. essay [esei] n. To faint means to go unconscious and fall down. To edit means to correct a piece of writing so that it is suitable to be published. Cyberspace is the imaginary place of the Internet where activities occur. gymnasium [d3 imneiziam] n. If you do something awhile. —. If someone is ignorant about something.She asked her brother to edit her paper before she submitted it to her teacher. -+ She had to write a two-page essay for her English class.

lecture [lektfar] n. operate [apareit] * To operate means to work or function. If something is typewritten. When something is weird. it is written on a computer or typewriter. A moral is a message at the end of a story that teaches you something. -» His lecture on world hunger was very informative. -* I’m sorry. it happened a short time ago. Jack is in his second semester of college. My best friend’s dad is a bit weird. moral [m6(:)rel] n. weird [wiard] adj. . Mother explained the moral to the children. formal project and must be typewritten. it is only used by one person or group. typewritten [taipritn] adj. -» This is an important. you’ll find the right page number. educational speech. -» I did not know what caused his recent behavior. but the trains are not operating today. resolution [rezalu:Jan] n. A semester is a portion of a school year. When something is recent. -> At New Year. I made a list of resolutions to help me have a better year. private [praivit] adj. — Don’t look at my diary! It’s private! r e c e n t [ri:sant] adj. -» If you look in the index. -* At the end of the story. An index is a list of words at the end of a book that gives information. If something is private.index [indeks] n. it is very strange. s e m e s t e r [simestar] n. A resolution is a personal decision. A lecture is a long.

about health! 7. 1. before saying 10. evaluated / private We______ document. essays / edit Joe has the ability to write great. 9. . while she was giving us a . you can get access to. the 8. has to___________ his work. 6. cyberspace / operate If you know how to__________ a computer. and our suggestions are written in this. and she has. Ill) ill 2. moral / awhile The___________ ofthe story is that you should think. highlighted / typewritten Jennifer’s notes are very neat! They are _ most important parts with a green pen. You should look in the to see if this book will help you with the report. She thinks that email and chat rooms are_______ . . anything that might hurt someone. semester/index The report is due at the end of the . fainted / lecture Ourteacher____ . recent / global A ___________study shows that.Choose the word that is the better fit for each blank. ways to spend one’s time. the company. 4. 3. weird / ignorant My mom is completely________ . hunger is a very big problem. gymnasium / resolution I made a ___________to go tothe____ more often to improve my health. about computers. _. His writing is so good that he never 5.

. 7. 8. 4. 9. The team evaluated_____ . 10. c. 5. 6. 2. d.______. You mustn’t tell anyone this information. i. The moral of the story is . 5. We went to a lecture . I made a resolution_____ . I need a computer______. That copy of the text book is too old. 7. e. aren’t as important as real friends is halfway through the school year to eat less chocolate with a yellow pen ate soup with a knife GMT B Match the clauses to make complete sentences. we learned what to do . 1. The weird kid at school . The global economic problems_____ . j. a. g. g. h. I wanted to get fit______. The friends you meet in cyberspace . it’s private but he helped me edit it so I went to the gymnasium so I wrote an essay about rocks if someone faints b. h. . 1. a. j. The end of the first semester_____ . 10. 4. d. 6. My brother couldn’t help me with my math homework In the first aid class. Joe operates . are getting worse about birds to be nicer to people the success of the project this large machine b. My paper was full of mistakes._. c. i. . 2. 9. 3. f.Exercise 2 P/MT A Match the phrases to make complete sentences. I wanted to find some information about volcanoes. f. e. 3. so I looked under “V” in the index you wait here awhile so you should find a more recent one because my essay has to be typewritten because he’s ignorant about math . 8. You should highlight these words . I’ll get some tea if______. Geology is my favorite subject._____ .

My teacher wanted it to be typewritten. but I had no choice.” After that. and the computer would do it. The moral of this story is that if you cheat at school. “I hope you studied. After that. Every assignment was perfect. . At least the computers were operating correctly. and the computers were very old. checked the book indexes and eventually found a useful book. It’s worth seventy percent of our final grade!” I failed the test. I’d type the title. you won’t learn anything. I went to the library. I typed and highlighted the assignment’s title: “Evaluate the Government’s Response to Global Warming. I was walking into class when my friend said. When I looked at the screen. of course. I never had to edit anything. I made a resolution never to use the magic computer again. I got an “A. “The geography test!” he replied. They were small and dark. I stopped paying attention to my teacher’s lectures and spent my extra time in the gymnasium. And my grades got better and better. I saw something so weird that I nearly fainted! The essay was complete! Had somebody in cyberspace written it? I didn’t know. I was completely ignorant about the subject. and technicians were fixing it. Finally I decided to find a book to help me. I printed it out and handed it in. so I went to the school computer room. I knew of some private study rooms downstairs. A month later.The Magic Computer I had a difficult geography project to finish by the end of the semester. Then I returned to the computer. wait awhile. but I was very happy.” But I didn’t know what to write in my essay. “Are you prepared for the test?” “What test?” I asked. all the computers were turned off. I used the computer for all my assignments. But when I got there. Apparently there was a recent problem.

The computers in the private study rooms weren’t operating correctly. In the library d. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. The computers were turned off because there was a recent problem. Edit his paper c. How did the teacher want the project to be written? a.P/MT A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. 3. In black ink 2. The geography test was worth fifty percent of the final grade. the student had to evaluate the government’s response to global warming. In lectures b. P/MT B Answer the questions. In cyberspace . 2. The student failed the test because he was completely ignorant about the subject. 4. Type in the essay title b. The private study rooms were upstairs. 6. 5. In the gymnasium c. Economics d. Where did the student spend his free time? a. 1. Wait awhile 4. What did the student NOT have to do in order to use the magic computer? a. Typewritten d. Weird computers b. Handwritten c. In his project. 1. Plug it in d. What was the project about? a. In first person b. Computer science 3. Global warming c.

-» I can envision my mom’s face when I give her this present! evenly [i:vanli] adv. -* The student smiled with pleasure when she received the prize. -* There was one small patch of grass in the sand-covered desert. I couldn’t find it. If you are attentive. Folk are common or average people. -* The superhero wore a long red cape. envision [invi3 an] v.absolute [aebsaluit] adj. —*My presentation was an absolute disaster! It was terrible! alas [alaes] int. -♦ The snowman that we made yesterday melted in the sun. attentive [atentiv] adj. A cape is a large cloth that covers one’s back and is tied around the neck. you are careful and you pay attention. To melt means to turn from a solid to a liquid. but alas. r folk [fouk] n. . pleasure [Pie38r] n. If something is absolute. -* I looked everywhere for my purse. A patch is a part of a surface that is different in appearance from the rest. C a p e [keip] n. Alas is a word that people say when something bad happens. To envision something means to imagine that it may happen. -*■ I’ve invited all the folks from our street to a gathering at my place. r patch [paetj] n. it happens at the same rate or level. -* The food was handed out evenly among the hungry people. m e l t [melt] v. it is total or complete. -*■ He is a good student because he is attentive to every detail on his work. Pleasure is a feeling of happiness. When something happens evenly.

-► Would you like some chocolate pudding and coffee for dessert? rail [reil] n. -* I wore my new suit on my date with Melissa. A spark is a small. A role is the normal purpose or function of a person or thing. -» The cat was sitting on the rail of the fence. It usually includes a jacket with pants ora skirt. -» The apple cake that you made is really tasty. A pudding is a sweet dessert. -* I heard a loud pop. recipe [resspi:] n. pudding tpudirj] n. -* If you stick to a healthy diet. A pop is a short. -* You need to soak these beans overnight before you cook them. (!% spirit [spirit] n. Can I have the recipe. quick flash of fire. please? r o le [roul] n. A spirit is someone’s feelings and personality. A rail is a horizontal bar made of metal or wood.p o p [pap] n. 39 . suit [suit] n. your stomach will shrink! soak [souk] v. then my computer screen shattered. A suit is a set of clothes. To shrink means to get smaller. -* He has a very outgoing spirit. shrink [jriQk] v. spark [spark] n. loud sound. but not a physical body part. -* As he welded the two pieces of metal together. He can make friends with anyone. sparks flew everywhere. To soak something means to make it very wet. A recipe is a set of instructions to make food. -* My role at work is to check the quality of the products.

absolute b. happening at the same rate everywhere a. a sweet dessert b. happening at the same rate b. a horizontal bar c. a set of instructions 3. total and complete 5. a common person d. spirit c. folk c. to make wet b. to get smaller a. 1. attentive 3. to get smaller c. to turn to liquid d. role 5. alas c. pop d. envision A. melt c. a different part of a surface 4. a set of clothes d. cape d. evenly b. rail 2. said when bad things happen c. to get smaller d. pleasure a. a set of clothes a. absolute a. common people a. to imagine 2. pudding [SQQ'O' B Choose the right definition for the given word. spark a. to make a noise c. soaks d. melt a. rail a. careful d. suit d. pleasure d. recipe b. shrink b. a feeling of happiness b. 1. spark b. a normal purpose b. a large cloth worn on the back a. patch c. personality .P/ABU A Choose the right word for the given definition. a flash of fire c.

10. h. His role at work is . it will shrink g. 7. I can’t envision you_____ . I knew the television had broken_____. 3. His strong spirit . d. f. Christmas is an important holiday . 6. 5. I will need . Tony didn’t practice the presentation. • : j • : If you wash this silk shirt in hot water. e. so it was an absolute disaster e.____ . 9. 1. This pan was so dirty_____ . There were sparks flying . of the fence during science class flour. 4. The cat is sitting on the rail . d. Forthis recipe. j. 5. People wore capes more often_____ . 8. 8. To protect the kingdom. Mom made chocolate pudding_____ . . 9._____ . i. It was a pleasure . 6. so I usually wear a suit i. I studied hard for the test. . j. h. 2. when I heard the pop b. we have to dress well. I still didn’t do very well 41 . 2. He is very attentive_____ . 10. Dan was very unlucky_____ . g. a. 7. a. because he fell in a patch of rocks it will melt when folks meet with their families that I had to soak it overnight but alas. 4. At work._____ . If you put the butter near the fire. two hundred years ago to manage the team of employees as a politician out of the computer could not be hurt from mean comments B5MT B Match the clauses to make complete sentences. .P/MF A Match the phrases to make complete sentences. the soldiers spread out evenly c. f. eggs and sugar for dessert last night to meet you b. 3. c. 1.

there was a pop.-. But Jack Frost also gets pleasure from playing tricks on common folks.rr. He pointed.fa k Jack Frost and the Pudding Every winter. Suddenly.■■. He was carrying a basket of ingredients for his wife’s cake recipe. . A couple of eggs broke. “There’ll be no cake for me!” Jack Frost laughed at poor Tom because his nice suit got soaked as well..J. brown pudding in the basket! Tom tasted it.-*£k . Suddenly. f An.Y . What was left of the food caught fire! Jack Frost ran off laughing.. When he did so. It was delicious! He happily took it home for dessert.-^. there was a spark. The food made an absolute mess of the path. pointing at some trees. j . a magical boy with a wild spirit named Jack Frost arrives in town.. “I’ll have some fun with him!” said Jack Frost.. Poor Tom sat by the fire. Tom looked inside. Although Jack Frost had tried to make Tom’s life difficult. Poor Tom slipped and fell into the river.5. The bags of flour. One dark winter evening.^>^**i*---*^---M-~. and his role is to cover everything with frost and ice. . Then old Tom Muggins came along the path. “Don’t worry./^. He wears a white cape. The butter was melting and the eggs were starting to cook! Even the fruit began to simmer. He wished he had been more attentive and noticed that Jack was around. he was sitting on the rail of a fence near a river. and a stick of butter shrank in the water.-. and suddenly there was a patch of ice on the path. .. a pleasant smell came from the basket. and the trees were evenly covered in frost. Jack had actually made Tom a wonderful pudding! . “Alas!” he cried. Tom gathered the ingredients and climbed out of the river. fruit and sugar fell open and got wet.-!...■-. I’ll make you warm!” He pointed at the mess in Tom’s basket. “Are you cold?” he said.i~h^.jafa. He could only envision how angry his wife would be. Soon there was a fat. ■»-ll'-.

Rewrite the false statements to make them true. 4. When Jack Frost set fire to the food. The trees became covered in frost. P£MF B Answer the questions. Which of the following was NOT an ingredient of the wonderful pudding? 3. What happened when there was a pop sound? a. Tom Muggins likes playing tricks on folks. the eggs started to melt. 5. What shrank when it got soaked in the river? 4. c. Jack Frost’s role is to cover everything with fire. 3. Tom fell into the river. Jack Frost was sitting on the rail of a fence. Tomsaid “Alas!” because he knew he wouldn’t have any cake. 1. 2. The food caught fire. d. 6. 1. Tomwished that he had been more attentive. What was Tom wearing? 2.P/MF A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. b. . A patch of ice formed.

. my bank account was nearly empty.aCCOUnt [akaunt] n. she was given a deed to show the car was hers. gratitude [graetat/'u:d] n. -♦ Frogs are often found in a wet habitat. -* You should conceal your money so no one can take it from you. To conceal something means to hide it. -*■After I paid for the new car. or pond. d e e d [di:d] n. it is related to the law or allowed by the law. landmark [laendmdrk] n. If something is legal. -* The tall tree was used as a landmark for people to find the road to the inn. -+ The students argued until the teacher intervened. A landmark is an object that helps people find or remember a location. river. -* When she bought the car. An account with a bank is an arrangement to keep one’s money there. -+ Police quickly arrived at the scene of the crime. A habitat is the natural home of animals or plants. -» The kids showed Aunt Tess much gratitude for visiting them. A crime is something bad that a person does that can be punished by law. habitat [haebataet] n. conceal [kansi:l] v. Gratitude is a feeling of being thankful. intervene Dnta/vim] * To intervene means to help stop a problem between two people or groups. -* It was not legal for him to drive until he was eighteen years old. architect [dirkitekt] n. An architect is a person who designs buildings. such as near a lake. C r im e [kraim] n. A deed is a certificate that proves that someone owns something. legal [ligel] adj. -+ The plans for building the new home were drawn by a famous architect.

O f f e n s e [afens] n. A witness is someone who sees or hears a crime or accident happen. -* He was put in jail for two days for the offense. A sentence is punishment given to someone who didn’t follow the law. To proclaim something means to say it in public. oblige [sblaid3] v. -» The woman was the only witness of the horrible crime. volunteer [valantfar] v. -*• The sentence for stealing a car is much worse than for stealing candy. To resolve something means to find a solution. rally [raeli] n. witness [wrtnis] n. -*• If I wanted to have playtime. people were still talking about it years later. Resources are a person or country’s money and materials that they can use. proclaim [prot/kleim] v. resolve [rizalv] v. then it is remembered for a special reason.memorable [memsrabal] adj. To volunteer means to offer to do something for free. -» The school had a rally in the gym to support the basketball team. I was obliged to clean my room once a week. . S e n t e n c e [sentans] n. To oblige someone means to require them to do something. -» The poor man didn’t have the resources to feed himself. resource [ri:so:rs] n. If something is memorable. -♦ Many people volunteered to help the adults learn to read. — The army general proclaimed that the war was won. An offense is an action that breaks the law and requires punishment. -» The party was memorable. A rally is a large public meeting in order to support something. -* She resolved the problem with her children by giving them both a toy.

habitat d. volunteer 2. to offer to help d. sentence d.P/MlST A Choose the right word for the given definition. to work to correct a problem between two people oblige b. a person who sees a crime 3. a large public meeting 5. natural c. landmark c. thankful d. resolve b. resource 5. proclaim c. memorable a. sentence a. public 2. proclaim a. someone who obeys the law b. an important person d. architect b. allowed by the law a. deed c. witness a. offense d. a punishment for a crime c. crime [p/iMT B Choose the right definition for the given word. memorable b. something a person does that can be punished by law a. 1. proof of ownership d. 1. something against the law b. money and materials c. intervene conceal d. rally 4. a designer of buildings c. an object that helps people d. to stop a problem . to hide something c. a natural home b. legal c. an action that breaks the law 4. witness b. account d. an object that helps people remember a place a. to say in public b. special b. gratitude 3. to find a solution a. deed a.

A house c. A dress d. Colorful c. Abridge c. “Thankyou. The government has enough money and materials to help all its people. “I’m sorry. A pond b. A bear’s natural home is usually large forests areas with mountains. Children are required to go to school in most countries. 1.” b. He was filled with a feeling of being thankful when he was given the dog. Which of the following is NOT legal? a. 10. When something is concealed. Stealing d. A law b.” d. Loud b. A picture d. His act that broke the law was serious enough to require him to stay in jail for 60 days.” c. My uncle said in public that he was an old friend of the mayor. A broom 2. 3. Singing c. Which of the following is most likely a habitat? a. Four students offered to help to carry the table downstairs. what is it called? a. [7 . “Hello. 7. What is someone who feels gratitude most likely to say? a.” Exerc Write a word that is similar in meaning to the underlined part. What is something that an architect makes? a. She had iust enough money in her arrangement with the bank. Hidden 3. The town had a large public meeting to discuss the problem with the sidewalks. Crying 5. 5. Swimming b. “Go away. Quick d. 4. The necklace was remembered fora special reason because it was from her grandmother. 2.If Exercise 2 Choose the answer that best fits the question. 1. 8. 9. A cake 4. 6.

The judge could not call any witnesses for the nature lovers. All of the people cheered. . There are enough resources in my company’s bank account to create the best building ever made. He planned to cut down the trees to make room for the building. The other half will remain free. He built this new type of building. I want to make a great building there. The nature lovers could not conceal their gratitude. “It is not a crime to remove those trees. We just want to protect the birds.” he said.” Then the judge made his decision. Then. As you may know.” Then one of the nature lovers spoke. which was loved by everyone. I will only allow you to use half of the land. But there was a problem . “We believe that there’s no reason to destroy all the trees.” The architect did exactly as he promised. To resolve the problem. He selected some land that seemed perfect. all my buildings become memorable landmarks. “I proclaim that the office building should be built. “I have an idea. It will provide bushes on the roof where birds can live. . “I have the deed to the land. First. I will volunteer my time and efforts to design a new type of building. Some nature lovers were very upset with the architect. they asked a judge to intervene. so he first asked the architect to tell his side of the story. The architect replied. The land was actually the habitat of several types of birds. so the birds have a place to live. but I feel obliged to make one request.— The Architect’s Plan An architect wanted to build a new office building. they held a rally and told others about the issue. I cannot give you a sentence for any offenses. they decided to take legal action because the architect didn’t respect the animals’ rights. . a big problem. “Why are you going to destroy the birds’ habitat?” the judge asked. The architect said.

■ 1.P/MT A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. Move the birds to a new habitat d. The architect had a deed to the land. B Answer the questions. He was not given a sentence. c. What did the judge decide to give the architect as a sentencing? a. c. Which of the following about the land did the architect NOT tell the judge? a. He gave him five years in prison. There were enough resources in the company’s bank account to build a new building. 5. b. 4. 1. 6. . d. Proclaim war on the architect c. To ask for more rights c. He thought nobody lived there. The judge first asked the architect what happened. He had to pay the nature lovers money. What did the group do in order to resolve the problem with the architect? a. 3. To talk about the issue d. Ask a judge to intervene b. To talk to the architect 2. He could not build any more buildings. 3. 2. He had a deed forthe land. The architect wanted to build a new school. Why did the group have a rally? a. His building would be a memorable landmark. He wanted to make a great building. so he cheered. Sell the land to the architect 4. The architect could not conceal his gratitude. b. d. The land was the habitat of several types of birds. To list names of witnesses b.

To enclose something is to contain it. halt [ho:It] V. grip [grip] v. it happens a lot or all the time. To influence someone or something is to have an effect over them. Conduct is the way that someone acts. so I gripped my older sister’s hand. A device is an object or a machine. -»■ The student was nervous about his impending test.a C C e S S [aekses] n. . device [divais] n. it is going to happen soon. Access is the right to enter or use something. influence [influans] v. -► The cows in the field were enclosed by a fence. A crack is a narrow space between the parts of something broken. —■The television at home is in constant use. impending [impendir)] adj. To halt is to stop moving. -* The manager was the only person with access to the password. crack [kraek] n. -*• My friend influenced my decision to attend Terrance University. -* A thermometer is a device that tells temperature. If something is impending. -* I was scared. conduct [kandAkt] n. -*• She was punished for her bad conduct. To grip something is to hold it very tightly. -*■ The old window was covered with cracks. constant [kanstant] adj. When an event or action is constant. -* The criminal halted when he saw the police coming. enclose [inklouz] v.

To perspire means to sweat. they are sneaky or good at tricking people. To snap something means to break it suddenly. A version is an account of something that differs slightly from the original. A law is a rule made by the legislative body. it is correct or based on good reasoning. S n a p [snagp] v. re p la ce [ripleis] v. If a person or animal is sly. -* Mother turned the 7V to quiet mode while she talked on the phone. -♦ I replaced the tire on my car because it was flat. v e rsio n M>:/3an] n. w h a tso e v e r fawdtsouevar] adj. -* My mom tends to buy me the perfect gift each Christmas. -» I took the stick and snapped it with my hands. A mode is a setting or condition on a machine. -* I usually perspire a lot when I am at practice. To tend to do something is to be likely to do it or to do it often. To replace something is to put it in the place of something else. tend [tend] v. which causes a loud noise. -+ The expert’s opinion on the subject was more valid than others. p e r s p i r e [parspaiar] v. When something is valid. S ly [slai] adj. -» The sly fox stole the eggs from the nest.law [to:] n. -* The boy had no idea whatsoever how to solve the story problem. You use whatsoever after a noun to emphasize that there is nothing of that thing. v a lid [vaelid] adj. m ode [moud] n. -* She read the students British version of the Chinese fairy tale. . -> The students learned about different laws during social studies class.

5. He always offered to help even if I didn’t ask for any help__________ . conduct / replace Mr. It took her awhile to figure out how to turn it to silent__________ . He___________ thought about what might happen to him. but__________suddenly. device / mode Sheila took the___________from her purse and pressed a couple of buttons. She couldn’t have __________ to the room without a key. Holloway was sent to__________ the old coach. 2.Exercise 1 Choose the word that is the better fit for each blank. 1. valid / version The student had a ___________ reason for leaving the classroom when his teacher was gone. He tried to explain his___________ of what happened while she was gone. In some cases. 4. who was known for his wild ________during games. sly / perspired The thief___________while the police questioned him. the decisions help change__________ . halt / access She ran from room to room quickly. 9. 6. tends / cracks I saw several___________ in the ice. constantly / impending The soldier dreaded the__________ battle. They didn’t feel sorry for the __________ crimminal. 3. 7. . whatsoever / enclosed My father___________ a check in the letter he sent me. 8. influenced / laws Decisions made in courts are often__________ by the personal views of the judge. 10. gripped / snapped I ___________the pencil and squeezed it until it__________ .This___________ to happen when the weather becomes warmer.

8. because the impeding test was so important d. 1. Mark tried the code. so his conduct was excellent j. but he wasn’t given access to the room b. . h. [• : j • : : |: a. He replaced the glass . Joe was such a bad person . 5. 1. so the mode wouldn’t disturb anyone . . . 10. Be careful . He didn’t understand. The sly boy took a cookie while . because he can influence people to do anything c. 9. He studied hard_____ . To keep the jewels safe. j. . 3. She turned her phone off. 6. so they told him a different version i. I always perspire more often_____ . She practices the violin during the day. because there were cracks in it h.P/Mi? A Match the phrases to make complete sentences.______. The concert halted . a. that he broke every law f. The driver gripped the wheel_____ . i. as she turned around the corner by holding it too tightly in the summer to miss school today my brother in trouble b. 4. 8. f. c. so the constant music wouldn’t annoy the neighbors e. it was enclosed in glass g. 7. He was told to behave._____ . 5. 10. when the electricity went out light bulb with a new one them tell how old an object is students who do all of their homework his mother wasn’t watching him P/M? B Match the clauses to make complete sentences. I snapped the toy . e. d. The teacher tends to give the best grades to I got no joy whatsoever from getting . . He had a valid reason . g. 3. 7. Scientists have a device that helps . My father replaced the old . 4. 2. 9. 2. 6.

her desire for the player influenced her decision.” Ms. Johnson check your bag. _J . Inside she found the player. “Ms. “Does this backpack belong to anyone?” A girl named Linda claimed the bag. Ms. They were very upset. “Janie. Janie was being sly. She reached inside the bag and felt a small object at the bottom. “I found this.” she said. Johnson called Janie’s parents. look!” There was a crack along one side. she was late to class. She gripped her bag tightly. Johnson. but we’re giving it to Linda. I never expected this kind of conduct from you.-irr w m w Janie and the Music Player Janie had constant thoughts about getting a music player. Johnson took the bag from Janie. Linda looked inside and yelled. She turned it to the “on” mode. Johnson gave Linda the player. One day.” Janie started to perspire as she realized the impending trouble she was in. but it wouldn’t work. and she had no valid reason to take the device. “I did not. “You were the only one that had access to it! If your version of the story is true. She looked inside and found nothing but some books."“ ■a * * ™ - . “You’ve always been such a good student.” In the end. It must’ve snapped while Janie was holding onto the bag so tightly. It was a music player enclosed in a black case! Janie tended to be honest. Ms. Janie’s bad behavior left herwith nothing at all.” Linda responded. You have no respect for the law whatsoever. “My music player is missing! Janie took it!” Janie answered. However. Johnson asked.” they said. She put the device into her own backpack. Ms. “Stealing is illegal.” she said. you’ll let Ms. She hurried down the hall but halted when she saw a backpack on the floor. Linda said. “We bought you a music player. When she arrived at class. It will replace the one you broke. she gave her teacher the bag.

A key 2. Her influence 4. 1. A backpack she found b. Taking Linda’s music player c. Poor schoolwork d. Janie thought constantly about a device that played videos. When Linda put the player to “on” mode. Janie’s parents gave the music player to Linda to replace the one she broke. 1. 2. 5. What did Janie find enclosed in the black case? a. A locker d. Her impending trouble b. The valid reasons 55 . 6.A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. Janie halted while she walked to class because she found a backpack. P/MF B Answer the questions. 3. How the player got a crack 3. The reason she snapped the player d. The law c. 4. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. A backpack c. Janie found the player when she gripped the bag. Bad conduct b. The backpack belonged to a student in Janie’s class. A music player b. Her banking information c. The reading explains that Janie lied to her teacher about what? a. it started to work. What did Ms. Johnson NOT expect from Janie? a. Janie’s parents said she had no respect whatsoever for what? a. Her sly behavior d.

especially by putting it in a certain place. -* The breeze caused the leaves to fall off the tree. . defy [difai] v.alongside [sb:rjsaid] adv. assist [asfst] v. feeble [fi. -* Tom has a big appetite. I rarely have to buy gas. breeze [brkz] n. then it is next to it. -* Andrew assisted me with my homework. — The students got into trouble for defying their teacher’s rules. efficient [iffjant] adj. -♦ My car is very efficient. If something or someone is efficient. appetite [sepitait] n. lively [laivli] adj. To display something is to show it. forgive [fargfv] v. If someone is lively. If someone is feeble. A breeze is a soft wind. If something is alongside another thing. they do not waste energy. -* Jennifer is very lively: she’s always running and playing. r display [displei] v.bal] adj. — We work alongside each other in the office. they are small or weak. -* Sandra forgave Peter after he said he was sorry. Your appetite is your hunger for food. they have a lot of energy. To forgive someone is to stop being angry with them. To defy someone is to work against them or refuse to do what they say. -* The museum displayed many wonderful paintings. To assist someone is to help them. He eats all the time. -* The boy was too feeble to carry the object very far.

majestic

[mad3estik] adj.

If something is majestic, it is large and beautiful.
-* The rich people lived in a big, majestic house.
n o r [no:r] conj.

You use nor to connect two negative ideas.
-* I eat neither apples nor oranges. I don’t like either one.

outraged

[autreid3] adj.

If someone is outraged, they are very angry.
— My father was outraged when he saw that I had crashed his car.

pessimistic

[pesamistik] adj.

If someone is pessimistic, they believe that the worst will happen.
-*■John is pessimistic. He always thinks something bad will happen.

rumor

[ru:mar] n.

A rumor is something people talk about even though it may not be true.
-+ Kevin was spreading rumors about Marcia to everyone.

slap

[slaep] v.

To slap someone means to hit them with the palm of the hand.
-» Out of anger, Helen slapped Eunice on the face.

smash

[smsej] V.

To smash something is to break it into many small pieces.
-> Jacob smashed the window with a rock.

subject

[sAbd3ikt] n.

A subject is the topic that is being discussed or taught.
-» The subject of Marco’s speech was the economy.
W age [weid3] n.
A wage is the money that a person gets for doing a job.
-* The wages I receive from my job are really great!

whereas

[/iwearaez] conj.

You use whereas to show how two things are different.
-* My sister loves horror movies, whereas I prefer comedies.

GJSMISF A Choose the right word for the given definition.
1. a gentle wind
a. breeze
c. subject

b. appetite
d. display

2. money for a job
a. rumor
c. wage

b. forgive
d. whereas

3. big and beautiful
a. feeble
c. efficient

b. majestic
d. outraged

4. full of energy
a. lively
c. pessimistic

b. nor
d. alongside

5. used to show how two things are different
a. alongside
b. smash
c. defy
d. whereas

B Choose the right definition for the given word.
1. pessimistic
a. to show something
c. full of energy

b. believing that something bad will happen
d. large and beautiful

2. slap
a. to hit someone
c. to be beside

b. to break something
d. to be small or weak

3. rumor
a. to pay
c. to be a sign

b. to become windy
d. an unproven story

4. outraged
a. angry
c. showing contrast

b. connecting two ideas
d. believing something bad will happen

5. defy
a. hunger
c. helping someone

b. to stop being angry
d. to go against

Exercise 2
Write a word that is similar in meaning to the underlined part.
1. lim walks to school beside Tim.
2. I needed Jamie to help me in fixing my car.
3. The story that may not be true about his life is spreading around town.
4. I spend all my money that I make at my job on new clothes.
5. The chair broke into small pieces when Rob sat down on it.
6. Bob is small and weak because he doesn’t eat healthy food.
7. My new car is not wasteful.
8. My favorite topic to study in school is science.
9. She was very angry when someone stole her purse.
10. I stopped being angry at loseph when he said he was sorry.

1!
Choose the answer that best fits the question.
1.
j
2.
1
3.

Which of the following connects two negative ideas?
a. A breeze
b. Nor
c. Defy
What is a positive way to describe someone?
a. Forgive
b. Pessimistic
c. Lively
What can you study inschool?
c. A wage
a. A breeze
b. A subject
4. What controls how much you eat?
c. Your herald
a. Your appetite b. Your subject
5. Ifyou are showing something, what are you doing?
a. Assist
b. Displaying it
c. Slapped

d. An outrage
d. Feeble
d. An outrage
d. An efficient mouth
d. Smashed

The teacher thought that George looked majestic when he played. One of George’s teachers noticed his talent. . He smashed furniture and even slapped other boys. but he was lucky. He ate and ate. he began to grow. They talked about George’s family and his dreams for the future. He hoped that other children would also find a way to live happy. But George did display a love for one thing.• 3 When George was just a boy. When George got his first job as a baseball player. He defied anyone who tried to help him. There were kind people to assist George and help him go forward with his life. When George hit the ball. He loved to play baseball. Whereas he was lazy in school and liked neither the subjects nor the teachers. He was sent to live alongside other children without parents. The rumor was that they died in a car accident. Soon the other boys and even the teachers looked small and feeble next to him. He almost never missed the ball. In time. They developed a very good relationship. and soon it was difficult for them to forgive him. he gave most of his wages to the people who had helped him as a boy. At first they only talked about baseball. The teacher watched George play. he didn’t have any parents. he was a pessimistic and mean little boy. He began to work with the boy. He was a very efficient hitter. He got stronger. they began to talk about other things. successful lives. George was often outraged.Growing to be Great . His appetite was huge. He told mean rumors about the other kids. it flew through the breeze as if it would never come down. However. As George got older. he was lively and happy when he played baseball. Many bad things could have happened to George. Everyone thought that this heralded the start of a great baseball career.

He was very tall. George displayed a talent for baseball. b. 5. 3. They were not able to take care of him. 4. He was a very efficient hitter. When was George lively and happy? a. They were very sick. They went on a trip. George didn’t like the boys at school. b. When he got married 3. d. 4. Why did one of George’s teachers begin to work with him? [ a. When he was playing baseball d. I c. j ifiT B Answer the questions. When he was at school b. When he had lunch with other children c. b. George was a lively student who liked many subjects.i? A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. I c. 6. George was a pessimistic student. c. Why was George good at baseball? | a. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. He usually defied his teachers. George was a feeble boy with a small appetite. George grew up alongside other children who didn’t have parents. What was the rumor about George’s parents? I a. They died in a car accident. he gave some of his wages to the people who had assisted him. d. 2. . George looked majestic when he played baseball. 1. He could swim very well. George smashed things and slapped other boys when he was outraged. d. 2. When George grew up. No one wanted to talk to George.

I was able to put the desk together. r ferry Eteri] n. A concept is an idea about something. -* The ferry took the people across the lake. — By following the diagram. -* She celebrated her three decades of work with the company. isolate [aisaleit] v.d] v. — Rocks and machines are not animate things. . it is useful. concede [kansi. A decade is a period often years. diagram [daiagraem] n. -* The biologist classified the plant as a completely new species. construct [kanstrAkt] v. -» An eraser is handy if you make a lot of mistakes. -* The student conceded that he had cheated on the test. To concede is to admit that something is true against your wish. decade [dekeid] n. When something is animate. A diagram is a simple drawing that explains what something is or how it works. C l a s s i f y [klsesafai] v. c o n c e p t [kansept] n. -» The men used wood and metal to construct a house. To classify things is to put them into groups based on their type. handy [haendi] adj. -* I learned some concepts of molecules before working in the science lab. it has life. If something is handy. -* The teacher isolated the bad child from the class before talking with her. To construct something means to make or build it. To isolate is to separate one person or thing from a group.animate [senamit] adj. A ferry is a boat that carries passengers over short distances.

. sophisticated [saffstakeitid] adj. To surrender something is to give it up. hungry man made a plea for food.» It was hard to drive fast since there were numerous holes in the road. If something is numerous. A longing is a strong feeling of wanting. upright [Aprait] adj. If someone is sophisticated. -► The government ordered a careful review of the economic situation. there are many of those things. A review of something is a formal inspection of it by people in authority. -> The bottles of wine were covered in a layer of dust particles. refrain [rifrein] v. If something is upright. -» The thief surrendered the money to the police when he was caught. A plea is a request that is urgent or emotional. he realized studying English was worthwhile. it is standing up straight. review [rivju:] n. they know many things about the world. -* On his visit to Canada. To refrain from something is to avoid doing it. surrender [sarendar] V. -+ Meerkats can’t walk like humans. The poor. -» The doctor asked Mary to refrain from eating fast food as part of her diet. A particle is a very small piece of something. particle [pd:rtikl] n.longing [l6(:)t]iQ] n. p l e a [pH:] n. numerous [ryu:msras] adj. -* Jake is one of the most sophisticated persons I’ve ever met. -* Since he skipped breakfast. . If something is worthwhile. he had a longing for food all morning. it is important or useful. but they can stand upright. worthwhile [wareftwaii] adj.

a strong feeling of want 2. a formal inspection a. plentiful b. 1. to separate c. animate B Choose the right definition for the given word. plea b. particle a. knowing a lot about the world a. an idea about something c. isolate c.mm Exercise 1 PABTf A Choose the right word for the given definition. concede 3. an idea about how something is a. refrain c. important a. to group together by type c. particle 4. sophisticated d. diagram d. a small piece of something c. a drawing d. to give up b. concept b. decade c. a period often years d. a formal inspection b. ferry d. important c. handy a. handy b. longing 2. isolate a. 1. to not do something d. common d. decade a. review c. surrender 5. a request 4. worthwhile b. upright c. to accept the truth 5. classify d. useful . standing straight b. numerous d. to accept the truth a. a type of boat b. construct b. to make something c. a thing that has life 3. upright a.

. 9. However. 3. keeps___________tools in his truck. review / concept Jack had a great__________ for a new system. the prisoner felt a __________ to be free. refrain / surrender In maintaining good health. 4. classify / upright One way that scientists___________the different species of early humans is by how they walked. he had to ___________that air travel was just too expensive. John felt sad. Homo Erectus. 2. diagram / isolate William used a piece of white paperto__________ the different plants in the garden. so they were very surprised to find that it was indeed__________ . it is important to__________ from eating unhealthy foods. 6. handy / numerous My uncle. he keeps the most___________ones on his tool belt at all times. 1. 5. but after looking at ticket prices. In fact.Exercise 2 10 Choose the word that is the better fit for each blank. it took many __________ to complete them. walked__________ . concede / ferry As he drove his car onto the__________ . but his boss needs to conduct a thorough___________to see if it will work. That made it easier for him to draw a __________ of the leaves of each type of plant. It also can make one into a more___________ person. 10. But that doesn’t mean you must__________ all of the foods that you enjoy. He wanted to travel by airplane. longing / plea After sitting in the cell for just one hour. He made a ___________to the officers to release him immediately. animate / particle Scientists thought that the tiny___________was not a living thing. constructed / decades The great pyramids of Egypt were not__________ overnight. sophisticated / worthwhile Learning how to speak another language is a ___________ skill to have in the world of international business. for example. the carpenter. 7. 8.

He dreamed of using it to make an important scientific discovery. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek had discovered bacteria. and they conceded that he had made a worthwhile discovery. Soon. However. Anton was so excited. he wanted to use it to become famous. Some were round. Others were long and had tails. Anton made a plea for them to come to Holland to see the organisms with their own eyes.Anton’s Great Discovery Anton Van Leeuwenhoek was a Dutch cloth merchant. If he had sold the concept to others. Anton felt a longing to build a more powerful microscope. He was the first person to see these tiny organisms. Instead. All were alive. So he isolated them from each other and studied each one carefully. One day he was looking at saliva from his mouth with the microscope. Some of them were moving! He thought that the particles were tiny organisms. Anton refrained from surrendering his secret to anyone. He knew he could become famous now. In the saliva. For many years. It had a lens in an upright stand. he had become famous. The men took a ferry to Holland and met Anton. They performed a careful review of his work. He wanted to become famous. After decades of hard work. Anton experimented with microscopes and lenses. It could make small things look large. It was a very simple microscope. His life began to change after he got his first microscope in 1653. So he used his secret microscope to study the natural world. So he drew diagrams of the organisms and sent them to a group of scientists in London. Eventually he constructed a very powerful microscope. it would have made him very rich. Three decades later. ■ ■ . animate organisms could live in our mouths. It was handy for looking closely at cloth. Then he classified them into different categories. he saw numerous tiny particles. The scientists were sophisticated men who did not believe tiny. he did.

The sophisticated scientists drew diagrams of the bacteria. Anton took a ferry to Holland. To see the particles with their own eyes 4. b. Anton’s first microscope had an upright stand. It isolated him from his work. It was handy for his business. He didn’t want to surrender his secret. Why was Anton’s first microscope handy? a. Anton had a longing to become rich. It made him famous. . It helped him look at cloth. 2. c. Anton classified the particles into different categories. 3. 3. It made him rich. Why didn’t Anton sell his concept of a powerful microscope? a. The tiny particles Anton saw were bacteria. Scientistsneededto review it first. To send him animate organisms c. 2. d. It wasn’t perfected yet. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. It took him three decades to make it. It was not worthwhile.P/M? A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. b. To invite him to London d. He was already rich. 1. B Answer the questions. d. c. 6. d. Which is true about Anton’s discovery? a. c. 5. To buy his microscope b. 4. b. It was easy to construct. 1. What was Anton’s plea to the scientists? a.

and writings of a certain place or group of people. CUltUre [kAltJar] n. . A defense is something that is done to protect another thing. ce re m o n y [seramouni] n. The beautiful woman enchanted everybody in the room. When a group of things is diverse. Applause is the noise made when people clap hands to show approval. A detail is a small piece of information. If something is authoritative. you are carrying a weapon. -» The airforce works in defense of its country. art. it is made up of a wide variety of things. d e fe n s e [difens] n. a u th o rita tiv e [ae5:riteitiv] adj. e n c h a n t [int/sent] v. -»Jane told Ben all the details of her trip to China. a p p la u s e M o z] n. An alliance is a group of people who work together. -* At the end of his speech. -» Tom and Amy’s marriage ceremony is in June. -* The junior executives formed an alliance with each other. -» This book is an authoritative source on Ancient Egypt’s Queen Nefertiti. -* Ancient Mexican culture is renowned for its architecture. Big cities have diverse populations with people of different races and ages.a llia n c e fe ig n s] n. d e ta il [dliteil] n. To enchant someone is to make them feel very interested or happy. everyone gave applause. A ceremony is an event that happens on special occasions. Culture is the music. a rm e d [a:rmd] adj. If you are armed. it uses the best information available. -+ The robber was armed with a gun. d iv e rs e [divers] adj.

-* She is considered a master in the comedy genre. -* Most students thought the test was hard. -* Rebecca is so vain that she looks at herself in every mirror. -» The store lures people in with big signs that say “Sale!” obstacle [abstaksl] n. shelter [feitar] n. they are only concerned with how they look. but Tim was the exception. V a in [vein] adj. -» Climbing over the giant rock was the biggest obstacle for the hikers.equip [ikwfp] v. supply [saplai] v. genre [3d:nr0] n. If people are vain. To sort means to separate things into different groups or classes. exception [iksepjan] n. To lure someone is to convince them to do something. -» The water heater supplied the house with warm water. An obstacle is an object or a problem that stops you from doing something. A genre is a type of literature. impact [fmpaekt] n. -» Steve was equipped with the tools needed to do the job. art. -» The frog took shelter from the storm in a nearby cave. SOrt [so:rt] v. An impact is the effect someone or something has on another. lure [iusr] y. or music characterized by its style. by using a trick. A shelter is a place to go that is safe from danger or bad weather. . An exception is someone or something not conforming to a rule. To equip someone is to give them the things needed to do something. To supply something means to give people what they need or want. -* He sorted his clothes by colors and sizes. — My grandmother had a great impact on my life.

defense 3. 5. ceremony b. 1. obstacle Write a word that is similar in meaning to the underlined part. 4. Please put into different groups all the leaves you find. . Everybody was very interested when Kate read that beautiful poem out loud. supplies d. 9. impacts c. but Samantha is the one who doesn’t conform. Most girls like to play with dolls. sort b. What is your favorite kind or style of music? 7. Ocean life is made up of a wide variety of things. genre b. 8. to provide the things that someone needs to do something a. 1. equip 2. lure d. armed d. holding a weapon a. shelter c. exception d.Choose the right word for the given definition. a group working together a. authoritative b. enchant c. details b. The special event will start at 8 o’clock tonight. applause 5. culture d. vain c. The city’s only action taken to protect itself was to build a giant brick wall around it. alliance c. 10 . 6. pieces of information a. diverse 4. Tim takes a long time to get ready because he is so concerned with how he looks. a safe place a. 2. Ben went through many problems before he finished his project. The performer heard great sounds of people clappingtheir hands. 3.

He only likes one type of music. The biggest obstacle Mary faced .4J U ? A Match the phrases to make complete sentences. Mexican culture is . . • : i • $ a. The best defense against skin cancer_____ . 10. was popularized by artists like Picasso and Dali is to wear a lot of sunscreen c._____ . 4. Sort the pieces____ . 5. 9. I don’t really like Jennifer. The performer did a great job. 1. James tried to write the report last night. An armed man ran into_____ ._____ . The vain woman could_____ . because he sounds authoritative when he speaks . 2. talk about herself for hours and hours into three equal groups i. 7. The awards ceremony is _. j. 10. . . b. so they will form an alliance e. 6. but I like a diverse selection f. 9. so he supplied them with blankets i. Bob and Eric both want to beat James at the game. was not being able to read very well the jewelry store and stole diamonds U D 1B Match the clauses to make complete sentences. 1. so we ran inside for shelter g. 6. He saw that the children were cold. and her work impacted many lives c. . but it had so many details that he couldn’t finish j. and a lot of glue known for its interesting folk art e. into coming to the museum with me tonight at the Royal Crown Hotel g. and officer Jones is no exception b. 7. d. . 2. 5. The genre of abstract art____ . 8. Everyone always trusts Seth . I’m going to try to lure my friends . It started raining really hard. and the crowd gave him great applause h. 3. 4. with pencils. 3. f. • : : i j 1 a. 8. The students were equipped_____ . scissors._____. but everyone else is enchanted by her d. h. Mother Teresa was a very well-known person. Police officers work very hard.

She got many awards for her help. Baker sorted the details and gave authoritative reports to the Resistance. but they didn’t think she was smart enough to work for the Resistance. The group worked for the defense of France. So she could get information from the Germans easily. It was called the French Resistance. The second was to provide shelter and *• supply goods to Resistance members. She had three jobs. The French people especially loved her. she wanted to help the nation that had given her so much. . The first was to carry messages to and from other members. Baker had a big impact on the Resistance’s work. the army had a special ceremony to thank her again for her bravery. They only care about themselves. She enchanted them with her singing and dancing and got lots of applause. Some thought Baker’s fame would be an obstacle. But Baker was L always equipped A with a small notebook at these concerts. When she died. This helped the Resistance and the French army save lives and win the war.mmm How a m\ r •II III ■lip k E - ***> : Singer Helped Win the War Sometimes famous people are vain. But Josephine Baker was an exception. When this happened. Baker was an important member of the Resistance. It helped the European and American armies fight the Germans. armed German troops entered Paris. And she loved France. The Germans knew who she was. In 1940. In the 1930s and 1940s. Baker’s third job was the most important. Baker held concerts for European politicians and army members. She lured them in. some French people formed a secret alliance. promising an entertaining show. It would have been dangerous if the Germans found them. She listened for details about the war and wrote them down. The messages were written in code on her sheets of music. She was a big part of the new jazz genre and culture and had a diverse group of fans. So when World War II started. Baker was one of the most famous women in France.

_f A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. Baker was always equipped with a small notebook during her concerts. What happened when Baker died? a. c. Baker’s first job was to carry messages written in code to and from European politicians. 6. To provide shelter c. b. In 1940. 1. d. To give authoritative reports d. 3. 2. Baker sorted details about the war and gave authoritative reports. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. What was Baker’s most important job? a. 3. She was famous for rock music. d. c. To write messages in code b. To have a diverse group of fans 4. b. What happened when the Germans entered Paris? a. Baker lured them back to Germany. Which genre of music was Josephine Baker famous for? a. . armed German troops entered Europe. Her fame became an obstacle. The Resistance found her secret codes. She was famous for country music. 5. JO1B Answer the questions. 4. 1. 2. b. Baker enchanted politicians and army members with her singing and dancing. d. She was famous for jazz music. She was famous for blues music. The army had a special ceremony. Baker provided shelter for Resistance members and supplied them with goods. Armed soldiers fought them. The French formed a secret alliance. [ c. They sent messages in code. Baker had an impact on France.

To blow means to move air or move something through the air. The belly is the stomach of a person or animal. bid [bid] n. -* He made a bid to become the university’s next president. Disrespect is rudeness or a behavior that shows a lack of respect. A conflict is a fight between different people or groups. blow [blou] v. disrespect [disrispekt] n. -* He showed disrespect by arguing with his boss during a meeting. -+ Asia is the largest continent. A bid to do something is an attempt to do it. belly [beli] rt. A current is a steady and constant flow of air or water in a river or ocean.- -: " . conflict [kdnflikt] n.alternative [o:lta:mativ] rt. -* Her first plan to make extra money seemed weak. enthusiasm [eneuizisezam] n. avenue [aevaryu:] n. An avenue is a road. An alternative is something that you can choose instead of your first choice. -» The crowd showed their enthusiasm for the soccer team by cheering loudly. so she chose an alternative. current [ka:rant] n. A continent is one of the seven large areas of land on the Earth. as in the wind. — The wind is blowing very hard today. often a large one with buildings on each side. ' -. -*■ His belly was full because he ate a lot of food. -♦ The two nations had a conflict over which one could use the water in the river fM Continent [kantanant] n. We should stay inside.. -*■ Drive down this avenue and then turn left to go to the park. Enthusiasm is a very strong good feeling about something. -*■ The ocean currents took the ship far off into the sea.

If someone is timid. . they are afraid. -» Ted began setting the table. violence [vaialans] n. To rescue someone means to remove them from danger. muscle [mAssI] n. r e S C U e [reskju:] v. -» The desert can be a very harsh environment. -* The woman leaned against the counter because she was tired. or nervous. Violence is forceful action that is meant to injure or kill people. When something is harsh. -> Ben was up to mischief when he persuaded Ken to paint his face. -*■ The terrain below was rocky and full of hills. I began preparing the food. lean [ii:n] v. -» The firefighter rescued the man from the burning building. The terrain is the land and all of its physical features or parts.harsh [ha4] adj. timid [timid] adj. it is very unpleasant. To lean is to bend the body in a particular direction. -* She went to the gym in order to make her muscles stronger. In the meantime. Mischief is behavior that is meant to trick or cause trouble for people. shy. meantime [mf :ntaim] n. -* The timid child hides behind her mother whenever she sees a stranger. The student said the letters of the alphabet in succession. Muscle is a mass of tissue attached to bone that helps you move. SUCCeSSion [saksejan] n. terrain [tarein] n. mischief [mistjif] n. A succession is a number of things that follow one afterthe other. The meantime is the time between two events. -* The boy hit his brother in an act of violence.

6. mischief / succession The boys were up to their usual___________and were throwing balls of paper at each other in __________ . so he found an ___________ route. belly/bid He had a __________ to win the race. 9. continent / enthusiasm The boy had a lot of__________ before his trip to Europe. lean / meantime The movie will start soon. muscle/violence It was bad that the man had a lot of__________ because he used it to cause 2. 10. disrespect / timid The boy was always__________ because his classmates were mean and treated him with__________ . 1. In the__________ . help me to___________these heavy boards against the wall. alternative / avenue The___________that the man wanted to drive on was blocked. He had never been to a different__________ before. conflict / rescue The police officer had to ___________the woman from a bad___________ she had with anotherwoman. but he had to quit when he got a bad pain in h is__________ . . 3. 4. harsh / terrain The girl walked along the rough beach. 8. current / blow I turned on the fan so that it would__________ air on me. 7.Choose the word that is the better fit for each blank. 5. The___________ of cool air felt wonderful. The rocky__________ was___________ on her feet.

Muscle d. She had to walk down an extended road to get there. The land’s feature was quite hilly. Current d... The pitcher threw the balls to home plate in a series. 2. The river’s fast steady movement of water made it difficult to swim to the other side. d. The student left for school early. Terrain d. Which word best describes a student who is very happy and excited? a. An avenue c. Alternative 2. The loud noise was painful and rough to her ears. 6.. It blows. It leans. It rescues.. He needed to bend over and rest on the side of his car. Something in the meantime b.. 3. . Mischief b. Which of the following best describes the action of the wind? a. 10. Enthusiasm b. 5. c.. A person’s belly d. Which word best describes behavior meant to trick or cause trouble? a. b. The student decided that the answer was A and not the other choice. Disrespect c.. and the pupils wrote notes in the time during the event. ■ . It bids. The boys used forceful action to get what they wanted.. Australia is an island that is also the smallest large area of land on the planet. 1.. one after another. Exer Choose the answer that best fits the question. 4. 8. Brian was tired. 1... A continent 4. 9. What is something that can be soft and round? a. Timid b. 7. Succession 3.. B.. Which of the following describes a scared person best? a... The dog continued barking... He talked about US history. Conflict c.L Exercise 2 ^ _ Write a word that is similar in meaning to the underlined part. Violence c. Harsh 5.

He took off his jacket and enjoyed the nice weather. In the meantime. “Do you see that man walking below? I bet I can get his jacket off of him.rTT tiil^ The Sun and the North Wind The Sun and the North Wind were talking to each other in the sky.” “Really?” asked the Sun. The Sun decided to rescue the man from the mischief of the North Wind. The man pulled his jacket more tightly around him. or the rain. “How do you know that you are more powerful than the stars. He said.” the Sun said to the North Wind. he saw the man. He was usually timid and did not want to cause conflict. He yelled. It did not come off. a man began walking along the avenue down on Earth. ' ? wmmmm mm is . “May I try?” Then he sent down sunlight that made the man warm. The Sun listened as the North Wind talked with enthusiasm about how powerful he was and how he could push something from one continent to another with one breath. The harsh air currents made the man cold. He said. He pointed down to the Earth and said. The man leaned against a tree. “I am the strongest thing in the sky. Can you?” “Of course!” the North Wind replied as he took a deep breath and filled his lungs with air. The North Wind was saying that he was better than everyone else. Today he decided that he should teach the North Wind a lesson.” yp. When the Sun looked down on the terrain below. or even me?” The North Wind laughed with disrespect. You should think of an alternative. “but you use violence in your bid to appear strong. “You are very powerful. “You? That’s a joke!” This hurt the Sun. The strongest people don’t use force to get what they want. He used all of his muscles in his face and belly to blow winds at his target in succession.

d. c. What happened in the meantime while the Sun and the North Wind were talking? a. . The North Wind blew the jacket off of the man. The North Wind treated the Sun with disrespect. 3. c. 1. The Sun was timid and did not teach the North Wind a lesson. By leaning on a tree c. He was very rich. 5. Why did the North Wind fill his lungs with air? a. The Sun was the target for the North Wind. He was going on a date. The North Wind used violence in his bid to be powerful. 1. To avoid conflict b. To find an alternative to violence c. Why was the North Wind so full of enthusiasm? a. 4. d. 6. The man began walking along the avenue. By walking along the terrain 4. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. b. How was the North Wind causing mischief? a. He was the people’s favorite. The man started to laugh. 2. The man took off his jacket. B Answer the questions. The North Wind thought that he was stronger than everyone else. 2. By blowing harsh wind at the man d.[fflO1A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. To blow air at his target 3. By hurting the Sun b. To help his muscles d. He thought he was all-powerful. b. The man felt the cold air currents.

-» Everybody wanted the movie star’s autograph. . -> It was his destiny to become a great singer. A horn is a device that makes a loud noise. -♦ Please brew a fresh pot of coffee. -* Beads of water collected outside the glass. When someone is irritable. An autograph is the written name of a famous person. irritable [iratabal] adj. horn [horn] n. lag [laeg] v. To lag behind is to move slowly behind other moving objects. b r e w [bru:] v. -> Businesses try to maximize their profits. autograph [5:tagraef] n. d e s t i n y [destani] n. -♦ The boy honked his horn while he rode his bicycle past the house. -» The student’s poor attitude affected the other students in the class. m a x i m i z e [maeksamaiz] v. To brew coffee or tea means to pour hot water over it. -+ The girl on rollerblades lagged behind the little girl on the bicycle. A bead is a drop of liquid. -* She is irritable when she doesn’t get enough sleep. To charm someone is to please them with your personality. A destiny is all the things that happen or will happen to a person in their life. bead [bi:d] n. charm [tja :mn] v. they become annoyed or angry very easily. -♦ Gail charmed everyone with her humorous stories. To maximize something means to make it the biggest in size or amount. To affect someone or something is to have an influence over them.d List affect [afekt] v.

A signature is your name that you have written in your own way.nightmare [naitimax] «. V a n [vasn] n. A nightmare is a bad or scary dream. nutritious [ryutrijas] adj. it helps the body stay healthy. To zoom is to move quickly. — Mangoes are one of the most nutritious fruits in the world. S tu ff [stAfl n. -+ Breathing is one of the subconscious things that the body does. ZOOm [zu:m] v. Protein is a substance that is necessary for the body to grow and be strong. -* The lifeguard warned people to stay away from the rough ocean. Stuff is a word used to refer to things without mentioning the things by name. When something is subconscious. warn [wo:m] v. A workout is an exercise routine that helps improve health. signature [signatjax] n. To warn someone is to make them know of possible danger in the future. The girl was scared to go back to sleep because she had a nightmare. When something is nutritious. it is done without thinking about it. W 0rk0Ut [waxkaut] n. -* We gave a lot of stuff to the charity. . protein [proutiin] n. -» I put my signature at the end of the letter. Avan is a vehicle that is used for carrying things but is smaller than a truck. -» The cars zoomed along the road. -*• Fish and beef are good sources of protein. -* The delivery company uses large vans to deliver packages. subconscious [sAbkanJas] adj. -*■ She doesn’t do her workout on the weekends.

6. pleasing b. 3. 1. to attract b. not aware 4. Mary asked for the singer’s handwritten name. to exercise d. 9. to move quickly 3. 5. to move slowly c. irritable a. 10. Mother cooks me a healthy breakfast every morning. He isn’t allowed to watch scary movies because they give him bad dreams. you will move slowly far behind the rest of us. to get angry easily c. If you don’t start trying harder. bad dream d. 2. charm a. The cars honked their devices for making noises while they waited in traffic. to please 5. to make a noise c. to please 2. dangerous c. 7. healthy d. zoom a. to make coffee b. . He borrowed a truck-like vehicle to help him move some of his furniture. 4. brew a. to attract Write a word that is similar in meaning to the underlined part. subconscious a. Push everything to one side to make the most of the space of the gymnasium. having a routine d. handwritten c. Ellen wanted to get to the gym and try a new exercise routine. Harriet doesn’t like talking to Jesse when he’s easily annoyed. to have a routine d. to influence b.Choose the right definition for the given word. ’|i|!|'!j!|l 8. The sign makes aware of bears in the area. 1. healthy b.

1. What is the most nutritious snack below? a. Beef b. Avan b. A business letter b. What are things that happen and will happen in a person’s life? a. What does it mean to have influence over something? a. A collection of unnamed things d. Their destiny c. don’t care about them 6. A horn c. Vegetables c. What is something you might put your signature on? a. wait for them you_. Their workout b. b. A lag 8. Socks and shoes 3. A computer b. A candy bar d. Stuff can be best described as what? a. are slower than them c. What are fire alarms meant to do? a. Zoom past people . What is a small drop of water called? a. This is a good source of protein? a. Icecream 4. Give children nightmares d. A charm d. Ifyou lag behind your friends. Warn people b. Bead c. Their stuff d. a.Choose the answer that best fits the question. To brew d. Sugar 2. Tea d. Protein b. are heavier than them d. French fries c. To affect 10. Signature d. Nutritious 9. To charm b. An apple b. Sports equipment c. To maximize c. Make people irritable c. The water 5. Their autograph 7. Your hand d. A birthday cake c. Which of the following is similar to a small truck? a.

He usually charmed everybody he spoke to. He was going to run in a race that day. He thought it might be his destiny to become a loser. He wanted to make sure that he had all of his equipment for the race. By the time Alex started. He should have stayed focused on the race. Alex’s family got in their van and drove to the track. When they arrived. While he was thinking. . today Alex refused to give the boy his signature. So he prepared a meal that contained a lot of protein to maximize his energy for the race. “I brewed some coffee and made you a special breakfast. The runners zoomed toward the finish line. Beads of sweat formed out of Alex’s sweat glands. he fell. Alex had many fans. In it. “Good morning. He needed to think about his race. He had lost the race! He shouldn’t have let the nightmare affect him. All he could think about was his terrible dream. It had too much sugar. Did the dream mean he was going to lose? He became irritable. Maybe exercising would help him forget about the nightmare.” said Alex’s mother. Alex thought that it was a subconscious way that his brain was trying to warn him about something. he lagged far behind everyone.” Alex didn’t want it. However. He needed something nutritious. a boy ran toward Alex. “Can I have your autograph?” asked the boy. Just before he reached the finish line.” said the coach. Then his father asked. “The race is about to start.” replied Alex. “Do you want help packing your stuff?” “No. He couldn’t run fast enough to catch up to the others. he didn’t hear the horn that meant the race had started.The Big Race Alex woke up scared because of a nightmare. he was running a race. He took his jump rope from his bag and started his usual workout.

To maximize energy d. The dream made Alex irritable on the day of the race. 3. To have nightmares 2. 1. Pack his stuff d. His protein b. Beads of sweat formed out of Alex’s sweat glands. His nutritious meal c. What was Alex so affected by that he lost the race? a. What did the boy at the track ask Alex for? a. Alex wanted to eat something with a lot of sugar for breakfast. To become irritable b. The horn d. To become a loser c. Alex lagged behind while the other runners zoomed past him. His nightmare b. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. 4.m m tm M l A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. His bag 4. Alex did a workout with his jump rope to help him feel less nervous 5. Clean the beads of sweat b. 6. 1. Brew some coffee 3. 2. His signature ____ m mm II . Charm the fans for him c. EftTB Answer the questions. Alex had a nightmare that he forgot his stuff at home. What did Alex’s father offer to help him do? a. His prize d. What did Alex think his destiny might be? a. His autograph c.

To flush means the face becomes red due to heat. -» The artist took a lump of clay and turned it into a beautiful pot.brick [brik] n. -* The old house’s walls crumbled into a pile of rock and wood. -* The car crash injured two people. -» I made heart-shaped cookies from the dough. — There were several bricks scattered on the ground. and dirt. Dough is a mixture of flour and water that becomes bread when baked. d0Ugh [dou] n. the runner’s face was flushed. illness. injure linear] v. flexible [fleksabal] adj. -* The tree branch was so flexible it could be bent into a circle and not break. lump [lAmp] n. A fist is a hand with fingers bent in toward the palm. flush [fiAj] v. To crumble means to break or fall apart into small pieces. express [ikspres] v. crumble [krAmbl] v. rock. A lump is a small piece of something that is solid. To injure someone means to damage a part of their body. mixture [m ikstM n. then it can bend easily without breaking. -+ After the long race. fist [fist] n. . A mixture is something that is made by mixing other things together. such as walls. A brick is a block of hard clay that is used for building things. or emotion. -* The bully made a fist and threatened to hit the small boy. If something is flexible. -* The walls were built using a mixture of water. To express a feeling or idea means to show others how one thinks or feels. -♦ The nurse expressed her sympathy for the sick patient.

-» The lost boy was so scared that he could barely utter a single word. To reconcile means to return to a friendly relationship.reconcile [rekansail] v. the two friends were reconciled with each other. -♦ He sprinkled the pasta with salt and black pepper. -» The baker sifted the flour into a large bowl. If food is stale. Utter [Atari v. -* After arguing. slight [slait] adj. Shutters are wooden or metal covers in front of a window. ruin [ru:in] V. -» The stars sparkled in the winter night’s sky. stale [steil] adj. To sparkle means to shine brightly with quick flashes of light. If something is slight. sparkle [sparkal] v. To sprinkle means to scatter something all over something else. To shatter something means to break it suddenly into many tiny pieces. -♦ There was only a slight change in the little boy’s height. -+ The cookies sat on the table so long that they became stale. shutter [JAta:r] n. To sift something means to remove all the large pieces. then it is small or minor. -+ Our walk in the park was ruined by the sudden rain. sprinkle [sprirjkal] v. Sift [sift] v. To ruin something means to harm or damage it greatly. To utter a word or a sound means to say it. . -» When the ball hit the window. then it is not fresh but dry. hard. Smith closed the shutters every night to make his bedroom dark. the glass shattered. and not good to eat. -* Mr. shatter [Jaetar] V.

Exercise 1 Choose the right definition for the given word. By injuring it c. growing c. a best friend b. a fast car c. Which word describes something usually found on windows? a. Very flexible c. to agree 4. sprinkle a. to hate d. to mend b. Which of the following says that two former enemies become friends again? a. a favorite kind of toy 3. To shatter c. To sparkle 3. to roast 5. to damage c. minor d. quick b. A little bit stale b. A lump 5. Which of these would you use to make bread? a. slight a. More than slight d. Crumble c. Ready to crumble 4. to create d. By flushing it b. ruin a. a hard piece of clay d. A fist d. to fly b. brick a. How would a man show others an emotion? a. to hurt b. A brick b. To utter d. By ruining it d. to scatter c. 1. How would you describe a girl who can stretch her leg behind her head? a. To reconcile b. Slight d. Some dough c. Shutters . to fall d. 1. to cook 2. injure a. By expressing it 2. risky Exercise 2 Choose the answer that best fits the question. Mixture b. to run c.

he slipped and dropped it. but now they have___________ because they both agree with the new law. She gazed at the sky where the stars__________ like tiny fires. 5. it did not break. 1. But when he was finished. 8. fist / flexible He hit the punching bag with h is__________ . slight / expressed The doctor___________ a lot of concern for my hurt ankle. Even though it was greatly damaged. 10. Then he mixed them with the__________ before placing it in the oven. sprinkle / mixture The__________ of ice cream and chocolate tastes good. reconciled / uttering Five minutes ago. 9. sift / shattered When he started to___________the flour into the bowl. the clay was one big__________ . 7. the two senators were___________insults at each other. . brick /lump Before the project. Since the bag was___________ . 4. but it will be even better if you__________ sugar on the top of it. shutters / sparkled In the middle of the night. 6.Choose the word that is the better fit for each blank. It made me feel sick and my face became__________ . none of the passengers were__________ . flushed / stale The rice was not eaten soon enough. The bowl hit the ground and__________ . he made a perfectly square__________ . ruined / injured The ship was___________when it crashed into the island. crumbled / dough The cook picked up the block of cheese and___________ it into little pieces. but I told him the pain was only__________ . 3. so it tasted__________ . she got out of bed and opened the__________ . 2.

” he said. But he hit it so hard that it flew right off of the table and knocked over a glass. The dough needed to be soft and flexible.” The brothers hurried to prepare the bread. but the salt made it into a lump that was as hard as a brick. Soon.” He decided to hit the ball of dough with his fist to make it flat. But there was no bread. their mother told them they needed to bake fresh bread. which shattered. A slight mistake now became a major problem.ftn n m irfliifia The Brothers and the Bread Two brothers wanted to go outside and play. “I have to have the car repaired. “Instead. the brothers were not injured. they were reconciled. They didn’t sift the flour. Luckily. you can play.” she said. The dough then crashed into the kitchen window’s shutters and crumbled. She saw the mess and became flushed with anger. I want this kitchen to be so clean that it may sparkle!” The brothers cleaned the floor and expressed their sorrow to their mother. but they did make a huge mess. . I just need to make the dough flat again and add water to it. “Now we have to start again. but not carefully.” she said. because the only bread in the house was stale. They realized that trying to do something quickly often makes more work. you have to clean the kitchen. However. “Now you can’t play. “When I return. The brothers had ruined the kitchen. “No. “I’ll fix it. and it was too late to play. if the bread is ready. we don’t. They were careless and sprinkled too much salt into the mixture. The younger brother uttered a sigh. Just then their mother returned.” the older brother replied.

Because the bread was stale. 3. The brothers were injured. 4. The dough crumbled. When she returned from the store c. What made the dough into a hard lump? a. c. 5. Using too much salt d. The brothers sighed. . Not sifting the flour 2. A glass shattered. 1. 1. Not putting in enough water c. the mother wanted them to bake fresh bread. d. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. 3. d. What happened when the older brother hit the dough with his fist? a. Answer the questions. When were the brothers reconciled with their mother? a. A major mistake only caused a slight problem. Expressing sadness b. 2. The dough hit the shutters. so it may sparkle. b. b. The bread needed to be hard and sturdy. Why was the mother flushed with anger? | a. The dough became a lump that was as hard as a brick. The older brother uttered a sigh. I c. The kitchen was ruined. As she made fresh bread b.U A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. The brothers had to clean the kitchen. The dough was hard. 4. The repair shop was closed. Before she left the house d. 6. After they cleaned the kitchen .

await [aweit] v. When you complain. climate [klaimit] n. beloved [bilAvid] adj. 92 . her friends gave her a warm welcome. entire [entaiar] adj. To await something means to wait for it.d List although [oildou] conj. -> Although she was late. you say that you are unhappy about something. you are talking about the whole thing. bury [beri] v. You use although to say that one thing is contrasted by another. -*■ The boy took a nap next to his beloved cat. When something is due. To apply something means to put it on. -* They buried their grandfather under his favorite tree after he died. it is expected to happen or be done at that time. When you talk about an entire thing. To bury someone or something means to put them in the ground. A climate is the usual weather in a place. apply [aplai] v. -♦ The papers were due on the 19th. -* The players awaited the judge’s decision. d u e [d/u:] adj. -* She always applies makeup to her face before going outside. — The climate in the desert is very hot. complain [kamplein] v. -* The sign confused the traveler because it pointed in two directions. To confuse someone means to make them feel like they are unsure. it is very special and you like it very much. -* He was so hungry that he ate the entire pizza by himself. When something is beloved. -* The workers complained that they were being treated unfairly. confuse [kanfjuiz] v.

Misery is extreme suffering. furnace [fa:rnis] n. To mature means to grow up to become an adult. A furnace is a place where heat is made. A variety of something is a group of many different kinds of it. The midst of something is the middle of it. Research is close and careful study to discover new things. -♦ The scientists carefully measured the amount of chemicals in the tubes. -♦ There are a variety of flowers at the shop. -* She was in the midst of cleaning when the telephone rang. A leash is a rope or chain that is used to lead an animal. value. Scientists did a lot of research on the subject of blood type. leash [li:J] n. measure [m^ax] * To measure something means to find out the quality. midst [midst] n. research [risartj] n. misery [mi'zari] n. it happened earlier. or effect of it. -* Mr. mature [mat/ua:r] v. To establish something means to create it. -> A lot of dogs must wear a leash to keep them from running away. they became as tall as their parents. p r i o r [praiar] adj.establish [istsebnj] v. -» Ron had to wait since he arrived prior to the scheduled meeting time. — He wanted to establish a club for people to help the Earth. variety [varaiati] n. . -* There was a lot of misery after Sam lost his dog. When something happened prior to something else. -*■ When they matured. Jones came to fix the furnace.

measured / leash To make sure the dog’s ___________was long enough. the young boys had to___________ quickly. 1. Bob took out a ruler and __________ it. complained / variety The store had a __________ of canned vegetables. 8. furnace / entire The___________was turned up to the highest temperature. due / confused The new schedule___________ passengers who thought the train was__________ at 8 a. although / prior ___________ he had a lot of bad luck in the past. 9. 5. research / await After weeks of hard work. but it couldn’t heat the ___________ room. 4. 10. mature / midst In the___________ of a terrible war. the woman felt nothing but__________ for many weeks.Choose the word that is a better fit for each blank. 7. climate / establish The island was a great place to ___________ a hotel sincethe___________ was warm throughout the year. the scientists must___________the results of their 2. but the man___________ that they didn’t have his favorite brand. 6. misery / beloved After the death of her___________ pet. he refused to let__________ events stop him from moving forward. 3.m. . buried/apply She insisted that they___________ her mother’s favorite perfume before they __________ her.

Although he didn’t know how to dance. . 2. but his prior works were very successful c._____ . 9. He wanted to finish the race. e. 5. i. before new medicines can be created a room warm during the winter many travelers want to vacation there the team’s best player had to be replaced food to choose from at the store [MW B Match the clauses to make complete sentences. Her beloved sister ._____ . 6. A furnace keeps . 1. They were thirsty.P/MT A Match the phrases to make complete sentences. . Shoppers have a variety of_____ . so she patiently awaited his letters g. 7. 4. but she became more serious as she matured j. Florida’s warm climate makes . i. • : | : : • To determine if the new drug was safe. 4. g. c. His newest book did not sell well. . 8. . 3. 9. She wanted to look older. so they drank the entire bowl of punch h. . 10. The train was due to arrive at . a. .______. 2. f. 5. A lot of research is needed______. because the pirate had buried it d. so he became confused . He wanted to establish . A leash keeps . 10. h. He lost his map. so the diners complained to the waiter i. The soup was cold. 6. scientists measured all the effects b. Sue was very silly as a child. In the midst of the game . a. 8. 3. d. so she applied makeup to her face e. he went to the party anyway a school for blind children a dog from running away always calmed her around seven in the morning b. No one could find the treasure_____ . 7. He said he would write to her. but the pain in his ankle gave him too much misery f._____ . 1.

Laika and two other dogs were chosen to help scientists with their research. It seems that Laika became a hero to many people. Without it. Laika died.1957 the Sputnik 2 spaceship was due to leave Earth. Russia had put the first man-made object into space. She had to learn how to live without eating much. Laika’s entire ship had become as hot as a furnace. but a memorial has been established in Moscow. Scientists carefully applied wires to Laika’s skin to measure her body’s reactions once she got into space. She found ways to keep warm in a very cold climate. In a prior launch. though. Laika was never buried. Scientists were powerless to help the dog in her misery. The animals were used in a variety of tests. The trip confused and scared her.1 Laika. Russia. Some have complained that the little dog should never have been used in the mission. only Laika would go to space. Scientists knew that she would not survive the trip. There are many songs and books about her. Laika also wore a special leash. Soon after. After about five hours. Scientists thought a tough dog like Laika would do well in a project they were putting together. But in the midst of so much excitement. the Space Dog One of the world’s most beloved space travelers was also the furriest. they weren’t enough to help send humans to space safely. . On November 3. Laika left the planet. scientists wanted to see if a living thing could go to space. Laika was a little dog living on the streets of Moscow. something very sad happened. she would float around in the spaceship. In the end. She matured on the streets because no one would give her a home. Although many facts about space had been learned. too. Now. Scientists were able to tell that Laika was under a lot of stress. Scientists on Earth awaited information from the ship.

scientists sent two other dogs into space. were not able to bury her c. 3. b. Why did scientists apply wires to Laika’s skin? a. Why did scientists choose Laika for the mission? a. Living things cannot survive in space. U D 1B Answer the questions. 4. needed to adjust the climate 4. To measure her body’s reactions b. She was tough. The scientists didn’t get information from her. In a prior launch. She was a beloved space traveler. a. Scientists did a variety of tests for research before the Sputnik 2 was due to leave. Why did Laika die during the trip? a. a -! U > 1 1 -1 MM1 A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. didn’t want her to float around the ship d. Scientists made Laika wear a special leash because they . 2. To allow her to mature c. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. In the midst of the scientists’ excitement. Laika’s ship became too hot. Many people complained that Laika should not have gone to space. 5. d.jj ii3 Z L U ]lU £ . 1. a spaceship was established in her honor. She needed to wear a special leash. c. To take her for the entire trip d. The ship became as hot as a furnace. 3. The scientists were under a lot of stress. The trip to space confused her. were awaiting information from the ship b. b. 6. Wires were applied to Laika’s leash so that scientists could find the ship. d. 2. Although Laika could not be buried. c. 1. To return her to Earth .

r misfortune [misfoxtjan] n. it is unpleasant or sad. r disobedient [disabi:diant] adj. -* She got a bruise on her knee from falling down. -> It is a custom that the bride and groom have the first dance. When someone is disobedient. -♦ The disobedient children didn’t listen to their mother and had an accident. -> She glimpsed outside the window as the plane was about to land. If something happens altogether. -♦ The teacher didn’t foresee any problems with her large class. r foresee [forsi:] v. r hoop [h u :p ] n. they do not follow the rules or instructions. A custom is a way of doing things that has been the same for a long time. Misfortune is bad luck or an unlucky event. — The company stopped using sugar altogether in its food.r altogether [oiltagedar] adv. -» She doesn’t like to say negative things about her friends. A bruise is a dark mark caused by being hit by something. When something is negative. -> His family helped him when he encountered misfortune. or wood. A hoop is a ring that is made of plastic. r custom [kAstsm] n. To bind is to bring people together. -* The victims of the flood were bound by their need to help each other. . r bruise [bru:z] n. r bind [baind] v. -* The boys tried to toss the ball through the basketball hoop. it happens completely. r glimpse [giimps] * To glimpse something is to see it for a short time. To foresee something is to know about it before it happens. r negative [negativ] adj. metal.

A source of something is the place that it comes from. Per is used to mean “each” when giving a price. -*■ The parents worked hard for their children’s sake. scrape [skreip] K To scrape something is to rub it very hard with something sharp. -* It costs $8 per person to watch the baseball game. -> He pleaded for his parents to let him go to the soccer game. -» The stern teacher didn’t allow the students to speak during class. -» She ripped the paper in half by accident. A thump is the sound of a heavy object falling. sake [seik] n. To stitch is to use a needle and thread to join pieces of cloth together. . To rip something means to pull it apart. thump [e A m p ] n. size. When somebody is vehement. they are very serious. The sake of something is the reason for doing it. plead [pii:d] v. -» I accidentally scraped the paint off the side of the car. stitch [stitj] v. vehement [vi:amant] adj. source [so ts] n. To plead is to ask for something you want very badly. -> The river was the source of drinking water for the village.p e r [par] prep. When somebody is stern. they are angry and emotional. or amount. rip [rip] v. -» They heard the thump when the bowling ball hit the floor. -» My grandmother stitched the pieces together to make a big blanket. Stern [stern] adj. -+ Gina was vehement when she found out that Liz was bad in school.

They finally___________ the waterfall when they reached the bottom of the hill. vehement / foresee The coach didn’t __ the loss for his team. he was . on Saturdays. 3. So. thump / scraped The boy lost his balance and fell with a __________ . negative / misfortune Greg had the___________ of falling in a pool. we tried to divide the pizza equally. the___________on her lip began to go away. it had disappeared__________ .Exercise 1 Choose the word that is the better fit for each blank. She took the note from the students and__________ it into pieces. In a week. 9. When he got up. 2. bruise / altogether After one day. stern / ripped The___________teacher was angry to see the students passing notes. 8. 10. he noticed that he’d ___________ his elbow. after the game. 1. continued to be__________ . The child. The experience left him with__________ feelings about swimming pools. so she__________ cloth around it. which the guide said was the___________of a waterfall. custom / bind The family was___________tightly. stitched / hoop The girl wanted to make her plastic__________ look pretty. however. One pizza was enough to give three slices__________ person. though he didn’t know how to swim. 4. 6. source / glimpsed They walked past a large river. per / sake For the__________ of fairness. disobedient / pleaded A woman___________with the child to behave in the store. it was their_________ to go to the park together. For example. 5. 7.

Exercise 2
U D 1A Match the phrases to make complete sentences.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Kelly had the misfortune of breaking_____ .
The disobedient dog ran away
.
She felt bound to her friends because she had
.
The weatherman didn’t foresee any_____ .
The family had a custom of
.
She glimpsed at his painting
.
Charlie ripped the paper in half and_____ .
Jasmine pleaded with her teacher
.
Leslie scraped the ice_____ .
George was vehement about being allowed_____ .
a.
c.
e.
g.
i.

gave one piece to his friend
from its owner at the park
to give her a better grade
to use the computer
her arm before the competition

b.
d.
f.
h.
j.

bad weather this weekend
off the window
known them fora longtime
eating dinner early on Sundays
before it was completed

E M 1B Match the clauses to make complete sentences.
1. There was a tear in my shirt,______.
2. She dropped the scissorson the carpet,
3. His parents were strict,_____ .
4. The website was good,_____ .
5. The fight was horrifying,
.
6. I enjoy soda,
.
7. He went to school despite being sick
8. They used a different system
.
9. He liked showing off,
.
10. He fell down the stairs,
.
a.
b.
c.
e.
g.
i.

.

.

so he tried jumping through the hoop
because the sake of his grade depended on it
but only 2 cans per week
d. so my mom stitched it back together
so he had bruises on his arm
f. that was altogether different from mine
it filled him with negative dreams
h.
because stern rules built character
so there was a slight thump
j. but the sources were unreliable

101

Gwen’s New Friends
Gwen walked into the gym for her next class. Coach Peeves said, “Today, we’re playing
basketball. The custom is to let you choose your own teams. However, we’re going to do
things differently.”
The coach assigned each girl to a team. There were six girls per team. Gwen glimpsed
at her teammates. She didn’t know any of them. All of her friends were on the other teams.
She couldn’t believe her misfortune.
“I feel sick. May I go to the nurse?” asked Gwen.
The coach could foresee Gwen’s excuses. It wasn’t the first time Gwen tried to leave
class. With a stern voice, the coach said, “No.”
Gwen was vehement. “I don’t know any of these girls! Let me play on another team.
Please!” she pleaded.
“Gwen, don’t be disobedient. I don’t want to hear any more negative comments from
you.”
Gwen had no choice. Then a girl smiled at her. “Hi, I’m Stephanie. I was in your English
class last year,” she said. Gwen remembered her. “For the sake of the team, please try
your best. I know you’re a good player,” said
Stephanie.
When the game started, Gwen played
as best as she could. She took a long shot.
The ball sailed through the air and went
right through the hoop!
“That was awesome!” said one of
her teammates. Later, Gwen fell with
a loud thump.
“Are you OK?” asked her
teammates. They were worried.
She had ripped her jeans. She
had scraped her knee and had a
small bruise.
Gwen told her teammates,
“My knee is fine, and I can
stitch my pants later. Let’s keep
playing!”
By the end of the game,
Gwen forgot altogether that
she hadn’t wanted to play, and
her team won! The victory bound
Gwen’s team together. She had made
a lot of new friends, and they were a
source of happiness for her for many
years.

•**

P/MT A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. Rewrite the false
statements to make them true.
1.

The custom was to allow the girls to choose their own teams.

2.

Gwen told her teammates that she could stitch her pants later.

3.

There were eight girls per team.

4.

Gwen pleaded to be on another team that had some of her friends.

5.

Stephanie asked Gwen to lose on purpose for the sake of the team.

6.

Gwen ripped her jeans, scraped her knee, and got a bruise when she fell.

P£M7 B Answer the questions.
1. Why did Coach Peeves speak to Gwen in a stern voice?
a. For falling with a thump
b. For making negative comments
c. For choosing her own team
d. For having misfortune
2. How did Gwen know Stephanie?
a. They were old friends.
c. They could foresee the team.

b. They were vehement.
d. They had an English class together.

3. What happened after Gwen’s shot went through the hoop?
a. She faced the stern coach.
b. Her teammate said it was awesome,
c. She changed teams.
d. She forgot about the rules altogether.
4. How were the girls on Gwen’s team bound together?
a. They were all disobedient.
b. They won the game,
c. They chose a new team.
d. They all had bruises.

lo o m [lu:m] v. A den is a living space for some types of animals. -* There was one black sheep in the entire flock. den [den] n. -*■ The students exited through the front door. -* He lifted the lid of the box and revealed her present. -* When we woke up. it is extreme or major. dew [d/u:] n. such as lions. When something is drastic. When something is convenient. C o n v e n i e n t [kenvfinjent] adj. To exit means to leave. fold [fould] v. drastic [draestik] adj. sheep or goats. flock [flak] n. To loom is to seem very large and often scary. . A lid is a top for a box or container that can be removed. A flock is a group of animals. it is easy to do and does not take a lot of work. -+ The mother lion left her babies in the den. A civilization is an organized group of humans that have culture and government -* Most early civilizations in Central America didn’t use metal weapons. lid [lid] n. -* The bus is a convenient way to get to school. -* The ominous clouds loomed over the school. -*■ I folded the paper and put it in my pocket. Dew is the drops of water that form on the ground outside during the night. -* She made a drastic decision to get her long hair cut short. To fold is to bend something like paper or cloth so that it takes up less space. e x i t [egzit] v. such as birds.civilization [sivelizeijan] n. we saw that the grass was covered in dew.

it is related to the city. -* The mighty wrestler scared all who faced him. -♦ The child waded in the water at the beach. A mushroom is a fungus with a round top. When something is native.mighty [maiti] adj. mushroom [mAjru( H n. -* Subways are an important form of urban transportation. Poison is a dangerous substance that causes illness or death. stormy [stdxmi] adj. Stormy describes something affected or characterized by storms. Some are used as food. -♦ The golfers decided to go home because of the stormy weather. When something is urban. -► She swayed while she listened to the music. -» The soup had fresh mushrooms in it. -» They used poison to get rid of the rats in their home. wade [weid] v. To shield something is to protect it. To wade is to walk in or pass through water. it is strong and large. To sway is to move slowly from side to side. shield tji:id] v. -» She shielded her eyes from the sun with sunglasses. -* The sun set behind the reeds of the lake’s shore. reed [ri:d] n. Reeds are tall and skinny plants that grow in groups near water. urban [exban] adj. 105 . native [neitiv] adj. When something is mighty. — Avocadoes are native fruits of Mexico. it is originating in a certain place or area. sway [swei] v. p o i s o n [pdizan] n.

3. 9. At that point. reeds / waded The boys___________to the middle of the lake. they immediately ran for cover. there was little plant life. Then I carried it over my head to___________ myself from the rain. 2. Outside. The cooking process results in a ___________ change to the plant’s chemical makeup. native / loomed The___________animals of the island knew how to protect themselves from bad weather. 5. stormy / swayed The branches of the trees___________ as the wind blew. It was a ___________place to store the young girl’s toys. poison / drastic Some plants contain___________that can be eliminated by cooking. he was stronger than ever. mighty / civilization The__________ soldier spent three weeks alone in the forest. den / mushrooms There was little light inside the__________ where the bears lived. shield / folded When it started raining. After only a few days. I ___________ my newspaper in half. they couldn’t go any further because the___________grew too thickly. she was glad to___________the city. 10. 6. 7. just a few__________ and some small weeds. convenient / lid The box had a ___________that was very easy to open. dew / flock The__________ of geese chose not to land in the field because it was still wet with 8.Choose the word that is the better fit for each blank. . When a storm__________ . 4. When he returned to __________ . The wind was strongerthan usual because of the___________weather. 1. exit / urban She wasn’t used to spending time in an ___________ setting.

Fold 4. 6. Convenient 3. 1. 10. Madagascar has an interesting group of original animals and plants. stormy a. The farmer traded his group of animals of goats for a new horse. Drastic b. Dew 2. What word below best describes a superhero? c. Mighty a. I was not strong enough to lift the top part of the container. Something that is easy to do is described as what? c. The plant is filled with a dangerous substance. 4. shield d. native . The boy put on a scarf to protect his neck from the cold wind. My socks got wet when I walked in the drops of water that formed outside. Exit a. After the movie was over. Alyssa found a small living place where she thought a rabbit lived. Wade d. Poison a. The man bent the letter and put it into an envelope. A civilization a. 5. 7. loom b. 8. Urban d. Which word fits best? Koalas are c. Sway b. A flock d. What is an activity done in the water? c. 5. A lid to Australia. A den b. 2. the audience left through the back door. 3. Reeds d. Mushrooms b. 1. The man asked for extra fungus with a round top for his sauce. Choose the answer that best fits the question. Which covers a box? c. 9.Write a word that is similar in meaning to the underlined part.

Kara felt very peaceful. As the day went on. Kara had never been camping before. the rain had stopped. showed them the native plants and animals. That weekend. they went for a walk. She felt sad while they exited the park. She missed her convenient life in the city. She didn’t care about nature.” Kara was bored. “We should go back. She felt so far from civilization. Tracy closed the lid and told Kara. Kara had a lot of fun. Grieves. She was used to an urban lifestyle. The reeds swayed in the wind. Kara and Tracy waded into the water. they drove to Estes Park.” he said. “Look. By morning. and a flock of birds flew above. but she decided to go anyway. they ate cold sandwiches for dinner and went to sleep. Tracy’s father. They contain poison. Mr. Kara looked around. “that’s a fox’s den. she realized. Finally. It was a drastic change from the previous day’s weather. it was time for them to leave. Kara Goes Camping “Kara. They used an umbrella to shield them from the rain. The next day. and it gleamed in the sunlight. they made a fire. After they set up the camp. That night. mighty clouds soon loomed in the distance. “It looks like stormy weather.” It suddnely began to rain. The grass was covered with dew. They sat around it while Mr.” said Tracy. they reached a lake. but she learned how fun it could be over the weekend. Grieves told scary stories.mmmA&utiiMi* — w m . Don’t touch them. Camping was a good way for friends to spend time together. “Today will be fun. They folded their sleeping bags and put them in a box. When they arrived. Back at the camp. She didn’t like camping at first. . Do you see that bunch of mushrooms next to it. After breakfast. I promise!” Kara didn’t believe her. would you like to go camping with my family?” asked Tracy. they went for a walk.

4. How does Kara feel as she exits the park? a. It is far from civilization. It is convenient. PZMT B Answer the questions. What does Kara see swaying in the water? a. 5. 2. Tired d. The group returns to camp because mighty clouds were looming. Lids 4. Relieved b. Angry c. Tracy invites Kara to visit a new civilization with her family. b. It isn’t covered in dew. They used an umbrella to shield themselves from the rain. An animal with poison 2. 3. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. Tracy’s father shows them native plants and animals. Kara has a drastic change in opinion about camping at the end of the story. Which of the following does Kara NOT see during the trip? a. d. 1. 1. 3. A flock of birds c. c. Sad . Fish c. The weather was stormy on the second day of camping. A fox’s den b. It is easier to sleep. A bunch of mushrooms d. Reeds d. What does Kara miss about her urban lifestyle? a. Birds b.VIM it A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. 6.

List
a c c e n t [aeksent] n.

An accent is a certain way of speaking that shows where a person is from.
-* The new teacher’s accent was clearly a German one.

r barber

[barbar] n.

A barber is a person whose job is to cut hair.
-> My hair is getting much too long. I’d better go to the barber’s shop.

r basement

[beisment] n.

A basement of a house or building is a room that is built underground.
-* They turned their basement into a game room.

r blank [biaenk] adj.
When something is blank, it does not have anything on it.
-* She got a blank paper to draw on.

blink [biink] v.
To blink means to shut the eyes and quickly open them again.
-» I blinked many times so that my eyes could adjust to the bright light.

choir

[kwaiar] n.

A choir is a group of people who sing together.
-» He had choir practice every day after school.
c o m i c [kamik] adj.

When something is comic, it is funny.
-* The comic actor was famous for his jokes.

complicate

[kamplikeit] v.

To complicate something means to make it harder than necessary.
— The bad weather complicated finishing the job quickly.
d e c l i n e [diklain] v.

To decline an offer or invitation means to say no to it.
-* She declined his offer to pay for her dinner.

errand

[erand] n.

An errand is a trip taken to do a specific activity.
-+ He couldn’t go to practice because he had several errands to do.

glove

[g lA v ]

n.

A glove is a piece of clothing that covers your fingers and hand.
-+ When it gets cold, I always put on a pair of gloves.

hermit

[haimnit] n.

A hermit is one who lives alone and does not spend time with others.
-» The hermit lived a simple life in a small cave in the forest.

justly

[dsAstli] adv.

If something is done justly, then it is fair.
-*■ We justly decided to give the prize to him.

leather

[lefla:r] n.

Leather is a material made from animal skin that is used to make clothing.
-» He got a new leather jacket for his birthday.

ponder

[pander] v.

To ponder something is to think about it carefully.
-+ She sat in the park and pondered her problem.

reserve [riza:™] v.
To reserve something means to keep it for a certain person or time.
-» He reserved a table at the busy restaurant.

script

[skript] n.

A script is the words of a film or play.
-* He read the script of the play three times.

search

[sa:/ij] v.

To search for something or someone means to look for them carefully.
-> I searched the newspaper for a new job.

slam

[slaem] v.

To slam is to close something hard.
-* She slammed the book shut after she finished reading it.
s t a i r c a s e [sttarkeis] n.

A staircase is a set of stairs found inside a building.
-♦ The staircase leads directly into the kitchen.

[p£M7 A Choose the right word for the given definition.
1. an underground room
a. accent
c. a technique

b. basement
d. errand

2. to think about something
a. complicate
c. ponder

b. reserve
d. slam

3. the written words of a play or film
a. script
c. barber

b. blank
d. gloves

4. a group that sings
a. hermits
c. choir

b. leather
d. staircases

5. in a fairway
a. comic
c. searching

b. decline
d. justly

B Choose the right definition for the given word.
1. slam
a. to close loudly
c. to close the eyes

b. to be careful
d. to save

2. decline
a. to look for
c. to be right

b. to say no
d. fair

3. hermit
a. clothing foryou hands
c. a trip to do something

b. something that is funny
d. a person who is alone

4. leather
a. a distinct way of speaking
c. an underground room

b. material used to make clothing
d. a piece of clothing for the hands

5. barber
a. a singing group
c. a set of stairs

b. a person who cuts hair
d. phrases that form a play

j. . 10. . 3. 4. The speaker’s strong accent_____ . 7.____ The new play was great . She wanted to join the choir_____ . 6. The writer’s comic stories . My hair was a mess. So when he turned in his test. 2. 8. h. The boy’s mom yelled at him for getting mud on the couch. e. b. 4.W fii A Match the phrases to make complete sentences. . The large basement . e. f. He lost his glasses. A beautiful staircase . He couldn’t stand the sound of the music. I didn’t pay attention in class. Donna usually ran errands . Roger pondered a longtime_____ . . 2. I tried to reserve . 1. I remembered to make sure I had my gloves. a. c. after hearing them sing in church before buying a new car always make me laugh led up to the second floor just before I left the house b. so 1went to see the barber f. 7. 9. He asked Sara to see the scary movie. so he had to search for them for an hour it was completely blank so 1had to keep blinking them j. 10. The hermit . made him hard to understand some seats for this week’s show makes a great playroom slept in small cave right before coming home from work B Match the clauses to make complete sentences. gi. I put some medicine in my eyes. .so he left the room and slammed the door 113 . d._____ . but she declined h. . 8. c. 6. 5. He spent the period daydreaming. i. because Tony spent a lot of time on the so he cleaned the leather couch d. Dean and Anne finished the race at the same time. 3. 9. 5. a. g. 1. .

I thought you liked choir better.” Then he slammed the door. “I want to play the part of the hermit because the hermit gets to talk with an accent!” “I want the lead role of the barber. Next time. Peter would . Robby said. Robby came to his house. It was just an excuse. I didn’t know you liked acting. “I can’t today.The School Play Peter was excited. Next week he was going to audition for the school play. He was sure he would get the lead role. Actually. Peter didn’t want to help Robby. the teacher put a list of the parts on the wall. his friend Robby asked him. The teacher would surely reserve the lead part for him. He couldn’t remember the lines! A week later. It complicates the process for me.” said Peter. On the day of auditions. A few days later. He didn’t get the lead part—Robby did! Peter pondered the situation and came to the idea that Robby justly received the part. Everybody knew he was a great actor. Robby said. looking for his name. Peter wore his lucky leather jacket. He always got the best part when he wore it. The title is The Lost Glove—it’s a comic play. but his mind was blank. Do you want to practice with me? The basement at my house is quiet. He was shocked by what he saw.” Peter declined the invitation. He blinked his eyes and looked again. “I don’t like practicing with others. Peter read the list. It’s perfect!” Robby replied. He earned it by practicing.” replied Peter. “Do you want to practice the scene on the staircase? It’s the part where the migrant searches for a new job. “Have you seen the script for the play?” “Yes. “Acting is also a hobby of mine. Peter didn’t want to practice at all. The teacher told him to begin.” said Peter. Later. I need to do some errands.

Peter’s mind was blank during the audition. He had to study for a test. Comic c. d. 1. Robby lived too far away. Robby wanted the part of the hermit because he would get to talk with an accent. 4. He disliked Robby. [PAfHTF B Answer the questions. b. He wanted to be in the choir instead. 6. b. The scene on the staircase was about the migrant searching for a new job. At the school b. What was Peter’s first excuse for not practicing with Robby? a. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. He thought the teacher would give him the role. c. In his basement c. The title of the script was The Big Barber. He had to run errands. Action . What kind of play were the boys auditioning for? a. Drama d. In the park 3. 5. At the theater d. d. 2. c. 1. Why did Peter decide not to practice? a. 2. 4. He said it complicated the process. Peter felt that Robby justly received the lead role. Where did Robby suggest they practice together? a. 3. He didn’t want the part.Ij^B’O’ A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. Robby declined Peter’s offer to practice together. Romance b.

Afflicted means to suffer physically or mentally. muffins. is short for “etcetera. -* I connected the mouse to my laptop computer. just flip this switch. Etc. The atmosphere is the air around the Earth where weather conditions form. connect [kanekt] v. A breakdown is a failure to work correctly. To flip means to press a switch quickly to turn it on or off. chapter [tfaeptsr] n. . cake. An aisle is a space between two things that people use to walk. aisle [ail] n. -* The author was hard at work on his next novel. cargo [ka:rgou] n. -* Scientists worry that harmful substances are hurting the atmosphere. [etsetare] n. — The first chapter of a book usually introduces the main character of a story. flip [flip] V. An author is a person who wrote a certain piece of writing. and she wasn’t sure howto fix it. -* They were told to clear the aisle because the plane was about to land. etc. -* She was going to bring treats to the party: cookies. -*• To turn on the lights. -* The cargo of the ship got wet when it started raining. Cargo is the items carried by a ship or airplane. breakdown [breikdaun] n.a fflicte d [efliktid] adj. etc. -* Her car had a breakdown. author [6:ear] n. atmosphere [aetmasfiar] n. -* He was afflicted by pain in his right arm. To connect two things means to join them together.” It is used to refer to other unspecified objects. A chapter is a part of a book that usually has a number or a title.

-* It was unfortunate that Dave’s team lost. If something is unfortunate. state [steit] v. . If you are idle. -*■ The president stated his opinion about the world’s health concerns. round and green. it is bright and colorful. To notify someone of something is to tell them about it. r a i s i n [reizan] n. you are not doing anything. notify [noutafai] v. -♦ It is common for women to vomit when they are pregnant. -* Even by the afternoon. it is bad or unlucky. A raisin is a dried grape. A tray is a flat plate used to hold food. -» The waiter brought our food on a tray.idlfi [aidl] adj. the day had retained the morning’s freshness. VOmit [vdmit] v. unfortunate [Anf5:rtjanit] adj. pea [pi:] n. To vomit means to have food come up from one’s stomach. When something is vivid. Peas are a vegetable that is small. -*■ The figures in the painting were vivid. vivid [vivid] adj. -* The teacher notified us about a change to our assignment. -* Raisins are one of my favorite snacks. -* She read a book to keep from being idle. tray [trei] n. To retain something is to keep it. but he still had fun. To state something means to say it in a definite way. -* His favorite food was peas. retain [ritein] v.

vegetable b. The police officer said in a definite wav that he arrived at exactly 1:15 PM. The flight attendant asked me to keep my bag out of the space between the seats. bright c. to join c. The person who wrote the book was nice enough to sign my copy of his book. writer b. vivid a. The teacher asked the students to read three divisions in a book. to press a switch b. Scientists do not completely understand the air that surrounds the Earth. 6. list b. 7. 9. affected c. items c. 5. to do d. Hawaii. doing nothing b. space 2. Carolyn told me that she would be late to the meeting. idle a. air d. Brunei. rely on tourism. 1. cargo a. retain a. 4. to have food come up Write a word that is similar in meaning to the underlined part. to keep 3. 1. The computer’s failure to work caused major problems at work. plate d. 3. 10. His mother brought his food to him on a flat serving plate. . division 5. 8. Gina was affected with guilt because her brother got hurt while she watched him. air d. raisin a. and the others similar. Islands like Bali. grape c.Choose the right definition for the given word. to not work 4. end d. 2.

10. 1. Jay was rushed to the hospital. 10. 7. l. h. 8. d. 8. 7. : : i j : Connect your seat belt_____ . The author of the book_____ . as a snack before dinner a disease that made her tired when the image comes into view was accidentally opened parents if you are late she had to get a new car has written many others as well before you begin driving was the most interesting too sour to eat H5MT B Match the clauses to make complete sentences. Her blouse was so colorful when she bought it. Katie said her peas were . The school will notify your . but he retained his favorite shirt J c. etc met him there but the vivid colors faded after a week . The manager was unhappy The meat had gone bad. 3. because no one stated the truth . i. 6. g. but the aisle was crowded b. He sold most of his clothes. f. 5. Vanessa had raisins . 6. Sarah became quite ill I a. f. c. and it made many people vomit • e. Sammy tried to get through to the bathroom. a. 5. i. . Patty was afflicted by_____ . dad. ludy danced beautifullv. d. He tried to keep busv. 4. 2. 3. There were many items that the customer ordered. 2. 4. so she put them on the tray | g. Flip the switch .\PIMH A Match the phrases to make complete sentences. j. 9. j. b. 9. but her unfortunate mistake hurt her but he always found himself being idle because the atmosphere was polluted so his aunt. e. The last chapter of the book_____ . After the breakdown. . mom. The cargo was lost when the door_____ . h.

. Isaac followed Rachel’s advice. The bad situation didn’t feel so bad after someone helped him...... He looked out the window at the vivid colors of the sky... After being idle for a few minutes... peas. My parents told me to listen to music and read a chapter in my book... “Hi. the pilot announced that they were ready to leave. Suddenly. but you don’t need to be...... This time.... After a while.... “We’re tracking the weather: lightning. He was scared that his plane would have a breakdown. and he thought he might vomit.. He couldn’t believe that he was in such an unfortunate place............. Isaac got onto the plane. the plane shook again.. Suddenly. the plane started to shake. The ride might get a bit rough...... Isaac was still scared... He had never been on a plane before...... but he tried to retain a good attitude. His stomach hurt.....” Rachel explained.. Isaac was badly afflicted by his fear.....” Rachel said. Just lower the tray on the seat in front of you. and flip this switch... I’m Rachel! You look nervous. He walked down the aisle until he found his seat. the plane shook so bad that cargo started falling. Then they’ll bring your dinner! Last time. The book and the music helped Isaac feel better... etc.. and a box of raisins. Then the pilot notified the passengers of bad conditions in the atmosphere.■ Isaac’s First Plane Trip Isaac’s family was going on vacation....... He began to feel scared..... ..” Issac said... “The first time I flew... “and I’m getting hungry. He sat down and connected the ends of his seat belt.. they served chicken. It calmed me....” “The food service will begin soon. the shaking stopped.mmkrnmmm .. clouds..... Flying is fun!” “I’m still a bit nervous. he didn’t even notice the bad weather.... Finally.. He was excited about the trip except for one thing... He put on headphones and took out a book by his favorite author.. The girl sitting next to him said.” he stated.

He would vomit. He was afflicted by pain. 6. Her seat belt wasn’t connected.PZMO' A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. b. d. R H If B Answer the questions. b. He played with Rachel. c. What happened the first time Rachel was on a plane? a. c. The dinner service was late. What would happen if Isaac flipped the switch? a. Isaac was scared the plane would have a breakdown. He was idle. He fell asleep. He was in an unfortunate place. 2. He looked at the vivid sky. They would bring him his dinner. They would bring him some water. c. Rachel’s parents suggested she read a chapter in her book when she was scared. b. The pilot made a mistake. b. 1. 4. but he tried to retain a good attitude. The pilot stated that the conditions in the atmosphere were sun. wind. What did Isaac think when the plane first started shaking? a. Isaac was scared. 5. d. 3. 3. 1. The cargo would fall. etc. What did Isaac do as the plane left? a. c. Isaac ate raisins and peas and read a book by his favorite author. 4. The cargo fell from above. His food would fall off the tray. . d. She had to wait in the aisle. Isaac’s fear went away as soon as he took a nap. 2. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. d.

-* There was a loud blast when the police officer fired the gun. c choke [tjouk] * To choke means to cough because you have difficulty breathing. and a rainbow appeared. — The man betrayed his country when he gave away national secrets. -* Don’t lend money to someone if you distrust them! . cease [sirs] v. A blast is a loud noise made by something that explodes. and now there is a small dent in my car door. To betray someone means to treat them in a dishonest way. cross [krois] v. civil [sfval] adj.List betray [bitreO v. comment [kament] V. -* My father gave me a pretty gold bracelet for my birthday. When an event is civil. -* Tom commented on the poor quality of the food. To cross means to go from one side to the other side. To comment means to say something that shows your personal opinion. —■We used his boat to cross to the other side of the lake. -* The country was torn apart by a terrible civil war. r distrust [distrAst] v. -» There was a lot of smoke in the air. it happens inside a country. A dent is damage caused by something heavy hitting something else. the rain ceased. p bracelet [breislit] n. and it made me choke. A bracelet is a piece of jewelry that you wear around your wrist. -» That blue car hit my car. blast [blaest] n. To cease means to stop. r dent [dent] n. To distrust someone means to believe that they are not honest. -* After about an hour.

lining [laininl n. A fort is a small building that is specially built to defend an area from attack. -» When people go to church. If a place is rife with something bad. sole [soul] adj. mass [mses] n. it is very common in that place. they pray for their families and friends. When something is the sole thing. -» This part of the country is rife with disease. rife [raif] adj. Can you sweep it please? treachery [tretjsri] n. To tuck something means to put it somewhere so that it is neat or safe. -* We received a mass of letters this morning. pray [prei] v. -* He looked sloppy without his shirt being tucked into his pants. If you sweep the floor. tuck [tAk] V. found [faund] v. . Treachery is a behavior in which a person betrays a country or a person. Sweep [swi:p] v. A mass is a large number of things of one type. To found means to bring something into existence. -* His sole purpose in life was to help others. To pray means to talk to God. you clean it with a tool like a broom or a brush. -* This jacket is very warm because it has a thick lining. it is the only thing of a particular type.fort [fo:rt] n. they built a big fort on the top of the hill. — The pastor founded his church in the countryside. Lining is a piece of cloth that covers the inside of clothes. -* The man ran away to escape from the treachery of his wife. -+ There is a lot of dirt on the floor. -» When the army arrived.

Choose the right word for the given definition.
1. to clean with a broom
a. sweep
b. betray
2. to say your opinion
a. comment
b. cross
3. to bring into existence
a. sole
b. dent
a
piece
of
jewelry
4.
a. civil
b. bracelet
5. a loud explosion
a. treachery
b. blast

gfl

m

!

c. pray

d. choke

c. cease

d. distrust

c. tuck

d. found

c. mass

d. fort

c. rife

d. lining

Write a word that is similar in meaning to the underlined part.
1. The lucky man was the only winner of the grand prize.
2. She was so worried about her mother’s health that she went to church to talk to God.
3. He coughed and had difficulty breathing after eating a large piece of food.

m

1

My .!

4. The rain stopped in the early morning after pouring all night long.
5. There is a large number of people in the park today.

l| ,,, ■

6. I hit the wall with my car, and now there is a small amount of damage in it.

m .

7. I don’t believe the honesty of people who always try to borrow money.

H i 11

8. The conditions in some parts of Africa are very poor, and disease is very common.
9. The man behaved in an untrustworthy wav toward his friends.
10. I’m going to go to the other side of the road to meet my friend.

I S IS

Choose the word that is the better fit for each blank.
1. blast / choke
The___________threw a lot of smoke into the air, and it made me
2. treachery / fort
The army built a ______

to defend themselves from their former ally’s

3. sweep / tuck
My jobs at home are to .
underthe bed.

the floor and.

4. lining / sole
The homeless man’s _

possession was a jacket with a warm

5. distrust / betray
I ___________those girls because they.
secrets.

. their friends by telling their

6. ceased / founded
He___________his business after the fighting from the war
7. commented / civil
The man on the news.
people.

on the recent.

. struggles of the

8. bracelet / dent
Fiona stepped on my.

and made a .

9. cross / mass
I watched the______

of people.

. the bridge to see the Queen

10. prayed / rife
The country was.
be safe.

with enemies, so I .

. that our people would

The

Betrayal

A king lived in a fort with his daughter, Clara. The king had founded a great empire,
but his land was rife with enemies who wanted to take over the kingdom. Because there
was so much civil unrest, the king told Clara not to trust anyone.
One day, Clara was walking outside when she saw a girl sweeping the path. Clara
crossed the garden, and they started talking. The girl’s name was Susie. Clara felt sorry
for Susie because she was very poor, and Clara gave her a bracelet. After that, Susie and
Clara met every day.
Once, the King saw them talking. He told Clara, “Don’t talk to that girl. She could be
an enemy.”
“You can’t distrust everyone,” commented Clara. “She is my sole friend. It’s OK to be
friendly to people.”
The King said, “Don’t argue with me. Stay inside from now on, and talk to no one.”
Clara felt lonely in the fort. But one day she saw Susie outside. She wrote her a note
with a map showing a secret entrance to the fort. Clara wrote: “Come at night, and we
can talk together. Don’t show anybody this note.” She threw the note to Susie, and Susie
tucked it in the lining of her dress.
That night Clara waited for Susie. But she heard something ticking, and then a loud
blast. She ran into the hall, and it was full of smoke, which made her choke. A mass of
soldiers were there, fighting. Clara realized that Susie had betrayed her and given the
map to her father’s enemies. Clara prayed that everyone in the castle would be safe from
her friend’s treachery.
At last, the fighting ceased. Clara found her father in the hall with his soldiers. They
had defeated their enemies, but there were dents in their armor from the heavy fighting.
Clara told her father what she had done and promised never to disobey him again.

In the King’s bedroom d. His enemy’s treachery had ceased. Clara was sweeping the path. Clara crossed the garden to talk to Susie. Sweep the path b. Pray 2. In the garden b. Found a clock ticking d. What did the king emphasize? a. Someone sweeping 3. A loud blast c. c. Where were the mass of soldiers fighting? a. 1. Clara should be friendly to people. 4. Civil fighting b. Clara commented to her father that he should distrust people. b. In the hall c. What did Clara hear in the middle of the night? a. Betray her sole friend c. Clara gave Susie a bracelet. When Clara and Susie met. Anybody could be an enemy. Susie calling at the window d. He distrusted his relatives. Outside Clara’s window .2. P/jMT B Answer the questions. 6. Which of the following actions did Clara do in the story? a. 5. d. 3. Clara choked because of the smoke.

To infect someone means to give them an illness. A disease is an illness that causes specific problems. -* The new teacher had a background in science and math. Folklore is the collection of beliefs and stories of a culture. literature [iftaratjar] n. -* Ancient hunters melted copper to make knives and spears. -> He had a disease that caused him to lose his hearing.List background [bsekgraund] n. To itch means to rub the skin with your fingernails. infect [infekt] v. A background is a person’s education. A millennium is one thousand years. C O p p e r [kapar] n. -> Early American literature covers the poetry and stories from 1500 to 1800. disease [diz(:z] n. -* The daily newspaper chronicles local and world events. and experience. bait [beit] n. plays. millennium [mileniam] n. To chronicle something means to record an event or speech. family. Copper is a red-brown metal often used in electric wire and pipes. chronicle [kranikl] v. and poetry. -> India’s folklore has stories written in long poems about great warriors. -* The best bait for catching fish is a big. . Literature is books. -* Stonehenge is believed to have been built about 5 millenniums ago. folklore [foukloir] n. fat worm. itch lit/] v. Bait is something used to trick a person or thing to do something. -» The common cold infects hundreds of millions of people each year. -+ The rough fabric in his shirt made the back of his neck itch.

A vein is a tube in the body that carries blood toward the heart. . -> The blue veins in my hand are just under my skin. vein [ v e in ] n. she was promoted to a manager. -* He calculated the numbers to see what the sum of his bills would be. religion n. t r ilid 3 a n ] A religion is a belief in a god or gods. relate [riieit] v. -» In Greece. p r o m o t e [pramout] v. -» We need to update the programs on our computers. Venom is a poisonous substance that comes from animals or plants. trustworthy [trAstwarrSi] adj. A sum is a specific amount of money. they are honest and truthful. A teller is a person who works with a bank’s customers. To promote someone means to raise them to a higher position or rank. -* Their religion taught that people should forgive their enemies. -* A snake’s venom can be used to cure the illnesses it creates. To relate to something means to have a connection with it. update [Apdeit] v. — A company’s plan usually relates to how much profit it can make. To update something means to make it more modern. venom [v e n a m ] n.myth [ m ie ] n. A myth is a traditional story that explains a culture’s history and beliefs. The teller at the bank helped Kelly put money into a savings account. teller [tela:/-] n. -*• Mary is one of the most trustworthy people I’ve ever met. — After two years in the company. there was a myth about a woman who had snakes for hair. If someone is trustworthy. sum [ s a id ] n.

The nation had a party because their country had existed for a thousand years. Which of the following means to be raised to a higher position? a. The reward for finding the lost dog was a very large specific amount. Relate d. 8. Since that pot is made out of a red-brown metal. Sometimes. Which would most likely be found in a library? a. Disease 2. Copper b. 1. To which chart does this collection of data have a connetion with? 4. Chronicle b. Literature b. Update c. Choose the answer that best fits the question. Venom c. 2. A vein d. 1. When his arm got crushed. Her experience made her the best person for the new job. What do you need if you want to catch a fish? a. A sum b. 3. Bait d. 6. 5. Trustworthy c. He’s not very honest. Promote 3. Atelier c. Background 5. I wouldn’t believe him. 10. Itch b. A millennium c. 7. This book records the first years of the king’s life. The poisonous substance from that fish will make you very sick. it damaged a tube that carries blood to the heart was damaged. Which of the following best describes the combination of two numbers? a. Folklore d. Regligion 4. The owners of the hotel decided to modernize the computer system. 9. A myth . Infect d.------------------------- — Exercise 1 Write a word that is similar in meaning to the underlined part. it gets hot very quickly. uncomfortable clothes will make you do this? a.

The bank teller_____ . e. 10. The pipes were safe for carrying water_____ . caused the boy to collapse was once a small pond in engineering from all of the insect bites believe that there is a god b.P/MF A Match the phrases to make complete sentences. b. . h. . . 1. 8. 1. . 6. e. 3. 9. 4. 2. If you think a lot can happen in a hundred years. Because the calendar didn’t list the new holidays. 7. If you don’t stay away from school today. . 9. a. 10. g. 6. One of that culture’s myths explains that the ocean The total sum for staying three nights at the hotel _ Her arm started to itch . The nation’s folklore . f. Many religions_____ . 4. . . The police thought the two crimes might be connected. so his boss promoted him so he thought he’d caught a disease but it turned out that they didn’t relate to each other then imagine how much might happen in a millennium . 5. The factory’s new worker had a background Those veins pump blood . i. 7. The hunters put some food in the trap. She learned to speak the country’s language. 5. c. g. c. it had to be updated so everyone knew she was trustworthy then you might infect the other students f. The snake’s poisonous venom_____ . a. She never shared her friends’ secrets with anyone. 8. but no animals wanted the bait because they were made from copper d. d. He had done great work for the company for three years. j. so she could read their literature h. The newspaper story chronicled the action ._____ . 3. . 2. to all necessary places in the body was over $300 deposited Paul’s money into his account of the heroic crime-fighter is rich with tradition RftED1B Match the clauses to make complete sentences. He had a bad cough and a headache.

She checked the money. The coins were left as bait for the robbers. She proved that stories from the past still relate with the problems of today. She knew she couldn’t use venom because it might hurt someone. She decided to cover a sum of money with a special powder. He thanked her and promoted her. She told her boss what she had done.The Teller and the Thieves A teller at a bank suspected some of her fellow employees of not being very trustworthy. The police arrested whoever had purple skin. coins of copper were covered with venom taken from a poisonous snake. No one was supposed to take money from the safe. She thought they were stealing. In order to catch them. and he had the thieves arrested. she thought of a way to update the old story. If somebody did. and it was gone. though. In the millennium-old story. However. the powder would cause their skin to itch. and they can be helpful in solving problems. She remembered that one religion’s literature had a myth that chronicled how a group of thieves was captured. Because events from history often repeat. and they all became very sick as if they had a disease. the venom infected their bodies through their skin. It made their skin purple. then they had to be stealing. three of her coworkers were scratching their hands and arms. The venom ran through their veins. She had a background in religion and folklore. she needed some way to link them to the crime. When they touched the coins. If people touched the money. ancient literature had helped _ the teller solve a crime. . Within a few hours. She placed the stack of money in the bank’s safe. They itched so badly that they couldn’t even work.

A sum of money d. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. A special powder c. Literature c. 1. The teller remembered a myth that chronicled how to capture the thieves. A teller at a bank thought her fellow employees were trustworthy. In the millennium-old story. their skin itched c. Why did the teller decide not to use venom in her trap? a. The robbers became sick as if they had a disease. Vein 2. c. What did the teller use as bait to catch her fellow employees? a. Two of her coworkers were scratching their hands and arms. It wasn’t related. Religion b.P ^ E ‘0’ A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. The teller’s boss promoted her. 1. 2. PZ-MJ B Answer the questions. they weren’t working d. 6. 4. b. d. The venom was taken from a poisonous plant. Folklore d. the police linked the robbers to the crime because a. It was updated. It infected her. Coins of copper b. . 3. 5. It might hurt someone. The bank’s safe 4. they were at the bank 3. they were purple b. Which word does NOT describe the teller’s background? a.

deplete [dipii:t] v. -+ You should heed the advice on the sign and not drive so fast. -♦ She didn’t have a car. — The emperor built roads to make travel easier throughout the empire. -* The factory was good for the economy because it brought jobs to the area. heed N:d] v. If something is cozy. then it is comfortable. warm. . commerce [komars] n. Charity is an act of giving help. | r goods [gudz] n. To heed something means to obey or follow it. hats. dresses and purses were the goods she wanted to buy. Goods are anything that can be bought or sold. -* Thanks to his friends’ charity. -* Shoes. -* The thick blanket made the bed very cozy. usually money. Commerce is the activity of buying and selling things. he had enough money to pay the rent. so she hitchhiked several miles to her brother’s home. -* All the driving he was doing was depleting his car’s fuel supply. econom y [ikdnami] n. An economy is the money and businesses of a country or region. To condemn someone means to give them a specific punishment. empire [empaiar] n. condemn [kandem] v. To deplete an amount of something means to use up all of it. cozy [kouzi] adj. to those who need it. -*■ The new shopping mall increased the commerce in that section of town. hitchhike [wtjhaik] v. To hitchhike means to travel by asking for rides from passing vehicles. and relaxing. -* The judge condemned the criminal to five years in prison.charity [tfaerati] n. An empire is a large group of countries ruled by an emperor or empress.

Even the slightest mistakes make her angry. A throne is the special chair in which a ruler sits. she helped him find his parents. scribes recorded important events. A temper is someone’s mood or a chance that they might get angry. . If someone is neutral. r unity [jumati] n. -* Because she had pity for the lost boy. To reduce something means to make it less in size or number. To mock someone means to tease them in a cruel way. -♦ In Ancient Egypt. r temper [temper] n. r neutral [n/u:tral] adj. A victor is a group or person that wins in a contest. -*■ When the store reduced its prices. -* Dan felt persecuted because he was smaller than the other boys at school. V ic t o r [viktar] n. -* She has a temper. -> The project was finished early.r m ock [mak] v. -» At the end of the game. c scribe [skraib] n. Pity is the feeling of sadness and kindness for those who are suffering. To persecute means to treat someone badly. The girls mocked Nancy because she was a new student. -* The girl’s friend remained neutral while the couple was arguing. -» Nobody except the king and queen sat in the thrones in the great hall. r throne [eroun] n. r pity [piti] n. Unity is the state of people working together for a certain purpose. the blue team was the victor. r reduce [ndj&. r persecute [parsikjuit] v. people wanted to shop there. then they do not help either of the two fighting sides. thanks to the unity of the workers. A scribe was a person whose job was to copy written works.s] v.

__________ such as food and clothing. 2. mocking / temper The other children were___________ him about how funny his new shoes looked. 7. and it didn’t take long for him to develop a bad__________ . heeded / neutral The senators___________the warning from the countries’ leaders and decided to stay__________ in the war. cozy / hitchhiked The young man___________ in the cold without getting a ride for such a long time. 6. pity / reduced The cold and dirt had__________ the poor man’s clothing to almost nothing. economy / persecuted The businessmen__________ the students because they didn’t agree with his opinions concerning the__________ . 5. charity / goods The__________ they received was not only money but also several. throne / victor The king’s two sons had to fight to see who would become the next king. condemned / depleted The men had__________ the small lake of all its fish and were___________ to going without fish for many years. the soft seat and warm air was very__________ . . commerce / empire The ancient___________that we studied in class today was very important because it spread___________ and trade throughout the world. 8. and the mayor felt__________for him and took him home to his house. 3. scribes / unity The__________ realized that they could copy more books if they stopped arguing and worked in __________ . 1. Whoever was the___________would get to sit upon his father’s __________ . 4. When a car finally picked him up. 10. 9.Choose the word that is the better fit for each blank.

I was treated badly by my classmates. comfortable d. 1. a. large c. upset b. When his car ran out of gas. Though it might seem like fun at the time. A pen d. 8. A king b. Money c. 6. A chef d. Nails .Write a word that is similar in meaning to the underlined part. Choose the answer that best fits the question. Which of the following is something a scribe would use? a. Fun d. 7. 10. relaxing b. All of the following describe something that’s cozy EXCEPT . 4. The state of working together the groups showed helped them to solve their problems. 3. then they are likely to easily become_ a. Food b. During the holidays. 2. After making five cakes. he traveled by asking for rides to the gas station. If someone can’t control their temper. An oven c. proud c. A queen c. all the sugar in the house was used up. The group that wins this game will have to play the very best team. Advice 4. The many countries ruled by one person was beginning to slowly fall apart. The warm weather lessened the snow that covered the ground. it’s not nice to tease in a cruel wav people. What is something that you might heed? a. 5. 9. sleepy 5. Appliances are things that are bought that usually last for many years. Who is someone who would NOT sit on a throne? a. Goods b. offering financial help to others is very common. An emperor 2. 1. warm 3. Because my views were different. happy d.

He was invited to the palace. The emperor was defeated. “You think I should help. they remained neutral. They didn’t fight the invaders but allowed them to march freely to the capital. If he had heeded the words of the scribe. the emperor’s bad temper surfaced. He hitchhiked to the capital to ask the emperor for charity. an enemy invaded the empire from the west. and fires burned warmly in every fireplace. With no trees to sell. Tables were loaded with food. However.” Then he added a warning. They were condemned to starve. the empire had depleted many of the forests. He mocked the scribe. “If we don’t receive help. and the scribe stood in front of him. then the citizens might have been the victors. Because the citizens felt persecuted by the emperor. “You should just be happy to belong to this great empire.” the scribe said. You will get nothing from me. .” The emperor felt no pity for the citizens of the western area. But because he had treated them badly. A poor scribe from the area wanted to help. The trees were important to the western areas’ economy.The c c f Scribe’s Warning A great and powerful empire needed the wood from its western areas to build palaces and homes forthe emperor and his friends. and now we have nothing to sell. Not long after.” he said and laughed. You’ve used up all of the forests. they treated him badly in return. It was large and cozy. I’m afraid that the entire empire will suffer. They were marching to the capital. We must establish some unity. “I’ve come to ask for help. The scribe returned home with nothing. The emperor sat up upon his throne. “We’re all very poor and hungry.” Upon hearing the scribe’s request. Citizens could no longer purchase the goods that they needed to survive. the commerce in that area was reduced. Their life became difficult.

Commerce was high. He showed his temper. The sheep were important to the western areas’ economy. He got married . and the emperor stood in front of him. d. The scribe hitchhiked to the capital to ask the emperor for charity. 4. b. the citizens might have been the victors. 5. c. 3. cold and dark d. Prices were reduced. 4. in the capital 3. The emperor condemned the citizens of the western areas to hard work. The scribe sat upon his throne. what happened to the emperor? a. d. P/MT B Answer the questions. If the emperor had heeded the scribe’s warning. how did he behave? a. They couldn’t buy goods. c. He was defeated. large and cozy b. Much of the forest had been depleted by the empire. The emperor’s palace was all of the following EXCEPT . At the end of the story. a. 2. He remained neutral. 1.KMT A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. 2. c. d. He changed his evil ways. Why were the citizens hungry? a. 6. When the emperor heard the scribe’s request. 1. He felt pity. b. He became rich. made with wood c. He asked for unity. They were too cozy. b.

If something is accurate. -* Understanding the human genome may help cure many diseases. If something is genetic. it is related to the genes in one’s body. -* There has been a lot of controversy over the judge’s decision. 140 . -» In 1908. An asteroid is a giant rock from outer space. -» The color of one’s eyes is genetic. -> Smoking is the main factor that causes lung cancer. To be identical is to be the same as someone or something else. r controversy [kantravaxsi] n. A factor is something that has an effect on the way another thing happens. To evolve is to change over time. To analyze something is to study it. r analyze [aenalaiz] v. -♦ The scientist will analyze the blood sample. r asteroid [sestaroid] n. r genetic [cfeinetik] adj. genome ld5i:noum] n. it is completely correct. -+ James and John are identical twins.■I UNIT 23 ' j r accurate [aekjarit] adj. a giant asteroid hit Siberia. r factor [faektar] n. A controversy is a dispute about something that affects many people. -♦ Many people think that humans evolved from animals. A genome is the collection of all the genes in a living thing. -* We’ve always considered my Uncle Max the intellectual of the family. -* The story in the newspaper wasn’t very accurate. c evolve [ivalv] v. An intellectual is a very smart person. intellectual Dntalektjusl] n. identical [aidentikal] adj.

they are badly affected by it. To regulate something is to control how it happens. mammal [maemal] n. -*■ In the past year. -* A majority of the people voted for Tom Smith in the election. -*■ The bank regulates how much money people can borrow from it. -> The farmer sprayed his crops with a pesticide to keep bugs away. offspring [oifsprinl n. Peter reinforced his opinion with information from a book. -* Even though it lives in the water. To multiply is to increase in number. A mammal is an animal that usually has hair and is not born from an egg. it is very large. -» Mike was stricken with a horrible illness. -* The dog’s offspring had the same color of fur as she did. Offspring are the children of a person or the babies of an animal. vegetarian [ved3atterian] n. -♦ The wealthy man bought a vast amount of land in the countryside. whales are actually mammals. A vegetarian is someone who does not eat any meat products. pesticide [pestasaid] n. stricken [strikan] adj. A majority of something is almost all of the people orthings in that group. -» I became a vegetarian because I don’t like the taste of meat. V a s t [vaest] adj. To reinforce something is to make it stronger. regulate [regjaleit] v. multiply [mAltaplai] v. If something is vast. the number of people at work multiplied by ten percent. .majority [mad3d(:)rati] n. If one is stricken by a disease or problem. A pesticide is a substance used to kill insects. reinforce [ruinfors] v.

a. A spider b. Which of these is a mammal? a. A monkey 8. vast d. What would a farmer do if bugs were eating his plants? a. The sky b. a. Which of these is usually considered vast? a. Corn 9. A bedroom c. Chicken b. If something is accurate. accurate b. c. Use a pesticide b. it is. What happens when something evolves? a. What is something that scientists do? a. correct b. b. Stricken b. It disagrees. Genome d. The newspaper . the disease is . false d. It changes. It studies more. d. Become a vegetarian 4. genetic 3. a factor 2. b. A professor at a university is probably a. A snake d. Sausage d.Exercise 1 Choose the answer that best fits the question. a controversy . Raise offspring d. Steak c. A chicken c. long c. identical c. an intellectual d. mysterious 10. If every member of a family has a disease. a majority c. Regulate businesses 5. Reinforce messages b. Multiply books d. Evolve c. It gets stronger. A pool d. What would a vegetarian eat? a. Find a mammal c. 1. Asteroid 6. Which word is related to the term “outer space”? a. Analyze chemicals c.

ice and metal crops cause illnesses in humans R iB f B Match the clauses to make complete sentences. 9. g. but the majority wanted hamburgers but she didn’t know he was a vegetarian but the most important factor is its price but his brother is more of an intellectual so we must regulate their actions . will be printed in a science textbook with two broken legs and an injured arm with an example from a scientific study to the one I found in that expensive store big enough to fit at least 5. 1. Pam served steak and potatoes to Ben. i. 8. a. 1. . . j. . 3. f. A small group of kids wanted pizza. 9. 4. . 10. 6. There are many things to consider about the car. c. 2. g. 7. Alice is a short woman. but the flowers multiplied fast so dad thought it was genetic since the news isn’t accurate but her offspring are very tall but it caused a lot of controversy b. The sisters both had the strange disease. 8.000 people b. h._____ . 2. 5. James thought he made the right choice._____ . j. . about each patient that come from all over the world a big machine to a tiny one are made of rock.EtM S A Match the phrases to make complete sentences. . . d. The people in this department can’t be trusted. I don’t read gossip magazines . Daniel loves sports and parties. f. 7. The zoo is full of mammals. I thought it would take weeks for them to grow. 5. 3. The computer has evolved from My teacher said that asteroids Many pesticides that are used on The woman reinforced her statement The doctor analyzes the daily report The vast space of the room was___ My report on animal genomes____ The accident left her stricken_____ a. c. h. e. 6. 4. e. d. 10. The cheaper blouse is nearly identical.

the mosquitoes passed along a deadly disease. scientists have found genetic material of mosquitoes in fossils. were beginning to evolve. Although there may have been other factors.* ifc*. When they bit another living thing. Some scientists think that it isn’t accurate. To reinforce this idea. However. it was easy for them to bite many of the dinosaurs. died.3# > Dinosaurs Really Died Many scientists and intellectuals think that dinosaurs died when an asteroid smashed into the Earth millions of years ago. insects. But that was impossible millions of years ago. In addition. This material proves that mosquitoes existed back then. That insect was the mosquito. Scientists have analyzed the genomes of birds. But the number of dinosaurs decreased slowly. These scientists do think that an asteroid hit the Earth the time of the dinosaurs. and they discovered that birds have identical genetic material to some dinosaurs. A vast majority of them.■ n How the Ml . the scientists say. scientists stress how gradually the dinosaurs died. from the vegetarians to the meat eaters. including the mosquito. No matter how it happened. they would have died very quickly. the dinosaurs’ death had a major impact on other living things. Since there were so many mosquitoes.1^. Many dinosaurs ate mammals. After the dinosaurs died.• 1. If an asteroid killed them. So the dinosaurs were stricken with the disease. And they were certainly not idle. Today. the dinosaurs died mainly because of disease. there has been some controversy over this theory. recently. At that time. Birds also evolved. So there may still be dinosaurs among us after all.. The mosquitoes multiplied quickly. But that wasn’t what killed all of them. mammals were able to evolve and produce offspring. . They think that a tiny insect may have been the biggest factor in the death of these huge creatures. we can regulate the number of mosquitoes with pesticides.

In addition. from the vegetarians to the meat eaters. We analyze their genomes. died. We feed them to vegetarians. A vast majority of mosquitoes. Many dinosaurs ate mammals. They multiplied quickly. Other animals d. B Answer the questions. Mosquitoes 2. d. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. A huge creature may have been the biggest factor in the death of these tiny insects. c. . We kill their offspring. 5. An asteroid c. 3. 4. We use pesticides. Some scientists think the asteroid theory isn’t accurate. Similar modern insects . c. They ate birds. Today. What proves that mosquitoes were around at the same time as dinosaurs? a. 1. scientists have found the genetic material of mammals in fossils. we can regulate the number of mosquitoes with pesticides. Their genetic material b. They produced offspring. 4. 1. How did the mosquitoes spread the deadly disease? a. 6.Readi P^\BID’ A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. What do we do to regulate the number of mosquitoes? a. Genetic material in fossils b. 3. What might have been the biggest factor in the dinosaurs’ death? a. d. b. b. They bit many dinosaurs.

Consent is permission to do something. so she could brew some coffee. -* The sudden drop in prices upset the equilibrium of the economy. To foster a feeling or a skill means to help it develop. -* The pregnant woman was dizzy after standing up too quickly. g rin d [graind] v. -» The rings of a tree start forming at its core. To growl means to make a deep. If someone is dizzy. c u n n in g IkAnin] adj. To grind something means to break it into very small pieces or powder. -+ She helped foster a sense of calm in the little boy. — The cunning child fooled his parents into thinking that he was kind. -* I cherish this trophy I won. c o n s e n t [kansent] n. . angry sound. Compassion is a feeling of understanding for someone who is hurt or suffering. e q u ilib riu m [i:kwalibriam] n. they are good at tricking people. If someone is cunning. The core is the center of something. C O m p a S S iO t l [kampsejan] n. -♦ She wanted to grind the beans. -+ The dog started to growl at the man walking by. g ro w l [graul] v. -* Their mother gave the children consent to go outside and play. Equilibrium is the balance between different forces. — The veterinarian had compassion for the sick little puppy.c h e ris h [tjerij] v. To cherish something means to hold it as very important. d iz z y [dfzi]] adj. then they feel off balance as if they will fall down. f o s t e r [fo(:)star] v. COre [ko:r] n.

t e n s e [tens] adj. -» He stumbled as he ran through the puddle. To tumble means to fall.sar] n. stumble [stAmM * To stumble means to put your foot down wrong so that you almost fall. S a n e [sein] adj. If someone is tense. If someone is sane. A saucer is a small round dish that you set a cup on.moderation [mddareijsn] n. tumble [tAmbal] V. A predator is an animal that kills and eats other animals. withhold [widhould] v. -» He was so hungry that he snatched an apple from a tree. they are worried something bad might happen. often in a rolling way. — The peregrine falcon is a predator that eats fish. they can think in a normal way. To stagger means to move in an unsteady way and almost fall over. To withhold something is to not give it to someone. -* They withheld all information until she paid her fine. -» After the phone call. Monica was very tense. Moderation is a state of being just enough but not too much. stagger [staegar] v. predator [predatar] n. saucer [so. . snatch [snaetj] v. — He placed the spoon on the saucer. He staggered around after having too much to drink. It is important to eat in moderation so that you can have a healthy body. -* Oliver does not act like a sane person when he is angry. -» He lost his balance while snowboarding and tumbled to the ground. To snatch something means to take it away with a quick motion.

to love something important d. to throw d. Saucer 3. to run into someone d. to take 3. Cherish b. Moderation 5. Dizzy b.Exercise P£\CW A Choose the answer that best fits the question. to stop being angry d. to express happiness 2 . to be together d. to think normally c. to go against . Foster d. to break into pieces c. Grasp b. Stagger 2. to take something away b. a small dish c. to turn off c. to give something away 4. Plush c. Equilibrium c. Compassion b. Which of the following means not too much? a. Which of the following means to make a noise? a. Sane 4. 1. Tense d. Which of the following eats other animals? a. Consent PZiM? B Choose the right definition for the given word. saucer a. What word means the same as agreement? a. to leave c. to give b. 1 . withhold a. helping someone b. Withhold c. to agree with b. Core b. snatch a. Predator c. stagger a. to trip and almost fall 5. Growl d. Stumble c. Snatch d. Cunning d. What is a balance between two things? a. to not give b. cherish a.

cunning / grind up the gemstone so no one would The__________ criminal started to.Choose the word that is the better fit for each blank. 149 . new of the tree. . there are minerals that. I started to. 8. 2. to be and the deer knew there was a . thought that the horse might fall. saucer / snatch The boy moved to. growl / predator The lion began to. the cup from his sister and knocked over the 5. for the starving child in need. to 9. equilibrium / stagger I felt like I had no___ _. as I walked. 7. 1. As a result. he felt. consent / withhold The woman decided to _ her daughter’s request. because he 10. core / foster Deep in the _ growth. cherish / moderation I ___________going to the movies. 6. 3. butin ___________ because it can be expensive. so he felt. dizzy / tumbled After he___________down the hill. compassion / sane The man was_____ _. stumble / tense The man felt_________ after his horse started to . 4. know it was the same stone. her permission and did not give. afraid of.

After a while the traveler yawned and then growled like a wolf. and he stumbled. The two started talking. I am cursed. The innkeeper gave his consent and pulled out some money. The scared innkeeper staggered outside and tumbled into the street. hopefully this will teach you that you shouldn’t believe every story that you hear. “I just need to borrow some money. As he ran. “Are you not sane? I thought I just heard you growl. The innkeeper had started to grind coffee beans to make coffee. The traveler walked over to the innkeeper and sat down. The cunning traveler decided to teach the innkeeper a lesson. The traveler knew that this was a trick. good.” responded the innkeeper. I turn into a wolf and attack people. The man was going to leave with the poor innkeeper’s money and never return. He felt compassion for the nice innkeeper and did not want him to be tricked. “Oh. I cherish this coat. the traveler snatched his coat. He heard the old innkeeper talking to a young man in the core of the inn. “I did. The traveler helped him stand up.” the traveler said as he returned the coat. Then the traveler yawned again. He just wanted to foster happiness and restore the innkeeper’s emotional equilibrium. The innkeeper was dizzy. and my friend will pay you back tomorrow. He made the coffee and handed the traveler a saucer and a cup.” the man said. Every time I yawn three times in a row. like a predator.M U The Traveler and the Innkeeper A traveler stopped at an inn.” said the innkeeper. “That was a trick. As the traveler started to yawn a third time. the innkeeper turned to run outside. I swear that I’ll spend it in moderation.” .” The innkeeper became tense. The traveler followed him out because he did not want to withhold the truth any longer. He sat and watched people closely. “Well.

3. The young man was cunning. P/AR'D1B Answer the questions. The innkeeper became tense after the traveler told him why he growled 4. The young man was dizzy. Why did the innkeeper consent to give the young man money? a. b. 1. to make the innkeeper sane c. The young man was scary. So he could drink coffee b. 4. strength d. The young man’s friend would repay him. b. The thief promised to spend money in moderation. Why did the innkeeper hand the traveler a saucer and a cup? a. to teach the innkeeper a lesson d. health c. despair 2 . c.“S M ig ^ a g f* Reading Co P/MD1A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. 1 . 6. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. So he could restore equilibrium . happiness . What did the traveler want to foster inside the innkeeper? a. to be a predator b. The traveler staggered outside. to sell it and make money 3. The traveler snatched the coat a. 2. 5. The traveler wanted to withhold the truth and foster anger. The traveler felt compassion for the innkeeper. d. The innkeeper said that he cherished his coat.

jealousy [d3elasi] n. -♦ Many people believe that it is ethical to help others in need. many people like or respect them. concrete [kdnkrkt] n. h a r d y [ha:rdi] adj. An aircraft is a vehicle that flies in the sky.» I am going to a lecture about ancient Rome at the Historical Institute. . but now they are extinct. it is strong and can live though difficult conditions. institute [instat/ir. esteemed [istkmd] adj. If something is ethical. Jealousy is a feeling of wanting something that somebody else has. -♦ The farmer is a hardy man and doesn’t mind working outside. . so it did not take long to organize the project. An institute is an organization that is interested in research or teaching. ethical [eeikal] adj. such as an airplane or helicopter. -» She felt a lot ofjealousy when she saw Luke with two girls. Concrete is a substance made from stones.t] n. A celebrity is someone who is famous. -* An esteemed scientist is coming to the university to talk about her discoveries. they make decisions quickly. decisive [disaisiv] adj. -* There used to be dinosaurs all over the world. -+ The man covered the ground with concrete. -* Our boss is very decisive. -% If plants or animals are extinct. you can see a lot of old aircraft. If someone is esteemed. -+ At the museum in the airport. it is the right thing to do. there are none left. If someone is decisive.List aircraft [carkrasft] n. extinct [iksti'qkt] adj. celebrity [salebrati] n. If a person or plant is hardy. -♦ It was the highlight of the evening when the celebrities arrived.

To nurture something means to care for it as it grows or develops. it is located above you. -> Many birds migrate to warmer countries in the winter. -> I want to live in a small house in a rural area. overhead [ouvarhed] adv. secluded [siklu:did] adj. If a place is secluded. A species is a type of plant or animal. and that is why they grow so well.migrate [maigreit] v. Zoology is a subject in which people study animals. To migrate means to move from one place to another. S p e c i e S [spi:Ji(:)z] n. A swamp is a very wet area of land. A principle is a belief about the correct way to behave. rural [ruaral] adj. it’s vital to watch. -* Robert nurtured his plants. and speak carefully. -* Helen wants to study zoology because she has always liked animals. To traverse means to move or travel through an area. -» There was a secluded bench in the park. -*■ To maintain principles. listen. principle [prmsapsl] n. nurture [na:rtjar] v. -» As we sat on top of the hill. -» The explorer traversed the desert alone on a camel. it is in the countryside instead of the city. If something is overhead. a plane flew overhead. -* There are 21 different species of butterfly in this forest. If a place is rural. traverse [trsevars] V. -» There are lots of wild animals living in the swamp. . swamp [swamp] n. zoology [zoualad3i] n. it is far away from any other place.

a wet area of land a. d. you need to . 4. be hardy c. celebrity d. a. Study zoology c. correct species a. famous overhead a. species d. principle 2 . the act of wanting another person’s things d. How come we cannot see dinosaurs today? a. to make decisions c. Nurture babies d. There are not a lot of buildings. Brids to warmer parts of the country during the winter. being the right thing to do a. Be decisive 3. If you want to camp in the mountains. travel in an aircraft 5. nurture b. swamp b. ethical d. aircraft B Choose the right definition for the given word. an animal jealousy a. There is a lot of concrete. hardy b. rural 4. secluded c. respected by many people a. species c. It isn’t ethical. 2. migrate c. feel jealousy d. to care for d. d. studying animals c. 1 . insitute c. c. respected b. a rule of behavior a. jealousy b. alone d. stones b. zoology b. esteemed d. to travel b. institute 3. moving b. It is very rural. able to cope Choose the answer that best fits the question. a. 1 . migrate . have principles b. b. decisive c. to die c. Go to a swamp b. able to make decisions quickly a. They have all traversed the desert. wet land d. Birds often fly overhead. They are celebrities. 1. b. esteem b. above c. knowing right and wrong c. They are extinct. 3. 5. What should I do if I want to learn about animals? a. traverse 5. concrete d.PZ^EU' A Choose the right word for the given definition. a. overhead c. nurture 2. Which of these does NOT describe the countryside? a. extinct d. 4. respected secluded a. c. able to fly d. a place to study b.

1. but he was worried if it wasthe___ thing to fire him over the holidays.Choose the word that is the better fit for each blank. 7. swamp / extinct They found the remains of___________ animals in the___________. 2. 5. zoology / nurture He chose to study___________ because he has always likedto _________ animals. hardy / traverse You need to be___________ if you wantto ___________ the mountains. institute / celebrity A(n)___________is going to give a talk at the___________ of Drama. ethical / decisive He made a quick. 3. secluded / species You can see many different bird___________ inthis___________ location. aircraft / migrate Many people__________ by ship or___________ . overhead / rural I like to be in ___________ areas where there are no planes flying_______ 10 . 8. 9. 4. 6. esteemed / jealousy She felt a lot of__________ because her sister was highly___________ .___________ choice. concrete / principle I don’t like the___________of covering the garden in .

it is! I’m going to take it back to the Zoology Institute. “It isn’t ethical. eventually. They will be filled with so much jealousy when they see what I have found!” “Are you sure we should take it from its home?” asked Eliza. Gilbert fed and nurtured the lizard. rural place. So now she was traversing a swamp in the midday heat. At home. but her husband was a zoology professor and wanted to look for some interesting animals. He thought that this find would make him a highly esteemed celebrity at the Zoology Institute. Gilbert started to wonder whether it was special at all. we are special like the red lizard.” “Good.” said Gilbert.” He carefully picked it up. Home is where we are happiest. But the lizard wasn’t happy.” said Eliza. We can never be so happy when we are away. and they watched them flying overhead. The lizard was only red in the swamp! Gilbert said to Eliza. I’ve learned an important lesson. “I’m going to return this lizard to the swamp. There were lots of birds in that secluded. They sat under a tree. Then suddenly Gilbert saw something on a rock.Gilbert and the Lizard Eliza disliked Australia.” she said. “Let me sit down. “So. “Hmm.” said Eliza. In fact. “That’s strange. she’d had to spend twenty uncomfortable hours on an aircraft getting here. they looked exactly alike. can we go home now?” . For the next few days. but I thought that species was extinct.” But Gilbert was decisive and took the lizard back to the hotel in the city. many animals migrate. Firstly. I don’t agree with the principle of it. “That looks like a Red Swamp Lizard. “Nonsense. She wanted to go to the beach. He went outside and found a common lizard on a piece of concrete. Gilbert. It lost its beautiful red color and began to look ordinary. They’re used to changes. When he compared them. I’m not hardy like you. “Yes.” said Gilbert.

To the university c. Ethical d. Eliza was a professor of zoology. Hardy 4. Butterflies 2 . To his home . secluded area. Decisive b. Birds c. 5. Gilbert nurtured the red lizard at the hotel. 3. Full of jealousy c. 4. Gilbert thought that the red lizard was an extinct species. P/MEF B Answer the questions. A celebrity b. To the Zoology Institute b. The swamp was in a rural. An extinct species d.2. 6. To a different swamp d. What did Gilbert think that the find would make him feel like? a. Decisive c. How was Gilbert described after he found the lizard? a. An aircraft b. Where did Gilbert want to take the red lizard? a. 1. Highly esteemed d. Eliza was hardier than Gilbert. Full of principles 3. What did Gilbert and Eliza see flying overhead? a.

r c o n t a g i o u s [kanteid39s] adj. -» James has been given a promotion in the army. — After the accident. -► The airport workers’ strike led to a crisis at the airport. An assumption is something that you believe is true but cannot prove. r b a r l e y t a i ] n. A crisis is a situation that is extremely stressful or dangerous. it was still safe to eat. -* My dentist cured me of my toothache. A colonel is a military officer. r c o r p s e n©yps] n. r b e a s t [bust] n. -* The farmer grew barley to feed his cows in the winter. To discriminate means to judge people according to their looks. c d e f o r m e d [difomnd] adj. C U re [kjuar] v. it is not shaped normally and may appear ugly. . r d i s c r i m i n a t e [diskri'maneit] v. -* You must wear protective clothing because the patient’s illness is contagious. If something is deformed. To cure means to cause an illness or injury to end or disappear. r c o l o n e l [kemal] n. it is easily carried from one person to another. -* A lion is one of the fiercest beasts on Earth. C r i s i s [kraisis] n. dangerous animal. A corpse is a dead body of a human. -> I went to the cafeteria on the assumption that everyone would be there. Barley is a grain that is used for animal feed. A beast is a large. If a disease is contagious.r a s s u m p t i o n [esAmpJsn] n. health food and beer. They discriminated against her because she was different. the corpse was taken to the hospital. -» Even though the carrot was deformed. He is now a colonel.

r embassy [embasi] n. Nutrition is the process by which people use food to stay healthy. -» If you lose your passport. If something happens promptly. If something is miniature. r promptly [prdmptli] adv. -» There are a lot of flint tools in the museum. -* The children harassed their mother because they wanted her attention. -+ Governments want immigrants to integrate with the population. r nutrition [n/u:trijsn] n. -» Michael extinguished the small fire with the hose. An embassy is where government officials work in a foreign country. r tropics Etrdpiks] n. r flint [flint] n. communicate and socialize. -♦ People like to go to the tropics for vacation because it’s warm. To extinguish a fire means to make it stop. it happens quickly or on time. r integrate [intagreit] v. Flint is a hard stone that people used to make weapons for hunting. To harass someone means to annoy or trouble them. To integrate means to join. r miniature [mmiatjar] adj. r technician [teknijan] n. The boy enjoys playing with his miniature train set in his bedroom. The tropics are the areas of land and sea close to the equator. you should contact the embassy. or we won’t have time to discuss everything. . it is very small. -♦ Arrive promptly. r harass [harees] V. -> I need to call the technician to help me with my computer. r extinguish [ikstfngwij] v. -*• It is important to pay attention to nutrition if you want to be an athlete. A technician is a person who is skilled in electronic or mechanical work.

harass d. ending an illness b. trouble c. a bad situation a. integrate 3. to trouble or annoy someone a. a belief without proof b. technician c. a military officer d. small things d. a dead body a. a building in another country 4. very small a. nutrition b. to socialize with 3. scientists b. nutrition a. corpse b. discriminate b. beast d. flint a. a dangerous animal a. a grain c. a hard stone b. tropics a. to put out a fire b. promptly 5. areas close to the Equator c. extinguish c. a dangerous animal 5. tropics PAHD1B Choose the right definition for the given word. the process of how food is used for health d. to be on time c. deformed b. assumption a. bad treatment . crisis d. an assumption b. contagious d. to become ill d. flint d. cure 2 . 1 . integrate a. 1 . embassy 4. a dead body c. colonel c. miniature c. barley c. a bad situation 2 . an unusual shape d.PCMT A Choose the right word for the given definition.

. c. 4. because the doctors cured his illness because the illness is contagious d. The colonel won a medal . if you go on vacation in the tropics b. a. 3. to determine the cause of death how you can get a visa fed to animals entire fire by myself with the people in the village b. c. A lot of miniature electronic machines. . gi. 10 . e. James studied chemistry at university. h. 1. Our new neighbors have integrated well. An employer should not discriminate. The children wanted some chocolate. I want to cut down the tree in the garden . d. 7. Mike was released from the hospital . 5. : : : j : : I Tom left the house early . 8. i. The embassy will tell you_____ . 4. . 9. The financial crisis . j. 8. 7. 10. a. 5. If you want to be healthy.B5M2D1A Match the phrases to make complete sentences 1. The corpse was examined . j- are manufactured in Japan by people living ten thousand years ago was caused by poor bank management for his work in the war among people at work PAED 1 B M atch the c la u se s to m ake com plete se n te n ce s. Pam isn’t at work today . You may need to have some vaccinations . g. because it is deformed and looks ugly so they harassed their father until he bought some on the assumption that the traffic would be bad and now he works as a technician in a laboratory you need to pay attention to your nutrition . Barley is often . because all the beasts could talk and they arrived very promptly f. The book was very fun to read . f. I phoned the police. 2. I was able to extinguish the . Flint weapons were used_____ . 2. 6. 3. 9. e. 6. h. .

so they were forced to land in the forest.” said Wilbur. We’ll have to find help. “Can you fix the plane?” Wilbur said. the forest people immediately welcomed them. the couple searched. From there. “No! Don’t go! They are deformed!” said Mary. It was difficult to find a path through the trees. Suddenly.” For three days. Mary was sorry that she had not trusted the forest people sooner. We’ll surely end up as corpses!” Wilbur tried to persuade Mary to go to the forest people. Mary agreed to return to the forest people. It was impossible to extinguish the fire.--B 'rfi Forest People Colonel Wilbur and his wife Mary were flying over the tropics in their private plane. She had the assumption that the small people were dangerous. and the plane is out of gasoline. but they found no one who could help them in their crisis.The I * _ • . “Let’s keep walking. It was uncomfortable. Plus. They gave them bread made from barely to eat and a place to sleep. We’re sure to find someone sooner or later. Finally.K^Ji L. But suddenly the engine caught fire. the forest was filled with dangerous beasts. I am not a technician. She learned the value of not discriminating against people who are different. The next day. Mary even tore her dress on sharp thorns. the forest people led Wilbur and Mary through the trees. and they were hungry without any source of nutrition. but she refused to integrate with them. and they promptly arrived at a small town.” Wilbur and Mary walked through the forest. they saw some huts and lots of miniature people. “That’s impossible. 9 f« d -» lilfci-Ji | . cooking and making weapons with flint. they took a bus to the city where they found an embassy. “What are we going to do?” said Mary. When Wilbur and Mary arrived at the village. “They’ll harass us! They may have a contagious virus that will make us sick! We won’t know how to cure it. . “I’ll ask them for help.

c. What was the bread that the forest people gave Wilbur and Mary made of? a. Why didn’t Mary want to integrate with the forest people? a.P£\R. Even though the plane crashed. They looked deformed. 1. harass forest people c. In the village c. a. They were very tall. EPZMU'u1B Answer the questions. It was possible for the colonel to extinguish the fire on the plane. Barley b. They had poor nutrition. 2. and they promptly arrived at a city. Mary learned not to . Wilbur and Mary had to land in the forest because the engine caught fire. 4. d. b. 5. The couple searched for help in the forest for five days. 163 . They were from the embassy. Where was the embassy located? a. After the crisis in the forest. In the city b. Flint c. Beasts 2. In the town 4. Mary refused to go to the people on the assumption they had a contagious virus. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. On the coast d. 1. fly a plane in the tropics d. 6. Corpses d.D’ A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. The forest people led Wilbur and Mary through the trees. it still had plenty of gasoline. wear dresses in the forest 3. discriminate against people b.

-* The money that John has is comparative to most other adults. deposit [dipazit] v. -* China is the birthplace of chopsticks. The teacher distributed crayons and markers to his students.beneficial [benatp] adj. Cumulative describes an increase by adding one after another. it is extremely important to another thing. To distribute something is to give it to a number of people. -* The parking lot has reached its full capacity. The capacity of something is the amount of things that can be put in it. -* Drinking milk everyday is beneficial to your bones. — The group worked to conserve the beauty of Europe’s national parks. -+ The teacher gave us a comprehensive review for the exam. and animals. -» The cumulative snowfall in the area is 50 centimeters per year. If something is comparative. To deposit something is to put it into a place or another thing. capacity [kspaesati] n. birthplace [baxepleis] n. A birthplace is a place where a person is born or where something started. If something is beneficial. conserve [kansa:n/] V. distribute [distnbju:t] v. -» Clean air is crucial to the survival of humans. comparative [kampaerativ] adj. comprehensive [kdmprihensiv] adj. it is good for you. -+ 1deposited the money into my bank account. If something is comprehensive. . it is being judged based on something else. If something is crucial. it has all the details about something else. To conserve something is to protect it from being ruined or used completely. crucial [kru:jsl] adj. cumulative ikju imjaleitiv] adj. plants.

A rainforest is a forest that is in a place where it rains very often. -* The team came up with a strategy to win the game. e x o t i c [igzatik] adj.equator [ikweitar] n. -+ My aunt believes that the oxygen in the country is cleaner than in the city. OXygen [aksid3an] n. formation [formeijen] n. The equator is an imaginary line that splits the Earth into north and south. wooded [wudid] adj. -» Jim and Ben decided to go hiking in the wooded area by the river. If an area is wooded. Exotic describes something unusual because it is from far away. it comes from the government of a country. -* Rebecca tried many exotic foods on her trip to Africa. -*■ My objective this week is to finish my homework by 7:30 every night. -» The equator crosses the northern part of South America. Oxygen is a gas that all living things need to breathe. A formation is the way that something is made. objective An objective is a goal or plan that someone has. it is covered with trees. -+ The formation of ice happens when water freezes. -* The rainforest is home to many animals. rainforest [reinfo(:)rist] n. The frequency of something is the number of times that it happens. [abd3§ktiv] n. -* Sometimes federal laws are different from state laws. especially during the spring. federal [federal] adj. strategy [strsetedsi] n. . A strategy is a plan for how to do something. -» The frequency of rainstorms is very high. If something is federal. frequency [fr(:kwansi] n.

wooded 3. a goal d. cumulative c. where someone is born b. extremely important a. based on something else 5. objective b. to put into b. a line b. beneficial P£\Q?0’ B Choose the right definition for the given word. formation a. l . 1 . unusual and unfamiliar a. distribute d. very important b. containing many details 3. equator 4. capacity d. to protect c. exotic d. formation d. rainforest b. beneficial a. a plan c. conserve a. strategy a. coming from the government d. frequency 5. comparative b. made from added parts c. to breathe . deposit c. federal a.A Choose the right word for the given definition. comprehensive b. to give d. where something begins a. federal d. filled with trees c. crucial b. to give something away a. birthplace c. a forest 2 . how something is made c. how often something happens 4. oxygen c. a person’s goal a. strategy c. unusual or exciting b. good for you d. the number of things inside something d. conserve 2 .

1. 8 . I’m going to visit a small town in Ecuador that is near the imaginary line. He needed gas required for breathing to help him survive. England d. Which of these can be cumulative? a. Snow b. 5. Air 3. A plate c. What is something you probably wounldn’t encounter in arainforest? a. open b. Eddie didn’t want to eat it. expand c. Sam gave away party invitations to his friends. The letter came from a national government office. I like going to the park because it’s covered with trees. 3. reduce d. 9. Antarctica b. In which place is there a high frequency of snowfall? a. A radio d. 2 . Many trees b. A television b. Money d. 'J Choose the answer that best fits the question. Jackets c. Humid weather d. 7. and I feel like I’m in the mountains. Australia . Spain c. 10. Monkeys c. My mother grows unusual and unfamiliar flowers in her garden. This book about the history of India is full of details. The business’s goal is to earn more money this year than it did last year. but he knew the broccoli would be good for his health. Kangaroos 5. 4. The number of shoes that Jane and Beth have is judged based on something else. 1. Water 4.Write a word that is similar in meaning to the underlined part. Which word has about the same meaning as capacity? a. maximum amount 2. What is something you would deposit into a closet? a. 6.

in fact....... The trees in these forests pull water out of the clouds...... Some people have an objective to get federal money to protect the forests. but saving the cloud forests is still a possibility... There’s plenty of work to be done.. The moisture gathers on the leaves.... Another strategy is to replace the destroyed plants. It helps them survive.. Trees are being cut down... People have been trying to conserve rainforests for years.. generally near the equator. They are called “cloud forests” because their height allows for the formation of clouds among the trees. That....... These humid..ItiTffll. These forests are located at the tops of mountains.... One small cloud forest has the capacity for as many types of plants as there are in all of Europe. Then....... .... Cloud forests are also the birthplace of countless species of plants that can’t be found anywhere else.. too... Rainforests produce large amounts of oxygen. These forests are being destroyed with increasing frequency. This water is crucial to the plants and the people in the area. and roads are being built in their place.. But the forests’ exotic trees and animals are being killed to make room for farmers and roads....... But another type of forest—the cloud forest—is just as beneficial to humans. Cloud forests produce comparative amounts of water.. but little is being done to save them.. it’s distributed to people......fcW^ ■rMntf ^ .M Dying Forest Rainforests provide much of the world’s oxygen supply.... Cloud forests can pull in up to 60 percent of that. . wooded mountaintops are mainly in African and Central and South American countries... it is deposited into streams. There are so many.. The yearly cumulative rainfall in these areas is 173-198 centimeters. a «U .. The streams flow into towns at the bottom of the mountain. When it drips. that scientists haven’t made a comprehensive list of them yet... .. . But they have had little success. Cloud forests are also in danger of disappearing. has been difficult because the plants are so unique..

They let it gather in leaves. In Europe 2. 1. More than 178 centimeters c. Another type of forest—the cloud forest—is just as beneficial to humans as a rainforest. To plant more trees b. P/Mu’ B Answer the questions. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. Where are cloud forests located? a. wooded mountaintops are mainly in African and European countries. On farms b. How much water do cloud forests add to the yearly cumulative rainfall? a. To make room for farmers d. The equator provides much of the world’s oxygen supply. Less than rainforests 4. 3. People have been trying to conserve rainforests for years.A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. How do the trees in cloud forests make water? a. 4. They pull it in from streams. b. 6. Near the equator c. To build more roads c. c. They pull it in from clouds. 1. Some people have an objective to get federal money to protect the forests. To protect the forests 169 . Up to 60 percent d. d. These humid. About 188 centimeters b. Why do some people want federal money? a. In rainforests d. 5. They allow the formation of clouds. 2. 3. Cloud forests are being destroyed with increasing frequency.

-* We studied the organism on the microscope. it is a basic part of something. To paraphrase is to make someone else’s writing or speech shorter. -* I dread the idea that I will not get into college. -* There was a horrifying car accident today. -* The smell of fresh cookies lingered in the bakery.List avail [aveil] n. To expand is to become bigger in size. dread [dread] v. -*• People define success in many different ways. it is frightening and very unpleasant. especially a very small one. define [difain] v. i n c r e d u l o u s [inkred3alas] adj. or explain what something is. paraphrase [pserafreiz] v. they do not believe that it is true. Avail is help. happen. If someone is incredulous about something. If something is fundamental. It is often used in the achievement of a goal. The students were asked to paraphrase the story they just heard. or is going to. To define means to clearly state. linger [linger] V. -+ His studying was to no avail because he failed the test. An organism is a living thing. . -*■ The fundamental rules of basketball are easy. To dread is to be afraid of something that could. -+ A balloon will expand as you blow air into it. O r g a n i s m [5:rganlzam] n. To linger is to last for a long time. expand [ikspaend] v. fundamental [fAndamentl] adj. horrifying [ho rafain] adj. If something is horrifying. show. -*■ She was incredulous that monkeys could ever drive a car.

it happens without any pattern or reason. -» A plague in Europe killed millions of people. If a contrast is stark. but by next year we can do even better. riot [raiat] n. -» I scribbled a rough diagram of our plan and gave it to him. — Presently. Solitude is the state of being totally alone. To summon a person is to ask them to come to you. If something is random. random [rsendam] adj. A riot is a crowd that reacts to bad news by violently breaking laws. -» There is a stark contrast between their test scores. ■—A riot broke out after the candidate lost the election. SOlitude [salit/u:d] n. To worsen is to get worse. presently [prezantli] adv. -+ We summoned the doctor as soon as we noticed she was sick. then the things being compared are utterly different. A plague is a serious disease that quickly spreads to many people. -*■ He prayed at the shrine for an hour. our profits are good. . summon [sAman] v. stark [sta:rk] adj.p l a g u e [pleig] n. scribble [skrfbsl] v. W o r s e n [warsan] v. event. -* Young children often ask random questions. it is happening right now. shrine [Jrain] n. If something happens presently. To scribble is to write something quickly without caring about how it looks. or god. -* John lives a life of solitude because he doesn’t get along well with people. A shrine is a religious building built to honor a person. -» The weather suddenly worsened. and we had to stay inside.

to send for 5. summon 2 . define a. very unpleasant . right now 3. success d. expand c. random b. basic a. solitude a. define d. incredulous b. solitude c. a living thing d. to get bigger d. not believing a. different d. stark b. worsen c.B£\EO’ A Choose the right word for the given definition. a violent reaction c. organism a. not believing b. without reason 2 . verse c. dread c. fundamental 3. to last a longtime c. linger b. to explain clearly b. plague a. to make easier 4. being alone c. a religious building c. to ask someone to come a. avail b. organism 4. afraid b. plague B Choose the right definition for the given word. to get worse c. scribble d. 1 . shrine d. 1 . basic d. to be afraid a. a disease b. riot d. to get bigger a. horrifying 5. horrifying a. to write quickly b. presently d.

organism / summon We should . 3. fundamental / worsen The___________ point of my speech was to show that people need to act. 9. butthe___________ was not damaged. linger / scribble I tried to.mm Choose the word that is the better fit for each blank. scientists from around the world to study this new 10. 2. the information as fast as I could because I didn’t have time to 7. 1. expand / presently There are 15 members in the group 4. shrine/riot There was a ___________ in the city yesterday. dreaded / horrifying plane crash. I After seeing that___ 8. avail / solitude His attempt to catch the train was to no waiting for the next one. things will 6. plague / random At first we thought . incredulous / stark She was___________that there could be such a boys’ and girls’ grades. paraphrased / defined For the book report. If we don’t do something. I purpose for writing it. 5.was spreading people were getting sick. Then we realized that a .

we would know much less about ancient Greece and the Plague of Athens. At this time. He quickly scribbled down notes because he thought he would soon die. Without his writing. The city became very crowded as the population expanded. the verse said the gods would send a disease during a war. Thucydides survived. But it was to no avail because no one understood how the disease spread. but they dreaded what the army outside would do to them. It seemed random. But luckily. There were riots. . The plague lingered for two years. People wanted to leave the crowded city. and people ignored laws. Thucydides was incredulous that gods caused the plague. They didn’t think they’d live long enough to be punished. but he explained why others believed it. As a result. large crowds gathered at shrines to ask the gods to stop the plague. too. he almost didn’t survive one historical event: the Plague of Athens. But the situation only worsened because these people were so close to each other they became sick. Thousands of people hid from the army behind Athens’ large walls. Instead. They didn’t know that it was an organism. we get most of our knowledge about ancient Greece from his writing. Presently. Then a horrifying disease broke out.Thucydides and the Plague of Athens Thucydides was the world’s first historian. long verse which predicted the disease. an army attacked the city of Athens. People summoned doctors. There was an old. His writing shows a stark contrast between people’s behavior before and during the plague. Thucydides got sick. he lived through it. However. But Thucydides didn’t just write about history. where Thucydides lived. To paraphrase it. Many sick people were left to die in solitude because no one wanted to be near them. That’s how they learned a fundamental lesson about the plague: it spread from person to person. In 430 BCE. they defined disease as a punishment from their gods.

Rewrite the false statements to make them true. people thought the spread of the disease was random. The plague was spread between people. he though he’d die soon . Thucydides scribbled quickly because a. 4. d. By gathering in shrines. there were so many riots c. 3. c. he had to define the disease d. Why did Athens’ population expand? a. there were too many sick people 3. Thucydides luckily survived the plague. The plague was ended in the shrines. people made the plague worse. What is NOT true of Thucydides? a. . Because the army told people to enter d. The plague was a punishment. He lived in the city of Athens. Because people dreaded the plague 2. What fundamental lesson did the people learn? a. 2. The people summoned doctors to no avail. P£\EiJ B Answer the questions. b. Because people were hiding from the army c. c. At first. Because the army moved into the city b. He thought gods caused the plague. b. 6. b. Thucydides was incredulous that the plague was caused by an organism. The plague was from the army. 4. a horrifying plague has broken out in Athens. He survived the Plague of Athens. He was the world’s first historian. 1. 5. 1. d. Presently.A Mark each statement T for true or F for false.

-+ Tony rested for brief intervals while he worked in the yard. A candidate is a person who is competing to win something such as a job. -♦ Amy’s blue shirt really enhances the color of her eyes. If something is confidential. . To incorporate is to add something to another thing. guideline [gaidlain] n. An era is a period of time that has something special about it. the teacher gave them some guidelines. -> The first automobiles were very different from the ones that exist today. -*■Alice is the best candidate for the job. -> Tom enjoys working in the corporate world. interact [intaraskt] v. An automobile is a car. -* The kids began to interact when the adults left the room. era [era] n. knights wore protective armor.automobile [o:tamsbi:l] n. -> During the medieval era. -*■ The information from the meeting is confidential. enhance [erthaens] v. An interval is the time between two things happening. it must be kept secret. If something is corporate. it is related to a large business. candidate [ksendideit] n. To enhance something is to make it better. confidential [kdnfidenjal] adj. interval [interval] n. -» I decided to incorporate a new ingredient into my cake recipe. A guideline is a rule about how to do something. — Before they began the project. To interact is to talk to or do something with another person. incorporate [ink5:rpareit] v. corporate [koi/parit] adj.

Transportation is any type of vehicle that can carry people or things. A tournament is a competition. phenomenon [findmandn] n. tournament [tuarnamant] n. — There are two yellow parallel lines dividing both sides of traffic. unclean. -*■ I was amazed when I saw the phenomenon of shooting stars. solar [soular] adj. water. transportation [traenspa:rteijan] v. usually with many people participating. If two things are parallel. -+ 1don’t have a car. parallel [pseralel] adj. it is related to the sun. To modify something is to change it a little bit. or foul. -*■Mobile phones are popular because you can take them anywhere. . or land dirty. -* Using solar energy is good for the environment. A phenomenon is something that can be seen as it is happening. -» Gibraltar is a territory of Great Britain. -* The other students ridicule Peter’s foreign accent. -* My dad is playing in a golf tournament tomorrow. The careless factory polluted the river with chemicals. pollute [palut] V. it can be moved easily. they are the same distance away from each other.mobile [moubail] adj. If something is solar. territory iterator] n. If something is mobile. -* I modified my outfit by adding a belt to it. ridicule [ridikju:0 * To ridicule is to make fun of something in a mean way. so my normal transportation is the train. To pollute means to make air. modify [mddafai] v. A territory is a piece of land that belongs to a country but isn’t a state.

The information in them was about important customers and had to be kept__________ . eventually causing an accident. Instead. 6 . 2 . 7. ridiculed / transportation Ben didn’t listen to my advice about__________ . so they are going to ___________ new rules for disposing waste. Jane had trouble parking it between the___________ lines in the parking lot. he___________ me and continued to drive fast. 4. enhance / candidate A survey found that not very many people like the__________ . music records were an amazing__________ . 5. There will be short___________when you can stop for a drink of water. incorporate / pollute The company doesn’t want to___________the air anymore. 9 . 1 . corporate / confidential The___________files were locked in the basement. 10 . It made several of its ___________smaller so that it could create a new one. People back then would have been even more amazed by today’s ___________ music players. Many people think using___________ energy is a good way to do this.Choose the word that is the better fit for each blank. 8 . automobile / parallel The old___________ was very large and difficult to drive. . guidelines / intervals The___________for the race are very simple: just run as fast as you can. 3. modify / territories The government decided to ___________ its borders. mobile / phenomenon In the early 1900s. tournament / interact The baseball___________ is always a lot of fun. It allows students from all over the city to___________with each other. So he is trying to think of ways to___________ his image and make people like him. era / solar We live in a(n)___________where people are very concerned about conserving our natural resources.

Factories built in the early 1900s contine to unleash chemicals into the air. A sidewalk d. a meal d. a friend b. In this period of time. it’s more common for kids to play video games than read books. I need to alter it. In order for my science project to work. compete What is the word solar related to? c. 3.Exercise 2 Write a word that is similar in meaning to the underlined part. The sun a. 1. 1. A car d. Which of the following means confidential? c. Winning . The person competing for the job interviewed very well. d. Competition . 5. moveable a. 8 . 'J Choose the answer that best fits the question. Business b. My soccer team is playing in a competition next weekend. A bus 4. Kate is very shy and doesn’t like to talk to and do things with the other girls. soft b. 7. Which of the following is a form of transportation? a. they will be the same distance away from each other. 2. A tree b. My grandfather used to race cars across the long distances in endurance races. Tom wants to add more colors into his painting. a new job 5 Which of these words are related to corporate? a. Lines b. A building a. 10. Land Which of these is mobile? c. an airplane c. Time c. 6 . When the new buildings are finished. 9. Amy hurt Jane’s feelings when she made fun of her. secret d. 4.

the cars incorporate solar panels onto the outside that lie parallel to each other. the natural resources used to make gas will run out. The teams keep all their plans confidential. Most importantly. That’s how they move. So what happens then? Many people think solar-powered automobiles are the answer. a new era in car making and in driving is beginning. Eventually. These panels are made from materials that take in light from the sun and turn it into electric energy. Although the drivers want to finish the race quickly. The cars only have room for one person and are very simple inside—they don’t even have a cushion for the driver to sit on. They have to drive at the normal speed limits. To learn more about this type of transportation. They must stop at certain intervals to charge their batteries. And these cars aren’t just enhanced and modified versions of normal cars. that is not the main goal. And unlike normal race cars.000 kilometers across the Australian territories. These cars are shorter and much more flat than normal cars. they can’t go very fast. Candidates for this tournament must design their own cars. plus they pollute the air. Because of the World Solar Challenge. Using the technology from the vehicles. car makers will eventually create solar cars for the rest of us. The objective is to see how well the cars work under normal driving conditions. but this is a phenomenon that isn’t going away. The drivers have to heed strict guidelines. teams from universities and corporate organizations gather in Australia every two years for a solar car race. These cars race over 3. The race is called the World Solar Challenge. . People may ridicule the solar cars because they look strange. But the cars we drive require too much gas. They are completely different.The Solar Car Race We live in a mobile society. They don’t interact with other teams because the race is very competitive.

d. The rules are strict. The way they pollute c. Computer companies c. Corporate organizations 4. The shorter height 2. The solar panels b. 1. What is the most important feature of the racecars? a. 181 ***** . b. Australian territories b. 4. High schools d. Before the race. Why don’t the teams interact with other teams? a. The objective of the race is to find out how the solar cars_____ a.* 1 :3 ?S€nt| ~________ 3. The drivers have to heed strict transportation guidelines. They don’t know each other. The teams ridicule each other. Where are the race teams from? a. take in energy from the sun c.A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. PQEu1B Answer the questions. 1 . 5.000 kilometers across the Australian territories. The cars incorporate metal panels on the outside that lie parallel to each other. r 2. can go faster 3. The race is competitive. drive in normal conditions b. will help the environment d. 6. ~ r%lV C. They must stop at certain intervals to put air in their tires. These cars drive less than 3. teams keep their plans confidential. c. The simple design d. Candidates for this tournament must design their own cars.

» I have so many bills that I do not know how to pay for them all.r bill [bii] n. If a person is consistent. A boundary is the line where one area of land stops. -* Since I spent all my money. r chaos [keias] n. r martial [marfal] adj. such as a chicken. If something is martial. -♦ Hundreds of homes were damaged by the cyclone. -* He raises poultry and sells their meat for extra money. that is used for meat and eggs. -»■ Karate is a martial art that began many years ago in Japan. d o o m e d [du:md] adj. . they keep the same behavior or attitude. but they’re better for you. it is grown without adding chemicals to it. . r boundary [baundsri] n. it is related to fighting or war. and another begins. If food is organic. An heir is a person who receives money or property of someone who dies. -* Sara comes in every day and is our most consistent worker. A bill is a statement of money owed for goods or a service. A cyclone is a large storm with heavy rain and winds that spin in a circle. -* This fence shows the boundary between our yard and yours. my date with Jane is doomed. r poultry [poultri] n. consistent [kansistant] adj. Poultry is a bird. -»■ The princess was the heir to the king and queen’s throne. Chaos is a situation that is confusing and not ordered. organic [oxgeenik] adj. they are going to fail or be destroyed. r cyclone [saikloun] n. I couldn’t understand what he meant. r heir fear] n. -» The organic carrots are more expensive. -+ His presentation was in chaos. If someone or something is doomed.

A stance is an attitude about an issue that someone states clearly. S t a n c e [staens] n. -»■ The blue textile was going to be used to make blouses. the telegraph was the fastest way to send a message. -* The baby wailed because it was hungry. -* My stance is that using oil and gas is bad for the environment. wardrobe [wordroub] n. [sd:rd3snt] n. the safest place to be is underground. -* In the 1900s. A telegraph is a method of sending electric messages on wires.scramble [skraembl] v. . If you describe something as sheer. -♦ Thousands of people lost electricity after a typhoon hit Australia. sergeant A sergeant is a soldier or police officer of middle rank. To wail is to show sadness by crying loudly. sheer [pax] adj. -»■ She bought some new clothes to expand her wardrobe. -*■ During a tornado. -* He was promoted to sergeant after a year in the army. A wardrobe is the collection of all of a person’s clothing. typhoon [taifu:n] n. Wail [well] v. tornado [torneidouj n. A tornado is a tube-shaped formation of air that spins very quickly. textile [tekstail] n. . To scramble is to move somewhere quickly and desperately. telegraph [telegraef] n. A typhoon is a large tropical storm that moves in circles. Textile is cloth that has been woven or knitted.+ 1was impressed by her sheer dedication to jogging. it is complete and very strong. -* The hikers scrambled down the side of the hill.

A dress b. Pants b. Fruit d. A typhoon b. Meat c. Students reading d. A teacher 9. A boundary 2. Soldiers 8 . A dead man’s heir c. A bill c. In a class 10. Who should expect toreceive something? a. A scrambling woman c. A vegetable d. Cooked poultry b. What can a person get from poultry? a. Taking martial arts classes d. A girl walking b. A sergeant d. Which of the following would help students taking a test? a. Which of the following would come from a farm? a. Karate d. Tango b. Judo 7. Taekwondo c. Reading in chaos b. In a factory d. Consistent studying 4. Which of the following is a kind of storm? a. Sheer luck c. Short telegraphs 3. A man driving a car c. A brave sergeant b. A dog c. Which of the following would be loudest? a. A man who needs a bill 5. A man with a strong stance d. Organic vegetables b. Which word is not related to martial arts? a. 1. What is part of a person’s wardrobe? a. A person’s wardrobe d. Wool textiles c. In an army c. Which situation is full of chaos? a. Wailing children 6 . In a store b. A doomed project d. Armies fighting .Choose the answer that best fits the question. Where would you most likely find a sergeant? a.

b. He failed the test. because that’s when tornados are common . When the cyclone arrives. 7. c. 2. He quickly took out his credit card. but that doesn’t mean the school years is doomed f. e. 6. He’s very consistent and_____ . 1 want to buy a new suit. a. 5. because I only eat organic food b. because the event turned into chaos c. First we color the textiles. The boundary of my land_____ . h._____ . 1 won’t go to fast food restaurants 1 was disappointed The police were called We all took shelter. Everyone scrambled to_____ . d. 3. we always keep a supply of food and water in the basement He didn’t like a strong central government. 6. 4. 10. The heir of Mr. 3. gi. 9. 1. i- when their toys were taken away and the soldiers should take care of it never really changes his attitude and then we make them into clothes. 4. 8. 9. but my wardrobe is pretty full h. tell my family about the new baby B Match the clauses to make complete sentences. because she ate only poultry and fruit e. 10 . there will be a lot of wind and rain is the fence not the road other soldiers to march avoid the rushing water will become very rich ._____ . The kids started wailing_____ . 5. 2. The sergeant ordered the_____ . f. so he could pay the bill d. She lost a few kilos a. because of their sheer lack of sportsmanship g. • : • : : : During the summer. I used the telegraph to_____ . 7._____ . so we knew his stance on politics i. 8. 1.Exercise 2 RCMF A Match the phrases to make complete sentences. Smith’s fortune This is a martial matter. since the typhoon was raging j.

Martin said. “it took the chaos of a typhoon to bring us together. “Look. but his stance on discipline was too strong. They were heirs to his old farm. they started a successful farm. we must stop fighting. “Just think. This farm could be great if we fixed it up. it’s a cyclone. His wardrobe was filled with his own products. we could run a great business together!” The storm finally ended. they received a telegraph saying that their father had died. Martin said. With my hard work.” Tom said. it’s coming right at us! We’re doomed!” The three brothers scrambled inside the old house. Martin was a hardworking farmer. He had almost no students. He was organized. Paul and Tom were brothers. it didn’t wreck the farm. but there was a lot of land. the storm got worse. so they went to see it even though there was a terrible storm. And luckily. it’s a tornado!” They argued until Paul began to wail and said. They were very different. “You mean a cyclone brought us together. Suddenly. “Didn’t I tell you both that it was a tornado?” The brothers never agreed on what kind of storm it was. They couldn’t succeed in business. in fact. He ran a martial arts school. it’s a typhoon!” Paul said. They planned to sell it as soon as possible. that they could barely see its boundary. Tom was once a sergeant in the army. One day. and they never agreed about anything.” Tom said. The sheer force of the wind almost knocked them over. “If we survive. but they were consistent about two things. growing organic vegetables and raising poultry. But he was disorganized and forgot to pay his bills. Paul’s organization and Tom’s discipline. Paul owned a textile factory that produced clothes. . “Whatever it is. but by combining their skills.” Paul replied. “No. There was so much.” Martin said. but he was greedy and took too much clothing. The house didn’t look great. “No.The Heirs Martin.

Martin c. 1. 6. 2. Who was the father’s heir? a. 1 . Paul’s wardrobe d. The brothers learned of their father’s death through a telegraph. The brothers could see the land’s boundary. the sheer force of the wind 3. d. 3. Tom was a sergeant in the army before running a martial arts school. The brothers were consistent about what two things? a. Tom d. All three men . He was too mean. 4. The brothers were almost knocked down by . b. 5. Bad business and arguing b.P/^TF A Mark each statement T for true or F for false. Good farming and arguing c. Rewrite the false statements to make them true. B Answer the questions. Martin’s stance on discipline was too strong. Bad farming and business d. Tom was a farmer who grew organic vegetables and poultry. He was greedy and took home clothes. 4. the chaos of the storm c. c. He gave away too much money. Paul b. He was too disorganized. Tom’s bills b. a. Good business and arguing 2. Why wasn’t Paul’s textile factory successful? a. Paul’s wardrobe was filled with clothes from his factory.

20 breakdown........................1 8 2 bind.......................................................... 50 dew........ 182 bracelet............. 104 dent............ 56 den ..... 146 com m erce....... 128 barber.......................................................... 152 decline........................................128 ch arm .................................. 122 c o z y ...... 134 c u r e ........................... 62 decisive............................. 44 a r m e d .158 com parative 164 cu rr e n t........................ 86 bruise........ 62 c o n c r e te .................. 80 afflicted................ 62 a p p e t i t e .................... 68 contemporary c h a o s ........ 122 cunning *. 32 charity............... 158 cu ltiva te c o m b in e ....................................... 74 beloved.116 c o n s c io u s ............... 104 c r is is .................140 a n im a te.......................... 176 consent capacity............... 152 a i s l e ........ 122 co n stru ct..................................182 c a rg o .................... 176 choir .....182 ***** 8 32 comprehensive •• 164 c o n c e a l ...... 62 concept *••••................... 110 barley.......... 134 c o n d e n s e d ....140 ch a ra c te r... 182 continent *•** 146 62 8 ••••• 74 damp..... 38 a c c e n t .... 122 deplete................... ce leb rity ........... 80 c o r e ........................................... 50 c e a s e ................... 56 brew... 104 diagram...116 c o n s ta n t....... 98 c o m p la in ............... 134 deposit....................... 14 a d m o n is h 20 a f f e c t ..............140 a t m o s p h e r e ....... 50 civil.. 170 deformed.............. 98 bury.... 98 birthplace 164 blank........................ 164 destiny.. 158 belly........ 4 4 defense.........110 cumulative.................. 20 c a n d i d a t e .................................................ED a b s o l u t e ................................................................................. 104 c o p p e r ........................................................146 c h e r is h .. 92 crucial.......... 116 breeze................. *164 cape-****.....158 c h o k e .............................................. 14 arch itect. 122 c r i m e ................ 92 conscience ....................... 86 c o lo n e l......... 26 decade................................. 164 c lu ster 8 crum ble..... 8 c u l t u r e ............... 92 a w e s o m e ........... 1 58 basement 110 bead.................................. 158 defy......................... 38 a v a il... 110 a c c e s s . 92 altogeth er 98 a n a l y z e .............. 74 c o n f u s e . 170 a v e n u e ..................................... 116 background 128 bait...... 50 accident 14 a c c o u n t .................................. 20 authoritative 68 autog rap h ................................................ 14 a u th o r..................... 80 ch apter........ so beak........................................ 164 co m m e n t ................ 8 a s s i s t .......... 44 c o n c e d e ........... 56 a ssu m ption ................ 92 cyberspace com plicate.... 158 c la s s ify ••••........................... 116 a u to m ob ile..... 68 a r o m a ....................... 44 civilization........................ 38 a ll i a n c e ... 20 bid............................................................................122 brag............ 62 c r o s s ...... 122 blink .............. 50 confidential ••••••• 176 conflict .......................................................................... 92 a r c .......... 146 corporate.............. 92 beneficial 164 betray................110 cyclone —.. 80 brick......152 c o n t a g i o u s . 74 boundary.............. 68 device. 122 c lim a te ................................ 110 deed........... 116 au d ib le ...................... 2 6 beast................................................................................... 74 bill .............. 116 a irc r a ft ... 110 blast ........... 8 0 detail.. 74 a w a it .......... 164 c o n s e r v e ...... 176 controversy..... 44 accurate 140 admiral.134 convenient......................... 134 chronicle ••*•....... 110 blow.. 56 ap p lau se 68 a p p ly ..............110 c o r p s e .... 68 c o m ic . 158 ce rem ony...................... 158 a ste ro id .................. 74 compassion ••••••• 146 c u s t o m ...** 38 consistent.. 20 ............... 8 c o n d u c t....................................... 62 disagree....... 20 a w h ile ..... 92 attentive..............128 c r a c k ........... 122 beverage 8 beware................ 68 define...........................152 c o n d e m n ............................. 116 a l a s ........................... 14 c o n n e c t ........................ 68 a lo n g sid e 56 a ltern ative 74 a lth ough .....................

..... 86 fo ld ........ 26 flint ................... 14 horrifying ....... 164 express *.................... 69 incorporate discriminate....... 116 flo c k ...................................................................... 56 formation....... 123 frequency............................................................ 62 fie ry ........................ 146 institute d i v e r s e .......................128 fo n d ................................................................... 62 h arass............. K kerosene □ l a g ........ leather •** id en tic al lecture — 140 id io t ............................................. d is o b e d ie n t ..............* 26 g l i m p s e ............................................ 14 fis t... 98 incredulous d i s e a s e . 170 d u e ...... 69 e r a ...............140 impending* 50 le g a l ............................................. 93 e s t e e m e d ..... *••• 152 evenly intellectual l in in g ......... 159 flip ............................. 32 in d ex ........... 50 e n h a n c e ....................... 32 interval — intervene divin e..182 g y m n a s iu m .....................152 g r i n d .................................................... ig n o r a n t ... 38 e q u a t o r .................. literature liv e ly ........ 32 hint ...... 21 g e n e t ic .................... 182 herm it......................... 86 g r a t it u d e ............................ 80 horrified.. l i d ...... 165 fort.......... 26 im p act 69 g e n o m e ......................... 68 extinguish ........................ 170 h u m id ...176 e r r a n d ...........................104 dread.... 32 eth ical.......................... 32 e s t a b l i s h ............ 1 0 4 fo lk ... 26 e v o l v e ....... l in g e r .....123 foster.................... d o u g h ....................... 4 4 h a lt................................. 10 4 flu s h . 13 4 h e ir................... 140 immoral... 50 handy.........................159 g r i p .. 92 echo ..................................................................................... 20 isolate habitat........................................................................... 3 8 folklore ....... 98 exit ...............117 immense e v a l u a t e ................ 9 3 etc........ 38 irritable •• 0] ........... ivy.. 110 e s s a y ......................... 165 equilibrium 146 equip ...... 20 e c o n o m y ......... 111 highlight..................................... 32 fe d eral.... 165 fundamental 170 furnace. 98 horn.................................... longing*** ...................................................... 86 fle s h ..... 86 flig h t ....... 1 46 fo und ....... 140 fa in t .......74 e n tir e .... 8 i t c h ................ 20 hitchhike............... 32 ..................................... 32 efficient....... 74 e x p a n d ..... 111 indirect •« d i s p la y ........ 146 g u id e lin e .......... 176 interact--- d o o m e d . 122 extinct............... 152 69 factor .......... 146 integrate 8 d i z z y ...............................................................116 e v e n tu a l... 5 6 ferry ..... 165 g o o d s ...................... m e d i t ............. 92 e n v i s i o n ............ 152 h a rsh . a jealousy ■ ju s tly ............................158 e x c e p t .................170 g ra p e fru it 14 influence distribute....... 134 i n f e c t ........ 165 fe e b le .....128 exception g lo b a l........ 134 . 134 h o o p .140 g e n re.. 98 forgive .........104 g l o v e ........ 176 enthusiasm -----........................................ 56 e m b a s s y ......... 21 i d l e ............ landmark law ••*•*•*• lean ••••*• l e a s h .... 75 h a y .... disrespect.... 159 h a rd y....159 em p ire enchant ......... 86 drastic....... 50 grow l...............d i s a p p r o v e ......... 14 h e e d ..... 56 e x o tic ... 2 6 foresee........................................ 44 injure *•** distrust................ 14 flexible......................................* 68 e n c l o s e ......

.................... 182 o b je c t iv e ...159 ui n u tritio u s.. 9 9 pleasure.. 6 9 shield...................... 182 pray........ 3 8 poison .................... 27 ruin.................................. 8 7 sift................ 63 nurture..... 6 3 regulate..165 majority........... 135 perspire.......177 paraphrase. 45 random................ 9 9 sane............... 135 reed..................................... 6 3 plead..177 ponder......................... 4 5 promote............. 135 script........................... 147 scramble...141 m a s s ... 153 J sake..... 3 9 roost.... 21 perish.... 93 o p e r a t e ................................. 3 8 pea.... 98 n e u tr a l....... 117 rally.......................141 phenomenon 177 raft................ 111 resolution... 21 patch. 86 lu r e .................. 9 paradise..... 3 9 poultry....................... 135 m o d e ..... 123 o b l i g e ...153 nutrition................................ 141 m m a r t ia l ......... 171 scribe.... 4 5 sergeant.... 104 n ightm are..................... 183 shelter...... 111 secluded............................ 9 rate......... 147 presently.......................................128 miniature ............ 153 semester........................ 105 o rg a n ic......................................... 147 saucer................... 51 pessimistic 57 pesticide......................... 159 protein...... 81 pudding......... 75 m u sh roo m .................... 117 per.... 165 pinpoint 21 pit...... 1 83 scrape... 69 m e a n tim e .......................... 6 3 ridicule............. 171 principle................... 177 rife..................................... 170 particle....................... 171 plantation 9 plea. 8 7 sheer........................ 33 multiply........................................ 45 m i d s t ................. m e a s u r e ............................... 105 refrain.... 171 rapid.............141 reinforce.. 93 o b liv io u s 26 m axim ize... 6 3 pastime..................... 153 o r g a n is m m illennium .................................. 3 9 rainforest 165 raisin ....... 15 lump .................... 27 pity..................... 75 o d o r .......................... 57 rural.. 69 57 n o t if y ............................... 15 palate..................................... 123 predator............. 135 plague............... 105 shrine.... 9 9 perfect... 9 3 private....... 51 moderation............................ 21 mighty ...... 81 l o o p ........ 182 m i g r a t e ....... 129 n ative........135 190 paddle. 177 m o r a l . 75 8 170 outraged ........................................ 105 n e g a t iv e .................. 153 prior.................... 117 review................................... 27 riot.... 81 m a je s t i c .......... 177 m o c k ............ 86 m oan .... 33 o p t io n .............................................. 99 scribble............. 147 m odify... 111 pop...........................................105 m y t h ............ 3 3 resolve...................... 129 religion............141 m u s c l e .. 75 research... 93 m isfortune. 105 pollute................................. 98 mixture..................... 111 search............ 171 shrink........ 45 m e l t ................................................................ 129 promptly...................................l o o m ............... 27 persecute. 159 m is c h ie f .................... 93 o f f e n s e .......................... 3 9 reconcile 87 reduce... 141 m e m o ra b le ................... 171 rip.......... 45 retain................. 3 9 m is e ry ............... 39 shutter... 26 m o bile.... 8 7 ........................ 9 3 reserve..... 15 rail............. 129 replace.... 80 o b s t a c l e .... 9 parallel...................................... 45 m a t u r e ............................................................ 9 9 role.............. 183 shatter............................. 3 3 proclaim..141 relate.................. 57 overhead 153 oxygen............. 45 resource........................ 33 sentence......... 33 recipe................................. 51 rescue..... 57 m a m m a l........................... 9 recent......... 38 offspring........... n o r.................... 8 7 rumor............................ 123 rim.............................117 n u m e r o u s ......................

.................................. 81 s o a k .153 z o o m ......... 39 s prin k le.............................. 183 s t a r k ....... 75 v iv id .... 135 update. 129 upright..177 s o l e ... 99 stormy.............. 27 ................................. 1 29 summon 171 supply........... 147 typewritten 33 typhoon........... 141 v e g e t a r ia n ................ 165 stricke n .......................................... 81 s l a m ..... 45 v o m i t ............ 15 s t a l e . 111 s l a p ....................................... 15 s t u ff .... 171 s t a t e ... 51 v a n ... 141 v e h e m e n t .................. 183 w a rd ro b e .................. 9 su cce s s io n .................................................105 w a g e ........ 147 suit. 15 thorough 21 throne...................... 147 terrain........ 159 trustworthy........117 E3 w a d e .................................. 9 thorn.................. 81 stu m b le..................... 105 sweep... 153 s p irit .......... 159 telegraph.............171 s o o th in g ........................ 51 w h e r e a s ..... 123 s o litu d e .......... 69 s o u r ............... 8 7 utterly.................................................. 1 8 3 teller......... 51 v i c t o r .. 69 valid ................. 87 s p e c i e s ................. 111 stake ... 6 9 surrender 63 swamp................................... 117 treachery 123 trivial............................. 21 tornado................... 57 w ith h old...................................... 21 □ w o rsen unfortunate 117 unity..... 57 s l i g h t ..................................... 93 v a r y ... 27 vain .............. 27 tropics ...129 v e r s io n ..................... 75 territory...................................................... s o p h istic a ted 9 63 s o r t ............129 v e n o m .............. 81 w e e p ................. 87 s t a n c e .................. 57 s n a p ................................. 51 tense .. 63 w r e c k ................................................ 39 s o a r ......................... 177 textile ...... 147 s u b c o n sc io u s 81 s u b je c t ..................... 1 83 tournament 177 toxic...................... 51 s m a s h . 57 s u b t l e ........................... 99 timid.. 135 tend.... 3 9 sum ................................................ 165 worko u t 81 191 ......................................... 15 s o u r c e .sig n a tu re........... 141 s t r in g .....................117 v o lu n te er.................................... 39 s p a r k le ................................. 123 tumble.......................... 6 3 urban........................................................................ 183 w a rn ..................................................................... 129 tuck.. 129 temper. 27 s l y ........ 99 sp a rk ..........147 w itn e s s ................................. 9 transportation •••• 177 traverse. 15 stitch ................................................ 45 w o o d e d .................................... 135 v i o l e n c e ........ 87 s lip p e r y ........... 123 switch...... 135 thump.. 153 sway........... 99 vein . 33 w h a ts o e v e r . 18 3 typical................................ 99 s t e w a r d ...................... 9 v a s t ....................................... 75 u technician .................... 153 tray.... 171 w orth w h ile ........ 27 s o l a r ......... 15 □ z o o l o g y ......... 147 s t a i r c a s e ............ 1 83 texture..... 105 utter...... 87 s t a g g e r ..... 81 v a rie ty .................117 s t e r n .... 57 w a il..........................................105 stra te g y ..................................... 27 w e ird ..... 75 torment................. 51 s n a t c h ...............................................................

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