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Law of the Sea, branch of international law concerned with public order at sea.

Much of this law
is codified in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, signed Dec. 10, 1982. The
convention, described as a “constitution for the oceans,” represents an attempt to codify
international law regarding territorial waters, sea-lanes, and ocean resources. It came into force
in 1994 after it had been ratified by the requisite 60 countries; by the early 21st century the
convention had been ratified by more than 150 countries.
According to the 1982 convention, each country’s sovereign territorial waters extend to a
maximum of ... (100 of 1,064 words)

International law
Created in 1945, the United Nations is responsible for much of the current framework of
international law
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations
between states and nations.[1][2] It serves as a framework for the practice of stable and organized
international relations.[3] International law differs from national legal systems in that it primarily
concerns nations rather than private citizens. National law may become international law when
treaties delegate national jurisdiction to supranational tribunals such as the European Court of
Human Rights or the International Criminal Court. Treaties such as the Geneva Conventions may
require national law to conform.
International law is consent-based governance. This means that a state member of the
international community is not obliged to abide by international law unless it has expressly
consented to a particular course of conduct.[4] This is an issue of state sovereignty.
The term "international law" can refer to three distinct legal disciplines:
Land law

Land law is the form of law that deals with the rights to use, alienate, or exclude others from
land. In many jurisdictions, these species of property are referred to as real estate or real
property, as distinct from personal property. Land use agreements, including renting, are an
important intersection of property and contract law. Encumbrance on the land rights of one, such
as an easement, may constitute the land rights of another. Mineral rights and water rights are
closely linked, and often interrelated concepts. Land rights are such a basic form of law that they
develop even where there is no state to enforce them; for example, the claim clubs of the
American West were institutions that arose organically to enforce the system of rules appurtenant
to mining. Squatting, the occupation of land without ownership, is a globally ubiquitous and
important form of land use.

farming). Landesa takes the stance that although the law may advocate for equal access to land. When a person only has access to land. financial security. Land reform refers to government policies that take and/or redistribute land. which will ultimately lead to a higher quality of life.[9] In . utilise. food. land ownership can be a critical source of capital. water.e. A land value tax is a component of tax law in nearly all jurisdictions. certain groups of individuals are consistently left out of land ownership provisions.Sovereignty. as they socially enforce groups of individuals’ rights to own land in concurrence with the land laws of a nation. Nearly all of these jurisdictions have a system of land registration. [1] This is not to be confused with access to land. In common law jurisdictions. Land rights refer to the inalienable ability of individuals to obtain. or allodial title. laws concerning land ownership and land rights of a country must be in agreement. but they must be backed up by cultural tradition and social acceptance. however.[3] Laws are important. cultural barriers and poverty traps limit minority groups’ ability to own land. shelter. and a land claim process to resolve disputes. there has been an increased focus on land rights. Instead. and resources. Globally. to record fee simple interests. and possess land at their discretion.[2] Land rights are an integral part of Land Laws. According to Wickeri and Kalhan.[8] Although land rights are fundamental in achieving higher standards of living. The law may provide access to land.[4] The UN Global Land Tool organisation has found that rural landlessness is a strong predictor of poverty and hunger. as they are so pertinent to various aspects of development. the land rights of indigenous peoples are referred to as aboriginal title. which limits financial stability. The Millennium Development Goal 7D strives to improve the lives of 100 million slum dwellers. Indigenous land rights are recognized by international law. they are in constant threat of expulsion depending on the choices of the land owner. as long as their activities on the land do not impede on other individuals’ rights. land rights address the ownership of land which provides security and increases human capabilities. radical title. Therefore.[7] This includes increased land rights for impoverished people.[5] and negatively impacts Empowerment and the realisation of Human rights. as well as the national legal systems of common law and civil law countries. land rights in certain countries and cultures may hinder a group’s right to actually own land. in common law jurisdictions. is often referred to as absolute title. In customary law jurisdictions. which allows individuals the use of land in an economic sense (i. such as a land grant. while land rights refer to the social acceptance of land ownership. customary land is the predominant form of land ownership. Land Law addresses the legal mandates set forth by a country in regards to land ownership.[6] In order to home in on this critical problem of inadequate land rights.

students will begin to make connections between the biotic and abiotic parts of the environment. and polar. Global freshwater resources are shrinking at an increasing pace. Forty percent of the world's population depends on transboundary water resources. The different critical factors that define the biodiversity within each type of biome. and threatens to affect even relatively water-secure regions and countries. even in the absence of a universally ratified instrument there is a body of international rules widely acknowledged as an authoritative statement of international law governing international watercourses . The students will also spend time learning about the different types of aquatic ecosystems. Differentions will be made between tropical. both freshwater and marine. Land and Aquatic Ecosystems In this unit. It is imperative that existing and potential disputes over access to shared water resources are resolved through peaceful means within the framework of legal principles and norms provided by international law. . the Middle East and Central Asia.order to reach equality. or land ecosystem will be explored.the International Law Association (ILA) rules on the law of international water resources. a situation that raises serious concerns at the international level. the 1997 UN Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses codifies a number of rules of customary law that apply to international watercourses. International Law of Water Resources Effectively managing increasingly scarce transboundary water resources in many parts of the world may become one of the most critical challenges facing the international community in the 21st century. While not yet in force. these groups must obtain adequate land rights that are both socially and legally recognised. Global warming is expected to exacerbate the existing problems of water scarcity in Africa. However. Unresolved issues of water resource use and allocation may create the potential for serious interstate conflicts and undermine regional stability. temperate.

 The value of Land and other land forms Value: To treasure our nature and to take care our natural resources III.  The importance of international Environmental Law.ph/books?id=4zCVHVbqIQC&pg=PA298&lpg=PA298&dq=aquatic+international+laws&sourc e=bl&ots=w5GmhkQMm1&sig=IsGXT9d0mD_I6A0Z2rbfDHVk6A&hl=fil&sa=X&ei=a8yUbGDFYLSrQeZ7IGgBg&ved=0CFEQ6AEwBTgK#v=onepage&q=aquatic %20international%20laws&f=false http://litigation-essentials. Geraldine M. Definition of International laws International laws on land International laws on aquatic resources References http://books. BEED II-2 I. Objective: After this lesson the students are now able to: II.com.lexisnexis. Learning Content    IV. Materials: Visual Aids VI.google.  Know what is International Environmental Law.Velasquez.com/webcd/app? action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid V.  The Value of Aquatic system. Learning Experiences: Review: Philippine Laws on Preservation of the Forest .

The teacher will ask the students how restore our natural resources c. This is an issue of state sovereignty.Preparatory Activities: Drill a. Deforestation Trees are one of the most important aspects of the planet we live in. no international agreement protects northern temperate forests. They are important for the climate of the Earth. The term "international law" can refer to three distinct legal disciplines. Thus. the eastern United States and Canada. as . By failing to recognize environmental costs and non-timber forest values. forest protection requires regulatory policies and alternative methods of assessing forest values. It serves as a framework for the practice of stable and organized international relations. animals. The teacher will ask the students how humans abuse our nature the land and seas b. International law is consent-based governance. over-exploitation and conversion into timber stands also threaten temperate forest ecosystems. International law International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and nations. The teacher will ask the students how develop our natural resources. The endangered forests are both ecosystems within a global biosphere and regions of human use and enjoyment. Urban encroachment. market mechanisms hasten rather than slow deforestation. This means that a state member of the international community is not obliged to abide by international law unless it has expressly consented to a particular course of conduct. drylands and other ecosystems. International law differs from national legal systems in that it primarily concerns nations rather than private citizens. Although international attention has focused on the need to protect tropical forests. Trees are vitally important to the environment. Land law (Forest) Deforestation is one of the world's most important environmental problems. Airborne pollutants such as acid rain threaten the very survival of forests throughout much of Europe. and of course for us humans.

dynamite fishing is done not only in the Philippines but in other parts of the world as well.they act as filters of carbon dioxide.This is an activity using an explosive device that kills many fishes and other creatures under the sea. Global freshwater resources are shrinking at an increasing pace. Assignment: What are the illegal means of humans that destroy our ecosystem and how to prevent it. the trees on our planet are being depleted at a very fast rate. Motivation  The teacher will ask the students to plant vegetable and trees in their own backyards.This is also an illegal practice that is mostly done by people who believe that this is the best way of catching fish. Dynamite fishing is one of the methods of catching fish. Forty percent of the world's population depends on transboundary water resources. Developmental Activities: Generalization Justify why they implemented the International Environmental Law. This removal of forest or trees from a land and converting it for nonforest use is called deforestation.Some people who do this kind of activity are the ones living near the sea. and threatens to affect even relatively water-secure regions and countries. International Law of Water Resources Effectively managing increasingly scarce transboundary water resources in many parts of the world may become one of the most critical challenges facing the international community in the 21st century. However.One of this illegal activities is the use of dynamites in catching fish. the Middle East and Central Asia. . What is dynamite fishing Lots of people in our country are engaged in many illegal activities just to earn money. According to some estimates. Forests are known as habitats and shelters to millions of species. a situation that raises serious concerns at the international level. more than 50 percent of the tree cover has disappeared due to human activity. Global warming is expected to exacerbate the existing problems of water scarcity in Africa.