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HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT: Friday, August 10, 2007

Problem 1:
We have the equations of motion, (the conservations of mass & linear momentum), for an inviscid fluid


ρ + v k ρ;k + ρv k;k = 0,

∂ i
v + v k v i ;k = − P g ki ;k



Here, t denotes time, ρ = ρ˜(um , t) the mass density, P = P˜ (um , t) the pressure, and v i = v˜i (um , t) the velocity of the fluid. (We will derive these
equations later in the class.)
(a) Write the equations for ρ and for v 1 (the first component equation)
in the spherical coordinate sytem whose covariant/natural base vectors are
given below.
(b) Write further the equations obtained in (a) in terms of the physical
components of the velocity. (The notion of physical components is explained
in this week’s tutoral sheet.)
In a spherical coordinate system with (r = u1 , φ = u2 , θ = u3 ), the covariant base vectors are 

g1 = sin(u2 ) cos(u3 )i1 + sin(u3 )i2 + cos(u2 )i3 , 

g2 = u1 cos(u2 ) cos(u3 )i1 + sin(u3 )i2 − u1 sin(u2 )i3 , 

g3 = u1 sin(u2 ) −sin(u3 )i1 + cos(u3 )i2 .
(If you feel uncomfortable about the index taking values 1, 2, 3 in the spherical
coordinate system, you can try an alternative, like using r, φ, θ as the values
for the indexes i, j, k..., while keepping i1 , i2 , i3 fixed/intact.)
Problem 2:
The problems assigned in the class. That is, verify Equations (15) and (17)
in the lecture note of “class 04 handout.pdf”. (You can select several to
verify, but at least two from (17) – one about transformation and one about
lowering/raising the indexes.)
Problem 3: (Optional)
Try to write Akj
·· kl;m . (From the patterns of the differentiation of the first
order contravariant and the first order covariant tensors.)