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# Fluid Mechanics – AS102

Class Note No: 05

Tuesday, August 7, 2007

Review: C. C. S. & Tensor Analysis - transformations
xi = xˆi (u j ), xi = xˆi∗ (u ∗j );
ˆ i (u ∗j ), u ∗i = u
ˆ ∗i (u j )
ui = u

g∗1

x3
g∗3 g
3
P

u

(1)

g2

g1
r
u 3 u ∗1

g2
1
2 u

u ∗2

x2

u ∗3

x1
Figure: ‘representing’ two curvilinear coordinate systems

Review: C.transformations ⇒ ∂u ∗k m ∂u m ∗k g . m ∂u m ∂u ∗k ∂u m ∂u n gkl∗ = gmn . S. & Tensor Analysis . ∂u ∗k ∂u ∗l ∂u ∗k ∂u ∗l mn g g ∗kl = ∂u m ∂u n g∗k = # 2nd order covariant tensor & 2nd order contravariant tensor # understand the transformation rules (2) . C. g = g .

S. & Tensor Analysis . C.Review: C.transformations ⇒ 0th order tensors (scalars): ˆ i ) = ψ(u ˜ i ) = ψ(u ¯ ∗i ) ψ = ψ(x (3) .

Review: C. S.transformations ⇒ 1st order tensors (vectors): a = ai ii = ai (u)gi = ai (u)gi = a∗k (u ∗ )g∗k = ai∗ (u ∗ )g∗i (4) # Here u represents u m and u ∗ represents u ∗m # the pairing in the summation for the representations in a cuvilinear c. C. & Tensor Analysis . index k.: e. s. one up & one down ⇒ ∂u ∗i ∂u ∗i m a (u) = am ∂u m ∂xm ∂u m ∂xm ai∗ (u ∗ ) = am (u) = am ∗i ∂u ∂u ∗i ai (u) = g ij aj (u) a∗i (u ∗ ) = ai (u) = gij aj (u) (5) .g.

g. ‘dot product’ both sides of a∗k (u ∗ )g∗k = ai (u)gi with g∗m e.g.Review: C.transformations ⇒ 1st order tensors (vectors): # hints to derive the above transformations: e. S. ‘dot product’ both sides of ak (u)gk = ai (u)gi with gm # covariant tensor & contravariant tensor # understand the transformation rules: positions of & correspondences between the indexes # HOMEWORK Assignment – derive the relations in (5) . & Tensor Analysis . C.

index i..Review: C. C.g. one up & one down ⇒ ∂u ∗i ∂u ∗j mn ∂u ∗i ∂u ∗j A (u) = Amn ∂u m ∂u n ∂xm ∂xn ∂xm ∂xn ∂u m ∂u n Amn (u) = Amn A∗ij (u ∗ ) = ∗i ∗j ∂u ∂u ∂u ∗i ∂u ∗j ∂u ∗i ∂u n m ∂u ∗i ∂xn A∗i·j (u ∗ ) = A (u) = Amn ·n ∂u m ∂u ∗j ∂xm ∂u ∗j Aij (u) = g im g jn Amn (u). S. & Tensor Analysis . s.transformations ⇒ other 2nd order tensors: A = Aij ii ij = Aij (u) gi gj = Aij (u) gi gj = Ai·j gi gj = A∗ij (u ∗ ) g∗i g∗j = A∗ij (u ∗ ) g∗i g∗j = A∗i·j g∗i g∗j (6) # Here u represents u m and u ∗ represents u ∗m # the pairing in the summation for the representations in a cuvilinear c.. Aij (u) = gim gjn Amn (u) A∗ij (u ∗ ) = Ai·j (u) = g im Amj (u) = gjn Ain (u) .: e. (7) .

each operating on its immediate neighboring base vector # covariant tensor & contravariant tensor # understand the transformation rules: positions of & correspondences between the indexes # HOMEWORK Assignment – derive the relations in (7) .transformations ⇒ other 2nd order tensors: # hints to derive the above transformations: e.Review: C. S. C. ‘dot product’ both sides of A∗ij (u ∗ )g∗i g∗j = aij (u)gi gj with g∗m and g∗n consecutively. ‘dot product’ both sides of Aij (u)gi gj = Aij (u)gi gj with gm and gn consecutively. & Tensor Analysis .g.g. each operating on its immediate neighboring base vector e.

S.transformations 2nd order tensors: # working example 1 A∗ij (u ∗ ) = ∂u ∗i ∂u ∗j mn A (u) ∂u m ∂u n u⇒x = ∂u ∗i ∂u ∗j Amn ∂xm ∂xn (8) from A = A∗ij (u ∗ ) g∗i g∗j = Aij (u) gi gj (use the hints mentioned above). C. & Tensor Analysis . (9) .Review: C.

(11) .Review: C. S. & Tensor Analysis . C.transformations 2nd order tensors: # working example 2 A∗i·j (u ∗ ) = ∂u ∗i ∂u n m A (u) ∂u m ∂u ∗j ·n u⇒x = ∂u ∗i ∂xn Amn ∂xm ∂u ∗j (10) from A = A∗i·j (u ∗ ) g∗i g∗j = Ai·j (u) gi gj (use the hints mentioned above).

C.Review: C.transformations 2nd order tensors: # working example 3 Aij (u) = g im g jn Amn (u) (12) A = Aij (u) gi gj = Aij (u) gi gj (13) from (use the hints mentioned above). & Tensor Analysis . . S.

.s. ai .Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis ◮ Today’s topic: # tensor differentiations # example: a = ai ii = ai (u) gi = ai (u) gi X in a rectangular c.ji (u) = ? form similar to the case of rectangular c..) .ji (u) gi ? ∂u j a.j in (14) (YES !! below . ∂ ∂ ∂ai a= (ai ii ) = ii = a i . j ii ∂xj ∂xj ∂xj × (14) in a curvilinear c.s.s. ” ∂ai (u) ∂ ∂ “ i a= gi a (u) gi 6= j j ∂u ∂u ∂u j Q? ∂ a = a.

Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis ˆ i (x) . xi = xˆi (u) . ui = u r = xi ii = xˆi (u) ii =: ˆr(u) u3 g1 x3 i3 O x1 i1 P u1 r g3 g2 u2 i2 x2 Figure: curvilinear coordinate system (15) .

Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis scalars: ˆ ˜ ¯ ∗ )} ψ = ψ(x) = ψ(u) {= ψ(u def ▽ψ = ik ⇒ ∂ψ ∂xk c.m gm ∂u m ∂xk ∂u m ∂ψ ∗m u 2 u∗ g } (17) { = ∂u ∗m ∂ψ ∂u n ∂ψ = ∂u ∗m ∂u ∗m ∂u n — 1st order covariant tensor ? (18) . r . = ik (16) ∂ψ ∂u m def ∂ψ m = g = ψ.

Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis vectors: a = ak(u) gk = ak(u) gk {= ak(u ∗ ) g∗k = ak(u ∗ ) g∗k } def ▽a = ik ∂ ∂ def a = gl a=? ∂xk ∂u l X i ∂ak(u) ∂ h k ∂gk ∂ a = gk + ak(u) l a (u) g = k l l l ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u X i ∂a (u) ∂ h ∂gk ∂ k k k a = g + a (u) a (u) g = k k ∂u l ∂u l ∂u l ∂u l ∂gk =? ∂u l ∂gk =? ∂u l the key to the diff (19) (20) .

Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis one can check (defns + chain rules + tricks)   ∂gk m = gm l k l ∂u   ∂gk k =− gn l l n ∂u  m k l  := 1 mn ∂gnk ∂g ∂g g ( + nlk − kln ) l 2 ∂u ∂u ∂u — the christoffel symbols of the second kind (21) (22) .

Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis ◮ some hints to show (21): # ∂ 2 xi ∂u m ∂ 2 xi ∂gk = i = gm i ∂u l ∂u l ∂u k ∂xi ∂u l ∂u k # ∂u m ∂xi = g mn n ∂xi ∂u .

.. .Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis ◮ some hints to show (21): # ∂u m ∂ 2 xi ∂xi ∂ 2 xi = g mn n l k l k ∂xi ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u     ∂ ∂ 2 xi ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi = g mn − ∂u l ∂u n ∂u k ∂u l ∂u n ∂u k     ∂xi ∂ 2 xi ∂xi ∂xi ∂ mn ∂gnk + − =g ∂u l ∂u n ∂u l ∂u k ∂u l ∂u n ∂u k     ∂ 2 xi ∂xi ∂glk ∂ ∂xi ∂xi mn ∂gnk − =g − + ∂u l ∂u n ∂u k ∂u l ∂u n ∂u k ∂u l ∂u n   2 ∂xi ∂ xi ∂glk ∂gln mn ∂gnk =g − + − ∂u l ∂u n ∂u k ∂u n ∂u k ∂u l ⇒ .

. .Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis ◮ some hints to show (21): # ∂gk ∂ ∂g ki ∂gi ki = (g g ) = gi + g ki l i l l l ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂g kj kj kj ∂gjl g gjl = δkl ⇒ gjl + g =0 ∂u n ∂u n ⇒ ..

Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis ▽a = gl ◮ ∂ a= ? ∂u l case 1:   k ∂ k l ∂a k ∂gk ▽a = g (a gk ) = g gk + a ∂u l ∂u l ∂u l  m    ∂a m = gl gm + a k gm l k l ∂u  m    ∂a m = + ak gl gm = am. Understand the rule (23) l .l := l k l ∂u 2nd o. mixed t.l gl gm k l ∂u l   ∂am m m + ak a .

l g∗l g∗m  ∗ ∂a∗m m a∗k + k l ∂u ∗l ∂u ∗m ∂u q p a ∂u p ∂u ∗l q (24) .l gl gm = ▽a = ii a∗m.? am.Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis how to show that am.l := ⇒ a∗m. mixed t.l = ∂a ∂xi u⇒u ∗ = a∗m.l is a 2nd o.

understand the rule(25) l . covariant t.l gl gm m l ∂u l   ∂am k − ak am.l := m l ∂u l 2nd o.Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis ▽a = gl ◮ ∂ a= ? ∂u l case 2:   ∂ ∂gk k l ∂ak k ▽a = g (ak g ) = g g + ak ∂u l ∂u l ∂u l     ∂am m k gn = gl g − ak l n ∂u l     ∂am k − = ak gl gm = am.

l ⇒ a∗m.l g∗l g∗m  ∗ ∗ ∂am k := − a∗k m l ∂u ∗l ∂u p ∂u q ap.Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis how to show that am.q ∂u ∗m ∂u ∗l (26) .l gl gm = ▽a = ii a∗m.? am.l is a 2nd o. covariant t.l = ∂a ∂xi u⇒u ∗ = a∗m.

k gl ) = al.k div a := ▽·a = gk (27) ∂ψ ∂ ∂ ·[gm m ] = gl · l [ψ.m gm ] l ∂u ∂u ∂u   2 ∂ ψ ∂ψ k = gl · (ψ.Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis useful formula: ∂ ∂ ·[al gl ] = gk · k [al gl ] ∂u k ∂u = gk · al .l gm = g lm ( l m − ) (28) m l ∂u k ∂u ∂u ▽2 ψ := ▽·▽ψ = gl ∂ ∂ ×(al gl ) = gk × k (al gl ) k ∂u ∂u = gk ×(al.k gl = ak.k gk ×gl curl a := ▽×a = gk (b·▽)a = (bm gm )·gk = bk al .k gl (29) ∂ ∂ a = bk k (al gl ) ∂u k ∂u (30) .m ).