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A physical condition or release of hazardous material that could result

from component failure and reslt in human injury or death, loss or
damage, or environmental degradation.
(a) Hazard
(b) Loss
(c) failure
Limitation of any negative consequence or reduction in probability of
a particular event.
(a) mitigation
(b) reduction
(c) residual
Methods that use engineering judgment and experience as the bases
for the analysis of probabilities and consequences of failure.
(a) Qualitative risk assessment
(b) Relative risk
(c) Norminal risk
An analysis that identifies and delineates the combinations of events
and estimates the frequency of occurrence for each combination and
estimates the consequences.
(a) Quantitative risk analysis
(b) Qalitative risk analysis
(c) Process hazard analysis
(blank) uses logic models depicting combinations of events.
(a) Quantitative risk analysis
(b) Qalitative risk analysis
(c) Process hazard analysis
Quantitative risk analysis loic models generally consist of (blank) and
(blank)
(a) Event tree and fault tree
(b) Product trees and loss tree
(c) Likelihood trees and consequence trees
(blank) delinate initiating events and combinations of systems
successes and failures
(a) Event trees
(b) Fault trees
(c) Logic trees

The accurany of any type of RBI analysis depends on what?
(a) Sound methodolgy
(b) quailty data
(c) knowledgeable personnel

fault tress depict what?
The system failues repersented in the event can occur.
The susceptibilty of each equipment item should be clearly defined
for current and projected operating conditions including what factors?
(a) normal operation
(b) upset conditions
(c) normal start up and shut down
(d) idle or out-of-service timr
(e) emergency shutdown and subsequent start-up
What is risk?

I. What are R.C. What equipment is covered under this RP for RBI ? (a) Pressure Vessels (b) Process piping (c) Storage tanks (d) Rotation Equipment . Who is the target audience for this Recommende Practice (R. (b) An acceptance/understanding of the current risk.I.) 580 R.) Adetailed description of the inspection plan to be employed for each equipment item (3. (a) an overall reduction in risk for facilities and equipment assessed. The inspection and engineering personnel who are responsible for the mechanical integrity and operability of equipment covered by this recommended practice. What is RBI benefits.)A Ranking by relative risk of all equipment evaluated.pressure containg components (e) Boiler and heater. (2) Inadequate design or faulty equipment instalation. American Chemistry Council A. limitations or things it will not compensate for ? (1) Inaccurate or missing information. (3) Operating outside the acceptable IWO (4) not effectively excuting the plans (5) Lack of sound engineering or operational judgment.) Identification of risk drivers.Risk is the combination of the probability of some event occuring during a time period of intrest and consequences associated with the event in mathematical terms.)The expected risk levels of all equipment after the inspection plan and other risk mitigation activites have been implemented (5.I.E. Risk reduction is what? The act of mitigating a known risk that is deemed to be too high and lower to a more acceptable level of risk with some form of risk reduction activity. . A.B.C.pressurized components (f) Heat exchangers (g) pressure relief devices What equipment is not covered under the API 580 RBI ? (a) instruments and system controls (b) electrical systems (c) structural system (d) machinery components (except pump and compressor castings.h. to determine if risk reduction is required and develop a plan to maintain risk at an acceptable level. Condition based inspection inspection intervals/due dates become more dependent on the equipment condistion. What is the RBI process capable of generating? (1. (2.C.B.P. What is the equation of risk? risk=Probability * consequence Risk Management is a process to assess risk.) A discription of any other risk mitigation activites (4.

E.S.D.C.T. Occupational Safety and Health Administration P. failure modes and effects analysis H.S.A.O. Management of change M.N.O.H.A. material selection diagrams N. as low as reasonably practical A. American Society of Test Materials B.P. International Organization for Standardization L.O.A.O.L.O.V.N. Americam Society of Nondestructive Testing A.H.A. American Society of Mechanical Engineers A.S.S.O.F.C. boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion C.P.R.American Institute of Chemical Engineers A.C.E.L.A. Center for Chemical Process Safety C.A. Environmental Protection Agency F.M.Z.S.P. process hazards analysis . National Association of Corrosion Engineers NDE nondestructive examination NFPA National Fire Protection Association O.S. integrity operating window I.I.S.E.M.W.P.M.E. American National Standards Institute A.T. layers of protection analysis M.S.P.A.E. hazard and operability assessment I.A. consequence of failure E.

O.L. polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking P.S. risk management plan S.N.A. reliability centered maintenance R.E. as low as reasonably practical A concept of minimization that postulates that attributes (such as risk) can only be reduced to a certain minimum under current technology and with reasonable cost. Tubular Exchangers Manufactures Association T.A. ultrasonic testing absolute risk An ideal and accurate description and quantification of risk.C. risk-based inspection R. nipples. nozzles. probability of failure P.A. heads.R.M.O.P.C.I.M.A.M.M.R. components Parts that make up a piece of equipment or equipment item. Pressure Vessel Research Council QA/QC quality assurance/quality control Q. process safety management P. For example a pressure boundary may consist of components (pipe. etc. consequences are always negative for safety aspects. consequence An outcome from an event.M.R.P.T. acceptable risk A level of risk that is acceptable to the owner-user. . safety integrity level T. skirts. However.T.V.) that are bolted or welded into assembles to make up equipment items. Quantitative risk assessment R.S. A. elbows.B. positive material identification P. supports. shells.C.I.C. Consequences may range from positive to negative.L. There may be one or more consequences from an event.I. The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research U.F.P. stiffening rings.

Common damage mechanisms include corrosion. boilers. deterioration The reduction in the ability of a component to provide its intended purpose of containment of fluids. This can be caused by various damage mechanisms (e. corrosion cost-effective An activity that is both effective in resolving an issue (e. materials selection.g. fatigue. The event tree begins with the identification of potential initiating events. cracking. equipment An individual item that is part of a system. wall thinning. some form of mitigation) and is a financially sound use of resources. This process is continued to develop pathways or scenarios from the initiating events to potential outcomes.Consequences may be expressed qualitatively or quantitatively. unrecoverable. in some instances. piping. The event can be singular or multiple.g. rupture). Damage mechanisms are usually incremental. stress corrosion cracking. Examples include pressure vessels. The probability of an event occurring within a given period of time can be estimated. design life and corrosion allowance needed). corrosion specialist A person who is knowledgeable and experienced in the specific process chemistries. pitting. fracture. thinning. and heaters. and thermal aging. creep.g. The event may be certain or uncertain. relief devices. event tree An analytical tool that organizes and characterizes potential occurrences in a logical and graphical manner. damage (or deterioration) mechanism A process that induces micro and/or macro material changes over time that are harmful to the material condition or mechanical properties. erosion. corrosion mitigation methods. damage (or deterioration) mode The physical manifestation of damage (e. cumulative. Damage or degradation may be used in place of deterioration.g. cracking. corrosion degradation mechanisms. damage tolerance The amount of deterioration that a component can withstand without failing. and. design premise Assumptions made during the design (e. mechanical). event Occurrence of a particular set of circumstances. Subsequent possible events (including activation of safety functions) resulting from the initiating events are then displayed as the second level of the event tree. external event .

Fitness-For-Service assessment A methodology whereby damage or flaws/imperfections contained within a component or equipment item are assessed in order to determine acceptability for continued service. and evaluation of the results of inspection activities. or environmental degradation. electrical power failures. such as aircraft. Thebasic objectives of the techniques are: inspection Activities performed to verify that materials. etc. It includes the planning. hazard and operability study HAZOP study A HAZOP study is a form of failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA). and rupture. failure Termination of the ability of a system. trucks. Hazard is the source of harm. e. internal. and intrusions of external transportation vehicles. or process a hazardous material can be a source of hazard. For RBI. loss or damage.g. or automobiles.  facility Any location containing equipment and/or components to be addressed under this RP.e. loss of containment). engineering. hazard A physical condition or a release of a hazardous material that could result from component failure and result in human injury or death. HAZOP studies. or introduced into existing facilities due to changes in process conditions or operating procedures. the failure of concern is loss of containment of pressurized equipment items. It is particularly useful in identifying unforeseen hazards designed into facilities due to lack of information. a slow leak under insulation may not be detected until a pool of fluid forms on the ground or someone notices a drip or wisp of vapor. failure mode The manner of failure. erection.Events resulting from forces of nature. implementation. crack. Failures may be unannounced and undetected at the instant of occurrence (unannounced failure). conform to applicable code. or they may be announced and detected by any number of methods at the instance of occurrence (announced failure). equipment or component to perform its required function of containment of fluid (i. repairs.g. or events such as neighboring fires or explosions. testing. and/or owner's written procedure requirements. examinations. External events are usually beyond the direct or indirect control of persons employed at or by the facility. slow leakage from buried piping or small leak in a heat exchanger tube. trains. use systematic techniques to identify hazards and operability issues throughoutan entire facility. forces of nature. The external. Human error and external events may also create a hazard. neighboring hazardous material releases. or on-stream assessment . e.. ships. terrorism. For example. fabrication. which were originally developed for the process industry. structure. rupture of a pipe in a process plant or sudden decrease in pressure in the system. Examples of failure modes are small hole. acts of God. sabotage. store. A small leak may not be noticed until the next inspection (unannounced failure). Components that areused to transport.

FMEA and HAZOPs are examples of qualitative risk analysis techniques that become QRA methods when consequence and failure probability values are estimated along with the respective descriptive input. Degrees of belief about probability can be chosen as classes or ranks like "rare/unlikely/moderate/likely/almost certain" or "incredible/improbable/remote/occasional/probable/frequent. . risk is a deviation from the expected. equipment item or component to other facilities. Methods that use primarily engineering judgment and experience as the basis for the determination of probabilities and consequences of failure. In some situations. risk is the product. risk Combination of the probability of an event and its consequence." process unit A group of systems arranged in a specific fashion to produce a product or service. equipment or piping systems prior to implementation of the change. When probability and consequence are expressed numerically. Frequency rather than probability may be used in describing risk. residual risk The risk remaining after risk mitigation. or components. acid production.(or any combination of the three) of the condition of pressure equipment. system. process units. reassessment The process of integrating inspection data or other changes into the risk analysis. integrity operating window IOW Established limits for process variables that can affect the integrity of the equipment if the process operation deviates from the established limits for a predetermined amount of time. The mathematical definition of probability is "a real number in the scale 0 to 1 attached to a random event. mitigation Limitation of any negative consequence or reduction in probability of a particular event. and ethylene production. fuel oil production.systems. relative risk The comparative risk of a facility. probability Extent to which an event is likely to occur within the time frame under consideration. For a high degree of belief. process unit. equipment items. Examples of processes include power generation. management of change MOC A documented management system for review and approval of changes in process. respectively." Probability can be related to a long-run relative frequency of occurrence or to a degree of belief that an event will occur. The results of qualitative risk analyses are dependent on the background and expertise of the analysts and the objectives of the analysis. qualitative risk analysis An analysis that uses broad categorizations for probabilities and consequences of failure. the probability is near one (1).

risk management Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to risk. Elements may include: source. and other variables. risk estimation Process used to assign values to the probability and consequence of a risk. Process used to compare the estimated risk against given risk criteria to determine the significance of the risk. Risk evaluation may be used to assist in the acceptance or mitigation decision. consequence. and risk communication. theoretical analysis. form. The decision may be taken based on the result of risk evaluation. as appropriate for risk evaluation. or other aspects of risk. event. socio-economic and environmental aspects. Risk identification may also identify stakeholder concerns. or action to withdraw from a risk situation. benefits. risk mitigation. risk-based inspection RBI A risk assessment and management process that is focused on loss of containment of pressurized equipment in processing facilities. probability. The information may relate to the existence. and characterize elements of risk. consequence. probability. acceptability. severity. or both such that it constitutes a significant portion of the risk. risk acceptance. Risk acceptance depends on risk criteria. These risks are managed primarily through equipment inspection. priorities and other inputs to the assessment. risk communication Exchange or sharing of information about risk between the decision maker and other stakeholders. risk avoidance Decision not to become involved in. Risk management typically includes risk assessment. risk mitigation . legal and statutory requirements. list. mitigation. Risk analysis provides a basis for risk evaluation. concerns of stakeholders. Risk estimation may consider cost. Information can include historical data. risk mitigation and risk acceptance. risk driver An item affecting either the probability. Risk criteria may include associated cost and benefits. and concerns of stakeholders. risk criteria Terms of reference by which the significance of risk is assessed. nature. stakeholder concerns. due to material deterioration.risk acceptance A decision to accept a risk. risk analysis Systematic use of information to identify sources and to estimate the risk. informed opinions. risk assessment Overall process of risk analysis and risk evaluation. risk identification Process to find.

be affected by. maintenance. or in extreme cases. negative consequences. source Thing or activity with a potential for consequence. These chemicals may also result in adverse effects to the environment (measured as ecotoxicity and related to persistence and bioaccumulation potential). internal and external damage Combinations of process conditions and _____________________ for each equipment item should be evaluated to identify active and credible damage mechanisms: a. materials of construction d. or perceive itself to be affected by the risk. stakeholder Any individual. distillation systems. severe illness. death. The basis for a qualitative probability of failure analysis is: a. The term risk mitigation is sometimes used for measures themselves. impairment of the central nervous system. POF d. consequence b. damage mechanisms and inspection effectiveness b. toxic chemical Any chemical that presents a physical or health hazard or an environmental hazard according to the appropriate material safety datasheet. unmitigated risk The risk prior to mitigation activities. group or organization that may affect. or modifications and prepare process equipment for the next operating cycle. engineering judgment Regardless of whether a more qualitative or a quantitative analysis is used. COF . Examples of systems include service water system. damage mechanisms and damage modes d. turnaround A period of down time to perform inspection. probability x consequence c. the POF is determined by two main considerations: a. or absorbed through the skin) can cause damage to living tissue. system A collection of equipment assembled for a specific function within a process unit. or both associated with a particular risk. risk reduction Actions taken to lessen the probability.Process of selection and implementation of measures to modify risk. probability x consequence c. semi-quantitative analysis A semi-quantitative analysis includes aspects of both qualitative and quantitative analyses. inhaled. probability c. Source in a safety context is a hazard. These chemicals (when ingested. and separation systems. pressures and temperatures b.

property. They will not normally have much ability to modify the ____________________: a. failure mode c. risk analysis c. logic model d. POF d. accuracy c. Moore's Law Results of a quantitative analysis are usually __________________: a. COF The consequence of loss of containment is generally evaluated as loss of fluid to the____________________: a. correctness d. analysis d. Relief Valves . process flow b. failure analysis b. process flow b. unit A quantitative method involves using a _________________________depicting combinations of events to represent the effects of failure on people. validation The data quality has a direct relation to the relative _________________ of the RBI analysis: a. consequence b. precision b. probability In general. consequence d. Piping Inspection c. detail c. logic models d. precision b. accuracy It is important to stress that the ________________________ of the data should match the complexity of the RBI method used : a. ground c. POF and COF b. external environment d. analysis d. who will normally manage risk by managing the POF with inspection and maintenance planning. the business and the environment : a. Pressure Vessel b. validation _________________in the hydrocarbon process industry are addressed in API 571: a. accuracy c. an RBI program will be managed by plant inspectors or inspection engineers. failure mode c. Buccheim's Law It is important to stress that the ________________________ of the data should match the complexity of the RBI method used : a. numeric c. precision b. Damage mechanisms d.It is important to link the damage mechanism to the most likely resulting_________________: a.

leak b. RBI analyst b. material c. process b. fail The RBI team should consult with a __________________________ to define the equipment damage mechanisms: a. pressure vessel Once a credible damage mechanism(s) has been identified. process b. temperature band d. event c. truck off-loading c. failure The probability analysis in an RBI program is performed to estimate the probability of a specific adverse consequence resulting from a ______________that occurs due to a damage mechanism(s): a. reference b. material c. throughput d. resulting from unit abnormal or upset conditions should be considered in the RBI assessment: a. react to contaminants d. design The _______________ of the data should be consistent with the RBI method used: . failure It should be noted that damage mechanisms are not the only causes of loss of containment. P&ID d. damage by one mechanism may progress to a point at which a different mechanism takes over and begins to dominate the rate of __________________: a. corrosion specialist d. seismic activity b. damage mechanism b. metallurgy c. sabotage Changes in the __________________. failure mode In some cases.Failure modes identify how the damaged component will_____________________: a. such as pressure. reliability specialist c. damage b. temperature or fluid composition. dissemination c. loss of containment d. engineer Identifying trace constituents (ppm) in addition to the primary constituents in a ____________can be very important as trace constituents can have a significant affect on the damage mechanisms: a. Other causes of loss of containment could include but are not limited to all EXCEPT the following: a. crack c. the associated _______________ should also be identified: a. design error d. temperature d.

precision and accuracy b. probability and consequence b. the time required to do it gets included with the time and resources necessary to do a good job on RBI. quantitative c. completeness d. planning c. QRA d. PHA c. input. precision b. skill and understanding from the user than a more ________________________ approach: a.a. semi-quantitative and/or quantitative approach. A fundamental difference among these approaches is the amount and detail of : a. accuracy b. probability x consequence d. damage mechanisms and failure modes Generally. calculations and output d. semi-quantitative _____________________ uses logic models depicting combinations of events that could result in severe accidents and physical models depicting the progression of accidents and the transport of a hazardous material to the environment: a. Among the reasons for inspection data quality errors are all of the following EXCEPT : a. precision c. correctness d. detail c. qualitative b. accuracy As is true in any inspection program. semi-quantitative The semi-quantitative analysis typically requires the same type of data as a quantitative analysis but generally not as: a. consequential d. outdated drawings and documentation b. a qualitative analysis using broad ranges requires a higher level of judgment. detailed c. probabilistic b. quantitative b. rules and regulations . accuracy and precision c. data validation The selection and type of _______________ used by a facility can have a significant impact on RBI results: a. semi-quantitative The data quality has a direct relation to the relative _________________ of the RBI analysis: a. high corrosion rates c. leaving the wrong impression with some managers believing that RBI is more time consuming and expensive than it should be : a. QRA d. clerical and data transcription errors Unfortunately. data validation is essential for a number of reasons. when this __________________ step has not been a priority before RBI. inspection error d. quantification An RBI study may use a qualitative.

b. up and down periods b. lettuce. PCMS In most plants. Typically. These potential high-risk items should receive greater attention in the risk assessment: a. precision and accuracy Facilities approaching the end of their economic or operating service life are a special case where ___________________________ can be very useful. qualitative. Vessel and piping d. flare systems. systems. development of damage mechanisms b. Piping and Instrumentation b. environmental or financial risk: a. an entire process unit) rather than______________________: a. probability. pressure and temperature. metallurgies c. consequence d. probability It is often advantageous to group equipment within a process unit into ____________________ where common environmental operating conditions exist based on process chemistry. on failure modes alone If the scope of the RBI assessment is a multi-unit facility. relative risk d. emergency shutdown systems) are included in the RBI assessment. on damage mechanisms alone b. The end of life case for plant operation is about gaining the maximum remaining economic benefit from an asset without undue personnel. or circuits b. application of RBI The scope of an RBI assessment may vary between an entire refinery or plant and a single component within a single piece of equipment. metallurgy. removal of high risk equipment d. consequence. their service conditions during both _______________________should be considered: a. RBI analysis d. or risk c. loops. Block flow or process flow c. equipment items When emergency systems (e. codes and standards c. on damage factors d. intermittent . the first step in the application of RBI is screening of entire process units to rank________________________: a. absolute risk b. bacon.g. equipment design and operating history: a. a large percentage of the total unit risk will be concentrated in a relatively small percentage of the____________________. credible damage mechanisms and historical problems: a. or quantitative _________diagrams for the unit may be used to identify the systems including information about metallurgy. RBI is done on multiple pieces of equipment (e.g. on a single component c. and tomato d. probability c. routine operations and upset d. semi-quantitative. damage mechanisms c. process conditions. creation of integrity operating windows c. total unit reward b.

probability Process conditions during start-up and shutdown can have a significant effect on the risk of a plant especially when they are more severe (likely to cause accelerated deterioration) than normal conditions. flow rates d. polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking The normal operating conditions may be most easily provided if there is a process flow model or ____________________ available for the plant or process unit: a. false . risk matrices b. probability b. PSM mandated From the understanding of ________________. HF Acid corrosion d. PSM An RBI assessment is a ______________________process: a. operational boundaries d.The purpose of establishing _______________is to identify key process parameters that may impact deterioration: a. an inspection program may be designed that optimizes the use of inspection and plant maintenance resources: a. process rates Codes and legal requirements vary from one ____________________to another: a. General corrosion b. true b. set points c. A good example is____________________: a. avoided commercial losses Reducing inspection costs is usually not the primary objective of an__________________. ALARP c. avoided losses of containment b. inspection deferral d. required c. tiresome d. P&ID b. state c. but it is frequently a side effect of optimization: a. risk analysis More effective infrequent inspections may be substituted for less effective frequent inspections: a. inspection b. risks d. external corrosion c. consequence c. criteria The results of managing and reducing risk are all of the following EXCEPT: a. mass balance c. RBI assessment b. and as such should be considered for all equipment covered by the RBI assessment. jurisdiction d. HAZOP d. team-based b. improved safety c.

risk plan c. POF c. PHA The primary product of an RBI effort should be an _________________________ for each equipment item evaluated: a. ALARP c. newest Changing metallurgy of components can reduce _______________________: a. PSM b. mitigated The objective of RBI is to direct management's decision process of prioritizing resources to ______________________: a. unmitigated risk b. maybe d. POF An RBI assessment made on new equipment or a new project. ALARP b. Save money b. PHA's and HAZOP's Impending failure of pressure equipment is not avoided by inspection activities unless the inspection precipitates risk mitigation activities that change the ____________ : a. ALARP c. COF d.c. removed d. fix stationary equipment d. This may allow potential risks to be (blank) and have a riskbased inspection plan in place prior to actual installation: a. minimized by design b. inspection plan For risks considered unacceptable. risk matrix The Fitness-For-Service assessment is often accomplished through the knowledge and expertise of the inspector and engineers involved when deterioration is within known acceptable limits. probability and consequence d. probable d. may yield important information on potential risks. but on occasion will require an engineering analysis such as those contained in . lowest b. manage risk c. reduced by half c. POF Reduce or limiting available inventories can reduce by what a. I don't know RBI focuses efforts on areas where the ___________________risks exist : a. while in the design stage. the plan should contain the mitigation actions that are recommended to reduce the ________________ to acceptable levels: a. COF d. probability and consequence b. PSM b. greatest c. COF d. mitigation plan d. risk plan c.

572 Some risks cannot be adequately managed by inspection alone. 580 d. Table 1—Three Levels of POF . b)an acceptance/understanding of the current risk.API_______: a. These equipment plans highlight risks from a safety/health/environment perspective and/or from an economic standpoint. COF c.PCMS Equipment _______________________ programs can provide input to the probability analysis portion of an RBI program: a. inspection b. Implementation of these plans provides one of the following: a)an overall reduction in risk for the facilities and equipment assessed. PCMS The RBI system will improve the focus of the inspection plan. The output from several of these initiatives can provide input to the RBI effort. PHA b. equipment nearing retirement b. The primary work products of the RBI assessment and management approach are plans that address ways to manage risks on an equipment level. Below are examples of some of these other initiatives EXCEPT the following : a. PSM b. RBI plans should include cost-effective actions along with a projected risk mitigation. POF d. OSHA d. LOPA c. COF c. consequence-dominated risks d. PSM d. 2) a detailed description of the inspection plan 3) a description of any other risk mitigation activities 4) the expected risk levels of all equipment after the inspection plan and other risk mitigation activities have been implemented. 579 c.I. Examples where inspection may not be sufficient to manage risks to acceptable levels are: a. risk management c. reliability what is the R. all of the above The risk-based inspection methodology is intended to complement other risk-based and safety initiatives. 5) identification of risk drivers. process capable of Generating? 1) a ranking by relative risk of all equipment evaluated. resulting in a strengthened _____ program: a. failure mechanisms (such as brittle fracture. 571 b. POF b. and RBI outputs may be used to improve safety and risk-based initiatives already implemented by organizations.B. fatigue) c. OSHA PSM Potential hazards identified in a PHA will often affect the ______________ side of the risk equation: a. ALARP d.

systems or equipment. modifications to process. In this case.01 to 0.01 times per year).Possible Qualitative Rank Annual Failure Probability or Frequency Low <0. Failure modes identify how the damaged component will fail (e.0001 to 0. On the basis of knowledge of the operating history.01 High 0. etc. locations and techniques.001 to 0.001 Moderate 0. c) the ability to make decisions (e. or low) or may have numerical descriptors (such as 0. the materials of construction and the corrosive components of the processes.00001 Very Low 0.1 Qualitative POF Analysis A qualitative method involves identification of the units. Identification of credible damage mechanisms and failure modes for equipment in a risk analysis is essential to blank and the blank of the risk analysis. future inspection and maintenance plans and possible materials deterioration.1 to 0. medium.01 High >0. Depending on the methodology employed. mechanical and metallurgical damage. grouping or equipment item.0001 Moderate 0. cracking. monitoring.00001 to 0. Damage mechanisms include corrosion. materials selection. A methodology should be applied to assess the applicability of these general data.01 Table 2—Six Levels of POF Possible Qualitative Rank Annual Failure Probability or Frequency Remote <0. system. the categories may be described with words (such as high. Understanding damage mechanisms is important for: a) the analysis of the POF. Another approach is used when inaccurate or insufficient failure data exists on the specific item of interest. by leakage or by rupture). POF can be assessed separately for each unit. (a) damage mechanisms (b) Quantitative risk (c) Quality and effectiveness Risk presented in quantitative risk analysis as a (a) Precise numeric value (b) F orm of risk Matrix (c) Form of event tree and Fault tree. Engineering judgment is the basis for this assessment. system.0001 Low 0. company or manufacturer failure data are used. One example is to take a probabilistic approach where specific failure data or expert solicitations are used to calculate a POF. Quantitative POF Analysis There are several approaches to a quantitative probability analysis. general industry. Understanding failure modes is important for three reasons: .1 Very High >0.g. equipment grouping or individual equipment item.g. A POF category can then be assigned for each unit.) that can eliminate or reduce the probability of a specific damage mechanism.0001 to 0. b) the selection of appropriate inspection intervals/due dates.

000.000 Category 3 Serious Economic Loss Range > $1.000 Category 2 Major Economic Loss Range > $10.000. c)the selection of repair techniques economic loss for consequences may be placed into categories that have pre-defined ranges: Category 1 Catastrophic Economic Loss Range >$100.000.000 < $100.000.000.000 Category 5 Insignificant Economic Loss Range < $10.000 < $1.000 .a) the analysis of the COF. b) the ability to make run-or-repair decisions.000.000 < $10.000 Category 4 Significant Economic Loss Range > $100.