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Mechanical Analysis

and Design
SECOND EDITION

Arthur H. Burr
Late Hiram Sibley Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Emeritus
Cornell University

John B. Cheatham
Chairman, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science
William Marsh Rice University

PRENTICE HALL
Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632

2 Analysis and Mechanical Design: The Design Process Analysis and Creativity: Some Rules for Design 3 1.Contents PREFACE xvii TABLES OF REFERENCE VALUE xx SYMBOLS xxi ABBREVIATIONS 1 xxviii INTRODUCTION 1 1.7 1.4 1.6 Factor of Safety and Reliability Purpose and Scope of Book 7 Arrangement of Topics 8 1.8 Nomenclature 9 Units and Conversion References 12 1 5 6 10 vii .3 Product Safety and Product Liability 1.5 1.1 1.

Heat.2 Introduction 13 Film Viscosity and Shear: No-Load Resistance 2.Contents viii 2 FLUID FILM LUBRICATION Sliding Element Bearings 2.16 2.11 2.3 2.20 Other Solutions and Characteristic Numbers 67 Bearing Capacity with Rotating Loads and Sleeves 2.21 Dynamic Loads and Special Bearings References 76 2. Torque. and Continuity: Reynolds' Equation 31 Hydrostatic (Externally Pressurized) Bearings: Rotating Thrust Pads 35 Hydrostatic Bearings: Sliding Pads and Flow Restrictors 39 2. And Temperatures Design by Load Number 65 2.4 2.13 Squeeze Films 42 Hydrodynamic Thrust Bearings 44 Journal Bearings—Eccentricity and Pressures 2.4 Work. Attitude. and Torques 50 Load Number and Design for Bearing Size 52 2.5 2.18 Journal Bearings—Lubricant Flow and Delivery 56 Journal Bearings—Power Loss.3 3. Flow.8 2.14 2.7 2.9 Problems 3 13 15 46 61 69 73 79 FRICTION THEORY AND APPLICATIONS Brakes. and Belt Drives 3. Clutches.15 Journal Bearings—Load.1 2.2 3.19 2.17 2.10 Viscometers and Kinematic Viscosity 17 Lubricants: Classifications and Characteristics 19 Boundary Lubrication 23 Bearing Materials 28 A Pressure-Velocity Relationship: Establishment of Pressure in Fluid Films 30 General Equations For Velocities.6 2.1 Introduction 107 3. and Motion in Brake and Clutch Systems 108 Short Contacts on the Cylindrical Surfaces of Drums 114 Long Shoes on Cylindrical Surfaces 118 107 .12 2.

13 3. 224 Pitch by Equation.7 3.6 3.17 4 Design of Shoe Brakes Self-Actuation 128 Disks and Cones 131 125 Flexible Bands 137 Band Brakes and Clutches 142 The Coil or Spring Clutch 146 Flat Belt Drives—General 147 Fixed-Center Drives 151 Self-Tightening Drives 154 Multiple-Pulley Drives 157 V-Belts and Other Drive Belts 159 V-Belt Selection 163 Wire Rope and Drives 165 References 170 Problems 170 MISCELLANEOUS TRANSMISSION COMPONENTS 4. 224 Belt and Chain Variable-Speed Transmissions 226 Fluid Coupling Action 227 Slip.3 4.2 4.12 3.8 4.10 3.5 3.Contents 3.14 3.10 4.11 3. 212 Chain Characteristics 213 Chain Capacity and Rating 219 Forces. 219 210 Chain Selection 224 Pitch by Chart and Table.8 3. Efficiency.6 4. and Torque Capacity in Couplings 229 Performance and Application of Fluid Couplings 231 Speed Adjustment with Fluid Couplings 233 Hydraulic Torque Converters: Equations.9 3.16 3. and Modifications 235 References 241 Problems 242 .9 4.4 4.7 4.1 4.5 4. Performance.11 Introduction 209 Power Transmission and Other Chains Inverted-tooth (Silent) Chain.15 3.

12 Stress Concentration 290 5. 301 5. 288 Reliability Factor.13 Design and Specifications for Reduction of Stress Concentration. STRAIN. 261 5. and Strength 256 Strengths.6 Mises Criterion or Maximum Energy of Distortion Theory of Failure 272 5. Design 301 Toughness and Tests. 286 Size Effect. Theories of Failure.8 Elastic-Plastic Conditions: Limit Design 5. 298 Energy Theory. and Safety Factors 5.5 Maximum Shear-Stress Theory of Failure 5.17 Factors of Safety and Balanced Design References Problems 309 311 304 307 286 255 . 299 5.16 Margins of Safety. Crack Progression.Contents X 5 STRESS.9 Fatigue Failures 281 5. 288 5. Fatigue Strength and Stress Concentration.11 Modification of Fatigue Strength for Design.3 Component Stresses and Principal Stresses 262 5. Stress. Plasticity and Limit Design. Reliability 5. The Flow Analogy 295 5.10 Fatigue Strength 283 5.4 Graphical Representation 5.2 Strain. Fracture Mechanics.1 Introduction 255 5.14 Fracture Mechanics: Stress Intensity Factors 298 Applications. Reliability 264 270 278 Surface Effect. Reliability. 298 Stress Intensity.7 Normal-Stress Failure Theories: The Mohr Theory for Brittle Materials 276 5. AND STRENGTH General Elastic Relationships.15 Fracture Mechanics: Toughness.

Harmful and Beneficial Residual Stresses from Assembly. RESIDUAL STRESSES.9 Location and Retention of Components on Shafts 335 335 342 351 354 359 361 Shoulders.10 Additional Shaft Details 6.7 Examples of Shaft Calculations 6. Fastener Details 7.2 The Effect of Temperature on Short-Term Mechanical Properties 392 7.6 Elementary Thermal Stresses 404 395 398 401 391 . Creep and Stress Relaxation.4 Fluctuating Normal and Shear Stresses: Maximum Shear and Normal-Stress Theories of Failure 346 6.1 Introduction 6.1 Introduction 391 7. THREADED CONNECTIONS Creep Rupture.8 Additional Theory and Calculations in Shaft Design 6.3 Design for Simple Fluctuating Stresses 6. Design for Limited Cycles and Multiple Stress Levels 6.2 Types of Stress Variation: Design for Steady and for Alternating Stresses in Brittle and in Ductile Materials 336 6.Contents 6 XI DESIGN FOR FATIGUE STRENGTH AND LIFE.5 Fluctuating Normal and Shear Stresses: Mises-Related Theories of Failure 349 6.6 Shaft Diameters 6. Stresses from Thermal Expansion.12 Design for Several Levels of Stress: Cumulative Damage References Problems 7 364 367 370 372 373 THERMAL PROPERTIES AND STRESSES. Yielding and Transformation. Design for Fluctuating Stresses. 361 6.4 Application of Creep Data for Long-Life Design 7. Shaft Design. Bolt Tightening. SHAFT DESIGN Types of Stress Variation.5 Stress Relaxation in Bolts at Elevated Temperatures 7.11 Design for a Limited Number of Cycles 6.3 Longer-Time Properties: Creep and Creep Rupture 7.

12 7. Plane Strain 469 Plane Stress Equations for General and for Constant Widths 470 Pressure Cylinders. Plastic Strain Limit Analysis.7 7.13 461 .14 7.8 8. Rotating Thin Disks. Multilayer Vessels.Contents xii 7. Thick Pressure Vessels. and the ASME Code 8. Modifications.5 8. Rotating Disks.10 7.9 7.1 8.13 7.9 8.4 Introduction 453 The Membrane Equation for Shells 454 Thin Pressure Vessels 457 Discontinuities.7 Tanks and Gravity Loads 462 Filament-Wound Cylinders 465 The General Equation of Equilibrium for Thick Cylinders: The Special Case of a Disk of Uniform Strength 467 Strain in Cylindrical Coordinates: Compatibility: Plane Stress vs.3 8.6 8.2 8.11 8. Rotational and Thermal Stresses in Long Cylinders 453 8.11 7. Interference Fits. and Spheres 472 Interference Fits 479 Multilayered Vessels 484 Elastic-Plastic Strain 485 8.12 8.18 8 Thermal Fatigue and Shock: Stress Minimization Detrimental Residual Stresses 407 Beneficial Residual Stresses: Prestressing 409 Prestressing by Assembly 410 Mechanically Induced Yielding 412 Peening 414 Thermally Induced Yielding 417 Transformation of Internal Structure 417 Summary of Prestressing Methods: Choices and Conditions 419 Bolt Tightening 420 Threaded Fasteners 426 Fastener Strengths and Design 429 References 431 Problems 433 406 AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL LOADING Membranes.16 7.8 7.17 7.10 8. Thin Pressure Vessels and Tanks.15 7.

9 Displacement of Straight Beams 550 Stepped-Shaft Displacements by the Moment-Area Method Superposition 556 9.11 9.12 523 Statically Indeterminate Forces and Moments 561 Shaft Displacement Limits and Computational Methods Large Deflections of Beams 572 References 576 Problems 577 10.xiii Contents 8. Continuous Elastic Support.5 Strain Energy Theorems 603 Applications of Castigliano's Theorem: Thin Curved Beams and Frames 608 Additional Ring Analyses: Out-of-Plane Loadings: The Coil Clutch 615 Stresses in Curved Beams 618 Beams with Continuous Elastic Support: Theory 624 10. and Statically Indeterminate Members 9.1 9. Stepped Shafts.14 8.10 9. Superposition.2 Introduction 521 Stresses in Straight Beams 9.1 10. Bolted and Welded Connections. Displacements by Moment Area.6 Shapes and Section Properties of Some Machine Components 529 Determinate Forces and Moments 536 Forces at Bolted and Welded Connections 540 Non-Coplanar Moment Analyses 544 9.4 10.2 521 628 603 .5 9.15 9 The Plane-Strain Solution: Rotating Cylinders 491 Thermal Stresses in Disks and in Long Cylinders 494 References 497 Problems 498 MECHANICAL COMPONENTS IN FLEXURE I Sections and Shapes.4 9. Thin and Thick Curved Beams. Plates 10.3 552 568 10 MECHANICAL COMPONENTS IN FLEXURE II Strain Energy.6 Tables and Applications of Elastic-Support Equations 10. Forces and Moments.3 9. and Computation Methods.7 9.8 9.

5 Contact Between Two Elastic Bodies: Hertz Stresses for Spheres 674 Contact Between Cylinders and Between Bodies of General Shape 679 Surface Failures 683 11. Stresses.10 Axial Loads and Rotational Effects in Bearings 695 Bearing Life.2 Concentrated and Distributed Forces on Plane Surfaces: Boussinesq's Equations 672 11.3 Gear Kinematics and the Involute Tooth Shape 722 Spur Gear Tooth Loads and Surface Strength 731 12. SURFACE FAILURES.1 Introduction 11.xiv Contents 10. and Forces 721 721 740 .7 11.10 10.6 Oil Films and Their Effects 11. and Variable Loads 699 11. BEVEL AND WORM GEARS.11 11. GEAR TRAINS. Geometry. Capacity. and Deflections 690 11.9 11.1 Introduction 12.9 10.12 Closure on Rolling-Element Bearings Traction Drives 705 References 709 Problems 710 704 12 SPUR.11 631 634 Symmetrically Loaded Flat Circular Plates 641 Tables for Circular Plates: Superposition and Statical Indeterminacy 645 Belleville Springs 652 References 656 Problems 657 11 SURFACE CONTACTS.2 12. AND TRACTION DRIVES 11.3 11.7 Cylinders Restricted in Their Deformation 10.8 Flat Plate Theory in Rectilinear Coordinates 10.4 671 671 686 11.4 12. POWER SCREWS 12.5 Bending Strength and Size of Spur Gear Teeth 736 Helical Gears: Characteristics.8 Design Values and Procedures 688 Rolling-Element Bearings: Load Division. HELICAL. ROLLING-ELEMENT BEARINGS.

2 Torsion of Straight Bars of Circular Section 13. 797 Spring Materials and Treatment 782 797 Static Strengths and Spring Design 799 Torsional Elastic Limits.6 13.Contents 12.9 781 Extension Springs. 788 Spring Lengths.10 12.11 XV Stresses in Helical Gears—The AGMA Equations Bevel Gearing 746 Worm Gearing 752 Translation or Power Screws 760 Gear Trains 765 Closure on Gears and Gear Trains References 772 Problems 773 743 772 13 TORSION Straight Circular Bars.9 12. 802 Determination of Wire Size.5 Extension Springs. 795 Nested Springs. Compression and Extension Springs. 799 Fatigue Strengths and Spring Design 801 Fatigue Charts.7 12. 801 Ultimate Tensile Strengths. 794 13. 795 Variable Coil Diameter.8 12. 796 Tolerances. Noncircular Solid and Tubular Sections 13.7 13. 799 Determination of Wire Size. 805 Theory of Torsion for Bars of Any Section 805 Characteristics of the ф-Function. and Tolerances 795 13.8 13. 790 Surge. 803 General Method.1 Introduction 13. 809 Approximate Method for Solid Sections.4 Stresses in Compression and Extension Coiled Springs Deflection and Spring Lengths 788 Deflection.6 12. Nested Springs. 812 784 781 . 789 Buckling. Variable-Diameter Springs.3 13.

Torsional Impact and Shafts 14.9 14. 815 Hollow Sections: Analogy for Plastic Conditions—Other Methods 817 Thin Closed Sections.7 14. 820 Other Methods.Contents 13.10 The Nature of Impact 835 Energy Method: General 837 Energy Method: Particular Cases 839 Longitudinal Waves in Elastic Media 842 Initial and First Period Stresses 845 Impact on a Uniform Bar with a Rigid Body at One End Application to Striking Impact: Chart Solutions—Comparisons 850 Torsional Impact on a Shaft 856 Longitudinal Impact on Helical Springs 859 Striking of Two Bars: Transmission and Reflection at a Step 861 References 864 Problems 864 835 848 AUTHOR INDEX 870 SUBJECT INDEX 874 .3 14. 813 Rectangular Sections.5 14.4 14.1 14.2 14.8 14. Longitudinal Impact and Springs. 820 References 821 Problems 821 IMPACT Energy and Wave Analyses.10 13. 817 Plastic Analogy. 813 Thin Open Sections.11 The Membrane Analogy and Thin Open Sections: Rectangular Sections 812 The Membrane.6 14.