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Table of Content:


Bleed Air Systems
4 to 5
Anti-ice, Rain
Automatic Flight
7 to 8
10 to 11
Engines, APU
12 to 13
Fire Protection
14 to 15
Flight Controls
16 to 18
19 to 20
Landing Gear & Brakes
22 to 23
Electronic Checklist & Warning Systems 24 to 25
Please be aware that this unofficial technical summary is for Information Only and should not be used for actual flight operations.
The Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) is the only legal based document for the B747.
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a message that does not have a white checklist icon has the same meaning. on primary EICAS only the Status cue. wailer) . show selected normal system condition. displayed until parameter returns to normal inhibits display of Status cue.000/975. GEAR can then be displayed in compressed form on the remaining EICAS CRT.000/719.5’ . Turning radius min 46. Preflight check: drop of 30 psi or greater per mask indicates crew oxygen shutoff valve may be closed.92. Beacon Lights: LOWER: activates only lower red anti-collision beacon light. Supernumerary Oxygen Switch: RESET: (spring-loaded) flow control units closed electrically when cabin altitude below 12000ft NORM: system activates if cabin altitude reaches approximately 14000ft.2. Master mind is MAWEA Storm Light Switch: Storm Light Switch in ON position overrides controls and illuminates the following lights at maximum brightness: dome lights. . required crew action obvious. “ON” or a “Flow Bar” displayed. Messages preceded by a > means: no abnormal procedure. Secondary Engine Exceedance Cue VVVVVV Cyan engine parameter on secondary display is exceeded. oxygen is turned off and mask microphone is deactivated instead boom microphone is activated. On the 747-8. MLW: 652:000/759.000 lbs.4’ Eye height 8. Width to wingtips 64. The switch display indicates system status. Alert Messages: Warnings: red (bell. Momentary Action Switch (spring loaded to the extended position): Activate or deactivate systems or reset system logic. aisle stand flood lights. informative nature only.06m/19. PRESS TO TEST. . Only ENG.9’/172’ .4m / 213’/224’. FUEL.tests the positive pressure supply to the regulator.3. Warnings are displayed on top of every page and can not be cancelled.3m / 231. line in the upper or lower half means no label in this portion of the switch.4 ‘. as soon as shown the Status cue will disappear until after landing. Cautions and Advisories can be cancelled by pressing CANC switch or recalled by using the RCL 747-400 747-8 switch. . On: Button pressed. F/O’s and CMD’s lights! Outboard and Inboard Landing Lights: Light intensity at maximum only when LDG gear in down position otherwise reduced light intensity.89m / 32. glareshield lights. Off: “OFF” or nothing displayed.000 100% oxygen on demand (not an air/oxygen mixture) for 3h 10 min.9’ . the message itself will be found on the STAT page. MTOW: 875. inhibited by Secondary Engine Exceedance Cue. is in view when oxygen flows. Cautions: amber (beeper).9m/68. Alternate Action Switch (Positions On or Off): Positions On or Off. Taxi Lights and Runway Turnoff Lights: The runway turnoff lights beam 65° to the left and right of the airplane centerline.6m/52. Maximum cruising altitude FL45. 100% . NORMAL/100% Switch: N . inhibited from after engine start until 30 min after liftoff.4’ are not visible from the cockpit.000/978.000 lbs Dimensions: Length 70.7m/76. EICAS (Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System): System synoptics and Status display selected in secondary EICAS.3. Supernumerary oxygen flows for 195 min at cabin altitude 25000 ft Cockpit Oxygen Masks: When mask is pulled 2 and left oxygen panel door is open microphone and oxygen flow is activated. No Smoking and Fasten Seatbelt Sign: Anytime passenger oxygen deploys.000 lbs. siren. Status Messages: Indicate faults which may affect airplane dispatch ability. Protective Strip: There is a protective strip of clear plastic on the top portion of the lens. always on the bottom of the list.66m / 28. Height to the cockpit 9. In case of condensation build-up caused by rapid depressurization. TO RESET: close left panel door and press RESET AND PRESS TO TEST button . NO SMOKING and FASTEN SEAT BELTS signs illuminate.100. can’t be erased. . MTW: 877. ON: (spring-loaded) cabin oxygen masks drop. vision can be restored by peeling off this strip using the tab on the right side.92/0.General page 3 of 25 The B747F/-8F can transport 124/140 tons of cargo up to 4450/4390 100% oxygen under positive pressure at all cabin altitudes (protects against smoke and harmful vapors).65m / 87. Advisories: amber and indented by one character. Lights extinguish when air/ground sensing system in air mode. maximum operating speed 0.1. BOTH: activates upper and lower red anti-collision beacon lights. Height of the tail 19.4m / 62. yellow cross and “OXY ON” 1. the first 26. Maximum Weights: MZFW: 610. Oxygen Mask Emergency/Test Selector: Rotate (in the direction of the arrow) . New messages displayed on top of their message an air/oxygen mixture on demand (the ratio depends on cabin altitude).4m / 152. If one CRT fails primary EICAS has priority and will always be displayed on the remaining CRT. Memo Messages: White in primary EICAS.

In the event that both packs 1 and 3 are failed or selected off. With the pack control selector in the “NORMAL” position. Controls and Indications: Bleed air duct pressure is indicated on the ECS synoptic page. . aft cargo bay. lavatory.Bleed Air Systems page 4 of 25 Bleed Air Users: Bleed air is used for: Air conditioning (including Trim Air) & Pressurization. Pack 2 supplies mixed conditioned air to the aft lower lobe cargo compartment when commanded on. The cabin altitude indications on the upper EICAS are only displayed if: ECS or ENG synoptic page is selected. Air Conditioning System Description The airplane is divided into seven (7) temperature zones. Temperature requirements vary from zone to zone. they are referred to as the flight deck. Leading edge flaps. backup modes control the temperature by regulating the output temperature of the packs. Conditioned air from all three packs flows into the conditioned air manifold. trim air can supplement conditioned air to satisfy the temperature requirements of each individual zone. Pack 3 supplies mixed conditioned air to the lower lobe cargo compartment when commanded on. At high altitude ozone concentration is reduced by two catalytic converters. upper deck and crew rest area. Pressure is amber at 11 psi or below. forward lower lobe cargo and aft lower lobe cargo. pack 2 trim air (cabin temperature zones in backup control mode). pack 2 or 3 shutdown and AFT or FWD lower cargo air conditioning supply duct overheat. provide air conditioning pack control. potable water pressurization. With the trim air switch “ON”. System Fault Light: Nacelle anti-ice may not be available (at low power settings) and Illuminated for: • Bleed air overheat • Bleed air overpressure • HP bleed valve open when commanded closed • PRV open when commanded closed NAI available with bleed switch ON or OFF except: •PRV Failed Closed * •PRV Closed due to Bleed OVHT * •Start Valve not closed * •HP Bleed Valve Failed Open (not available with Bleed switch OFF) Thrust REV available with bleed switch ON or OFF. On the 747-8. Hydraulic reservoir pressurization. The conditioned air from the packs is supplied to a conditioned air manifold. R. Cargo smoke detection (not for -8). aft main deck cargo. The Pressure Regulating Valve (PRV) limits and regulates bleed pressure and bleed temperature. Potable water tank pressurization. Bleed Air System description: Bleed air is taken from either intermediate pressure (IP) or high pressure (HP) engine section. Two (2) pack controllers. The converters are fully automatic controlled by the system logic via a Bypass Valve and a Converter Valve. Aft cargo heat. “A” and “B”. In case an air overheat is detected the system logic closes EBV and PRV. If the left or right duct section is isolated. Trim air AFT or FWD shut off automatically when Lower Lobe Cargo Conditioner Air Flow Rate (LLCCAFR) selector OFF. upper deck. Wing anti-ice. The bleed air temperature is controlled via a fan air precooler. flight deck. aft and bulk cargo heating are not available any more. three lower circulation fans pull air from below the main deck and add it to mixers at each air condition pack. bleed air is not available for cabin zone temperature adjustments and the pack output temperature is regulated to provide an average flight deck temperature of 24 °C. The NAI bleed air is taken before the Engine Bleed Valve (EBV). The conditioned air manifold supplies air only to the main cargo deck. upper deck and crew rest areas are supplied with unmixed air directly from pack 1 and 3. Engine start. equipment cooling. the landing altitude is manually selected.…a backup valve from pack 2 opens to allow mixed air to enter the flight deck. cargo smoke detection. the system automatically selects controller “A” or “B” on an alternating flight basis. a maximum of one air conditioning pack on assures sufficient bleed air is available from the two engines which supply air to the unaffected duct sections.The aft lower lobe cargo compartment can be supplied with conditioned air directly from Pack 2. flight deck crew rest. however NAI is still available when switched on manually or automatically. C. The forward lower lobe cargo compartment can be supplied with conditioned air directly from Pack 3. The flight deck. upper deck. Trim air is hot air obtained directly from the bleed air supply. the Thrust Reversers are hydraulicaly operated Air Conditioning System Users: Conditioned bleed air is used for: main deck cargo. Except: * asterisk On the 747-8. A Check Valve prevents reverse flow. and is distributed to the upper deck zones and main deck cargo. Air driven hydraulic demand pumps and nitrogen generation system. If the center duct section is isolated. Engine anti-ice. APU bleed air is available when the APU reaches 95% N1 through the APU Bleed Air Isolation Valve. Trim air for the forward and aft lower lobe cargo zones is supplied directly from the bleed air duct and is not controlled by the master trim air valve. Equipment cooling (redirected cabin air). crew rest. If for some reason the trim air is not available. cabin altitude or cabin differential pressure is in caution or warning range. HP air is used during low power setting conditions. Zone temperature control is maintained throughout the airplane by adding warm trim air to the conditioned air. The Engine Bleed Valve prevents reverse flow except for engine start. If an EBV switch is OFF the respective PRV is closed as well. Isolation Valves: Two Isolation Valves allow to split the bleed air system into sections L. With the trim air switch “OFF”. Bleed air is supplied from the bleed air system to 3 air conditioning packs. forward main deck cargo. To improve efficiency.

LOW-AFT: Pack 2 air conditions ⅔ output to the aft Lower Lobe cargo compartment and supplies air (⅓) to the conditioned air manifold. LOW-BOTH: Pack 2 and Pack 3 air condition both ⅔ of their output Lower Lobe cargo compartments and supply air (⅓) to the conditioned air manifold. Via the Smoke Override Valve. The message EQUIP COOLING is displayed on the EICAS if: •System airflow inadequate •Overheat or smoke detected •Ground Exhaust Valve not in commanded position •With selector in OVRD.500) Pressurization System Manual Operation: With both outflow MAN switches to ON the system can be operated manually.500 ft. max differential pressure 8. If pressure becomes excessive (over 9. one or both valves open and pack 2 shuts down to assist in relieving excess cabin pressure.DISCHARGE switch pushed. and then 2. An OVRD mode provides equipment cooling in flight if all internal fans are inoperative. Field elevation Cabin Pressurization System: Cabin pressurization is controlled by regulating the discharge of conditioned cabin air through the outflow valves. If the message occurs on the ground. HIGH-AFT: All of Pack 2 air conditions the aft Lower Lobe cargo compartment. the flight deck temperature can be adjusted between 18° C and 29° C. and moderate ambient temperatures (above 7°C) the air is ducted via the Ground Exhaust Valve overboard. The cabin altitude limiter closes both outflow valves if cabin altitude exceeds 11’000 ft. Main Deck & Lower Lobes: In the AUTO range. The air is ducted into the forward cargo compartment.000 ft. In MAN mode the FMC is bypassed and only actual rate and altitude information is processed. which air conditions the Main Deck and Upper Deck. With the LLCAFR selector in the FWD LOW. Fan Failure: With the Equipment Cooling selector in NORM or STBY. the Inboard Supply Valve and the Inboard Exhaust Valve and Ground Exhaust Valve are closed. Above 9. pack 2 resets.4 psi). CABIN ALTITUDE Warning at 10. the other one is standby. Maximum descent rate is 450 ft/min. the system normally configures to closed-loop mode if a single internal fan fails. When the valves are closed again. FWD HIGH. Maximum cabin altitude is 8’000 ft. The warm air is exhausted into the forward cargo compartment. Cautions triggered at 8. Same can be achieved with the cooling selector on STBY.000 ft/min to a cabin altitude of 20. and the equipment cooling exhaust air is re-circulated in a closed loop mode. the system is configured for flight. At touch down the outflow valves open to depressurize the cabin. The controllers calculate a cabin pressurization schedule according to actual values and FMC flight plan information. the Ground Exhaust Valve closed.000 ft (resets at 9. Equipment Cooling: A fully automatic. The valves normally operate in parallel and are controlled by two cabin altitude controllers. With one or more engines running on each wing. OFF: The Lower Lobe cargo compartments are not air conditioned.8 psi. Inboard Exhaust Valve open. overboard. below 7 ̊ C into the forward cargo compartment. Cargo Fire: With the Main Deck Fire Extinguishing Armed switch ARMED and the CARGO FIRE DEPRESSURIZE . Above 10 ̊ C. TCV is normally closed when the aft cargo conditioning is ON but if the temperature decreases to 4 ̊ C the TCV opens and gives heat to the compartment. the air is ducted into the forward cargo compartment.000 ft. MANual range idem as above.1 psi the indication turns red. the inboard valve is closed. LOW-FWD: Pack 3 air conditions ⅔ output to the forward Lower Lobe cargo compartment and supplies air (⅓) to the conditioned air manifold.500 ft/min to a cabin attitude of 25. the main deck and Lower Lobe Cargo Zone Temperatures can be adjusted between – 4 °C and 29° C . differential pressure for reverse flow cooling is inadequate If the message occurs during flight. above the indication is amber. Positive and negative pressure relieve valves protect the fuselage against excessive pressure differential. cooling selector STBY. Only one controller is active.000 ft. In the MANual range it allows the trim air valve to be operated manually.11 psi) to cause a smooth transition. A thermal switch in the compartment opens and closes the temperature control valve (TCV). The rate of depressurization is 9. . independent equipment cooling system uses cool air from the cabin for cooling of the flight deck equipment and the electronic compartment equipment racks. the airplane depressurizes to a cabin pressure altitude of 25.Page 5 of 25 FLT Deck & Upper Deck: In the AUTO range. or BOTH position. Origin Field elevation Cruise Altitude Time to Climb CABIN ALTITUDE CONTROLLER S Time to decent Dest. all automatic functions are bypassed. cooling selector OVRD. 0. In closed-loop mode. air is drawn with cabin differential pressure through the racks and vented . On ground with the cooling selector in NORM. recirculated in a closedloop mode or ducted overboard. and the forward temperature is selected below 10 ̊ C. LLCCAFR: HIGH-FWD: All of Pack 3 air conditions the forward Lower Lobe cargo compartment. For T/O and LDG the system provides a small positive pressurization (max. All of Pack 2 and Pack 3 air is diverted to the conditioned air manifold. Cargo Heat: The forward cargo is heated by air exhausted from the electric & electronic compartment. Aft cargo heat is provided by bleed air from the center section of the bleed air duct.

Wing anti-ice is inhibited on ground. The defogging is controlled by the windshield air switch at the CM1. Trigger Points: The auto logic has different trigger points for WAI and NAI. Working Principle: The outer stick of the ice detector probe is flexible. There are two power settings switched by the ground safety relay: low power setting for operation on ground and a high setting inflight. 2 AOA must be heated in order to receive proper information during adverse weather conditions. Additionally all windows are defogged by Windshield Washer System: conditioned air. Pushing a window heat switch off for 10s.Anti-ice. The window heat switches control heating for the forward windshields only. The operation of wing anti-ice system is inhibited on the ground. When the frequency returns to its initial value the heater turns off. The TAT heating system operates in flight only. EICAS Display: WAI and NAI is indicated on the upper EICAS. . resets a windshield heat controller fault. Windshield Wipers: 2 windshield wipers are installed. 2 TAT probes. The system controls the automatic operation of nacelle and wing antiice. Water Supply Lines: Electric heaters prevent formation of ice in drain masts and water supply lines. CM2 auxiliary panels. It can be monitored on the ECS synoptic page as well. then on. X X Nacelle Anti-Ice: For anti-icing the engine nacelles receive hot air out of the bleed air system Operation inflight (ON and AUTO) and on ground (ON only) is possible. Rain page 6 of 25 Primary Ice detecting System: The primary ice detection system does not operate on the ground. A larger portion of the inboard LE is heated on the 747-8. Anti-Ice Use: Wing and nacelle anti-ice should not be used above 10 °C. After a certain vibration change is sensed a heater turns on and melts the ice. Drain Masts. The length of the cycle is scale for the intensity of icing. Wing anti-ice will be commanded on at heavier icing conditions (10 probe cycles) than nacelle anti-ice (2 probe cycles). With nacelle anti-ice on. An electric controller maintains constant temperature for the windshields. Ice Detectors: 2 Ice Detector probes. With leading edge flaps extended the auto logic prevents wing anti-ice even when entering icing conditions. -8. The pitot-static probes and the AOAs heating system operates automatically whenever any engine is running. Wing Anti-Ice: Only the range outboard of the inboard engine is de-iced by hot bleed air ducted in a spray tube. They have two speed settings to choose from. Therefore the nacelle anti-ice system must be manually controlled on the ground and during takeoff. provide information to the automatic ice detection system. Probe Heating: 4 pitot-static probes. one on each side of the aircraft. A spray duct in the engine cowl releases bleed air thereby providing ice protection. Windshield Heating: All cockpit windows are electrically heated. continuous ignition and approach idle is selected through EEC automatically. It operates inflight only. With ice build up the frequency of its vibration changes. Side windows are automatic controlled by thermostats and no flight deck controls are provided. NAI is not available when: •PRV has been closed due to a Bleed OVHT •PRV has failed closed •HP bleed valve failed to open •Start valve is not closed. Both windshields are equipped with a washer system and are treated with a hydrophobic coating which causes water droplets to roll off with minimal wind. The water and waste heat system has no cockpit controls and indications.

Passing 400 ft VNAV is engaged. VMO and MMO limits in all A/T modes. Modes: VNAV PTH. During an approach the THR could function as a TO/GA switch. Thrust levers. THR switch: The thrust switch is normally used during takeoff and climb as a method of thrust reduction (selected CLB. Holds Selected Speed ……. page 7 of 25 Modes: Mode selection on MCP is indicated in the FMA in the PFD. New Modes are green boxed for 10 s. . In the speed mode. THR REF is still displayed on the PFD and the reference thrust becomes full takeoff thrust (TO). Inputs are: MCP. or TO/GA mode. TO/GA TO/GA LNAV VNAV Takeoff Preparation: A/T armed. LNAV and VNAV armed. Levers revert to previous position after hands off. VNAV ALT. pop up the F/Ds when the airspeed is above 80 knots. VNAV SPD. A/T Override: Anytime possible by moving thrust levers. A/T disconnect switches. 2 or CON with N-1) when VNAV is not used. SPD. except in A/T HOLD mode. the A/T controls thrust for automatic climbs and descents while the AutoPilot Flight Director pitch maintains the selected speed set in the IAS MACH Window. HDG. the A/T holds the selected speed shown in the IAS MACH window. THR REF HDG HOLD ALT SPD switch: The speed switch is inactive in the FL CH. TO/GA. if speed is more than V2 + 10 kts. Will Not Exceed Climb Thrust Limit VNAV: A/T modes and target thrust setting selected by FMC. Thrust lever servos. A/P disengage switches. part of MCP. at lift off FD follows ground track until 50 ft where LNAV is engaged and followed. TO/GA switch: Pushing the TOGA switch when inflight (windshear) cancels any takeoff reduced thrust (D-TO2). VNAV. except in VS ! Takeoff: THR REF TO/GA LNAV FD A/T on THR set TO/GA VNAV HOLD LNAV TO/GA VNAV HOLD LNAV TO/GA VNAV THR REF │LNAV│ VNAV SPD FD FD CMD CMD passing 65 KIAS passing 50 ft passing 250 ft. FMC. LNAV. passing 65 kts the A/T reverts to the HOLD mode (for RTO). VNAV displayed in white in the FMA (TO/GA switches are now hot). FD commands V2 + 10 kts pitch.│ TO/GA │ TO/GA Flight Deck Preparation: FD’s ON. but will not exceed the selected thrust limit. flaps. A/P on HOLD TO/GA TO/GA LNAV VNAV passing 400 ft VNAV engaged TO/GA switches pressed A/T commands THR REF. TO/GA in the FMA. A/T System: Consists of thrust management functions of FMC. Flight director source selector used to select an operational FCC. Caution: Pressing a TO/GA switch while flaps are out of up will activates the A/T in THR REF mode during ground operations! Speed Protection: Available from the min maneuvering speed up to 5 knots below the lowest of the max speed for gear. FL CH: In the FL CH mode.. ALT is manually set in the MCP.Automatic Flight Autoflight System: Consists of: AFDS (Autopilot Flight Director System) and A/T (Autothrottle). TO/GA switches. Pushing the TOGA switch when the F/Ds are not on. target speed is reset to V2 + 25 kts. 1. thrust changes to THR REF and actual SPD is indicated on the PFD.

: VNAV Alt. Once LNAV is engaged.5 NM of the active Leg. THR │TO/GA│ TO/GA Go around: The TO/GA mode is armed as long the flaps are out of up or G/S is captured. The airplane automatically levels off at the selected MCP altitude. an unforecasted tailwind will cause the airplane to move above the VNAV Path. Activating thrust lever in reverse disconnects A/T. The elevators are controlling pitch to maintain the selected speed which is the higher of MCP speed or speed at go around initiation. or At 40 – 60 ft RA: A/P starts to FLARE. the HDG is automatically set to LOC front course in the HDG window. Intervention SPD │LNAV │ VNAV ALT To accomplish altitude intervention during a climb or a (late) descent. The FMC message. the IAS/mach window is blank. and the radio altitude is above 400 ft. LNAV remains active and commands the airplane to maintain the last heading. Approach: Passing 2500 ft the rising RWY indication will be displayed. A captured approach mode can only be inhibited by selecting TO/GA or switching the A/P and FD off. SPD │ At 25 ft RA: During flare A/T retards throttles. the autothrottle maintains speed. This displays the current VNAV target speed. the A/P is directed to fly the active route to the last route waypoint.5 NM. LNAV will arm. the autopilot uses the elevator to maintain the speed displayed in the IAS/mach window with a SPD in the pitch mode display. All three A/Ps still engaged. Bank limit selector is active in HDG only. During rollout A/P controls rudder and nose wheel steering. push the IAS/mach selector. and speed will increase. As the new speed is reached. Triple channel operation starts after a pre-autoland test has been satisfactorily at 1500 ft RA. mode changes from IDLE to blank. LNAV will engage at the point to turn to intercept the active leg. Full G/A thrust is available with a second push in the THR REF mode. Bank: To select a HDG press SEL on the HDG turning knob. VNAV PTH and the cruise thrust reference is displayed on EICAS. As the airplane drops below the VNAV Path. VNAV ALT is displayed. During the descent the thrust levers retard to IDLE and the autopilot pitch maintains the VNAV descent path. the A/T maintains speed and the autopilot pitch maintains the FMS altitude. IDLE │ ROLLOUT │FLARE LOC or │FLARE ROLLOUT LOC │FLARE ROLLOUT Touch down: During touch down the approach switch bar is off. IDLE │ At 5 ft RA: LOC mode is replaced by ROLLOUT mode. When the FMC is controlling speed. If the LNAV switch is pushed outside 2. Adding thrust by A/T will allow the airplane to climb (THR). During a VNAV climb. : SPD │LNAV│ VNAV PTH VNAV Cruise When the airplane reaches VNAV cruising altitude. There are three conditions required to engage LNAV. ROLLOUT and FLARE are armed. THR REF is displayed on the PFD. LNAV activates if an active flight plan has been entered into the FMS-CDU and the airplane is above 50 ft RA and within 2. If the airplane passes over the last route waypoint. the performance initialization is complete. To accomplish speed intervention.25° depending on TAS. or selecting another roll mode such as heading select or heading hold. the FMC directs a departure from the path. the autopilot pitch maintains the FMS altitude. MDA pointer visible are is no longer indicated. LNAV is terminated by capturing the localizer. At 1500ft RA: LAND 3 in the FMA. While in the FLCH mode. “drag required”. This indicates that A/P pitch is maintaining VNAV climb speed.Page 8 of 25 THR │LNAV│ FLCH SPD │ ALT FLCH: Flight level change is a coordinated pitch and thrust mode which provides automatic climbs and descents to preselected altitudes. the FMC directs thrust to increase to maintain speed. cruize (CRZ) thrust reference is displayed. Mode activation is indicated by “FLCH” appearing in the PFD. Rotating the IAS/MACH selector increases or decreases the target speed without disengaging VNAV. manual steering is inhibited until A/P is disengaged. : THR REF │LNAV│ VNAV SPD VNAV Climb Activation occurs if VNAV is armed. The FMC directs pitch to increase. an intervention altitude can be set in the MCP. : Tailwind HOLD │LNAV │ VNAV SPD During a VNAV descent. TO/GA switch pushed moves throttles forward and rotation starts for a rate of climb of 2000 ft/min in the THR mode. . TDZ indication is active. If speed increase is excessive. Triple channel approach (LAND 3). VNAV PATH is displayed. G/S indication on the FMA erased. Selecting a new altitude and pushing the altitude select knob initiates the continuation of the VNAV climb or descent profiles. LNAV: Pushing the LNAV switch arms the LNAV mode. AC and DC busses isolated. AC BUS 4 on synchronous bus will replace automatically any failed bus (fail operational). is displayed when drag is required to maintain the VNAV path. Each push of the altitude selector deletes the next waypoint constraint. Level Off During a VNAV level-off due to a FMS waypoint altitude constraint or reaching the FMS cruising level. Reducing thrust will allow the airplane to descend (IDLE→ HOLD). In AUTO bank varies between 15° . an unforecasted headwind will cause the airplane to drop below the VNAV Path. This indicates that the A/T is maintaining reference thrust. As speed decreases. Below 500 ft rudder control is active for RWY alignment. During a VNAV climb. Should any AFDS failure occur in LAND 3 below 200 ft RA the LAND 2 (fail passive) annunciation is inhibited. : HOLD IDLE │LNAV│ VNAV PTH VNAV Descent A VNAV descent automatically begins at the top-of-descent point. As the airplane moves above the VNAV path. HOLD is displayed on the PFD when the thrust levers are at idle. : SPD │LNAV│ VNAV PTH VNAV Climb. the FMC directs a decrease in pitch to maintain the path. Roll controlled to maintain ground track. The A/T mode changes to SPD. flap position and V2. The flight level change mode ends with an automatic level-off. When selecting any other mode (earliest at 400 ft) the triple channel A/P operation and the A/P rudder operation is cancelled. the FMC directs a pitch change to maintain VNAV path at the new airspeed. HDG. VNAV speed is computed by the FMC and is displayed on the FMS CDU climb page. the FMC directs an increase in pitch to maintain the path. LOC interception: Upon interception of ILS. as the airplane reaches the speed transition altitude. or the airplane is too far above VNAV Path. : SPD │LNAV │ VNAV PTH Headwind During a VNAV descent. VNAV SPD is displayed on the PFD. speed mode changes to IDLE. and the autopilot pitch mode changes to VNAV SPD. The result is level flight in the altitude mode at the preselected altitude (ALT). LNAV is displayed on the PFD in white. the FMC directs pitch to increase for speed reduction. The FMC also automatically displays the VNAV command speed on the PFD. During a VNAV descent.

reset by pushing the transmitter select switch or by transmitting on that radio. A tone also sounds on the main cargo deck. Pushing the Ground call switch sounds a three second horn in the nose wheel well. The Cargo Interphone provides communication between loading personnel. the main deck cargo area. ACARS is automatic. Audio Panel: The transmitter select switch selects related transmitter and corresponding audio on if not selected manually.50) transmitter. The panels can be switched off if faulty. The service Interphone provides communication between numerous service jacks located throughout the airplane. will illuminate the respective switch and sound a chime on the flight deck. If tuning is done from the offside the offside tuning light illuminates on all involved radio tuning panels. Observer Audio System: Allows CMD or F/O to use observer audio panel. .Communications page 9 of 25 Radio Tuning Panel: Consists of 3 VHF (L. Flight Deck CALL system: An incoming call from an upper deck crew rest area. cargo and upper deck interphones to the flight interphone. Only one transmitter at a time. R). Audio off is not possible for selected transmitter or emergency frequency (121. The HF sensitivity is direct wired to the corresponding HF radio. if call received call light illuminates. Public Address System: PA announcements can be made to the upper deck seating area. 2 HF (L. or the nose wheel well. The Upper Deck Interphone provides communication between the flight deck and the upper deck crew rest areas. 1 ACARS). R). Pushing the Cargo call switch illuminates the fight deck call switches on the loadmaster amplifier panels and wing inspection stations on the main cargo deck. C. AM (amplitude modulation). volume control and FMC CDU pages. it is disabled by the stuck microphone protection. and the crew rest areas. Pushing the Upper Deck or Crew Rest left or right switches on the pilot's call panel sounds a chime and illuminates a call light at the respective location. Service and Cargo/Cabin Interphone Switches: Connects the service. lavatory. they are set on VHF centre. If any VHF or HF frequency is keyed for more than 30 sec. Do not use VHF centre for ATC communication with ACARS operational. Dashes appear in the frequency window. HF remains active. Sat Comm: Uses audio panels transmitter selectors. Selcall monitors VHF and HF. 3 channels are used (2 voice communication.

The standby power is then available for approx. to cover for a TRU failure. Battery status is displayed on the lower EICAS STAT page. 30 min. the ELCU automatically shed utility bus loads as needed to ensure that power is available to critical and essential equipment. Failure of a generator to synchronize: If a generator fails to synchronize the bus tie breaker opens and the ISLN light illuminates. IDG Drive Failure: When high oil temperature or low oil pressure in a generator with the engine running is sensed the amber DRIVE light illuminates. selecting EXT PWR 2 ON will transfer main deck cargo handling power to APU GEN 2. Transfer Busses: Essensial flight instruments and selected navigation equipment are connected to the transfer busses. FMC) by the APU and Main standby bus. The 4 DC busses are interconnected by DC isolation relays to a DC tie bus. If both EXT PWR 2 and APU GEN 2 are available. three fuel override jettison pumps. for example for fire fighting. It is only powered by APU GEN 1 or EXT PWR 1 are available or ON. The isolation light monitors only the Bus Tie Breaker but not the DC isolation relay. . If electrical loads exceed power available. F/O transfer bus is powered by AC bus 2. As they can not be synchronized. upper deck doors. Power is normally supplied by the battery chargers from the ground service bus. this assures that vital components are always powered.Electrical Page 10 of 25 Power Sources: AC power (115 V 400 Hz) sources are: 4 engine driven generators in flight. They are monitored by an ELCU (electronic load control unit). The Captain's transfer bus powers the APU standby bus. There is no EICAS message when shedding the load. either manually or automatically can only be reconnected on ground by maintenance. Split System Breaker (SSB): APU and EXT PWR feed although in the synchronous bus. miscellaneous equipment. Synchronous Bus: Each IDG (integrated drive generator) feeds its own AC bus. Bus Tie Switch: Connects the generator via the Bus Tie Breaker to the synchronous bus and controls the DC isolation relays. Selecting the power source ON will de-energize the bus. the bus is split by the SSB into a left and a right side if both are connected at the same time. 2 APU driven generators. DC busses 1 to 4 are supplied by the AC busses 1 to 4 via four TRU’s (transformer rectifier units). If both are available EXT PWR is used. Standby Busses: Flight critical items are supplied ( PFD. they are all connected to the synchronous bus. galley power. EXT PWR 2 or APU GEN 2 cannot power main airplane electrical busses and the main deck cargo handling bus at the same time. selected air conditioning components. ND. Airplane systems powered by Utility busses include crew rest lighting. AC bus 1 (ground service bus) or the APU/Main battery (min 30 min) via the APU/Main hot battery bus and the standby inverter. Hot Battery Busses: Hot wired to the batteries. DC power (28 V) is transformed from AC power or available from the MAIN BAT or APU BAT. This bus is inhibited in flight. Main Battery. Ground Service Bus: The ground service bus is powered on the ground and in flight whenever AC bus 1 is powered. in BAT position the Ground Handling Bus Main Deck Cargo Handling Bus STBY Bus is connected to the Hot Battery Bus. AC bus 1 is backup. transfer bus via AC bus 3. Battery Busses: They are supplied by DC bus 3 in normal condition or via the Hot Battery Busses if DC bus 3 is powerless. 2 external power units on ground only. two fuel boost pumps. which itself is powered by Capt. Abnormalities: Only one attempt to reset a system should be made. service outlets. and electrical outlets. Utility Bus: Each AC bus supplies a Utility Bus. When AC power is available. The APU cannot provide electrical power in flight. lavatory equipment. Provides power to cabin lighting. lower cargo handling equipment. Ground Handling Bus: It powers the fuelling system. nav lights. A generator drive disconnected in flight. If both power sources are available EXT PWR 2 powers the bus. Standby Power Selector: In AUTO the STBY Bus is powered by any available source. Capt transfer bus is powered by AC bus 3. Main Deck Cargo Handling Bus: The main deck cargo handling bus is powered automatically whenever either EXT PWR 2 or APU GEN 2 is available only. lower cargo doors and AUX HYD pump 1 and 4. main tank 2 and 3 aft fuel pumps (for APU) and battery chargers. thereby the battery charger is disabled. 28 V DC power syst: Two batteries: APU Battery.

Supplemental Control Unit: Part of the EEC. Abort start when: • No EGT rise within 25 seconds • EGT rising rapidly toward start limit (750 ̊ C. HPT. Limitations: EEC monitors EGT and N2 until engine stabilizes. FUEL Spar Valve 1st Stage Pump Unit 2nd Stage Pump Engine Oil System: The oil system is self-contained.0. controls autostart functions. one igniter energized. accessory gearbox. ENG FUEL VLV. ignition goes off. Engine Manual Start: Conditions: APU bleed. Active Clearance Control. The filter has a bypass feature that prevents engine fuel starvation if the filter Engine Fuel becomes clogged. EEC mode control switches. Engine start switches with integrated start valve light. N1 begins turning and oil pressure increases.900/66.Engines. VSV’s (variable stator vanes). 2. shuts off hydraulic fluid to the engine-driven hydraulic pump. Fuel on indicator: shows minimum N2 to switch the fuel control switch to run during a manual start. crew monitors Oil Press and N1. Engine control through fly by wire. N2. The oil quantity is displayed in magenta when the value is equal to or less than 4. The oil passes through a filter to remove solid contaminants. EEC. 16% N2 EEC opens engine fuel valve and energizes one igniter. ignition armed. fuel passes through a filter where solid contaminants are removed. EEC (Electronic Engine control): Controls: Ignition. . Engine autostart switches. hot. The pump is driven by the engine's accessory gearbox. Sequence: 4. bleed air valve open. There is no manual start procedure. engine fuel valve. Engine Fuel System: Fuel flows from the tank to the spar valve. 2 rotor system. 50% N2 starter cut out. Engine continues to accelerate and N2 stabilizes at approx. arms both engine fire extinguishers. starter running. This pump is also driven by the engine's. the oil is scavenged from the engine by a scavenge pump. locked N1 and oil pressure.500 lbs takeoff thrust) High bypass ratio turbofan engine. APU electricity. FADEC. starter switch pops in. The oil is distributed to the engine’s gear box and bearings. spar valve and engine fuel valve open. 1. N1: fan. EGT increases within 25 sec. start valve opens (start valve light illuminated in start switch). Fan produces about 80% of thrust. LPT with active clearance control. starter valve and bleed air valve close (start valve light out). Reverse thrust levers. After the gearbox assembly and bearings have been lubricated. The EGT start limit line disappears. Both sensors are located prior to oil distribution to the engine bearings. FF. The oil returns to the reservoir. starter switch pops in. engine bleed air valve. VIB. APU page 12 of 25 General Electric CF6-80C2-B1F/GEnx-2B67 (57. 64% N2. 2 packs off to reduce bleed consumption. depressurizes engine-driven hydraulic pump. The minimum oil pressure is 10 psi. It cools and lubricates the engine bearings and accessory gearbox. is displayed when the position of the Fuel Control Switch and the position of the spar valve or Fuel Metering Oil the engine fuel valve disagree. The maximum oil temperature is 160 ̊ C for continuous operation. starter valve and bleed air valve close (start valve light out). spar valve opens. Oil is supplied from the reservoir to the oil pump. starter running. Engine continues to accelerate and stabilizes at approx. The EICAS advisory message. Engine Autostart: Conditions: APU bleed 30 PSI. When N2 rpm reaches the fuel-on indicator. The engine fuel valve Valve allows metered fuel to flow to the engine fuel nozzles. B Accessory Gear Box Fuel/Oil Heat Exchanger Fuel Filter Fuel B Oil Filter Fuel/Oil Heat Exchanger Scavenge Pump Accessory Drive Oil Reservoir Oil Pump Specific indications during engine start: EGT start limit: displayed until engine is stabilized. low pressure compressor. 2 packs off to reduce bleed consumption. -8. Thrust. Bleeds at the 8th and 14th stage. low pressure turbine N2: high pressure compressor. trips engine generator. N2 increasing. Ignition controls. Engine Fire Switch: Closes: spar valve. autostart switch to AUTO. FMU equipped. 3. OIL T. fuel flows to the first stage fuel pump. 870 ̊ C max 40 sec) • N2 RPM fails to stabilize at idle • No N1 or oil pressure by idle N2 RPM (EGT start limit line disappears) The 747-8 is equipped with a full time automatic engine start system. Thrust levers. start valve open (start valve light illuminated in start switch). autostart switch to OFF. Engine Controls: Consist of: Two position fuel control switches with lever lock (they control spar valve and engine fuel valve). start valve armed. BV’s (bleed valves). Fuel control switch to RUN. EGT. high pressure turbine. After the fuel/oil heat exchanger. The pump is driven by the engine's accessory gearbox. Starter cutout occurs automatically at 50% N2. hung start. bleed air valve open. There after the fuel flows into the second stage fuel pump. Limitations: crew monitors wet. From the bypass filter. Process: Start switch pulled. fuel flows to the fuel metering unit.The fuel is heated by engine oil as it flows through the engine's fuel/oil heat Engine exchanger. Powered by its own generator. 64% N2. OIL Q. Process: Start switch pulled. The scavenge pump is driven by the accessory gearbox. The EEC makes three attempts before aborting the autostart sequence. The oil is cooled by fuel as it passes through the engine's fuel/oil heat exchanger. The filter has a bypass feature which prevents engine oil starvation if the filter becomes clogged. Engine Indications: N1. the fuel control switch to RUN. The ENG OIL PRESS EICAS message and the oil pressure engine indications use separate sensors. transient operation max 175 ̊ C for 15 min. Reverse Thrust. The EGT start limit line disappears. With the spar valve open. EEC maintenance panel. simultaneous start of two engines approved. ignition off. APU electricity. Red oil pressure indication: inhibited during engine start and shut down. OIL P.

EEC Overspeed Protection: At thrust settings above idle. an impending hot start. Engine Limit Indications: TAT . hydraulicaly actuated. the EEC shuts off fuel and ignition if it detects no light off. pressure and bleed requirements. APU has two generators for ground operation only. Hot start is allowed until max T/O EGT limit 960 ̊ C with Multiple Engine Flameout. Autostart will reacts to hung start or to EGT reaching the takeoff limit. • nacelle anti-ice ON • engine flameout Reverse Thrust:. Pneumatically/-8.. X EEC Thrust Regimes: Minimum Idle: Minimum thrust calculated by EEC.Page 13 of 25 Abnormal Engine Start in Autostart: : During ground start before starter cutout. APU Run. and airspeed range for in-flight start FL 300 – 220-330 KTS. APU fire extinguisher system. max. On the lower EICAS the X-BLD start indication is displayed whenever the in-flight start envelope is shown and airspeed (< 220 kts) is too low for wind milling start. Thrust increases when ALT mode is selected manually. the EEC monitors N1 and N2 RPM to prevent rotor overspeed even though the thrust lever is commanding more thrust. Commanded when: • Flaps in landing position • NAI ON • CON IGNITION ON. The battery switch must remain ON for 2 min until shutdown is complete for fire detection and extinguishing. start altitude (FL 300). Engine In-Flight Start: When fuel control switch is cutoff and fire switch is in. DC fuel pump and an APU starter. The APU continues running unloaded for a 1 min cool down period. Thrust limits are automatically controlled by the EEC when operating in reverse thrust mode.2 95. The engine continues to motor. up to 5 sec after touch down and during thrust reverser operation. begins shutdown by closing APU bleed air valve. Moving the Thrust Levers aft before manually selecting the alternate mode prevents exceeding maximum N1. Minimum idle is a lower thrust than approach idle. (automatic for -8) SINGLE • EEC alternates igniter 1 and igniter 2 after every second ground start. or a hung start. It consists of an inlet door. N1 is reached before full thrust lever position. Do not manually abort the autostart when the EGT turns red. When reversers fully deployed (REV). APU selector to OFF . when N2 RPM is less than 50% • trailing edge flaps out of up position. Thrust does not change when EEC transfers control from NORMAL mode to ALT mode automatically. BOTH • Selects all igniters. Inflight start is not possible. APU fire detection system. The EICAS caution message. the APU shuts down. Engine Shut Down: 3 min cooling must be observed.2 Caution N1 960 925 Normal Digital white 662 662 EGT >Maximum Back to Normal after Exceedance White bar Digital amber Amber bar Note: Caution indication is inhibited for 5 min after TO/GA switch pushed during T/O and G/A Digital red Red bar Digital white White bar Red box (exceedance reminder) Note: Switching between CANC and RCL toggles the white box and the red exceedance reminder box. APU bleed air is available in the air for one pack only up to 15’000 ft. Start envelope shows current FL or max.14c 95. After starter cutout. APU fuel valve. full reverse thrust is available. the A/P disconnects. in-flight start envelope is displayed in upper EICAS. EGT turns red when EGT exceeds the start limit line (750 ̊ C).5 CRZ 95. Engine Ignition. • EEC selects both igniters for in-flight start or flameout. If control for any EEC transfers from normal to alternate. reverse thrust should be cancelled. Raising the reverse levers to the idle reverse position (REV while in transit) disengages auto throttle and engages auto speedbrake if speedbrake was not armed. APU bleed valve. . the EEC immediately aborts the autostart sequence if it detects an impending hot start or a compressor stall.2 95. Approach Idle: Higher thrust as minimum idle to improve engine response. it makes three start attempts before aborting the autostart sequence.2 105. Autostart will not abort automatically and will continue the in-flight start indefinitely. The APU can be started either via a transformer rectifier unit or via the APU battery.2 95. Reaching 60 kts. both igniters are used. Selected igniters operate when any of the following occur: • during start. APU: APU can be operated in flight up to 20’000 ft. based on thrust lever position. The EEC commands the fuel metering unit to adjust fuel flow until actual N1 equals commanded N1 and keeps thrust constant independent of OAT. Fuel control switch to CUTOFF. X-BLD EEC Normal Control Mode: Thrust is set. whichever is lower.2 95. most phases of flight and ground ops. APU controller. If battery is switched off the APU shuts down immediately.2 117. ENGINE AUTOSTART. The EEC resupplies fuel and ignition for a second start attempt. APU Shutdown: The EICAS memo message APU RUNNING is displayed when the APU selector is ON and APU N1 RPM exceeds 95% N1. EEC Alternate Control Mode: In ALT mode there is no thrust limiting. is displayed when the EEC aborts the autostart sequence. The A/P can be activated after all EECs are manually transferred to alternate mode.

FWD. Lower Cargo Compartment Each lower cargo compartment is equipped with 4 dual loop smoke detectors. Photo cell smoke detectors are installed throughout all Cargo compartments. The test is continued for engines and APU as long as electrical power is available. overheat or smoke condition is sensed. Main Landing Gear Wheel Well: Each Landing gear wheel well contains a single loop detector. Engine Fire Detector Loop: Every engine is equipped with a dual loop fire detector (A and B). No EICAS message. overheat and cargo compartment smoke detection systems is performed. 4 bottles (A. Overheat Detector Loop: Each engine is equipped with a dual loop overheat detector (A and B) Both loops must sense an overheat for EICAS alerting OVHT ENG NAC. the system automatically configures itself for single loop operation. Lower Cargo Compartments and Lavatory are equipped with fire detection and extinguishing systems. Indications and Warnings: All indications and warnings are active as long as a fire. an EICAS master warning message FIRE MN DK appears. the other hold no longer is protected. Main Deck Cargo Compartment The main deck cargo compartment is divided into three fire detecting areas. If smoke is detected. APU and Main gear wheel wells. the method for extinguishing fire is by reducing the oxygen concentration. Crew Rest Areas: Smoke detectors are installed in the crew rest areas. Both loops must sense a fire for activation FIRE ENG. Additionally the Engines are equipped with dual overheat detector loops. Lavatory Fire Fighting: The extinguisher bottle is automatically activated by the temperature sensor in the waste area. Any loop with all engines off. These test do not generate any indications. APU by 1 bottle installed at the APU fire wall. The smoke detector triggers an aural warning and EICAS >SMOKE LAVATORY appears. C. NB: Once you discharge extinguishing agent into a cargo hold. The wheel well and the bleed duct leak detector loops are only tested during manual test. Automatic Test: An automatic test of all fire. MID and AFT. when initial power up occurs. Any of the two bottles can be discharged to either engine. Both loops must detect a fire for an APU fire warning with any engine running. B. Extinguishers: Engine fire extinguishing by 2 bottles for each wing near inboard engine and fuselage. D) located near the forward cargo compartment are available for FWD and AFT cargo fire fighting.Fire Protection page 14 of 25 Protected Systems: Engines. Detection Systems: Two different detection systems: Fire detector loops for Engines. If a fault is detected in one sensor. Lavatory and Crew rest areas. APU. In case of fire of Main Deck. . APU Fire Detector Loop: The APU is equipped with a dual loop fire detector (A and B). Fault monitoring of the sensor loops occurs when the fire protection system is tested. An aural warning sounds in the crew rest and an EICAS message >SMOKE CREW REST appears. Detection only: Is granted for the four main gear wheel wells and the Main Deck. Sixteen dual loop smoke detectors monitors the main deck and function in the same as in the lower cargo compartments. both the A and B sensor loops must detect smoke to produce an EICAS fire signal FIRE CARGO AFT.

APU fire detected with any engine running: Both loops must detect a fire. APU FIRE CONTROL switch.-8. . rotate the switch to the left or right and hold against the stop for one second and discharges one of the fire fire bottles. APU FIRE light. the fuel control switch in cutoff. Bottles C and D +(E and F) discharge after a brief delay and maintain a metered flow (210 min). For single loop failures. -8. discharge the fire bottle by rotating the fire switch in either direction and hold against the stop for one sec. master trim air valve is closed. +(E and F) will discharge upon touchdown.Fire Fighting: Page 15 of 25 Cargo Fire Arm Switch MAIN DECK: Main deck fire suppression is enabled. NB: Once you discharge extinguishing agent into a cargo hold. APU STOP switch. discharge the other bottle The fire warning indications are removed when the fire condition no longer exist. The panel contains: APU FIRE WARNING HORN. master trim air valve is closed. equipment cooling configured to override and airflowheat into lower cargo compartment turned off. equipment cooling configured to closed loop and all airflow to main deck and airflow / heat into lower cargo compartment turned off. APU EXTINGUISHER DISCHARGE switch. Pulling the APU FIRE CONTROL switch has the same effect as pulling the APU fire switch in the cockpit. Cargo Fire Arm Switch FWD or AFT: Two packs are turned off and one pack remains open with flow reduced. Engine Fire Switch: All fire switches are protected by a mechanical lock against unintended pulling. Loop Failures: For complete loop failures the warning massage “>FIRE TEST FAIL” is presented. turns off all recirculation fans and the nitrogen generation system. the extinguisher bottle needs to be discharged manually. Main Deck initiates airplane depressurization to a cabin altitude of 25’000 ft. Silencing the fire bell in the cockpit. If not previously discharged. bottles C and D. Bottles A and B are discharged immediately. the method for extinguishing fire is by reducing the oxygen concentration. APU Ground Control Panel: Located near the right body gear wheel well. If the fire is not out after 30 sec. Cargo Fire Depressurization/Discharge Switch: In case of fire of Main Deck. the other hold no longer is protected. turns off all recirculation fans. two packs are turned off and one pack remains open with flow reduced. nitrogen generation system and shuts down galley chiller. the APU shuts down and the bottle is discharged automatically. silences the warning horn too. the faulty loop is shown on the lower EICAS status page. Fire switch pulled: • Fuel and Bleed air valves closes • Shuts down the APU • Air inlet door closes • Gen field breaker trips • Fire bottle arms If the fire still exists. . APU Fire Switch: The switch is electrically locked to the “in” position when no fire is detected. lower cargo compartment fire extinguishers are armed. APU Fire: APU fire detected with all engines shutdown: Only one detection loop is necessary to detect a fire. Fire Switch Pulled: • Bleed air valves close • Fuel valves close • Generator field breaker trips • Arms the fire extinguisher bottle • Hydraulic pump depressurizes If pulling the engine fire switch does not extinguish the fire. In case of fire of one of the lower lobes: Initiates the automatic discharge sequence to provide effective agent concentration for 210 minutes protection. the loop is configured to single loop operation . The lock is released by a fire signal.

The outboard ailerons are fly-by-wire controlled and droop only for takeoff (FL 10 and 20 only). The outboard ailerons are electrically locked out above 235 kts.Flight Controls page 16 of 25 Primary Flight Controls: The primary flight controls are: Ailerons. They are hydraulic powered. Feel forces at the control wheel are produced by Feel & Trim mechanisms in all three axis. feel forces are provided by mechanical springs and are no longer a function of airspeed. The force increases as airspeed increases. The loss of one of the hydraulic systems does not affect feel forces. with the inboard and midspan LE flaps logic. Elevators: Divided into inboard and outboard control surfaces. Outboard elevators are actuated by only one hydraulic system each. Spoilers. Rudder and are powered by all four hydraulic systems. Elevators. The stabilizer and flaps are powered by two systems. Ailerons: Roll commands are executed by the inboard and outboard ailerons. If both systems fail. The feel mechanism is powered by HYD SYS 2 and HYD SYS 3. Stick Shaker: At Minimum airspeed indication (black-red) . Secondary Flight Controls: Secondary flight controls are: Stabilizer. An override mechanism allows either control wheel to move should the other one jam. The TE and LE flaps increase the wing area by 20% and increase the lift by 90%. the spoilers by three systems. -8. Inboard elevator position is used as control input for the respective adjacent outboard elevator actuator. Shearouts between inboard and outboard elevator allow movement of the healthy system should a jam occur. An elevator feel mechanism provides artificial feel force at the control column. Control Input Transfer: Pilot inputs are transmitted to the Feel & Trim mechanism and from there via cable to the Hydraulic Actuators. Elevator Indication: Left and right outboard elevator position are indicated on the EICAS STAT page. Roll control is then available through the ailerons on the wing corresponding to the free wheel. The inboard ailerons are mechanical controlled and droop for takeoff and landing (FL10 or greater). Flaps.

The lower rudder is double hinged and allows the rudder to increase its range of movement for better yaw control. They provide position information to EICAS and other systems. Two separate spoiler mixers combine control wheel input and speed brake lever position into deflection of the spoiler panels. The inboard and midspan group will automatically retract when reverse thrust is applicated. Operation of the yaw dampers has no effect on the rudder pedals. Two yaw dampers. the outboard flaps by HYD SYS 4. provide dutch roll protection and turn coordination. Each spoiler panel is powered by a single hydraulic source. Asymmetry protection is provided in primary and secondary mode. The upper with three hydraulic actuators. The spoiler system is grouped in flight and ground spoilers.-8. The flaps are triple slotted. Opposite trailing edge flap groups are mechanically connected to maintain symmetry. the lower with two hydraulic actuators. Trim inputs are transferred electrically into two separate stabilizer trim control modules. Large rudder inputs. -8. Any one of the 3 FCUs is sufficient to fulfill all functions and to operate the whole system. inboard and outboard. At high airspeed trim rate is automatically reduced. Leading Edge Flaps: 14 LE flaps on each wing provide lift increase. Secondary mode: LE Flaps and TE Flaps are driven electrically. the Primary and the Secondary. The FCUs provide asymmetry protection and a flap load relieve function against excessive air loads for the trailing edge flaps. They are powered by HYD SYS 2 and HYD SYS 3. The actuator outputs are mechanically 17 of 25 RUDDER: Two rudders are installed for redundancy. grouped into outboard. The 4 inboard spoiler panels on each wing act as Inflight speed brake. The flaps can only be extended to FL25°. . Primary mode: LE Flaps are driven with bleed air. One actuator only produces half trim rate. One A/P uses always only one actuator (half trim rate). flap load relieve function in primary mode only. cause a pair of spoilers to extend momentarily to assist in yaw control. All spoiler panels are used for roll control and fly-by-wire controlled. TE Flaps are driven with hydraulic. This function works with speed brakes as well as with ground spoilers. during the takeoff roll above 100 kts. The inboard are Kruger Type Flaps. The system utilizes the electrical motors. On ground all 12 panels act as ground spoilers. Flaps: 3 identical flap control units command and control the movement of both the leading and trailing edge flaps. Two rudder ratio changer gradually reduce each rudder surface’s response to pedal inputs as airspeed increases. Ground Spoilers 3223-44 / 44. All except left and right inboard spoiler panels function as flight spoilers to support the ailerons. Trailing Edge Flaps: On each wing are 2 trailing edge flap groups. InFlight Speedbrake Alternate mode: All flaps may be extended and retracted by an alternate control mode bypassing the flaps control units. The inboard flaps are powered by HYD SYS 1.3223 Flight Spoilers Spoilers: On each wing 6 spoiler panels are installed. Which prevents the stabilizer from being moved by aero dynamical forces. Each module is equipped with a brake. multiple A/Ps use both actuators (normal trim rate). The FCUs operate in two control modes. while the midspan and outboard are Variable Chamber Type Flaps. The brakes are released when the respective hydraulic motor receives pressure from its module. They are powered by HYD SYS 2 and HYD SYS 3 Horizontal Stabilizer: A movable horizontal stabilizer provides pitch trim. midspan and inboard. Each flap group has its own flap drive unit. one for each rudder.

Stabilizer Trim: There are 3 different stabilizer trim switches installed. Rudders and pedals move accordingly. The flaps lever position is electrically transmitted to the FCU. Aileron position is indicated on the EICAS STAT page. Flight Detent. the speedbrake might come up during flight! On ground full travel is available either automatic or manual. -8. On the left wing it is the position of the fourth spoiler panel in from the wing tip. when reverse thrust lever 2 or 4 are pulled to the idle detent. Stabilizer Trim Indicator: They show the actual stabilizer position. CUTOUT position shuts off hydraulic unit is inoperative with flap group extended. The flap limit speeds are 5 kts higher then the -400. Trailing Edge Flaps Indication: White . Two electrical aileron trim switches change the aileron neutral position inside the Feel & Trim mechanism. an automatic ground spoiler system fault occurs. To trim the stabilizer both half of the trim switch have to be operated simultaneously. Flap Malfunction Summary: PRIMARY MODE → Condition EICAS message Power source Sequencing Flap load relief TE asymmetric protection Normal mode SECONDARY MODE → ALTERNATE MODE If any group fails. or •FL lever inoperative FLAP CONTROL No Yes (by the FCUs) No EICAS FLAP DRIVE : When a asymmetry is detected. the speed brake lever is automatically driven to the DN position and the spoilers retracted. when thrust lever 1 or 3 is advanced from the closed position. The combined flaps position is displayed on the EICAS. The AUTO position allows automatic cutout of the respective hydraulic system in case of unscheduled stabilizer trim by holding the stick in opposite direction of trim. Flap 5: All LE Flaps+ TE Flaps 5 ̊ Yes •If 3 FCUs would fail. It indicates the acceptable range of trim for takeoff. When flap 5 is selected the TE flaps move flaps 5 position and the outboard LE edge flap groups extend. The gate at position 1 prevents inadvertent retraction of LE groups. The gate at 20 prevents inadvertent retraction of TE flaps past G/A setting. Armed. ON position overrides the automatic cutout function and supplies hydraulic unit is inoperative with flap group retracted. In case the automatic cutout does not occur and the stabilizer is moving without any command. The correct setting of the trim is crosschecked with an olio pressure switch indication in the nose gear. Detents 1 and 20 are designed as gates. only the inboard and midspan LE flap groups extend. The alternate mode provides no asymmetry protection and uses simplified sequencing. Retraction: Le FL retract when inboard TE Flaps are up. Activating the control wheel trim switch disconnects the A/ 18 of 25 Aileron Trim Switches: The aileron should not be trimmed with an autopilot engaged. 20 or 25. and the main landing gear touch down. Speedbrake Lever: The speedbrake lever has 4 positions: Down. Leading Edge Flaps Indication: White Box Outline . The rudder trim input changes the neutral position inside the Feel & Trim mechanism. Flap load relief is available with flaps 20. Up. and a go-around must be made. Spoiler Position Indication: On the EICAS STAT page the position of one spoiler on each wing is displayed. There are 3 band positions: Mid band. the available flap groups can be positioned in the Primary or Secondary mode with additional approach speeds. which could result in FLT control or fuselage damage. Pickups for the position indicators are on the outboard elevators. the speedbrake lever is automatically driven to the UP position. and do not deactivate the A/P.Load Relief: Flap load relief protects the flaps from excessive airloads. throttles 1 and 3 are near the closed position. Alternate Flaps Selector: During alternate flaps operation the flap lever is inoperative and the flaps indication on the EICAS changes into the alternate display. A movable green band is incorporated. . Nose down band and Nose up band. All LE flaps extend. Flap . When the speedbrake lever is in the ARMED position. White Crosshatch . Rudder position is displayed on the EICAS STAT page. On the left wing it is the position of the most outboard spoiler panel. Amber Solid Box . With multiple A/P active the trim switches are inhibited. If airspeed is excessive at flaps 20. the EICAS message STAB TRIM UNSCHD will appear. One on each control wheel and an alternate stabilizer trim switch on the central pedestal. The EICAS advisory message >FLAP RELIEF is displayed when the flap Load relief system is active.leading edge flap group retracted. If the ground spoilers extended after landing. TE Flaps 0 ̊ All Electric Extention: All simultaneously. 25 or 30 selected. STAB TRIM CUTOUT switches: The Stabilizer Trim Cutout switches control the hydraulic power supply. The amount of deflection is shown on the aileron trim indicator on top of the control column. then the speedbrake lever is automatically driven to the UP position and the ground spoilers extend. secondary mode for failed group + corresponding group on other wing also in secondary mode FLAP PRIMARY FLAP DRIVE FLAP DRIVE LE: Bleed Air TE: Hydraulic System 1. Amber . 25 or 30.leading edge flap group in transit. In secondary mode flap indication on EICAS is changing to expanded display. The TE flaps remain UP. The flaps automatically retract to flaps 10. With an EICAS message SPEEDBRAKE AUTO . During flight speedbrake lever movement is limited to the mid travel Flight Detent position by an automatic stop. Flaps Lever: Has 7 fixed detents and controls LE as well as TE flaps.leading edge flap group extended. Trimming the aileron deflects the control wheels into the desired direction. If the pilot does not arm the ground spoilers for landing. Amber Border . A red stabilizer indicator OFF flag is in few should the indicator fail. It does not function in the secondary or alternate mode. 4 Flap 1: LE Flaps inboard + midspan. Rudder Trim: Rudder trim is activated by turning the spring loaded rudder trim selector. The Alternate Trim Switches control stabilizer movement via a different channel and will override. Solid Green Box .drive unit is inoperative with flap group partially extended.position of inboard and outboard trailing edge flaps. Do not use alternate mode. When the flap lever is moved from UP to flaps 1 detent. Amber Crosshatch . They provide an increased range of stabilizer travel.asymmetry or drive failure has occurred in related group.

pump fuel to the main tank 2 and 3. a DC pump in main tank 2 provides fuel to the APU.000 lbs or more between the Totalizer and Calculated fuel quantity. For safety reasons the main tanks cannot be emptied below 7’000 lbs each due to a standpipe. This discrepancy occurs between the FMC computed fuel used and the Fuel Quantity Indicating System (FQIS) totalizer fuel used. Suction Feed: Each engine can draw fuel from its corresponding main tank through a suction feed line that bypasses the pumps. .000 . Normally the distribution is controlled automatically but manual control of each refuelling valve is possible. Selecting MLW displays the fuel to remain quantity which puts the airplane at maximum landing weight (652. Fuel jettison is only possible out of the main tanks 2. Crossfeed valve 2 and 3 are controlled by system logic. APU fuel pump: Main pump 2 and 3 aft provides fuel to the APU if AC power is available. At high altitude.000 LB. Several fuel pages are accessible through the CDU of the FMC (PRF INIT page. If there is a difference of 9. The fuel Difference > 6000 lbs temperature is measured in main tank 1. Override Pumps: Main tank 2. Therefore. They operate to a fuel level of about 7’000 lbs in the respective tank and are also used as jettison pumps. 404. Transfer is possible to a level of about 7’000 lbs remaining in the outboard tank. The fuel 1+4 system is shown on the fuel synoptic page of the lower EICAS.000) plus 2. Therefore. Fuel jettison system: Two independent fuel jettison control systems are installed.000 lbs -8. On the -8 the reserve tanks feed fuel to main 1 & 4 instead of main 2 & 3. During fuel jettison the valves are opened automatically when the fuel quantity in main tank 2 or 3 decreases to about 20’000 lbs. Main tank 1 and 4: If the imbalance exceeds 3’000 lbs an EICAS message is triggered. Main Pumps: Each main tank contains 2 AC motor driven main fuel pumps. Next to the left station a fuelling control panel is installed. 652. and the center wing tank. The pumps are triggered by system logic. If the imbalance exceeds 6’000 lbs an EICAS message >FUEL IMBALANCE is triggered. >FUEL IMBALANCE 2 3 1 4 Indications: 2+3 Total fuel quantity and fuel temperature is displayed in the lower right corner of the upper EICAS. The fuel temperature must be maintained 3° C above the fuel freezing temperature. There are 4 crossfeed valves in the fuel manifold. with both the override. The override 2 and 3 pumps are either controlled by the switch or system logic. 3. They are in charge of the fuel jettison valves and jet pipes. Refuelling: For refuelling a fuelling station with 2 hose connectors is located at each wing. Tank Transfer Valves: Main tank 1 and 4 contains a tank transfer valve which allows gravity fuel transfer from the outboard to the inboard main tanks. PROG page 2/3). If AC power is not available. Override Pumps . Gravity refuelling of the main tanks is available via overwing fill ports.Fuel page 19 of 25 Tanks: The aircraft is equipped with a total of 7 fuel tanks and 2 surge tanks at the wing tips. the override-jettison pumps will supply fuel to the engines. The total fuel capacity is approximately 360. Automatic shutdown happens when a CARGO FIRE ARM switch is ARMED. the reserve tanks have been renamed 1 & 4.000 lbs. A quantity indication in compacted format is although available. In case of a decrease below –37° C an EICAS message >FUEL TEMP LOW is triggered.000 lbs Differ by 3. Nitrogen Generation System The NGS coverts bleed air to nitrogen-enriched air in order to reduce the flammability of CWT and operates during all phases of flight. one pump provides fuel flow capacity for 1 engine at T/O thrust condition or 2 engines at CRZ thrust. These valves are automatically controlled. The main override pumps. center tank override pumps act as fuel jettison pumps. a CDU message is displayed FUEL DISAGREE – PROG 2. Imbalance: Main tank 2 and 3 are continuously monitored for fuel imbalance.000 LB (depending on fuel density).ZFW To Remain Fuel Management Cards: Two identical fuel system management cards control the fuel valves and pumps according the fuel management logic. Scavenge begins when main tank 2 or 3 fuel quantity decreases to approximately 60.200 lbs. Each reserve tank contains 2 tank transfer valves which allow gravity fuel transfer from the reserve tank to the inboard main tanks. 3 and the center tank contains 2 AC motor driven override pumps. Crossfeed Manifold: A common Crossfeed Manifold connects the four main and the center tank. If the total fuel quantity of the outboard tanks against the inboard tanks exceeds 6’000 lbs an EICAS message is triggered. thrust deterioration or engine flameout may occur.jettison pumps and main pumps operating. and EQUIP COOLING selector is positioned to OVRD. >FUEL IMBAL 2-3 >FUEL IMBAL 1-4 3 2 1 4 Differ by 6. engine out operations. The jettison time will be indicated on the lower EICAS fuel synoptic page. 1 pump provides enough fuel for 2 engines at T/O or CRZ thrust conditions. The pressure output of the override pumps is higher than that of the main tank pumps. when jettison is complete. Scavenge Pumps: 4 jet scavenge pumps in the center tank.

are now fed from main tank 2 via the crossfeed manifold. the main tank 2 &3 override pumps are activated automatically and an EICAS message >FUEL PRESS CTR will appear. allowable imbalance is 6’000 lbs Max. This configuration remains until the end of the flight.000 lbs or more with <5 ̊ pitch.000 lbs total fuel): The reserve tanks transfer valves open automatically. Valve opens Valve opens O N Takeoff.000 lbs.200 lbs Turn Off Turn Off Turn Off Turn Off Main tanks equal (117. crossfeed valves 2 and 3 open by fuel system logic automatically. Crossfeed valve control: With the flaps selected to the T/O position. Override 2 & 3 pumps are inhibited from operating by system logic when pressure is detected from both CWT override pumps. 3 Turn off the fuel pumps in the low tank Turn off the override pumps in the main tank 2. the override pumps 2 & 3 are activated and provide fuel to engines 1 & 4. Either tank reaches Either tank reaches 18. Engines 1. Airborne.000 lbs. Center tank empty (244. After takeoff. Engines 3. flaps up. thereafter the crossfeed valves 1 & 4 have to be closed. Fuel is transferred by gravity into the main tanks 2 and 3. All engines are fed from the center tank. With less than 17. flaps up: After takeoff. 3 Turn off the fuel pumps in the low tank Open all crossfeed valves Turn off the fuel pumps in the low tanks Fuel Quantity Low: The EICAS message FUEL QTY LOW is displayed if the tank quantity of any main tank decreased below 2’000 lbs. flaps down: The fuel system logic close automatically crossfeed valves 2 and 3 when the flaps are extended to takeoff position.000 lbs of fuel are consumed from each outboard tank an EICAS message >FUEL LOW CTR will appear when the CWT quantity is 7. O N C 2 3 1 4 R2 R3 Main tanks at 40’200 lbs (164.100 kgs 40.4 against inboard tanks 2. Therefore during T/O engine 1 and 4 are supplied by the center tank override pumps (if fuel in the center tank). 4 Close the crossfeed valves 2.000 lbs in the CWT and CWT override pumps are switched off. Center tank override pumps should be switched off when quantity is below 3’000 lbs. flaps up. 2. After engine 20 of 25 Fuel Balancing: Condition Imbalance between tank 1 and 4 Limitation Max. all engines will be fed from the CWT. Engines 2 &3 are fed from respective main tank pumps. crossfeed valves 2 and 3 are closed by system logic. .000 lbs and < 5 ̊ pitch in cruise. First the override pumps 2 & 3 have to be switched off. when the flaps are retracted.000 lbs and > 5 ̊ pitch in climb. Shared flow situation between CWT and outboard main tanks when CWT quantity drops below 5.000 lbs total fuel): When the fuel quantity in the four main tanks is equal the EICAS message >FUEL TANK/ENG is displayed. 4 are fed from main tank 3.000 lbs. An EICAS message >FUEL OVD CTR appears when CWT switches are OFF and the CWT quantity is 4.3 Max. Fuel consumption during flight: After Engine Start: >17. Engines 2 & 3 are fed from their respective main pumps. Engines 1 & 4 are fed from the center tank. allowable imbalance of total outboard fuel (more) against total inboard fuel (less) is 6’000 lbs Balancing Open the crossfeed valves 1. Closes Closes with T/O flaps with T/O flaps Airborne. engines 2 and 3 are supplied by main tank 2 and 3 pumps. A scavenge system is activated to transfer the remaining fuel when main tank 2 or 3 fuel quantity decreases to approximately 60. but they are overridden because the output pressure is lower than that of the CWT pumps. When 2. All main pumps are operating.000 lbs total fuel): If the CWT override pumps indicate low pressure. allowable imbalance is 3’000 lbs Imbalance between tank 2 and 3 Imbalance between outboard tanks 1. 3.

Hydraulic System Controls Demand Pump Pressure Light Logic Hydraulic Indications: The quantity is indicated on thy hydraulic synoptic page in percentage of the normal fluid level. magenta low LO appears. An overheat condition exists when the temperature rises above 105 °C. The pumps are used on ground for breaking capabilities and steering while the engines are not running. Should the HYQUIM fail the following false indication may be experienced: SYS FAULT lights flashing. >HYD QTY LOW … advisory messages appearing and disappearing. Demand Pumps 1. If the RAT fails to deploy automatically. accompanied with the system fault light. EICAS hydraulic quantity indications decreasing and increasing. . . They are connected to the ground handling Bus. Standpipe Level: Demand Pumps have a lower standpipe lever. Demand Pump System Fault Light: The System Fault Light will illuminate at: •low quantity . At a level below 75% the magenta RF appears on ground. These information are presented on the Hydraulic synoptic page and the Status page.Landing Distance (loss of ground spoiler) Sys ¼ loss . Reservoir pressure is indicated next to the reservoir. Hydraulic pressure is indicated in psi. They also used in order that more bleed air is available for engine start.Hydraulics Syst 1 & 4: Syst 2 &3: Air Demand Pump Elec Aux Pump Elec Demand Pump Pump page 21 of 25 General Description / Engine Driven pump EDP: Four independent hydraulic systems 1. •low system pressure •system overheat With an EICAS message HYD PRESS DEM . 4 are driven by air from the bleed air system. Hydraulic Users Hydraulic System 1. Demand Pumps 2. Hydraulic temperature is indicated in °C. Demand Pump activation Logic Demand Pumps 1. Ram Air Turbine: The RAT automatically deploys if 3 or more engines have failed and provides emergency hydraulic power to system 3. Demand Pump: Each hydraulic system is equipped with a Demand Pump. A SOV (Shut OFF Valve) is installed in the supply line operated by the engine fire switch. while Trailing Edge Flaps are not in up position. 3 are electrically driven by AC power. while the EDP is already running dry. 3 Auxiliary Pumps AUX: AUX AC motor pumps are installed in hydraulic system 1/4. Below ¾ of full quantity. the output pressure is low with a pump operation commanded in the AUTO position. 2. The left inboard and outboard elevators are transferred to system 3 when the RAT deploys. therefore they may be still supplied. 4 Hydraulic System 2. In flight. the Demand Pumps 1 & 4 are activated while the flaps are traveling to the takeoff position. it can be manually deployed by pushing the RAT switch on the overhead panel. System Critical Loss Combinations: Sys ¾ loss . supporting the EDP during high demand conditions or failure of the EDP. An engine driven pump pressurizes the system to 3000 psi. a refill is necessary. Demand Pumps 1 & 4 are continuously operating.4. 3 . The fluid reservoir is pressurized by regulated air from the pneumatic system. This is a safety feature in case of a fluid leak of the EDP. For quantity level above 115% a magenta OF indicates an overfill situation. -8.In-Flight (loss of stabilizer trim) Hydraulic Quantity Interface Module: A single Hydraulic Quantity Interface Module (HYQUIM) processes quantity inputs from each reservoir transmitter.Pilot workload (alt extension of LDG) Sys ⅔ loss . which is only powered by the APU GEN 1 or EXT PWR 1 (ON and AVAIL). 4: During ground operation as soon as Trailing Edge Flaps are selected. if the bleed air pressure drops below normal level.

The tilt is kept by hydraulic pressure while the gears are retracted. The wing gear retracts with the trucks hydraulically tilted to 53° nose up. Additionally the wing gear tilt is mechanically locked. the release signal is sent to the alternate antiskid valve and brake pressure is released for the whole wheel pair. Brake Source Light: If this light illuminates. If HYD SYS 4 and HYD SYS 1 are low. HYD SYS 1 and HYD SYS 2) are lost. Gear Lock: The main gears are mechanically locked up and down by two mechanism. They are either hydraulically operated or mechanically linked to the respective main gear. Body Gear Steering: Nose and body gear steering is powered by HYD SYS 1. A brake torque sensor is attached to each wheel. It is precharged with 800 psi. Maximum body gear deflection is 13°. when excessive torque is detected the respective anti skid valve releases the brake pressure to that wheel. Gear Tilt: The main gears have to be tilted for retraction. the alternate brake system powered by HYD SYS 1 will be active. Gear Doors: They are partially closed with gear extended and fully closed with the gears retracted. If the alternate braking system is used. a normal brake accumulator maintains the pressure. The pedals steer the nose gear to a max. the anti-skid is provided to wheel pairs only. Tilt position Air Mode. In case HYD SYS 4 fails. two steerable body gears and two nonsteerable wing gears. The body gear retracts to forward with the trucks tilted 8° nose up. The systems uses hydraulic pressure of the wing gear up line for all main gear wheels. Tilt Sensors: Tilt Sensors at all four main gears and at the nose gear extension sensing system switch the air ground mode. Body gear steering is deactivated and the gear centred when wheel speed increases above 20 kts. HYD SYS 2 powers the alternate system. forces the wheels of the wing and body gear to spin down during gear retraction. It is active when nose wheel angle exceeds 20° and speed is below 15 kts. angle of 7°. Tiller inputs override pedal steering. Automatic switching is performed by the Source Select Valves. Body gear steering serves the purpose of reducing the turn radius (min 46. brake torque is still sensed individually. Brake Accumulator: If normal or alternate brake systems are not pressurized.6 m) and reducing tire scrubbing. . the pedals control the pressure to the left and right main gear brakes. Steering. Anti-Skid Protection: Each main gear wheel is individually provided with anti-skid protection when normal brake system is operative (4). Brakes. then the body gear turn opposite to the nose gear. not tilted Ground Mode. Main Gear Inflight Brake: An inflight brake system which is part of the normal brake system. 4→1→2: HYD SYS 4 powers the normal brake system. During alternate brake operation (1 & 2). The nose gear wheels will be stopped by means of brake pads in the nose wheel well after retraction. all hydraulic brake sources (HYD SYS 4.Landing Gear & Brakes page 22 of 25 Gears: The aircraft is equipped with a steerable nose gear. thereafter the tiller must be used up to the max. When skidding is detected the anti-skid controller commands the respective anti-skid valve to reduce brake pressure. Autobrake system is available with system 4 only. angle of 70°. Brake Torque Limiter: A brake torque limiting system is installed to prevent damage to the landing gear. The nose gear uses one mechanical lock mechanism.

on dry runways the maximum deceleration rate in the landing mode is less than that produced by full pedal braking. Gear Lever OFF position: In OFF position the landing gear hydraulic system is depressurized. The deceleration rates for landing are 4 ft/sec² at position 1 to 11 ft/sec² at MAX AUTO. Advisory Message AUTOBRAKES: The message >AUTOBRAKES is displayed on the EICAS if: •System is disarmed •System is inoperative •System is armed but the selector is OFF •RTO is initiated > 85 kts but autobrakes have not been applied. Locked Wheel Protection: This is provided using a comparison with other wheel speeds. The gear uplocks and gear door latches are electrically released. The system provides braking to a complete stop or until it is disarmed. Thereby the EICAS displays the expanded gear position indication. otherwise it changes to closed. Only manual braking can apply greater brake pressure for landing. advancing any thrust lever after landing. Autobrake Disarm: The autobrake system can be disarmed by manual braking. However. the pressure for NLG is approximate 180 psi and 200 psi for MLG. UP or DWN position only. To maintain the selected deceleration rate. Autobrake System (HYD 4 only): The autobrake system needs anti-skid and normal brake system (HYD 4) to operate. Touchdown Protection: Touchdown protection of the anti-skid system prevents braking as long as the difference between IRS groundspeed and the speed of the aft trucks wheels exceeds 50 kts. Gear Synoptic Page: Shows information about the tire pressure. In RTO the system always applies maximum braking and does not follow any fixed deceleration rates. or moving the speed brake lever to the down detent after speedbrakes have been deployed on ground. Alternate Gear Extension: All gears can alternatively be extended in case of a hydraulic power loss.82M . -8. Brake temperature indicates the relative value of the wheel brake temperature. RTO mode is active if: • The airplane is on ground •Groundspeed is above 85 kts •All thrust levers are closed. springs pull the downlocks into the locked position. Autobrake Selector: For landing 5 modes with different deceleration rates are available. allowing the gear to free fall.Page 23 of 25 Automatic Gear Lever Lock: The lever lock prevents the gear lever from being pulled from down to up. abnormals in amber. when the main landing gear are not tilted or the main body gear are not centred. Normal range from 1 to 4 (100-482 C) is displayed in white.82M 320K/. . spoilers) contribute to the total deceleration. The gear door status show a hatched square if the door is not closed. Limitations: Extend/Retract: Extended: 270K/. Tire pressure is indicated in PSI. High range from 5 to 9 (483-865 C) is displayed in amber with EICAS BRAKE TEMP. the brake temperature and the gear door status. Normal value are displayed in white. autobrake pressure is reduced as other controls (thrust reversers.

Page 1 key is white because this page is shown When all steps on a page are completed the page number changes to green. Conditional Statements: Closed loop statements are sensed by the aircraft to determine if they are true. The Fire is not out! All memory items are closed loop and therefore automatically checked off Page indicators shows that this checklist has two pages.Electronic Checklist & Warning Systems The checklist title FIRE ENGINE 1 is red because the warning message remains shown on EICAS. True = Green Cyan = False Do not preform this step! In this example the conditional statement and step turned cyan because the FIRE ENG message did not stay shown page 24 of 25 .

PWS Caution: Caution coverage is provided to 3 nm. The warning can be canceled. The amber WINDSHEAR appears on the ND. LDG Configuration Warning: Sounds when the landing gear is not down and locked. The alert is active above 20’000 ft. TO/GA switch must be pushed for proper F/D commands! >WINDSHEAR SYS message: The windshear alert system is faulty. If an RTO is initiated above 80 kt. The alert is cancelled at 900 ft deviation from the selected altitude. The red WINDSHEAR appears on the ND. LDG gear lever up until 800 ft RA or 140 sec after LDG gear lever up. Schedule of inhibited Warnings: Takeoff phase At V1 until 400 ft RA or 25 sec after V1 At 80 kts until 400 ft RA or 20 sec after rotation. an aural warning “GO AROUND WINDSHEAR AHEAD” sounds. CONFIG WARN SYS message: The takeoff configuration warning system has failed. when any crew activity has not been detected during the last 37 min.5 nm ahead of the airplane. GND PROX SYS message: One or all modes of the GPWS has failed. and the position of the detected windshear is shown on the MAP display. Altitude Alert Caution: Actual altitude deviates more then 300 ft from the selected altitude. Airspeed Low. Airspeed is above the maximum operating speed. and provides an immediate alert when an actual excessive downdraft or tail wind is occurring. Note: In case of a Windshear Escape Maneuver. all other ground proximity modes are inhibited. PWS Warning: If the windshear is detected in the warning area. (WXR switch pushed or not pushed) using air-ground and takeoff thrust logic. Crew Alertness Monitor: Generates an alert. an aural warning. up to 1500 feet RA. which along with an internal terrain / obstacle / runway database to predict a potential conflict between the aircraft's flight path and terrain or an obstacle. A red WINDSHEAR message displays on both PFDs and the Master Warning lights illuminate. an aural alert “MONITOR RADAR DISPLAY” sounds. or PWS. activates. warning coverage is provides to 1. In flight. and the position of the detected windshear is shown on the MAP display. Inhibited Devices •Master Warning Lights •Siren •Fire Bell •Master Caution Lights •Beeper •EICAS >CONFIG GEAR message •Master Warning light •Siren . Warnings are given in voice and red letters in the PFD for the most serious ones. When the windshear alert is active. it is not armed above 2500 ft radio altitude. Configuration messages may or may not be correct if displayed. the radar turns on automatically during takeoff. the master caution lights and beeper inhibits are cancelled once groundspeed is below 75 kts. A red WINDSHEAR message displays on both PFD’s and the Master Warning lights illuminate. the current altitude box changes to amber. windshear warning is completely lost. On the ground. attitude. thrust lever 2 or 3 in T/O range and a configuration failure exists. airspeed and glideslope. consisting of a two-tone siren followed by “WINDSHEAR” 3x. If windshear conditions are detected. to provide windshear warning coverage 3 nm ahead of the airplane. It is inhibited with glide slope captured or with landing flaps selected and with gear down. PWS alerts are enabled below 1200 feet AGL. EGPWS: Enhanced GPWS uses aircraft inputs such as position. If a windshear condition is detected in the caution region. when any thrust lever is in idle and radio altitude is less than 800 feet. uses wind velocity data gathered by the Doppler weather radar system to identify the existence of a windshear ahead of the plane. Predictive Windshear System (PWS): The Predictive Windshear System. Windshear Alerts: GPWS Windshear mode 7: Mode 7 is armed at rotation. Overspeed: Airspeed is below the minimum manoeuvring speed band airspeed is in amber range. The PWS then provides pilots with cautions and warnings of windshear threats.Page 25 of 25 5 T/O Configuration Warning: There are five takeoff configuration warnings: •Flaps (not in T/O position) •Body Gear (not centered) •Speedbrake lever (not in down detent) •Parking Brake (is set) •Stabilizer Trim (not in T/O range) They will be triggered when airspeed is less than V1. the fuel control switches are in run. or when back within 300 ft. It provides alerts for seven modes plus the enhanced feature.