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Chap.

1 Introduction to Preform Design module
In forming process, an intermediate shape so called preform or blocker is necessary if
final forged shape is complex. By using preform shape, lower forming load, uniform
strain distribution, no die under filling and reduced die wear can be obtained by
introducing smooth metal flow.
Conventional way of designing preform shape is inefficient and time consuming in that it
requires many cross sections and the design will be done in 2 dimension so the designed
cross sections need to be connected each other to make 3 dimensional preform shape.
TM

Preform Design module in DEFORM -3D is a special tool to design initial preform
shape from final forged shape. In this process 3 dimensional CAD model will be used as
an input and the designed 3 dimensional preform shape is an output as well. The out put
TM
can be a STL file or DEFORM -3D Keyword format so it is ready to run a simulation.
Another nice feature of Preform Design module is the feature of modification. Once
simulation result is obtained, modified preform shape can be obtained by using Preform
Design module as well.

Fig. 1 Typical preform(blocker) shape design in rib-web type
(dash line – forged shape, solid line – preform shape)

1 Overview of the scheme of designing initial preform For a given final part configuration. In the filtering procedure. in STL or other format. high frequency regions (sharp corners. 3. Trimming process . The digitizing procedure is first performed to convert the triangulated surface into a point cloud array. 1. 2. An inverse Fourier transformation will then be applied to obtain a “smoothed” surface. Digitizing Filtering Final forged shape CAD model (STL) Digitized geometry Trimming Designed Preform shape Smoothed geometry By filtering method Fig. the geometric domain will be converted into a frequency domain by using a Fourier transformation. so as to get a realistic initial preform shape. or small geometric details of a surface) will be removed.Chap. 2 Proposed initial preform design scheme . By using the filtering function.The resulting surface will be passed through a filtering procedure to produce a smoothed shape. 2 Initial Preform Design Scheme Chap. there are three steps to generate an initial preform shape.The trimming procedure is used to control the boundary shape of a smoothed shape.The final part geometry is imported into the system as a triangulated surface. 2. Filtering process . edges. Digitizing process .

if upper and lower part is different upper part only . if upper and lower is symmetry Step 4. Select “create a new preform shape” Step 3.choose this. Choose Preform as Problem Type.choose this. Start the new DEFORM interface and create a New Problem. Choose geometry file by clicking “Browse” Following format can be used as an input • STL • GEO (AMGGEO file) • PDA (Patran file) • NAS (Nastran file) • UNV (IDEAS file) • IGS (2D IGES) • DEFORM Keyword • DEFORM DB .Chap.2 Lab for Initial Preform Design Scheme Step 1. 2. Select model type full model . Click “Next” Step 2.

Define volume ratio – currently only “use flash model” is available . Define parting surface (i) Planar parting surface case Pick a point on parting surface (ii) Non-planar parting surface case – requires additional parting surface definition (shown as read color in below) Step 6.choose the resolution Step 7. Digitizing .Step 5.

system will calculate volume ratio value and display. Define preform shape • Distance from outer boundary (D) ~ (-) inside cavity. T W Step 9.Step 8. Define filtered shape • alpha value ~ adjust smoothness • scale value ~ adjust height ( normally 1. positive value . (+) outside cavity • Draft angle (A) ~ degree.0 ) Step 10. Define flash model On clicking “Preview” after input flash thickness(T) and flash width(W).

Prepare preform geometry • By stitching upper and lower preform shape (for full mode case) • By mirroring (for upper model case) Step 12. Meshing (if necessary) .A D Step 11.

3 An example of designed preform shape .Step 13. Save preform Finisher Preform Fig.

Wei-Tsu Wu. NUMIFORM 2004 . 4 Proposed Preform Modification Scheme Reference: Jin Yong Oh. two questions are usually considered for modification: • Where the initial preform should be modified? • How much volume should be added or removed at each modification point? The suggested preform modification scheme is illustrated in Fig. 2. Jae Bong Yang.Chap. 3 The Preform Modification Scheme Chap. “Finite Element Method Applied to 2D and 3D Forging Design Optimization”. etc.1 Overview of the scheme of modifying the preform General considerations for an ideal preform are: • • • • • Complete die cavity filling (no under-fill) Concurrent or near concurrent die filling in every sharp corner No defects like folds. flow defects. Hugo Delgado. DEFORM TM Simulation Initial preform geometry Simulation result Updating Desired result Analyzing Preform Modified preform geometry Geometric changes to preform Fig. Uniform flash (uniform volume distribution) Reduced tool wear (by decreasing load and flow-by die features) When the undesirable flow conditions occur. 3.

Chap. Step 2. Select “modify preform shape Step 3.2 Lab for The Preform Modification Scheme Step 1. Go to Import simulation result page • Select database name • Select step • Select object Step 4. Check position ~ if we need . Choose existing preform problem or create a new preform problem from TM DEFORM -3D main. 3.

Create modified preform Put volume change limit to control the amount of the volume which will be added.Step 5. . (shown as “Flash (-)”) under filling area Step 6. Smoothing preform modification geometry Step 8. Result analysis Put tolerance value for calculation and click “Calculate” button Current implementation can handle only under-fill area.

save preform ~ same modified preform initial preform volume added Fig. generate mesh ~ same Step 11. prepare preform geometry ~ same Step 10. 5 An Example of Modified Preform Shape .Step 9.