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DEFORM™-Tool Wear Lab

3D TOOL WEAR LAB (USING ARCHARD’S MODEL)
1. Starting a new problem

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2. Set unit system and simulation controls

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3. Import geometry

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4. Generate mesh

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5. Material definition

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6. Initial temperature

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7. Boundary conditions for work piece and punch

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8. Symmetry conditions for the die and punch geometry

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9. Inter object relations

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10. Defining material hardness

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11. Punch movement

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12. Database generation and running the simulation

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13. Postprocessing tool wear results

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14. Remarks on tool life evaluations

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Tool wear is mainly dictated by process conditions and materials used. From the main menu select problem ID and enter preprocessor. For both of these models the die (or insert. Figure: 1: Problem setup in Pre 2 . The objective is to understand the tool wear behavior of extrusion punch. Starting a new problem Start a new problem for cold extrusion processes. with appropriate boundary conditions and inter-object relations defined. Typically Archard’s model is widely used for forming applications and Usui’s model is used for machining applications to compute insert wear. in case of machining) should be meshed. On the other hand Usui’s model can be run only be used with non-isothermal run as it requires interface temperature calculations as well. This lab will glance through the complete problem setup with emphasis on tool wear part of the data and assumes user is familiar with the typical problem setup procedures. This model illustration assumes that the coefficients used have been calibrated under steady wear conditions for a given process involving a set of die and work piece materials. 1. These coefficients should be used with caution and for qualitative evaluation only when applied to any other process or material conditions. Archard’s model can used with either isothermal or non-isothermal runs. Currently DEFORMTM system has Archard’s model and Usui’s model apart from the user routine support.DEFORM™-Tool Wear Lab Problem Summary: This lab will demonstrate how to set up the model data for tool wear computations in a typical cold extrusion process.

click on the ‘Import Geometry’ menu and load the file ‘Tool_Wear_Lab1_Workpiece. Select ‘Step’ and specify ‘75’ for total number of steps and save every ‘5’ steps with punch stroke per step (DSMAX) as 0. Figure: 2: Simulation controls 3. Now click on the object tree select the work piece. Set unit system and simulation controls Enter the ‘Simulation controls menu’ as shown in the following figure. Click ‘OK’ to close the simulation controls menu. 4. Choose "English" for Unit System. We can retain the default names for these objects as top die (for punch) and. Generate mesh After loading all the part geometry files.STL’ and ‘Tool_Wear_Lab1_Die. Click on the icon twice to define these objects. Repeat the same meshing process for ‘Top Die’ (punch) with 35000 elements. Repeat the same sequence of geometry importing for the punch by loading ‘Tool_Wear_Lab1_Punch. Leave the default settings for ‘Advanced1’ and ‘Advanced2’ options. and click on the ‘Geometry’ icon to load the geometry for the work piece. For accurate tool wear computations it is recommended to have finer mesh in the 3 . Define 25000 elements for the work piece with default settings and click on ‘Generate mesh’.DEFORM™-Tool Wear Lab 2. Now click on the Mesh icon. ‘Lagrangian Incremental ‘ as simulation type and turn on Heat Transfer and Deformation’ mode. Import geometry We now add two more objects define punch and die.STL’ from the Labs folder.STL for the die. Default setup on iteration controls and solver type can be used. bottom die (die). select the work piece from the object tree.02 in/step. In the Geometry menu.

Object tree Figure: 3: Generating object mesh 5. 4 . select the category ‘Steel’ and select the material ‘AISI-1010. and click on the ‘General’ icon. Repeat the same procedure and assign AISI-H-13 steel from the ‘Die-material’ category to the top die.DEFORM™-Tool Wear Lab contact region. it is not required to have any mesh in this model. As we are not performing any tool wear computations on the bottom die. Material definition Select the work piece from the object tree.COLD’ and click on pull down button and select AISI-1010 COLD to assign material to the work piece (see the following figure for the location of these menu items). From the Library.

If a different initial temperature is needed for a given part. Repeat the same procedure for both the top die (punch) and die surfaces. 8. click on ‘General’ and click on ‘Assign Temperature’ to set a different temperature. Initial temperature For all the three parts leave the default initial temperature as 68F. 5 . Symmetry definitions for the die and punch geometry Select the top die from object tree and click on geometry icon.DEFORM™-Tool Wear Lab Figure: 4: Material selection from the library 6. Now pick the symmetry surface and click on ‘+’ add icon to confirm the selection. Then select ‘Symmetry Surface’. select the part from the object tree. Boundary conditions for the work piece and punch Set the symmetry velocity boundary conditions for the symmetry planes on the work piece and heat exchange with environment for the remaining surfaces. For the rigid punch define similar heat exchange with environment boundary conditions excluding the symmetry surfaces. 7.

Click on ‘OK’ to come out of the inter object data. c = 2 and k = 0. 6 . which for this lab can be accepted. Now click on ‘Generate All’ option to generate the inter object BCC. Select the icon to enter inter-object dialogs. We now define inter object relations to define friction and heat transfer coefficients for a pair of master-slave objects.12 and interface heat transfer coefficient as 0. b = 1.000002. Select the first pair and click on ‘Edit’ to set the interface shear friction as 0.004. Select Archard’s model and input coefficients a = 1. Close this window and select the option ‘Apply to other relations’ so that same interface conditions are also applied for the bottom die and work piece set. Highlighted nodes indicate the selection.DEFORM™-Tool Wear Lab Figure: 5: Symmetry plane selection for rigid objects 9. Please note that these are only some typical values that can be obtained from the literature. For this pair scroll to the right (beyond the ‘Friction Window’ option and click on ‘Tool Wear’ as shown in the images below. and user is responsible for accuracy of this data. These settings include first pair with Top die (punch) as master and work piece as slave and second pair with bottom die as master and work piece as slave. Inter object relations Positioning of the objects is not required in this lab as the imported geometry are already in the correct place. The system will prompt the user with a set of default options.

Select the ‘Hardness’ option and initialize the element hardness data as 55. This value is a typical hardness value in Rockwell-C scale for H13 steel (as hardened condition). Select ‘Advanced’ menu and select ‘Element Data’ icon.DEFORM™-Tool Wear Lab Figure: 6: Tool wear model definition in Pre 10. Fi gure: 7: Defining material hardness in Pre 7 . From the object tree select the top die (punch). Defining the material hardness For tool wear analysis material hardness is an important parameter for the punch.

Figure: 8: Post processing tool wear model results 8 .DEFORM™-Tool Wear Lab 11. tool wear results can be viewed in post processing as follows. From the main menu select the database. On the color bar right mouse click to set the number of significant digits to 9. 12. Database generation and running simulation Generate the database (click on the icon simulation ( ) ) and exit the preprocessor to run the 13. and pick ‘Wear Depth (Total)’ and ‘Apply’ to plot the same. Post processing the tool wear results Once the simulation is complete. and open post processor. From the list of state variables select Tool Wear. Select the last step of the database and click on the state variable icon. Punch movement Select the top die (punch) from the object tree and select the ‘Movement’ icon to define the punch movement as 1 in/sec in –Z direction in the ‘Speed/Force’ sub menu. The plot displays the wear depth (inches) contours at the end of the process for one part.

It should be noted that the model results are dictated by the coefficients used in the wear model. Remarks on tool life evaluations Given the criteria for tool life as a specific wear depth (dictated by the allowable variations in the part dimensions). Hence these wear model (Archard’s) coefficients (see Figure.6) must be accurately calibrated for a given range of process conditions and set of materials used.DEFORM™-Tool Wear Lab 14. the tool life in terms of total number of parts produced can be computed. where user can explore any other types of wear models that suite user specific and special process conditions and material data. 9 . and wear depth simulated for one part. User routine support is also available for tool wear computations.