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Chapter9

SolidsandFluids
CLICKERQUESTIONS
QuestionH1.01a
Description:Exploringandinterrelatingweight,force,pressure,andbuoyancy.
Question
Ablockandabeakerofwaterareplacedsidebysideonascale(caseA).Theblockisthenplacedintothebeakerofwater,
whereitfloats(caseB).Howdothetwoscalereadingscompare?
1. ScaleAreadsmorethanscaleB.
2. ScaleAreadsthesameasscaleB.
3. ScaleAreadslessthanscaleB.
4. Notenoughinformation

Commentary
Purpose:Toexploreandinterrelateideasaboutweight,force,pressure,andbuoyancy.
Discussion:Considerthebeaker,water,andblockasonecompoundobjectorsystem.Inbothcases,thatsystemhasthe
samemassandthereforethesameweight.Sincethesystemisnotaccelerating,thenetforceonitmustbezero,sotheforce
thescaleexertsonthissystemmustbeequaltothetotalweight.Scalesmeasureforce.Theforcesarethesame,sothescale
readingsareidentical.
But,howdoestheweightofthefloatingblockincaseBaffectthescalereading?
Itisusefultolookatthebeaker.Therearethreeforcesonthebeaker:(1)gravitationpullingdown;

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Chapter9
(2)waterpushingdown;and(3)scalepushingup.Sincethebeakerisatrest,theforceofthescalepushingupmustbalance
theforcesexerteddown.
Force#1isthesameforbothcases;itistheweightofthebeaker.
Force#2isdifferentforthetwocases.IncaseA,theforcepushingdownistheweightofthewater.IncaseB,theforce
pushingdownislargerthantheweightofthewater,becausethewaterlevelishigherinBthaninA,sothepressureonthe
bottomofthebeakerislarger.TheamounttheforceislargerinBisexactlyequaltotheweightoftheblock.Thatis,itisthe
weightofthedisplacedwater.
Therefore,tosupportthebeakerinB,thescalemustpushupwithaforceequaltothetotalweightofthewater,block,and
beaker,whichisexactlytheforceexertedbythescaleinA.
KeyPoints:

Somequestionsareeasiesttoanswerbyconsideringasetofobjectsasiftheywereonecompoundobjectorsystem.

Ascalemeasuresforce.Ifthesystemisnotacceleratingandinteractionswithitsenvironmentaresmall(e.g.,viathe
buoyancyofair),thenthescalereadingistheweightofthesystem.

Newtonslawsholdforabodyoffluidaswellasforasolidobject.

Whenthinkingaboutfluidsandforces,theconceptofpressureisoftenuseful.

ForInstructorsOnly
Thisisthefirstofthreerelatedquestions.Itisveryeasyifapproachedtherightway,butstudentscangetthemselvesquite
confused.Ifstudentsgivethestraightforward,correctanswer,werecommendchallengingthemtoexplainhowthefloating
blockcaninfluencethescalereading.Resolvingtheconfusionthisgenerallycauseswillstrengthentheirunderstandingof
severalrelatedconcepts.
ForstudentsalreadyfamiliarwiththeconceptofbuoyancyandwithArchimedesprinciple(perhapsfromhighschool),this
questioncanbeusedtointroduce,motivate,andprovidecontextfortheconceptofpressure.
Scalesmeasureforce,notweight.Ifthreecriteriaaremet,thatforceistheweight:(1)thesystemisnotaccelerating;(2)
buoyancyduetoairisnegligible;(3)theonlyexternalforcesonthesystemareduetogravitationandthescale.

QuestionH1.01b

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Chapter9
Description:Exploringandinterrelatingweight,force,pressure,andbuoyancy.
Question
Ablockandabeakerofwaterareplacedsidebysideonascale(caseA).Theblockisthenplacedintothebeakerofwater,
whereitsinks(caseB).Howdothetwoscalereadingscompare?
1. ScaleAreadsmorethanscaleB.
2. ScaleAreadsthesameasscaleB.
3. ScaleAreadslessthanscaleB.
4. Notenoughinformation

Commentary
Purpose:Toexploreandinterrelateideasaboutweight,force,pressure,andbuoyancy.
Discussion:Aswiththepreviousquestion,thescalereadingsmustbethesamebecausethetotalmasssupportedbythescale,
andthereforethetotalweight,arethesameforbothcases.
Aswiththepreviousquestion,wewouldliketounderstandhowthescalereadingscanbethesame.Thescaleisonly
sensitivetothenormalforceexerteduponitbythebeakercontactingit.Howdoesitknowabouttheblock?
Itisusefultofocusonthebeakerandthinkabouttheforcesonit.Therearefour:(1)gravitationpullingdown;(2)block
pushingdown;(3)waterpushingdown;and(4)scalepushingup.Theforceofthescalemustbalancetheotherthreeforces
exerteddown.
Force#1isthesameinbothcases;itistheweightofthebeaker.
Force#2isdifferentforthetwocases.IncaseA,itisnotexertedonthebeaker.(However,aforcedownduetotheblockis
exerteddirectlyonthescale.)IncaseB,theblockispushingdownonthebeakerwithaforcesmallerthanitsweight,
becausepartofitsweightissupportedbybuoyancy.IncaseA,thefullweightoftheblockispushingdownonthescale.
Force#3isalsodifferentforthetwocases.IncaseA,aforceequaltotheweightofthewaterispushingdownonthebeaker,
butincaseB,theforcepushingdownislargerthantheweightofthewater,becausethewaterlevelishigherinBthanitisin

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Chapter9
A,sothepressureatthebottomishighertoo.Theneteffectisthattheforceduetothewaterisincreasedbyexactlythe
amountthattheforceduetotheblockisdecreased.Theresultisthatthescalereadingsarethesame!
Notethattheremustbeathinlayerofwaterunderneaththeblock,eventhoughitistouchingthebottomofthebeaker.
Otherwise,therewouldbenobuoyantforce.

KeyPoints:

Whenanobjectisplacedinwater,whetheritfloatorsinks,thewaterlevelrises,whichcausesthepressureatthebottom
ofthewatertoincrease.

Anobjectinafluidexperiencesabuoyantforce,whetheritfloatorsinks.

Scalesmeasureforce,notweight.Ifthesystemisnotacceleratingandinteractionswithitsenvironmentaresmall(e.g.,
viathebuoyancyofair),thenthescalereadingistheweightofthesystem.

Oldforceideassuchasfreebodydiagramsareusefulforunderstandingfluids.Newideassuchaspressureand
buoyancyarealsouseful.

ForInstructorsOnly
Thisisthesecondofthreerelatedquestions.Itisverysimilartothefirst,butunderstandinghowthescalereadingcomesto
bethesame(byanalyzingtheforcesonthevariousbodies)introducesanewwrinkle:thefluidonlysupportspartofthe
weightoftheblock,andthepressureexertedontheinsidebottomofthebeakerbythewaterandblockisnotuniform.
Manystudentswillthinkthescalereadingsarethesamewithoutfullyappreciatingwhatthefussisallabout.Theymight
havetroubleunderstandingwhysomepeopleareconfused.
Studentswhothinkthescalereadingsaredifferentmightneedademonstrationtobeconvincedofthepredictedresult.
StudentsmightthinkthattheforceexertedbythewaterincaseBisactuallysmallerthanincaseA,perhapsbecausethe
effectiveareaofwaterincontactwiththebeakerissmaller.Theydonotrealizethattheremustbewaterbeneaththeblockin
orderfortheretobeabuoyantforce.Otherwise,wearetalkingaboutasuctioncup,forwhichthereisnowaterononeside,
andanenormousforceduetothewaterontheother.

QuestionH1.01c
Description:Honingunderstandingofbuoyancy.

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Chapter9
Question
Twoblocks,AandB,havethesamesizeandshape.BlockAfloatsinwater,butblockBsinksinwater.
Whichblockhasthelargerbuoyantforceonit?
1. BlockAhasthelargerbuoyantforceonit.
2. BlockBhasthelargerbuoyantforceonit.
3. Neither;theyhavethesamebuoyantforceonthem.
4. Impossibletodeterminefromthegiveninformation
Commentary
Purpose:Todevelopyourunderstandingofbuoyancy.
Discussion:AccordingtoArchimedessPrinciple,thebuoyantforceonanobjectisequaltotheweightofthefluiddisplaced
bytheobject.Whethertheblockfloatsorsinksisirrelevant.
SinceblockBsinks,itdisplacesitsentirevolume,whereasblockAdisplacesonlypartofitsvolume.
Sincethetwoblockshavethesametotalvolume,blockBdisplacesthelargervolumeofwater,soitalsohasthelarger
buoyantforceonit.
IfblockBexperiencesalargerbuoyantforcebutsinks,itmusthavealargermass,andthereforealargerdensity.Thisisthe
onlywaytheycanhavethesamesizeandshapeyetbehaveastheydo.
KeyPoints:

Thebuoyantforceonanobjectisequaltotheweightofthefluiddisplacedbytheobject.Itdoesnotdependonother
factors,suchaswhethertheobjectfloatsorsinks.

ForInstructorsOnly
Thisisthethirdofthreerelatedquestions.Itusesadifferentsituation,butmakesagoodfollowuptothefirsttwointhatit
focusesattentionononespecificdifferencebetweenthefirsttwoquestions,helpingtoresolvelingeringconfusionand
solidifystudentsunderstanding.Itcanalsobeusedeffectivelyasastandalonequestion,ifdesired.
Manystudentswillbeoverlyfocusedonthestateofanobject:inthiscase,whethertheblocksinksorfloats.Manywillthink
thatthebuoyantforcemustbesmalleronthesinkingblock,andthatiswhyitsinks.Encouragethemtoconsiderother

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Chapter9
reasonswhyonemightsink.
Studentsoftenassumethatthemassesofthetwoblocksarethesame.
Ademonstrationcanbeuseful,ifonlytoletstudentsseethatthemassesoftheobjectsaredefinitelynotthesame.

QuestionH1.02a
Description:Developingunderstandingofbuoyancy.
Question
Ametalblocksitsontopofafloatingwoodenblock.Ifthemetalblockisplacedonthebottomofthebeaker,whathappens
tothelevelofwaterinthebeaker?

1.

Theleveldecreases.

2.

Thelevelstaysthesame.

3.

Thelev elincreases.

4.

Notenoughinformation

Commentary
Purpose:ToexplorebuoyancyandArchimedesprinciple.
Discussion:Archimedesprinciplestatesthatthebuoyantforceonafloatingobjectisequalinmagnitudetotheweightof
displacedfluid.Thebuoyantforceonthetwoblockobjectinthefirstcasemustequaltheweightofthetwoblocks(sothe
netforceonthemiszero),sotheamountofwaterdisplacedmusthavethatsameweight.Thedisplacedwatermustgo
somewhere,sothewaterlevelinthebeakerrises.
Inthesecondcase,thefloatingwoodenblockwilldisplaceanamountofwaterwithweightequaltothewoodenblockalone.
Themetalblockatthebottomwilldisplaceavolumeofwaterequaltoitsvolume,butnomore:thenormalforceduetothe
beakersbottomhelpssupportit.Sincethedensityofwaterislessthanthedensityofthemetal(oritwouldntsink),this
meansthevolumeofwaterdisplacedwillweigh

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Chapter9
lessthanthemetalblock.So,inthesecondcasethetwoblockswilldisplacelesstotalwaterthaninthefirstcase,andthe
waterlevelriseslessinthesecondcase.
KeyPoints:

Archimedesprinciplestatesthatthebuoyantforceonafloatingobjectisequalinmagnitudetotheweightofdisplaced
fluid.

Afloatingobjectdisplacesaweightoffluidequaltoitsownweight.

Asubmergedobjectdisplacesavolumeoffluidequaltoitsownvolume.

Itissometimeshelpfultothinkofacombinationofobjectsasasingleobject.

ForInstructorsOnly
Thisisthefirstofthreerelatedquestionsthathelpstudentsdeveloparobustunderstandingofbuoyancy,weight,floating,
sinking,andfluiddisplacement.Thesituationslendthemselvestoalivedemonstration,usingapredict,observe,and
reconcilepattern.
Onepossiblesourceofconfusionwiththisquestionishowtheweightofthemetalblockinthefirstcasecandisplaceany
water,whentheblockisnotinthewater.Havingstudentsdrawfreebodydiagramsforeachblockcanbehelpfulfor
resolvingthis.

QuestionH1.02b
Description:Developingunderstandingofbuoyancy.
Question
Ametalblocksitsontopofafloatingwoodenblock.Ifthemetalblockissuspendedfromthebottomofthewoodenblock,
whathappenstothevolumeofthewoodenblockthatissubmergedinthewater?

1.

Thevolumedecreases.

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Chapter9
2.

Thevolumestaysthesame.

3.

Thevolumeincreases.

4.

Notenoughinformation

Commentary
Purpose:ToexplorebuoyancyandArchimedesprinciple.
Discussion:Archimedesprinciplestatesthatthebuoyantforceonafloatingobjectisequalinmagnitudetotheweightof
displacedfluid.Inbothcases,thewaterissupportingthesameweightthecombinedweightofthetwoblockssothe
volumeofwaterdisplacedmustbethesame.
However,inthefirstcase,allthewaterisdisplacedbythewoodenblock,whileinthesecondsomeofthewaterisdisplaced
bythehangingmetalblockandtherestbythewoodenblock.Soforthesecondcase,moreofthewoodenblockwillbe
abovethewaterssurface,andthesubmergedvolumeofthewoodenblockhasdecreased.
KeyPoints:

Archimedesprinciplestatesthatthebuoyantforceonafloatingobjectisequalinmagnitudetotheweightofdisplaced
fluid.

Afloatingobjectdisplacesaweightoffluidequaltoitsownweight.

Itissometimeshelpfultothinkofacombinationofobjectsasasingleobject.

ForInstructorsOnly
Thisisthesecondofthreerelatedquestionsthathelpstudentsdeveloparobustunderstandingofbuoyancy,weight,floating,
sinking,andfluiddisplacement.Thesituationslendthemselvestoalivedemonstration,usingapredict,observe,and
reconcilepattern.
Studentsmightwonderwhatthedifferencebetweenthetwocasesis:inonethesmallblockpushesdownonthebig,andin
theseconditpullsdown.Havingstudentsdrawafreebodydiagramforeachblockshouldhelpthemrealizethatthe
magnitudeofthatpullisless.

QuestionH1.02c
Description:Developingunderstandingofbuoyancy.

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Chapter9
Question
Ametalblocksitsontopofafloatingwoodenblock.Ifthemetalblockissuspendedfromthebottomofthewoodenblock,
whathappenstothelevelofwaterinthebeaker?

1. Theleveldecreases.
2.

Thelevelstaysthesame.

3.

Thelevelincreases.

4.

Notenoughinformation

Commentary
Purpose:ToexplorebuoyancyandArchimedesprinciple.
Discussion:Archimedesprinciplestatesthatthebuoyantforceonafloatingobjectisequalinmagnitudetotheweightof
displacedfluid.Inbothcases,thewaterissupportingthesameweightthecombinedweightofthetwoblockssothetotal
volumeofwaterdisplacedmustbethesame.Thus,thewaterlevelinthebeakermustbethesameaswell.
KeyPoints:

Archimedesprinciplestatesthatthebuoyantforceonafloatingobjectisequalinmagnitudetotheweightofdisplaced
fluid.

Afloatingobjectdisplacesaweightoffluidequaltoitsownweight.

Itissometimeshelpfultothinkofacombinationofobjectsasasingleobject.

ForInstructorsOnly
Thisisthethirdofthreerelatedquestionsthathelpstudentsdeveloparobustunderstandingofbuoyancy,weight,floating,
sinking,andfluiddisplacement.Thesituationslendthemselvestoalivedemonstration,usingapredict,observe,and
reconcilepattern.
Thisquestionshouldberathereasyforstudentswhohavegraspedtheideasraisedintheprevioustwoquestions;itserves
primarilytoconfirmtheirunderstanding.

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Chapter9

QUICKQUIZZES
1.

(c).Themassthatyouhaveofeachelementisasfollows:

mgold gold Vgold 19.3 103 kg/m 3 1m 3 19.3 10 3 kg

msilver silver Vsilver 10.5 103 kg/m 3

2m 3

21.0 103 kg

maluminum aluminum Valuminum 2.70 103 kg/m 3


2.

6m 3

16.2 10 3 kg

(a).Atafixeddepth,thepressureinafluidisdirectlyproportionaltothedensityofthefluid.Sinceethylalcoholis
lessdensethanwater,thepressureissmallerthanPwhentheglassisfilledwithalcohol.

3.

(c).Forafixedpressure,theheightofthefluidinabarometerisinverselyproportionaltothedensityofthefluid.
Ofthefluidslistedintheselection,ethylalcoholistheleastdense.

4.

(b).Thebloodpressuremeasuredatthecalfwouldbelargerthanthatmeasuredatthearm.Ifweimaginethe
vascularsystemofthebodytobeavesselcontainingaliquid(blood),thepressureintheliquidwillincreasewith
depth.Thebloodatthecalfisdeeperintheliquidthanthatatthearmandisatahigherpressure.
Bloodpressuresarenormallytakenatthearmbecausethatisapproximatelythesameheightastheheart.Ifblood
pressuresatthecalfwereusedasastandard,adjustmentswouldneedtobemadefortheheightoftheperson,and
thebloodpressurewouldbedifferentifthepersonwerelyingdown.

5.

(c).Theleveloffloatingofashipisunaffectedbytheatmosphericpressure.Thebuoyantforceresultsfromthe
pressuredifferentialinthefluid.Onahighpressureday,thepressureatallpointsinthewaterishigherthanona
lowpressureday.Becausewaterisalmostincompressible,however,therateofchangeofpressurewithdepthis
thesame,resultinginnochangeinthebuoyantforce.

6.

(b).Sincebothleadandironaredenserthanwater,bothobjectswillbefullysubmergedand
(sincetheyhavethesamedimensions)willdisplaceequalvolumesofwater.Hence,thebuoyantforcesactingon
thetwoobjectswillbeequal.

7.

(a).Whenthereisamovingairstreamintheregionbetweentheballoons,thepressureinthisregionwillbeless
thanontheoppositesidesoftheballoonswheretheairisnotmoving.Thepressuredifferentialwillcausethe
balloonstomovetowardeachother.ThisisdemonstrationofBernoullisprincipleinaction.

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Chapter9

ANSWERSTOMULTIPLECHOICEQUESTIONS
1.

m gold V 19.3 103 kg m 3

4.50 10 2 m 11.0 10 2 m 26.0 10 2 m

24.8kg and

choice(a)isthecorrectresponse.
2.

Onaverage,thesupportforceeachnailexertsonthebodyis

F1

66.0kg 9.80 m s2
mg

1 208
1 208

0.535N

sotheaveragepressureexertedonthebodybyeachnailis

Pav

F1
0.535N

5.35 105 Pa
Anail
1.00 10 6 m 2
end

and(d)isthecorrectchoice.
3.

FromPascalsprinciple, F1 A1 F2 A2 ,soiftheoutputforceistobe F2 1.2 103 N ,therequiredinputforce


is

A
0.050m 2
F1 1 F2
0.70m 2
A2

1.2 103 N

86N

making(c)thecorrectanswer.
4.

AccordingtoArchimedessprinciple,thebuoyantforceexertedonthebulletbythemercuryisequaltotheweight
ofavolumeofmercurythatisthesameasthesubmergedvolumeofthebullet.Ifthebulletistofloat,thisbuoyant
forcemustequalthetotalweightofthebullet.Thus,forafloatingbullet,

mercury Vsubmerged g lead Vbullet g

and

Vsubmerged
Vbullet

lead

mercury

11.3 103 kg m 3
0.831
13.6 103 kg m 3

sothecorrectresponseis(d).
5.

Theabsolutepressureatdepthhbelowthesurfaceofaliquidwithdensity ,andwithpressure P0 atitssurface,is


P P0 gh .Thus,atadepthof754ftinthewatersofLochNess,

Page9.11

Chapter9

P 1.013 105 Pa 1.00 103 kg m 3

9.80 m s2 754ft

1m

3.281ft

2.35 10 6 Pa

and(c)isthecorrectresponse.
6.

Weassumethattheairinsidethewellsealedhousehasessentiallyzerospeedandthethicknessoftheroofis
negligiblesotheairjustabovetheroofandthatjustbelowtheroofisatthesamealtitude.Then,Bernoullis
equationgivesthedifferenceinpressurejustbelowandjustabovetheroof(withthepressurebelowbeingthe
greatest)as

P1 P2

1
v2 v12 air g y2 y1
2 air 2

or


1
1

P
1.29 kg m 3 95 mi h

2
2.237 mi h

0 0 1.2 10 3 Pa

andthecorrectchoiceis(a).
7.

Fromtheequationofcontinuity, A1v1 A2 v2 ,thespeedofthewaterinthesmallerpipeis


0.250m 2
A

v2 1 v1
0.100m 2
A2

1.00 m s

6.25 m s

so(d)isthecorrectanswer.
8.

Allofthesephenomenaaretheresultofadifferenceinpressureonoppositesidesofanobjectduetoafluid
movingatdifferentspeedsonthetwosides.Thus,thecorrectresponsetothisquestionischoice(e).Bernoullis
equationcanbeusedinthediscussionofeachofthesephenomena.

9.

Theboat,evenafteritsinks,experiencesabuoyantforce,B,equaltotheweightofwhateverwateritisdisplacing.
Thisforcewillsupportpartoftheweight,w,oftheboat.Thenormalforceexertedontheboatbythebottomofthe
lakewillbe n w B w willsupportthebalanceoftheboatsweight.Thecorrectresponseis(c).

10.

Theabsolutepressureatdepthhbelowthesurfaceofafluidhavingdensity is, P P0 gh where P0 isthe


pressureattheuppersurfaceofthatfluid.Thefluidineachofthethreevesselshasdensity water ,thetopof
eachvesselisopentotheatmospheresothat P0 Patmo ineachcase,andthebottomisatthesamedepthhbelow

Page9.12

Chapter9
theuppersurfaceforthethreevessels.Thus,thepressurePatthebottomofeachvesselisthesameand(c)isthe
correctchoice.
11.

Sincethepipeishorizontal,eachpartofitisatthesameverticallevelorhasthesameycoordinate.Thus,from
Bernoullisequation (P
perunitvolume (P

12.

1
2

1
2

v2 gy constant) ,weseethatthesumofthepressureandthekineticenergy

v2 ) mustalsobeconstantthroughoutthepipe,making(e)thecorrectchoice.

Oncethewaterdropletsleavethenozzle,theyareprojectileswithinitialspeed v0 y vi andhavingspeed
v f v y 0 attheirmaximumaltitude,h.Fromthekinematicsequation v2 v2 2 a (y) themaximum
y
0y
y
heightreachedis h vi2 2 g .Thus,ifwewanttoquadruplethemaximumheight (h 4h) weneedtodouble
thespeedofthewaterleavingthenozzle (vi 2vi ) .Usingtheequationofcontinuity, A vi Avi ,itisseenthat
ifI=2i,itisnecessarytohave Ai (vi vi ) A A 2 Thissaysthattheareaneedstobedecreasedbyafactor
of2,andthecorrectchoiceis(d).

ANSWERSTOEVENNUMBEREDCONCEPTUALQUESTIONS
2.

Weapproximatethethicknessoftheatmospherebyusing P P0 gh with P0 0 atthetopofthe


atmosphereand P 1atm atsealevel.Thisgivesanapproximationof

P P0
10 5 Pa 0
~
g
1 kg m 3 101 m s2

10 4 m

or

h ~ 10km

Becauseboththedensityoftheair, ,andtheaccelerationofgravity,g,decreasewithaltitude,theactual
thicknessoftheatmospherewillbegreaterthanourestimate.
4.

Bothmusthavethesamestrength.Theforceonthebackofeachdamistheaveragepressureofthewatertimesthe
areaofthedam.Ifbothreservoirsareequallydeep,theforceisthesame.

6.

Theexternalpressureexertedonthechestbythewatermakesitdifficulttoexpandthechestcavityandtakea
breathwhileunderwater.Thus,asnorkelwillnotworkindeepwater.

8.

Afandrivenbythemotorremovesairandhencedecreasesthepressureinsidethecleaner.Thegreaterairpressure
outsidethecleanerpushesairinthroughthenozzletowardthisregionoflowerpressure.Thisinwardrushofair
pushesorcarriesthedirtalongwithit.

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Chapter9
10.

Thewaterlevelonthesideoftheglassstaysthesame.Thefloatingicecubedisplacesitsownweightofliquid
water,andsodoestheliquidwaterintowhichitmelts.

12.

Thehigherthedensityofafluid,thehigheranobjectwillfloatinit.Thus,anobjectwillfloatlowerinlowdensity
alcohol.

14.

Abreezefromanydirectionspeedsuptogooverthemound,andtheairpressuredropsatthisopening.Airthen
flowsthroughtheburrowfromthelowertotheupperentrance.

PROBLEMSOLUTIONS
9.1

Theelasticlimitisthemaximumstress, F A whereFisthetensioninthewire,thatthewirecanwithstandand
stillreturntoitsoriginallengthwhenreleased.Thus,ifthewireistoexperienceatensionequaltotheweightofthe
performerwithoutexceedingtheelasticlimit,theminimumcrosssectionalareais
Amin

2
Dmin
F
mg

4
elasticlimit
elasticlimit

andtheminimumacceptablediameteris

Dmin

9.2

(a)

4mg

elasticlimit

4 70kg 9.8 m s2

5.0 108 Pa

1.3 10 3 m 1.3mm

Inordertopunchaholeinthesteelplate,the
superheromustpunchoutaplugwithcross
sectionalarea, Acs ,equaltothatofhisfistand
aheighttequaltothethicknessofthesteelplate.Thearea Ashear ofthefacethatisshearedastheplugis
removedisthecylindricalsurfacewithradiusrandheighttasshowninthesketch.SinceAcs=r2,then
r

A cs and
Ashear 2 r t 2 t

Acs
2 2.00cm

1.00 102 cm 2
70.9cm 2

Iftheultimateshearstrengthofsteel(i.e.,themaximumshearstressitcanwithstandbeforeshearing)is,
2.50 108 Pa 2.50 108 N m 2 theminimumforcerequiredtopunchoutthisplugis

Page9.14

Chapter9

1 m 2
F Ashear stress 70.9cm 2

2.50
4
2

10 cm
(b)

108

6
1.77 10 N

m2

ByNewtonsthirdlaw,thewallwouldexertaforceofequalmagnitudeintheoppositedirectiononthe
superhero,whowouldbethrownbackwardataveryhighrecoilspeed.

9.3

Twocrosssectionalareasintheplank,withonedirectlyabovetherailandoneattheouterendoftheplank,
2
separatedbydistance h 2.00m andeachwitharea, A 2.00cm 15.0cm 30.0cm moveadistance

x 5.00 10 2 m paralleltoeachother.Theforcecausingthisshearingeffectintheplankistheweightofthe
man F mg appliedperpendiculartothelengthoftheplankatitsouterend.SincetheshearmodulusSisgiven
by
S

shearstress
F A
Fh

shearstrain
x h

x A

wehave

9.4

5.00

80.0kg 9.80 m s2 2.00m


10 2 m

30.0cm 2 1m 2 10 4 cm 2

1.05 10 7 Pa

Asaliquid,thewateroccupiedsomevolume Vl .Asice,thewaterwouldoccupyvolume1.090Vlifitwerenot
compressedandforcedtooccupytheoriginalvolume.Considerthepressurechangerequiredtosqueezeiceback
intovolume Vl .Then, V0 1.09Vl and V 0.090Vl ,so
V
N 0.090 Vl

P B
2.00 10 9 2
1.65 108 Pa 1600atm

m
1.09 V l
V0

9.5

Using Y F L0 A ( L ) with A d 2 4 and F mg ,weget

9.6

4 90kg 9.80 m s2

1.0

10 2 m

50m

1.6m
2

3.5 108 Pa

From Y F L0 A ( L ) thetensionneededtostretchthewireby0.10mmis

Page9.15

Chapter9

Y A L
L0

Y d2

4 L0

18 1010 Pa 0.22 10 3 m 2 0.10 10 3 m


4 3.1 10 2 m

22N

ThetensioninthewireexertsaforceofmagnitudeFonthetoothineachdirectionalongthelengthofthewireasshown
intheabovesketch.Theresultantforceexertedonthetoothhasanxcomponentof
Rx Fx F cos 30 F cos 30 0 ,andaycomponentof Ry Fy F sin 30 F sin 30 F 22N .
Thus,theresultantforceis
ur
R 22Ndirecteddownthepageinthediagram .

9.7

From Y ( F A) ( L0 L ) (stress ) ( L0 L ) ,themaximumcompressionthefemurcanwithstandis

9.8

(a)

stress L0

160 106 Pa 0.50m


18 109 Pa

4.4 10 3 m 4.4mm

Whenatrest,thetensioninthecableequalstheweightofthe800kgobject, 7.84 103 N .


Thus,from Y F L0 A ( L ) ,theinitialelongationofthecableis

(b)

7.84 103 N 25.0m


F L0

2.45 10 3 m = 2.5mm
A Y
4.00 10 4 m 2 20 1010 Pa

Whentheloadisacceleratingupward,Newtonssecondlawgives
F mg ma y

F m g ay

[1]

If m 800kgand a y 3.0 m s2 ,theelongationofthecablewillbe

800kg 9.80 3.0 m s2 25.0m


F L0

3.2 10 3 m 3.2mm
A Y
4.00 10 4 m 2 20 1010 Pa

Page9.16

Chapter9
Thus,theincreaseintheelongationhasbeen
increase L L initial 3.20mm 2.45mm 0.75mm
(c)

Fromthedefinitionofthetensilestress, stress F A ,themaximumtensionthecablecanwithstandis

Fmax A stress max 4.00 10 4 m 2 2 .2 108 Pa

8.8 10 4 N

Then,Equation[1]abovegivesthemassofthemaximumloadas

mmax

9.9

Fmax
8.8 10 4 N

6.9 103 kg
ga
9.8 3.0 m s2

Fromthedefiningequationfortheshearmodulus,wefindthedisplacement, x ,as

h F A
S

5.0 10 3 m 20N 10 4 cm 2
h F

S A

3.0 106 Pa 14cm 2 1m 2

2.4 10 5 m 0.024mm

9.10

Theshearmodulusisgivenby

shear stress
stress

shear strain
x h

Hence,thestressis
5.0m
x

stress S
1.5 1010 Pa
7.5 106 Pa

h
10 103 m

9.11

Thetensionandcrosssectionalareaareconstantthroughtheentirelengthoftherod,andthetotalelongationisthe
sumofthatofthealuminumsectionandthatofthecoppersection.

Lrod LAl LCu

F L0 Al
AYAl

F L0 Cu
AYCu

Page9.17

L0 Cu
F L0 Al

A YAl
YCu

Chapter9
where A r 2 with r 0.20cm 2.0 10 3 m .Thus,

Lrod

9.12

5.8 103 N
2
2.0 10 3 m

1.3m
2.6m

10
7.0 10 Pa 11 1010 Pa

1.9 10 2 m 1.9cm

Theaccelerationoftheforearmhasmagnitude

v
t

80

km 103 m
1h
h 1km
3 600s

4.4 103 m s2

3
5.0 10 s

Thecompressionforceexertedonthearmis F ma andthecompressionalstressonthebonematerialis

Stress

3.0kg 4.4 103 m s2


F

A
2.4cm 2 10 4 m 2 1cm 2

5.5 10 7 Pa

Sincethestressislessthantheallowedmaximum,thearmshouldsurvive.
9.13

Theaveragedensityofeitherofthetwooriginalworldswas

M
M
3M

V
4 R 3 3
4 R 3

Theaveragedensityofthecombinedworldis

M total

V
4
3

2M
3
4 R

42 2 M

32

R3

32 M
9 R3

so

128
32 M 4 R3

4.74
9 R3
3M
0
27

9.14

(a)

or

4.74 0

Themassofgoldinthecoinis

Page9.18

Chapter9

mAu

# karats mtotal
24

22
11
m

7.988 10 3 kg 7.322 10 3 kg
24 total
12

andthemassofcopperis

mCu

(b)

1
1
mtotal
7.988 10 3 kg 6.657 10 4 kg
12
12

Thevolumeofthegoldpresentis

VAu

mAu
7.322 10 3 kg

3.79 10 7 m 3
Au
19.3 103 kg m 3

andthevolumeofthecopperis

VCu

(c)

TheaveragedensityoftheBritishsovereigncoinis

av

9.15

(a)

mCu
6.657 10 4 kg

7.46 10 8 m 3
Cu
8.92 103 kg m 3

mtotal
mtotal
7.988 10 3 kg

1.76 10 4 kg m 3
Vtotal
VAu VCu
3.79 10 7 m 3 7.46 10 8 m 3

Thetotalnormalforceexertedonthebottomacrobatsshoesbythefloorequalsthetotalweightoftheacro
batsinthetower.Thatis
n mtotal g 75.0 68.0 62.0 55.0 kg

(b)

n
Atotal

9.80 m s2

n
2.55 103 N

2 Ashoe
2 425cm 2 1m 2 10 4 cm 2
sole

2.55 10 3 N

3.00 10 4 Pa

(c) Iftheacrobatsarerearrangedsodifferentonesareatthebottomofthetower,thetotalweightsupported,and
hencethetotalnormalforcen,willbeunchanged.However,thetotalarea Atotal 2 Ashoe sole ,andhencethe
pressure,willchangeunlessalltheacrobatswearthesamesizeshoes.

Page9.19

Chapter9
9.16

Weshallassumethateachchairlegsupportsonefourthofthetotalweightsothenormalforceeachlegexertson
theflooris n mg 4 .Thepressureofeachlegontheflooristhen

Pleg

9.17

(a)

95.0kg 9.80 m s2
n
mg 4

2.96 106 Pa
2
Aleg
r2
4 0.500 10 2 m

Iftheparticlesinthenucleusarecloselypackedwithnegligiblespacebetweenthem,theaveragenuclear
densityshouldbeapproximatelythatofaprotonorneutron.Thatis

nucleus

(b)

mproton
Vproton

mproton
4 r 3

3 1.67 10 27 kg

4 1

10 15 m

4 1017 kg m 3

Thedensityofironis Fe 7.86 103 kg m 3 kg/m3andthedensitiesofothersolidsandliquidsareon


theorderof 103 kg m 3 .Thus,thenucleardensityisabout 1014 timesgreaterthanthatofcommonsolids
andliquids,whichsuggeststhatatomsmustbemostlyemptyspace.Solidsandliquids,aswellasgases,are
mostlyemptyspace.

9.18

LettheweightofthecarbeW.Then,eachtiresupports W 4 ,andthegaugepressureis

F
W

A
4A

Thus, W 4 A P 4 0.024m 2
9.19

2.0 105 Pa

1.9 10 4 N .

ThevolumeofconcreteinapillarofheighthandcrosssectionalareaAis V Ah ,anditsweightis

Fg Ah 5.0 10 4 N m 3 .Thepressureatthebaseofthepillaristhen

Fg
A

Ah 5.0 10 4 N m3
A

h 5.0 10 4 N m 3

Thus,ifthemaximumacceptablepressureonthebaseis, Pmax 1.7 107 Pa ,themaximumallowableheightis

Page9.20

Chapter9

hmax

9.20

Pmax
1.7 10 7 Pa

3.4 10 2 m
4
3
5.0 10 N m
5.0 10 4 N m 3

AssumingthespringobeysHookeslaw,theincreaseinforceonthepistonrequiredtocompressthespringan
additionalamount x is F F F0 P P0 A k x .Thegaugepressureatdepthhbeneaththe
surfaceofafluidis P P0 gh ,sowehave, ghA k x ortherequireddepthis h k x gA ,If

3
3
k 1 250 N m , A r 2 with r 1.20 10 2 m ,with 1.00 10 kg m ,andthefluidiswater(

=1.00103kg/m3),thedepthrequiredtocompressthespringanadditionalis 0.750cm 7.50 10 3 m is

9.21

1 250 N m 7.50 10 3 m

1.00 103 kg m3 9.80 m s2 1.20 10 2 m 2

(a)

P P0 gh 101.3 103 Pa 1.00 10 3 kg m 3

(b)

Theinwardforcethewaterwillexertonthewindowis

9.80 m s2 27.5m

35.0 10 2 m

F PA P r 2 3.71 10 5 Pa

9.22

2.11m

3.71 10 5 Pa

3.57 10 4 N

Thegaugepressureinafluidataleveldistancehbelowwhere Pgauge 0 is Pgauge gh withhbeingpositive


whenmeasuredinthedownwarddirection.Thedifferenceingaugepressuresattwolevelsis
(Pgauge )2 (Pgauge )1 g ( h) or(Pgauge)2=(Pgauge)1+g(h)with h beingpositiveif,ingoingfromlevel1to
level2,oneismovinglowerinthefluid.
(a)

Inmovingfromthehearttothehead,oneismovinghigherinthebloodcolumnso h 0 andwefind

Pgauge

8.11 103 Pa 8.11kPa

gauge head

heart

g h 13.3 103 Pa 1 060 kg m 3

or

gauge head

Page9.21

9.80 m s2 0.500m

Chapter9
(b)

Ingoingfromhearttofeet,onemovesdeeperinthebloodcolumn,so h 0 and

Pgauge

26.8 103 Pa 26.8kPa

gauge feet

heart

g h 13.3 103 Pa 1 060 kg m 3

9.80 m s2 1.30m

or

gauge feet

9.23

3
3
Thedensityofthesolutionis 1.02 water 1.02 10 kg m .Thegaugepressureofthefluidatthelevel

oftheneedlemustequalthegaugepressureinthevein,so Pgauge gh 1.33 103 Pa ,and

9.24

(a)

Pgauge

1.33 103 Pa
1.02 103 kg m 3 9.80 m s2

0.133m

Fromthedefinitionofbulkmodulus, B P V V0 ,thechangeinvolumeofthe 1.00m ofseawater


3

willbe

(b)

V0 P
Bwater

1.00m3 1.13 108 Pa 1.013 105 Pa


0.210 1010 Pa

0.053 8m 3

Thequantityofseawaterthathadvolume V0 1.00m 3 atthesurfacehasamassof1030kg.Thus,the


densityofthiswaterattheoceanflooris

(c)

m
m
1 030kg

1.09 103 kg m 3
V
V0 V
1.00
0.053 8 m 3

Consideringthesmallfractionalchangeinvolume(about5%)andenormouschangeinpressure
generated,weconcludethatitisagoodapproximationtothinkofwaterasincompressible.

9.25

Wefirstfindtheabsolutepressureattheinterfacebetweenoilandwater.
P1 P0 oil ghoil

1.013 105 Pa 700 kg m 3 9.80 m s2 0.300m 1.03 10 5 Pa

Page9.22

Chapter9
Thisisthepressureatthetopofthewater.Tofindtheabsolutepressureatthebottom,weuse,P2=P1+waterghwater,
or

P2 1.03 10 5 Pa 103 kg m 3
9.26

9.80 m s2 0.200m

1.05 10 5 Pa

Ifweassumeavacuumexistsinsidethetubeabovethewinecolumn,thepressureatthebaseofthetube(thatis,at
thelevelofthewineintheopencontainer)isPatmo=0+gh=gh.Thus,

Patmo
1.013 10 5 Pa

g
984 kg m 3 9.80 m s2

10.5m

Somealcoholandwaterwillevaporate,degradingthevacuumabovethecolumn.
9.27

F
AMaster Fbrake Abrake
Pascalsprinciple, F1 A1 F2 A2 ,or pedal cylinder
,gives
cylinder

Abrakecylinder

6.4cm 2
44N 156N
Fpedal
1.8cm 2

Amastercylinder

Fbrake

Thisisthenormalforceexertedonthebrakeshoe.Thefrictionalforceis
f k n 0.50 156N 78N
andthetorqueis f rdrum 78N 0.34m 27N m .

9.28

First,usePascalsprinciple,F1/A1=F2/A2,tofindtheforce
piston1willexertonthehandlewhena500lbforce
pushesdownwardonpiston2.

A
d12 4
d12
F1 1 F2
F

2
A2
d22 4
d22

0.25in 2 500lb

1.5in 2

F2

14lb

Now,consideranaxisperpendiculartothepage,passingthroughtheleftendofthejackhandle.=0yields

Page9.23

Chapter9
14lb 2 .0in F 12in 0 ,

9.29

F 2.3lb

Whenheldunderwater,theballwillhavethreeforcesactingonit:adownwardgravitationalforce,mg;anupward
buoyantforce,B=waterV=4waterr3/3;andanappliedforce,F.Iftheballistobeinequilibrium,wehave(taking
upwardaspositive) Fy F B mg 0 ,or

4 r 3
4 r 3
g m water

3
3

F mg B mg water

giving

4 0.250m

F 0.540kg 1.00 103 kg m 3



3
2

9.80 m s2

74.9N

ur
sotherequiredappliedforceis. F 74.9Ndirecteddownward
9.30

(a)

Tofloat,thebuoyantforceactingonthepersonmustequaltheweightofthatperson,ortheweightofthe
waterdisplacedbythepersonmustequalthepersonsownweight.Thus,

B mg sea gVsubmerged body gVtotal

Afterinhaling,

Vsubmerged
Vtotal

945 kg m 3
0.768 76.8%
1 230 kg m 3

leaving.23.2%abovesurface.
Afterexhaling,
Vsubmerged
Vtotal

1 020 kg m 3
0.829 82.9%
1 230 kg m 3

Page9.24

or

Vsubmerged
Vtotal

body
sea

Chapter9
leaving.17.1%abovesurface.
(b)

Ingeneral,sinkerswouldbeexpectedtobethinnerwithheavierbones,whereasfloaterswouldhave
lighterbonesandmorefat.

9.31

Theboatsinksuntiltheweightoftheadditionalwaterdisplacedequalstheweightofthetruck.Thus,
wtruck water V g
kg

m
103 3 4.00m 6.00m 4.00 10 2 m 9.80 2

s
m

or
wtruck 9.41 103 N 9.41kN

9.32

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Sincethesystemisinequilibrium, Fy B w wr 0 .
B w gVsubmerged w g d A

1 025 kg m 3

9.80 m s2 0.024 0m 4.00m 2

964N

From B w wr 0 ,

wr B w B ms g 964N 62.0kg 9.80 m s2 356N

(e)

(f)

(g)

mr
w g
r

Vr
t A
9.80 m s2

foam

356N
0.090 m 4.00m 2

101 kg m 3

Bmax w gVr w g t A

1 025 kg m 3

9.80 m s2 0.090 0m 4.00m 2

3.62 10 3 N

Themaximumweightofsurvivorstheraftcansupportis wmax mmax g Bmax wr so

Page9.25

Chapter9

mmax

9.33

(a)

Bmax wr
3.62 103 N 356N

333kg
g
9.80 m s2

Whilethesystemfloats, B wtotal wblock wsteel .or w g Vsubmerged b g Vb msteel g .


4
3
When msteel 0.310kg , Vsubmerged Vb 5.24 10 m giving

wVb msteel
m
0.310kg
w steel 1.00 103 kg m 3
408 kg m 3
Vb
Vb
5.24 10 4 m 3

(b) Ifthetotalweightoftheblock+steelsystemisreduced,byhavingmsteel0.310kg,asmallerbuoyantforce
isneededtoallowthesystemtofloatinequilibrium.Thus,theblockwilldisplaceasmallervolumeofwater
andwillbeonlypartiallysubmergedinthewater.
Theblockisfullysubmergedwhenmsteel=0.310kg.Themassofthesteelobjectcanincreaseslightlyabove
thisvaluewithoutcausingitandtheblocktosinktothebottom.Asthemassofthesteelobjectisgradually
increasedabove0.310kg,thesteelobjectbeginstosubmerge,displacingadditionalwater,andprovidinga
slightincreaseinthebuoyantforce.Withadensityofabouteighttimesthatofwater,thesteelobjectwillbe
abletodisplaceapproximately0.310kg/8=0.039kgofadditionalwaterbeforeitbecomesfullysubmerged.
Atthispoint,thesteelobjectwillhaveamassofabout0.349kgandwillbeunabletodisplaceanyadditional
water.Anyfurtherincreaseinthemassoftheobjectcausesitandtheblocktosinktothebottom.In
conclusion,theblock+steelsystemwillsinkifmstee0.350kg.

9.34

(a)

(b)

Sincetheballoonisfullysubmergedinair,Vsubmerged=Vb=325m3,and

Page9.26

Chapter9

B air gVb 1.29 kg m 3

(c)

9.80 m s2 325m 3

4.11 10 3 N

Fy B wb wHe B mb g He gVb B mb HeV g

4.11 103 N 226kg 0.179 kg m 3

325m 3 9.80 m s2

1.33 103 N

SinceFy=may0,aywillbepositive(upward),andtheballoonrises.
(d)

Iftheballoonandloadareinequilibrium, Fy B wb wHe wload 0 and

wload B wb wHe 1.33 103 N .Thus,themassoftheloadis

mload

(e)

wload
1.33 103 N

136kg
g
9.80 m s2

Ifmload136kg,thenthenetforceactingontheballoon+ loadsystemisupwardand
theballoonanditsloadwillaccelerateupward.

(f)

Thedensityofthesurroundingair,temperature,andpressurealldecreaseastheballoonrises.Becauseof
theseeffects,thebuoyantforcewilldecreaseuntilatsomeheighttheballoonwillcometoequilibriumandgo
nohigher.

9.35

(a)

(b)

(c)

4 r 3
1.29 kg m 3
3

1.43 103 N 1.43kN

B air gVballoon air g

9.80 m s2

Fy B wtotal 1.43 103 N 15.0kg 9.80 m s2


1.28

103 N

4
3.00m 3

1.28kNupward

Theballoonexpandsasitrisesbecausetheexternalpressure(atmosphericpressure)decreaseswith
increasingaltitude.

9.36

(a)

Takingupwardaspositive, Fy B mg ma y ,or ma y w gV mg .

(b)

Sincem=V,wehave V a y w g V V g ,or

Page9.27

Chapter9

a y w 1 g

1.00 103 m kg3

1 9.80 m s2 0.467 m s2 0.467 m s 2 downward


3
1 050 m kg

(c)

ay

(d)

2
From y v0 y t a y t 2 with0y=0,wefind

2 y
ay

2 8.00m
0.467 m s2

5.85s

4 3
600 air gVballoon 600 air g
r
3

balloon

4
3
1.29 kg m 3 9.80 m s2
0.50m 4.0 10 3 N 4.0kN

9.37 (a) Btotal 600 Bsingle

600

(b)

Fy Btotal mtotal g 4.0 103 N 600 0.30kg 9.8 m s 2 2.2 10 3 N 2.2kN

(c)

AtmosphericpressureatthishighaltitudeismuchlowerthanatEarthssurface,sotheballoonsexpanded
andeventuallyburst.

9.38

Note:Wedeliberatelyviolatetherulesofsignificantfiguresinthisproblemtoillustrateapoint.
(a)

Theabsolutepressureatthelevelofthetopoftheblockis
Ptop P0 water ghtop
kg

m
1.0130 105 Pa 10 3 3 9.80 2

s
m

5.00 10 2 m

1.0179 105 Pa

andthatatthelevelofthebottomoftheblockis
Pbottom P0 water ghbottom
kg

m
1.0130 10 5 Pa 10 3 3 9.80 2

s
m
1.0297 105 Pa

Page9.28

17.0 10 2 m

Chapter9
Thus,thedownwardforceexertedonthetopbythewateris

Ftop Ptop A 1.0179 10 5 Pa 0.100m

1017.9N

andtheupwardforcethewaterexertsonthebottomoftheblockis

Fbot Pbot A 1.0297 105 Pa 0.100m

1029.7N

(b) Thescalereadingequalsthetension,T,inthecordsupportingtheblock.Sincetheblockisinequilibrium,
Fy T Fbot Ftop mg 0 ,or

T 10.0kg 9.80 m s2 1029.7 1017.9 N 86.2N


(c)

FromArchimedessprinciple,thebuoyantforceontheblockequalstheweightofthedisplacedwater.Thus,
B water Vblock g

2
103 kg m 3 0.100m 0.120m

9.80 m s2

11.8N

Frompart(a), Fbot Ftop 1 029.7 1 017.9 N 11.8N ,whichisthesameasthebuoyantforcefound


above.
9.39

Constantvelocitymeansthatthesubmersibleisinequilibriumunderthegravitationalforce,theupwardbuoyant
force,andtheupwardresistanceforce:
Fy ma y 0

1.20 10 4 kg m g seawater gV 1 100N 0


wheremisthemassoftheaddedseawaterandVisthespheresvolume.
Thus,

kg 4
1 100N

m 1.03 103 3
1.50m 3 9.80 m s2 1.20 10 4 kg

m 3

or

Page9.29

Chapter9

m 2.67 103 kg

9.40

Atequilibrium, Fy B Fspring mg 0 ,sothespringforceis


Fspring B mg water Vblock m g
where

Vblock

Thus,

m
5.00kg

7.69 10 3 m 3
wood
650 kg m 3

Fspring 103 kg m 3 7.69 10 3 m 3 5.00kg 9.80 m s 2 26.4N.

Theelongationofthespringisthen

9.41

(a)

Fspring
k

26.4N
0.165m 16.5cm
160 N m

Thebuoyantforceisthedifferencebetweentheweightinairandtheapparentweightwhenimmersedinthe
alcohol,orB=300N200N=100N.But,fromArchimedessprinciple,thisisalsotheweightofthe
displacedalcohol,soB=(alcoholV)g.Sincethesampleisfullysubmerged,thevolumeofthedisplaced

alcohol

isthesameasthevolumeofthesample.Thisvolumeis

(b)

alcohol g

100N

700 kg m3 9.80 m s2

1.46 10 2 m 3

Themassofthesampleis

weightinair
300N

30.6kg
g
9.80 m s2

anditsdensityis

Page9.30

Chapter9

9.42

m
30.6kg

2.10 103 kg m 3
V
1.46 10 2 m 3

Thedifferencebetweentheweightinairandtheapparentweightwhenimmersedisthebuoyantforceexertedon
theobjectbythefluid.
(a)

Themassoftheobjectis
weightinair
300N

30.6kg
g
9.80 m s2

Thebuoyantforcewhenimmersedinwateristheweightofavolumeofwaterequaltothevolumeofthe
object,orBw=(wV)g.Thus,thevolumeoftheobjectis
Bw
300N 265N

3.57 10 3 m 3
3
w g
10 kg m3 9.80 m s2

anditsdensityis

object
(b)

m
30.6kg

8.57 103 kg m 3
V
3.57 10 3 m 3

ThebuoyantforcewhenimmersedinoilisequaltotheweightofavolumeV=3.5710.3m3ofoil.Hence
Boil=(oilV)g,orthedensityoftheoilis

oil

9.43

Boil
300N 275N

Vg
3.57 10 3 m 3 9.80 m s2

714 kg m 3

Thevolumeoftheironblockis
V

miron
2 .00kg

2 .54 10 4 m 3
iron
7.86 103 kg m 3

andthebuoyantforceexertedontheironbytheoilis

B oil V g 916 kg m 3 2 .54 10 4 m 3 9.80 m s2 2 .28N

Page9.31

Chapter9
ApplyingFy=0totheironblockgivesthesupportforceexertedbytheupperscale(andhencethereadingonthat
scale)as
Fupper miron g B 19.6N 2.28N 17.3N

FromNewtonsthirdlaw,theironexertsforceBdownwardontheoil(andhencethebeaker).ApplyingFy=0to
thesystemconsistingofthebeakerandtheoilgives
Flower B moil mbeaker g 0
Thesupportforceexertedbythelowerscale(andthelowerscalereading)isthen
Flower B moil m beaker g 2.28N 2.00 1.00 kg

9.44

(a)

9.80 m s2

Thecrosssectionalareaofthehoseis A r 2 d 2 4 2.74cm

4 ,andthevolumeflowrate

(volumeperunittime)isA=25.0L/1.50min.Thus,
1 min 103 cm 3
25.0 L
25.0L 1.50min
4

2
A

1.50 min 2.74 cm 2 60s 1 L

1m
47.1 cm s
0.471 m s
102 cm

(b)

d
d22 4
A2

2

2
A1
4


d1
1

1

3

1
9

or

Thenfromtheequationofcontinuity, A2 v2 A1v1 ,wefind

A
v2 1 v1 9 0.471 m s 4.24 m s
A2

9.45

(a)

ThevolumeflowrateisA,andthemassflowrateis

Av 1.0 g cm 3 2.0cm 2 40 cm s 80 g s

Page9.32

A2

A1
9

31.7N

Chapter9
(b)

Fromtheequationofcontinuity,thespeedinthecapillariesis

Aaorta

2 .0cm 2
40 cm s
vaorta
3.0 103 cm 2

Acapillaries

vcapiliaries

2
or vcapiliaries 2.7 10 cm s 0.27 mm s .

9.46

(a)

Fromtheequationofcontinuity,theflowspeedinthesecondpipeis
A
10.0cm 2
v2 1 v1
2.75 m s 11.0 m s
2.50cm 2

A2

(b)

UsingBernoullisequationandchoosingy=0alongthecenterlineofthepipesgives
P2 P1

1
1
2
2
v12 v22 1.20 10 5 Pa
1.65 103 kg m 3 2.75 m s 11.0 m s

2
2

or P2 2.64 10 4 Pa .
9.47

FromBernoullisequation,choosingaty=0thelevelofthesyringeandneedle,sotheflowspeedintheneedle,
P2

1
2

v22 P1

v2

v12

1
2

v12 is

2 P1 P2

Inthissituation,
P1 P2 P1 Patmo P1 gauge

F
2 .00N

8.00 10 4 Pa
A1
2 .50 10 5 m 2

Thus,assuming0,

v2

9.48

2 8.00 10 4 Pa
1.00

103

kg m 3

12.6 m s

WeapplyBernoullisequation,ignoringtheverysmallchangeinverticalposition,toobtain

Page9.33

Chapter9

P1 P2

9.49

(a)

v22

v12

2 v 2 v 2
1
1

3
1.29 kg m 3 15 10 2 m s
2

3
v12
2

,or

4.4 10 2 Pa

Assumingtheairplaneisinlevelflight,thenetlift(thedifferenceintheupwardanddownwardforces
exertedonthewingsbytheairflowingoverthem)mustequaltheweightoftheplane,or
(Plower Pupper ) Awings mg
surface

surface

.Thisyields

8.66 10 4 kg 9.80 m s2

mg

Plower Pupper A
90.0m 2
surface
surface
wings

(b)

9.43 103 Pa

Neglectingthesmalldifferenceinaltitudebetweentheupperandlowersurfacesofthewingsandapplying
Bernoullisequationyields
Plower

1
1
2
2
air vlower
Pupper air vupper
2
2

so

vupper

(c)

2
vlower

2 Plower Pupper

air

225 m s 2

2 9.43 103 Pa
1.29 kg

m3

255 m s

Thedensityofairdecreaseswithincreasingheight,resultinginasmallerpressuredifference.Beyondthe
maximumoperationalaltitude,thepressuredifferencecannolongersupporttheaircraft.

9.50

Forlevelflight,thenetlift(differencebetweentheupwardanddownwardforcesexertedonthewingsurfacesby
airflowingoverthem)mustequaltheweightoftheaircraft,or

(Plower Pupper ) A Mg
surface

surface

.Thisgivestheair

pressureattheuppersurfaceas

Pupper Plower
surface

9.51

(a)

surface

Mg
A

Sincethepistolisfiredhorizontally,theemergingwaterstreamhasinitialvelocitycomponentsof( 0x=

Page9.34

Chapter9

nozzle,0y=0)Then,y=0yt+ayt2/2,withay=g,givesthetimeofflightas

(b)

2 y
ay

2 1.50m
9.80 m s2

0.553s

Withax=0,and0x=nozzle,thehorizontalrangeoftheemergentstreamisx=nozzletwheretisthetimeof
flightfromabove.Thus,thespeedofthewateremergingfromthenozzleis

vnozzle

(c)

x
8.00m

14.5 m s
t
0.553s

Fromtheequationofcontinuity,A11=A22,thespeedofthewaterinthelargercylinderis1=(A2/A1)2=
(A2/A1)nozzle,or

r22
r
v1
vnozzle 2

2
r1
r1

1.00mm
vnozzle
10.0mm

14.5 m s

0.145 m s

(d)

Thepressureatthenozzleisatmosphericpressure,orP2=1.013105m/s.

(e)

Withthetwocylindershorizontal,y1=y2andgravitytermsfromBernoullisequationcanbeneglected,
leaving P1 w v12 2 P2 w v22 2 sotheneededpressureinthelargercylinderis

P1 P2

w 2
1.00 103 kg m 3
2
2
v2 v12 1.013 10 5 Pa

14.5 m s 0.145 m s
2
2

or
P1 2.06 105 Pa
(f)

TocreateanoverpressureofP=2.06105Pa=1.05105Painthelargercylinder,theforcethatmustbe
exertedonthepistonis

F1 P A1 P r12 1.05 10 5 Pa 1.00 10 2 m

9.52

(a)

FromBernoullisequation,

Page9.35

33.0N

Chapter9

P1

w v12
v2
w gy1 P2 w 2 w gy2
2
2

or
Figure9.29
P1 P2

g y2 y1
w

v22 v12 2

andusingthegivendatavalues,weobtain
1.75 105 Pa 1.20 10 5 Pa
9.80 m s2
1.00 103 kg m 3

v22 v12 2

2.50m

and

[1]

v22 v12 61.0 m 2 s2


Fromtheequationofcontinuity,

A
r12

v2 1 v1
v1

2
A2
r2

3.00cm
v2
1.50cm

v1

r1
r2

or

v1

2=41

2
2 2
SubstitutingEquation[2]into[1]gives 16 1 v1 61.0 m s ,or

v1

61.0 m 2 s2
2.02 m s
15

(b)

Equation[2]abovenowyields2=4(2.02m/s)=8.08m/s.

(c)

Thevolumeflowratethroughthepipeis:flowrate=A11=A22.
Lookingatthelowerpoint:

Page9.36

[2]

Chapter9

flow rate r12 v1 3.00 10 2 m


9.53

2 2.02 m s

5.71 10 3 m 3 s

First,considerthepathfromtheviewpointofprojectilemotiontofindthespeedatwhichthe
wateremergesfromthetank.From y v0 y t

2 y
ay

2 1.00m
9.80 m s2

1
2

a y t 2 with0y=0,wefindthetimeofflightas

0.452s

Fromthehorizontalmotion,thespeedofthewatercomingoutoftheholeis
v2 v0 x

x
0.600m

1.33 m s
t
0.452s

WenowuseBernoullisequation,withpoint1atthetopofthetankandpoint2atthelevelofthehole.WithP1=
P2=Patmoand,10.Thisgives

g y1

1 2
v g y2
2 2

or

1.33 m s
v2
h y1 y2 2
2g
2 9.80 m s2
2

9.54

(a)

9.00 10 2 m 9.00cm

ApplyBernoullisequationwithpoint1attheopentopofthetankandpoint2attheopeningofthehole.
1
Then,P1=P2=Patmoandweassume10.Thisgives 2 v22 g y2 g y1 ,or

v2
(b)

2 g y1 y2

2 9.80 m s2

16.0m

17.7 m s

Theareaoftheholeisfoundfrom

A2

flow rate
2 .50 10 3 m 3 min 1min

2 .35 10 6 m 2
60s

v2
17.7 m s

Thediameteristhen

Page9.37

Chapter9

4 A2

d2

9.55

4 2.35 10 6 m 2

1.73 10 3 m 1.73mm

First,determinetheflowspeedinsidethelargerportionsfrom

v1

flow rate
1.80 10 4 m 3 s

0.367 m s
2
A1
2.50 10 2 m 4

TheabsolutepressureinsidethelargesectionontheleftisP1=P0+gh1,whereh1istheheightofthewaterinthe
leftmoststandpipe.TheabsolutepressureintheconstrictionisP2=P1+gh2,so
P1 P2 g h1 h2 g 5.00cm
TheflowspeedinsidetheconstrictionisfoundfromBernoullisequationwithy1=y2.Thisgives

v22 v12

v2

2
P P2 v12 2 g h1 h2
1

0.367 m s 2

2 9.80 m s 5.00 10 2 m 1.06 m s

Thecrosssectionalareaoftheconstrictionisthen

A2

flow rate
1.80 10 4 m 3 s

1.71 10 4 m 2 ,
v2
1.06 m s

andthediameteris

4 A2

d2

9.56

(a)

4 1.71 10 4 m 2

1.47 10 2 m 1.47cm

Forminimumpressure,weassumetheflowisveryslow.Then,Bernoullisequationgives

1 2

P 2 v gy

river

= P v 2 gy


2

Page9.38

rim

Chapter9

Priver min

0 1atm 0 g yrim yriver

Priver min

kg

m
1.013 10 5 Pa 10 3 3 9.80 2 2096m 564m

s
m

Priver min

1.013 105 1.50 10 7 Pa=1.51 10 7 Pa 15.1MPa

or

(b)

Thevolumeflowrateisflowrate=A=(d2/4).Thus,thevelocityinthepipeis

(c)

4 flow rate

d2

4 4500 m 3 d

0.150m

1d
2.95 m s
86 400s

Weimaginethepressurebeingappliedtostationarywateratriverlevel,soBernoullisequationbecomes
1 2
Priver 0 1atm g yrim yriver vrim
2
or

Priver Priver min

1 2
1
kg
m
vrim Priver min 103 2.95
s
2
2
m

Priver min 4.35kPa


Theadditionalpressurerequiredtoachievethedesiredflowrateis
P=4.35kPa

9.57

(a)

2
2
Forupwardflightofawaterdropprojectilefromgeyserventtofountaintop, v y v0 y 2 a y y ,withy

=0,wheny=ymax,gives

v0 y

0 2 a y y max

2 9.8 m s2

40.0m

Page9.39

28.0 m s

Chapter9
(b) Becauseofthelowdensityofairandthesmallchangeinaltitude,atmosphericpressureatthefountaintop
willbeconsideredequaltothatatthegeyservent.Bernoullisequation,withtop=0,thengives

1 2
v
0 g ytop yvent
2 vent

or
vvent
(c)

2 g ytop yvent

2 9.80 m s2

40.0m

28.0 m s

Betweenthechamberandthegeyservent,Bernoullisequationwithchamber0yields

P 0 g y chamber

Patm

1 2
v
g yvent
2 vent

or
1 2

P Patm vvent
g yvent ychamber
2

103

2
kg 28.0 m s
m

9.80 2

s
m
2

175m

2.11MPa

or

Pgauge P Patmo 2.11 106 Pa 1atm 1.013 10 5 Pa 20.8atmospheres


9.58

(a)

Sincethetubeishorizontal,y1=y2andthegravity
termsinBernoullisequationcancel,leaving
P1

1 2
1
v P2 v22
2 1
2
Figure9.30(a)

or

v22 v12

2 P1 P2

2 1.20 103 Pa

7.00 102 kg m 3

Page9.40

Chapter9
and
v22 v12 3.43 m 2 s2

[1]

Fromthecontinuityequation,A11=A22,wefind

A
r
v2 1 v1 1
A2
r2

2.40cm
v1
1.20cm

v1

or
v2 4v1

[2]

SubstitutingEquation[2]into[1]yields 15v12 3.43 m 2 s2 and1=0.478m/s.


Then,Equation[2]gives2=4(0.478m/s)=1.91m/s.
(b)

Thevolumeflowrateis

A1v1 A2 v2 r22 v2 1.20 10 2 m


9.59

2 1.91 m s

8.64 10 4 m 3 s

FromFy=TmgFy=0,thebalancereadingisfoundtobeT=mg+FywhereFyistheverticalcomponentof
thesurfacetensionforce.Sincethisisatwosidedsurface,thesurfacetensionforceisF=(2L)anditsvertical
componentisF=(2L)coswhereisthecontactangle.Thus,T=mg+2Lcos.
T 0.40N when 0

mg 2 L 0.40N

[1]

T 0.39N when 180

mg 2 L 0.39N

[2]

SubtractingEquation[2]from[1]gives

9.60

0.40N 0.39N
0.40N 0.39N

8.3 10 2 N m
4L
4 3.0 10 2 m

Becausetherearetwoedges(theinsideandoutsideofthering),wehave

Page9.41

Chapter9

9.61

h gr
2 cos

2.1 10 2 m 1 080 kg m3 9.80 m s2 5.0 10 4 m


2 cos0

5.6 10 2 N m

2 0.058 N m cos 0
2 cos

5.6m
gr
1 050 kg m 2 9.80 m s2 2.0 10 6 m

1.79 103 N s m 2 0.800m 1.20m


Av

L
0.10 10 3 m

0.50 m s

8.6N

Fromthedefinitionofthecoefficientofviscosity,=FL/A,therequiredforceis

9.65

F
1.61 10 2 N
=
7.32 10 2 N m
4 r 4 1.75 10 2 m

Fromthedefinitionofthecoefficientofviscosity,=FL/A,therequiredforceis

9.64

F
2 (circumference)

Theheightthebloodcanriseisgivenby

9.63

Ltotal

Fromh=2cos/gr,thesurfacetensionis

9.62

1 500 103 N s m 2 0.010m 0.040m


Av

L
1.5 10 3 m

Poiseuilleslawgives flow rate

P1 P2 R 4
8 L

andP2=Patminthiscase.Thus,thedesiredgaugepressureis

Page9.42

0.30 m s

0.12N

Chapter9

P1 Patm

8 L flow rate

R4

8 0.12 N s m 2 50m 8.6 10 5 m 3 s

0.50 10 2 m

or
P1 Patm 2.1 106 Pa 2.1MPa

9.66

FromPoiseuilleslaw,theflowrateinthearteryis

P R 4

flow rate

8 L

400Pa 2 .6 10 3 m

8 2 .7 10 3 N s m 2 8.4 10 2 m

3.2 10 5 m 3 s

Thus,theflowspeedis

9.67

flow rate
3.2 10 5 m 3 s

1.5 m s
2
A
2.6 10 3 m

Ifaparticleisstillinsuspensionafter1hour,itsterminalvelocitymustbelessthan

vt max

cm 1h
1m

5.0
1.4 10 5 m s .


h 3 600s 100cm

Thus,from1=2r2g(f)/9,wefindthemaximumradiusoftheparticle:

rmax

9.68

9 vt max

2 g f

9 1.00 10 3 N s m 2

1.4

10 5 m s

2 9.80 m s2 1 800 1 000 kg m 3

2.8 10 6 m 2.8 m

FromPoiseuilleslaw,theexcesspressurerequiredtoproduceagivenvolumeflowrateoffluidwithviscosity
throughatubeofradiusRandlengthLis

Page9.43

Chapter9

8 L V t

R4

Ifthemassflowrateis(m/t)=1.0103kg/s,thevolumeflowrateofthewateris

V
m t
1.0 10 3 kg s

1.0 10 6 m 3 s
t

1.0 103 kg m 3
andtherequiredexcesspressureis

9.69

3
0.15 10 m

8 1.0 10 3 Pa s 3.0 10 2 m 1.0 10 6 m 3 s

1.5 105 Pa

WiththeIVbagelevated1.0mabovetheneedle,thepressuredifferenceacrosstheneedleis

P gh 1.0 103 kg m 3

9.8 m s2 1.0m

9.8 10 3 Pa

andthedesiredflowrateis

500cm 3 1m 3 106 cm 3
V

t
30min 60s 1min

2.8 10 7 m 3 s

Poiseuilleslawthengivestherequireddiameteroftheneedleas

8L V t
D 2R 2

14

3
9.8 10 Pa

or
D 4.1 10 4 m 0.41mm
9.70

WewriteBernoullisequationas

Pout

8 1.0 10 3 Pa s 2.5 10 2 m 2.8 10 7 m 3 s

1 2
1 2
vout gyout Pin vin
gyin
2
2

Page9.44

14

Chapter9
or
1 2

2
vout vin
g yout yin
2

Pgauge Pin Pout

Approximatingthespeedofthefluidinsidethetankasin0,wefind
1
2
Pgauge 1.00 103 kg m 3 30.0 m s 9.80 m s 2
2

0.500m

or
Pgauge 4.55 10 5 Pa 455kPa
9.71

TheReynoldsnumberis

RN

1 050 kg m 3 0.55 m s 2 .0 10 2 m 4.3103


vd

2 .7 10 3 N s m 2

Inthisregion(RN>3000),theflowisturbulent.
9.72

FromthedefinitionoftheReynoldsnumber,themaximumflowspeedforstreamlined(orlaminar)flowinthis
pipeis

vmax

9.73

RN max
d

1.0 10 3 N s m 2 2 000
1 000 kg m3 2.5 10 2 m

0.080 m s 8.0 cm s

Theobserveddiffusionrateis8.01014kg/15s=5.31015kg/s.Then,fromFickslaw,thedifferencein
concentrationlevelsisfoundtobe

C2 C1

9.74

diffusion rate L
DA

5.3 1015 kg s 0.10m


5.0 10 10 m2 s 6.0 10 4 m 2

1.8 10 3 kg m 3

FickslawgivesthediffusioncoefficientasD=diffusionrate/A.(C/L),whereC/Listheconcentrationgradient.

Page9.45

Chapter9
Thus,

9.75

9.5 10 10 m 2 s

Stokesslawgivestheviscosityoftheairas

9.76

5.7 10 15 kg s
2.0 10 4 m 2 3.0 10 2 kg m 4

F
3.0 10 13 N

1.4 10 5 N s m 2
6 r v
6 2 .5 10 6 m 4.5 10 4 m s

Using1=2r2g(f)/9,thedensityofthedropletisfoundtobe=f+9t/2r2g.Thus,ifr=d/2=0.500
103mt=1.10102m/sandwhenfallingthrough20Cwater(=1.00103N.s/m2)thedensityoftheoilis

1 000

9.77

(a)

9 1.00 10 3 N s m 2 1.10 10 2 m s
kg

1.02 103 kg m 3
2
m3

4
2
2 5.00 10 m 9.80 m s

Bothironandaluminumaredenserthanwater,sobothblockswillbefullysubmerged.Sincethetwoblocks
havethesamevolume,theydisplaceequalamountsofwaterandthebuoyantforcesactingonthetwoblocks
areequal.

(b)

Sincetheblockisheldinequilibrium,theforcediagramattherightshowsthat
Fy 0 T mg B
ur
Thebuoyantforce B isthesameforthetwoblocks,sothespringscale
ur
reading T islargestfortheironblock,whichhasahigherdensity,and

henceweight,thanthealuminumblock.
(c)

Thebuoyantforceineachcaseis

B waterV g 1.0 103 kg m 3

0.20m3 9.8 m s2

2.0 10 3 N

Fortheironblock:

Tiron ironV g B 7.86 103 kg m 3

0.20m3 9.8 m s2

or

Page9.46

Chapter9

Tiron 1.5 10 4 N 2.0 10 3 N 13 103 N


Forthealuminumblock:

Taluminum aluminum V g B 2.70 103 kg m 3

0.20m3 9.8 m s2

or
Taluminum 5.2 103 N 2.0 103 N 3.3 103 N

9.78

Ingoingfromtheoceansurfacetoadepthof2.40km,theincreaseinpressureis

P P P0 gh 1.025 103 kg m 2

9.80 m s2 2.40 103 m

2.41 10 7 Pa

Thefractionalchangeinvolumeofthesteelballisgivenbythedefiningequationforbulkmodulus,
P=B(V/V),as
V
P
2.41 107 Pa


1.51 10 4
V
Bsteel
16.0 1010 Pa
9.79

(a)

FromArchimedessprinciple,thegranitecontinentwill
sinkdownintotheperidotitelayeruntiltheweight
fthedisplacedperidotiteequalstheweightofthecontinent.
Thus,atequilibrium,
g At g p Ad
g

or g t p d .

(b) Ifthecontinentsinks5.0kmbelowthesurfaceoftheperidotite,thend=5.0,andtheresultofpart(a)gives
thefirstapproximationofthethicknessofthecontinentas
p
3.3 103 kg m 3
5.0km 5.9km
d
2.8 103 kg m 3

9.80

(a)

StartingwithP=P0+gh,wechoosethereferencelevelattheleveloftheheart,soP0=PH.Thepressureat

Page9.47

Chapter9
thefeet,adepthhHbelowthereferencelevelinthepoolofbloodinthebodyisPF=PH+ghH.Thepressure
differencebetweenfeetandheartisthen
PF=PH+ghH.
(b)

Usingtheresultofpart(a),

PF PH 1.06 103 kg m 3
9.81

9.80 m s2 1.20m

1.25 10 4 Pa

2
2
Thecrosssectionalareaoftheaortais A1 d1 4 andthatofasinglecapillaryis Ac d2 4 Ifthe

circulatorysystemhasNsuchcapillaries,thetotalcrosssectionalareacarryingbloodfromtheaortais

A2 NAc

N d22
4

Fromtheequationofcontinuity,

v
v d12
N d22
A2 1 A1 ,or
1
,
4
4
v2
v2

whichgives

v d
N 1 1
v2 d2

9.82

(a)

1.0 m s

1.0
10 2 m

0.50 10 2 m
s
10 10 6 m

2.5 10 7

Weimaginethatasuperheroiscapableofproducingaperfectvacuumabovethewaterinthestraw.Then
P=P0+gh,withthereferencelevelatthewatersurfaceinsidethestrawandPbeingatmosphericpressure
onthewaterinthecupoutsidethestraw,givesthemaximumheightofthewaterinthestrawas

hmax

9.83

Patm 0
Patm
1.013 105 N m 2

water g
water g
1.00 103 kg m 3 9.80 m s2

(b)

ThemoonhasnoatmospheresoPatm=0,whichyields.hmax=0.

(a)

P 160mmofH 2 O H2 O g 160mm

Page9.48

10.3m

Chapter9

kg

m
103 3 9.80 2 0.160m

s
m
1.57kPa

1atm

P 1.57 103 Pa

1.013 105 Pa

1.55 10 2 atm

Thepressureis P H2 O ghH2 O Hg ghHg


H2O

103 kg m 3
160mm 11.8mmofHg
hH2O
13.6 103 kg m 3

Hg

hHg

9.84

(b)

Thefluidlevelinthetapshouldrise.

(c)

Blockageofflowofthecerebrospinalfluid.

Whentherodfloats,theweightofthedisplacedfluidequalstheweightoftherod,or f gVdisplaced 0 gVrod .


But,assumingacylindricalrod, Vrod r 2 L .Thevolumeoffluiddisplacedisthesameasthevolumeoftherod
2
2
thatissubmerged,or Vdisplaced r L h .Thus, f g r L h

f 0
L h

9.85

ConsiderthediagramandapplyBernoullisequationto
pointsAandB,takingy=0atthelevelofpointB,
andrecognizingthatA0.Thisgives
PA 0 w g h L sin
1
PB w vB2 0
2

RecognizethatPA=PB=Patmsincebothpoints
areopentotheatmosphere.Thus,weobtain

Page9.49

0 g r 2 L ,whichreducesto

Chapter9

vB

2 g h L sin

2 9.80 m s2 10.0m 2 .00m sin 30.0

13.3 m s

Nowtheproblemreducestooneofprojectilemotionwith
v0 y v B sin 30.0 6.64 m s
Atthetopofthearc,y=0,andy=ymax.

Then, v2y v02 y 2 a y y gives 0 6.64 m s 2 9.80 m s2


2

ymax

0 ,or

ymax 2.25mabovethelevelofpointB .
9.86

Whentheballooncomesintoequilibrium,theweightofthedisplacedairequalstheweightofthefilledballoon
plustheweightofstringthatisabovegroundlevel.IfmsandLarethetotalmassandlengthofthestring,themass
ofstringthatisabovegroundlevelis(h/L)ms.Thus,
h
air gVballoon mballoon g helium gVballoon ms g
L
whichreducesto
air helium Vballoon mballoon
L
ms

Thisyields

9.87

1.29 kg m3 0.179 kg m3 4 0.40m 3

3 0.25kg

0.050kg

2.0m

1.9m

Whentheballoonfloats,theweightofthedisplacedairequalsthecombinedweightsofthefilledballoonandits
load.Thus,

air gVballoon mballoon g helium gVballoon mload g ,


or

Page9.50

Chapter9

Vballoon

mballoon mload
600kg 4 000kg

4.14 103 m 3
air helium
1.29 0.179 kg m 3

9.88

(a)

ConsiderthepressureatpointsAandBinpart(b)ofthefigurebyapplyingP=P0+fgh.Lookingattheleft
tubegives PA Patm water g L h ,andlookingatthetubeontheright, PB Patm oil gL .
PascalsprinciplesaysthatPB=PA.Therefore, Patm oil gL Patm water g L h ,giving

750 kg m 3
h 1 oil L 1
5.00cm 1.25cm
water
1 000 kg m 3

(b)

Considerpart(c)ofthediagramshowingthesituationwhentheairflowoverthelefttubeequalizesthefluid
levelsinthetwotubes.First,applyBernoullisequationtopointsAandB.Thisgives
PA

1
1
v2 air g y A PB air vB2 air g yB
2 air A
2

Since y A yB , v A v, andvB 0 ,thisreducesto

PB PA

[1]

1
v2
2 air

NowuseP=P0+fghtofindthepressureatpointsCandD,bothattheleveloftheoilwaterinterfaceinthe

Page9.51

Chapter9
righttube.Fromthelefttube, PC PA water gL ,andfromtherighttube, PD PB oil gL .
PascalsprinciplesaysthatPD=Pc,andequatingthesetwogives
PB oil gL PA water gL or PB PA water oil gL

[2]

CombiningEquations[1]and[2]yields
2 water oil gL

air

2 1 000 750 9.80 m s2

9.89

5.00 10 2 m

1.29

13.8 m s

Whiletheballissubmerged,thebuoyantforceactingonitisB=(wV)g.Theupwardaccelerationoftheballwhile
underwateris
Fy

ay

4 3

B mg
w
r 1 g
m
m 3

1 000 kg m 3 4

3
0.10m 1

3
1.0kg

9.80 m s2

31 m s2

Thus,whentheballreachesthesurface,thesquareofitsspeedis

v2y v02 y 2 a y y 0 2 31 m s2 2.0m 125 m 2 s2


Whentheballleavesthewater,itbecomesaprojectilewithinitialupwardspeedof v0 y

125 m s and

2
2
2
accelerationof a y g 9.80 m s .Then, v y v0 y 2 a y y givesthemaximumheightabovethe

surfaceas

ymax

9.90

0 125 m 2 s2
6.4m
2 9.80 m s2

Sincetheblockisfloating,thetotalbuoyantforce
mustequaltheweightoftheblock.Thus,

Page9.52

Chapter9

oil A 4.00cm x g water A x g


wood A 4.00cm g
whereAisthesurfaceareaofthetoporbottom
oftherectangularblock.
Solvingforthedistancexgives


oil
960 930
x wood
4.00cm

4.00cm 1.71cm

1 000 930

water oil

9.91

Awaterdropletemergingfromoneoftheholes
becomesaprojectilewith0y=0and0x=0.The
timeforthisdroplettofalldistancehtotheflooris
foundfrom y v0 y t

1
2

a y t 2 tobe

2h
g

Thehorizontalrangeis

R vt v

2h
.
g

Ifthetwostreamshittheflooratthesamespot,
itisnecessarythatR1=R2,or

v1

2 h1
2 h2
v2
g
g

Withh1=5.00cmandh2=12.0cm,thisreducesto

v1 v2

h2
12.0cm
v2
or
h1
5.00cm
v1 v2 2 .40

Page9.53

[1]

Chapter9
ApplyBernoullisequationtopoints1(thelowerhole)and3(thesurfaceofthewater).Thepressureis
atmosphericpressureatbothpointsand,ifthetankislargeincomparisontothesizeoftheholes, 30.Thus,we
obtain
Patm

1 2
v gh1 Patm 0 gh3 or v2 2 g h h .
1
3
1
2 1

[2]

Similarly,applyingBernoullisequationtopoint2(theupperhole)andpoint3gives
Patm

1 2
v gh2 Patm 0 gh3 or v2 2 g h h .
2
3
2
2 2

[3]

SquareEquation[1]andsubstitutefromEquations[2]and[3]toobtain
2 g h3 h1 2 .40 2 g h3 h2
Solvingforh3yields

h3

2 .40 12 .0cm 5.00cm


2 .40 h2 h1

17.0cm ,
1.40
1.40

sothesurfaceofthewaterinthetankis17.0cmabovefloorlevel.
9.92

WhenthesectionofwalkwaymovesdownwarddistanceL,thecableisstretcheddistanceLandthecolumnis
compresseddistanceL.Thetensionforcerequiredtostretchthecableandthecompressionforcerequiredto
compressthecolumnthisdistanceis

Fcable

Ysteel Acable L
Lcable

Fcolumn

and

YAl Acolumn L
Lcolumn

Combined,theseforcessupporttheweightofthewalkwaysection:

Fcable Fcolumn Fg 8 500N

or

Ysteel Acable L YAl Acolumn L

8 500N
Lcable
Lcolumn

giving

Page9.54

Chapter9

8 500N
Ysteel Acable
Y A
Al column
Lcable
Lcolumn

Thecrosssectionalareaofthecableis

Acable

1.27 10 2 m
D2

4
4

andtheareaofaluminuminthecrosssectionofthecolumnis

Acable

2
2
2
2
0.162 4m 0.161 4m
2
2
Douter
Dinner

Douter
Dinner

4
4
4
4

Thus,thedownwarddisplacementofthewalkwaywillbe
L

8 500N

2
2
20 1010 Pa 1.27 10 2 m 2 7.0 1010 Pa 0.162 4m 0.161 4m

4 5.75m

4 3.25m

or
L 8.6 10 4 m 0.86mm

Page9.55