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You are on page 1of 26

SYSTEMS

Ali Karimpour

Associate Professor

Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

Lecture 20

Lecture 20

Frequency domain charts

Topics to be covered include:

Gain margin.

Phase margin.

Nichols chart or gain phase plot.

Bode plot.

Step by step Bode plot construction.

2

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Stability margins

Stability Is Not A Yes/No Proposition

It's not enough to know that a system is stable or unstable. If a

system is just barely stable, then a small gain in a system

parameter could push the system over the edge, and you will

often want to design systems with some margin of error.

If you're going to do that, you'll need some measure of how

stable a system is. To get such measures - and there are at least

two that are widely used.

3

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Stability margins

R(s)+

C (s )

Gc (s )

G (s)

Phase Margin

Phase margin is the most widely used

measure of relative stability when

working in the frequency domain.

=180

=c

G (j) Gc(j)

(angle) that the frequency response

would have to change to move to the

-1 point.

c : Is the gain crossover frequency

4

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

R (s )+

C (s)

Gc (s )

G (s )

=180

=c

m 180 G ( jc )Gc ( jc )

How to derive c

G (j) Gc(j)

Let G ( j )Gc ( j ) 1

c

5

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Stability margins

Phase Margin

The two different Nyquist plot above would lead to two different

phase margins. The system with the frequency response with the

dashed line is less stable.

6

Lecture 20

Stability margins

Phase Margin

The two different gains shown for the

Nyquist plot below would lead to the

same phase margins. But do they have

the same stability margin? Clearly no.

-1

relative stability.

7

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Stability margins

R (s )+

C (s )

Gc (s )

G (s)

Gain Margin

Gain margin is another widely used

measure of relative stability when

working in the frequency domain.

=180

=c

G (j) Gc(j)

that the frequency response would

have to increase to move to the -1

point.

180 : Is the phase crossover frequency

8

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

R(s)+

C (s)

Gc (s )

G (s)

But gain margin is usually specified in db.

=180

=c

G (j) Gc(j)

or Im G ( j )Gc ( j ) 0

180

9

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Stability margins

Phase and Gain Margin

-1

10

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

peak

R (s )+

L( s ) Gc ( s )G ( s )

T ( s)

Lecture 20

C (s )

Gc (s )

G (s)

Gc ( s )G ( s )

L( s )

1 Gc ( s )G ( s ) 1 L( s )

S ( s)

1

1

1 Gc ( s )G ( s ) 1 L( s )

|L|

MP

Ms

|T |

|S|

Frequency (rad/s)

11

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Sensitivity peak

R(s)+

C (s )

Gc (s )

Ms

G (s)

1

S ( j )

1 G ( j )Gc ( j )

1 G ( j0 )Gc ( j0 )

S 1 ( j0 )

G (j) Gc(j)

1

M s max S ( j )

1 G ( j s )Gc ( j s )

12

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

construction

Gc ( j )G ( j )

2.93 107

1.37 123

0.82 138

0.54 151

0.38 162

0.27 171

0.20 179

0.16 187

0.12 193

20

0.02 229

Gc ( j1)G ( j1)

Nyquist Diagram

150

2.93 107

j ( j1 5)( j1 10)

7

5

4

G (s)

Gc (s )

150

s ( s 5)( s 10)

-0.5

Imaginary Axis

Let Gc ( s )G ( s )

C (s )

R(s)+

20

-1

-1.5

-2

-2.5

-3

-2.5

1

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

Real Axis

c 2?.6 PM 45

? 180 ?7

GM 13???

? db

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

construction

Let Gc ( s )G ( s )

150

s ( s 5)( s 10) 20

Gc ( j )G ( j )

2.93 107

9.33 db

1.37 123

2.71 db

0.82 138

1.71 db

0.54 151

5.29 db

0.38 162

8.42 db

0.27 171

11.23 db

0.20 179

13.80 db

0.16 187

16.18 db

0.12 193

18.39 db

20

0.02 229

35.77 db

Lecture 20

C (s )

R(s)+

Gc (s )

G (s)

Nichols Chart

20 log Gc ( j )G ( j )

10

2

0

4

5

-10

8

-20

-30

-40

-270

20

-225

-180

-135

-90

c 2?.6 PM 45

?.8 db

14

? 180 ?7 GM 13

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

150

s ( s 5)( s 10)

Gc ( j )G ( j )

2.93 107

1.37 123

2.71 db

0.82 138

1.71 db

0.54 151

5.29 db

0.38 162

8.42 db

0.27 171

11.23 db

0.20 179

13.80 db

0.16 187

0.12 193

18.39 db

20

0.02 229

35.77 db

9.33 db

16.18 db

Bode Diagram

0

-20

-40

-60

-80

-90

Phase (deg)

20 log Gc ( j )G ( j )

G (s)

Gc (s )

20

Magnitude (dB)

Let Gc ( s )G ( s )

C (s )

R(s)+

-135

-180

-225

-270

0

101

4 5 67

10

10

1

20

30

2

100

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

c 2?.5 PM 48

? 180 ?7 GM 13

15? .8 db

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

k ( s z1 )( s z 2 )

Let Gc ( s )G ( s ) 2

s ( s p1 )( s p2 )( s p3 )

Step 1:

( s / z1 1)( s / z 2 1)

k z1 z 2

( s / z1 1)( s / z 2 1)

k

Gc ( s )G ( s )

2

2

s

( s / p1 1)( s / p2 1)( s / p3 1)

p1 p2 p3 s ( s / p1 1)( s / p2 1)( s / p3 1)

Step 2:

20 log Gc ( j )G ( j ) 20 log k 20 log j / z1 1 20 log j / z 2 1

20 log 1 /( j ) 2 20 log

1

1

1

20 log

20 log

j / p1 1

j / p 2 1

j / p3 1

Step 3:

Gc ( j )G ( j ) k ( j / z1 1) ( j / z 2 1) (1 /( j ) 2 )

(

1

1

1

) (

) (

)

j / p1 1

j / p 2 1

j / p3 1

16

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Let Gc ( s )G ( s ) k

Lecture 20

( s / z1 1)( s / z 2 1)

s 2 ( s / p1 1)( s / p2 1)( s / p3 1)

20 log

1

1

1

20 log

20 log

j / p1 1

j / p 2 1

j / p3 1

Gc ( j )G ( j ) k ( j / z1 1) ( j / z 2 1) (1 /( j ) 2 )

(

1

1

1

) (

) (

)

j / p1 1

j / p 2 1

j / p3 1

17

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Gc ( j )G ( j ) k

20 log Gc ( j )G ( j ) 20 log k

Bode Diagram

0

Magnitude (dB)

Magnitude (db)

20

20 log(

-20k )

-40

-60

Phase (deg)

Phase (deg)

-80

-90

Why 0 or 180?

It depends to

sign of k.

0 or

180

-135

-180

0

10

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

10

18

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

20 log Gc ( j )G ( j ) 20 log j / z1 1

Let

z1 20

Bode Diagram

40

50

30

40

Magnitude (dB)

Magnitude (db)

Gc ( j )G ( j ) ( j / z1 1)

20 db / dec

20

30

10

20

0

10

Phase (deg)

Phase (deg)

10

0

90

90

45

45

00

1000

10

11

10

10

z1

Frequency(rad/sec)

(rad/sec)

Frequency

22

10

10

33

10

10

19

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

20 log Gc ( j )G ( j ) 20 log 1 /( j ) 2

Bode Diagram

20

50

040

Magnitude (dB)

Magnitude (db)

Gc ( j )G ( j ) (1 /( j ) 2 )

20

30

40

20

10

60

Phase (deg)

Phase (deg)

800

90

90

180

45

270

0

00

10

10

11

10

10

22

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

Frequency

(rad/sec)

33

10

10

20

20 log Gc ( j )G ( j ) 20 log

1

j / p1 1

1

)

j / p1 1

Gc ( j )G ( j ) (

p1 20

Let

Bode Diagram

10

50

040

Magnitude (dB)

Magnitude (db)

Lecture 20

10

30

-20 db / dec

20

20

10

30

Phase (deg)

Phase (deg)

400

090

45

45

900

00

10

10

11

10

10

p1

Frequency (rad/sec)

Frequency

(rad/sec)

22

10

10

33

10

10

21

Lecture 20

by use of Bode plot.

C (s)

10

s( s / 5 1)( s / 10 1)

Magnitude (dB)

500

G (s)

s( s 5)( s 10)

040

20

30

40

20

10

60

800

90

90

Phase (deg)

Bode Diagram

20

50

Magnitude (db)

500

s( s 5)( s 10)

Phase (deg)

R (s )+

180

45

270

0

00

10

10

11

10

10

22

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

Frequency

(rad/sec)

33

10

10

22

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

by use of Bode plot.

C (s)

c 6? .5 rad / sec

PM 10

GM 3 db

Magnitude (dB)

040

20

30

40

20

10

60

800

90

90

Phase (deg)

Bode Diagram

20

50

Magnitude (db)

500

s( s 5)( s 10)

Phase (deg)

R (s )+

180

45

270

0

00

10

10

11

10

10

22

10

10

33

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

Frequency

(rad/sec)

23

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Exercises

1: Derive the gain crossover frequency, phase crossover frequency ,

GM and PM of following system by use of Bode plot.

R(s )+

200

1

s( s 10)

C (s)

24

Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Exercises

2 The polar plot of an open loop system with negative unit feedback is

shown.

a) Find the open loop transfer function.

b) Find the closed loop transfer function.

Nyquist Diagram

2

1.5

Imaginary Axis

1

0.5

0

0.447

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2

-1

answer a :

-0.9

-0.8

-0.7

-0.6

-0.5

Real Axis

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

150

150

b: 2

s ( s 25) s 25s 150

25

Lecture 20

Exercises

3 The Bode plot of an open loop system with negative unit feedback is

shown.

a) Find the open loop transfer function.

b) Find the closed loop transfer function.

Bode Diagram

40

Magnitude (dB)

20

0

-20

-40

-60

Phase (deg)

-80

-90

-135

answer a :

-180

0

10

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

10

200

200

b: 2

s ( s 20) s 20s 200

26

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