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# LINEAR CONTROL

SYSTEMS
Ali Karimpour
Associate Professor

Lecture 20

Lecture 20
Frequency domain charts
Topics to be covered include:

## Relative stability measures for minimum phase systems.

Gain margin.

Phase margin.
Nichols chart or gain phase plot.

Bode plot.

## Stability analysis with Bode plot.

Step by step Bode plot construction.
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Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Stability margins
Stability Is Not A Yes/No Proposition
It's not enough to know that a system is stable or unstable. If a
system is just barely stable, then a small gain in a system
parameter could push the system over the edge, and you will
often want to design systems with some margin of error.
If you're going to do that, you'll need some measure of how
stable a system is. To get such measures - and there are at least
two that are widely used.
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Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Stability margins
R(s)+

C (s )
Gc (s )

G (s)

Phase Margin
Phase margin is the most widely used
measure of relative stability when
working in the frequency domain.

=180

=c

G (j) Gc(j)

## We define phase margin as the phase

(angle) that the frequency response
would have to change to move to the
-1 point.
c : Is the gain crossover frequency
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Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

R (s )+

C (s)
Gc (s )

G (s )

## The phase margin, m is defined as follows:

=180

=c

m 180 G ( jc )Gc ( jc )
How to derive c

G (j) Gc(j)

Let G ( j )Gc ( j ) 1

c
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Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Stability margins
Phase Margin

The two different Nyquist plot above would lead to two different
phase margins. The system with the frequency response with the
dashed line is less stable.
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## Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Stability margins
Phase Margin
The two different gains shown for the
Nyquist plot below would lead to the
same phase margins. But do they have
the same stability margin? Clearly no.

-1

## Thus we need another measure of

relative stability.
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Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Stability margins
R (s )+

C (s )
Gc (s )

G (s)

Gain Margin
Gain margin is another widely used
measure of relative stability when
working in the frequency domain.

=180

=c

G (j) Gc(j)

## We define gain margin as the gain

that the frequency response would
have to increase to move to the -1
point.
180 : Is the phase crossover frequency
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Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

R(s)+

C (s)
Gc (s )

G (s)

## GM 1 / G ( j180 )Gc ( j180 )

But gain margin is usually specified in db.
=180

=c

G (j) Gc(j)

## Let G ( j )Gc ( j ) 180

or Im G ( j )Gc ( j ) 0

180
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Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Stability margins
Phase and Gain Margin

-1

## But different Gain Margin

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Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

## Sensitivity and complementary sensitivity

peak
R (s )+

L( s ) Gc ( s )G ( s )

T ( s)

Lecture 20

C (s )
Gc (s )

G (s)

Gc ( s )G ( s )
L( s )

1 Gc ( s )G ( s ) 1 L( s )

S ( s)

1
1

1 Gc ( s )G ( s ) 1 L( s )

|L|
MP

Ms

|T |
|S|

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Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Sensitivity peak
R(s)+

C (s )
Gc (s )

Ms

G (s)

1
S ( j )
1 G ( j )Gc ( j )

1 G ( j0 )Gc ( j0 )
S 1 ( j0 )

G (j) Gc(j)

## The sensitivity peak, Ms is defined as follows:

1
M s max S ( j )

1 G ( j s )Gc ( j s )
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Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

## Nyquist chart (polar plot)

construction

Gc ( j )G ( j )

2.93 107

1.37 123

0.82 138

0.54 151

0.38 162

0.27 171

0.20 179

0.16 187

0.12 193

20

0.02 229

Gc ( j1)G ( j1)

Nyquist Diagram

150
2.93 107
j ( j1 5)( j1 10)

7
5
4

G (s)

Gc (s )

150
s ( s 5)( s 10)

-0.5

Imaginary Axis

Let Gc ( s )G ( s )

C (s )

R(s)+

20

-1

-1.5

-2

-2.5

-3
-2.5

1
-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

Real Axis

c 2?.6 PM 45
? 180 ?7

GM 13???
? db
Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

## Nichols chart (gain phase plot)

construction
Let Gc ( s )G ( s )

150
s ( s 5)( s 10) 20

Gc ( j )G ( j )

2.93 107

9.33 db

1.37 123

2.71 db

0.82 138

1.71 db

0.54 151

5.29 db

0.38 162

8.42 db

0.27 171

11.23 db

0.20 179

13.80 db

0.16 187

16.18 db

0.12 193

18.39 db

20

0.02 229

35.77 db

Lecture 20

C (s )

R(s)+

Gc (s )

G (s)

Nichols Chart

20 log Gc ( j )G ( j )

10

2
0

4
5

-10

8
-20

-30

-40
-270

20
-225

-180

-135

-90

## Open-Loop Phase (deg)

c 2?.6 PM 45
?.8 db
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? 180 ?7 GM 13
Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

## Bode plot construction

150
s ( s 5)( s 10)

Gc ( j )G ( j )

2.93 107

1.37 123

2.71 db

0.82 138

1.71 db

0.54 151

5.29 db

0.38 162

8.42 db

0.27 171

11.23 db

0.20 179

13.80 db

0.16 187

0.12 193

18.39 db

20

0.02 229

35.77 db

9.33 db

16.18 db

Bode Diagram

0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-90

Phase (deg)

20 log Gc ( j )G ( j )

G (s)

Gc (s )

20

Magnitude (dB)

Let Gc ( s )G ( s )

C (s )

R(s)+

-135
-180
-225
-270
0
101

4 5 67

10
10
1

20

30

2
100
10

c 2?.5 PM 48
? 180 ?7 GM 13
15? .8 db
Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

## Step by step bode plot construction

k ( s z1 )( s z 2 )
Let Gc ( s )G ( s ) 2
s ( s p1 )( s p2 )( s p3 )

Step 1:

( s / z1 1)( s / z 2 1)
k z1 z 2
( s / z1 1)( s / z 2 1)

k
Gc ( s )G ( s )
2
2
s
( s / p1 1)( s / p2 1)( s / p3 1)
p1 p2 p3 s ( s / p1 1)( s / p2 1)( s / p3 1)

Step 2:
20 log Gc ( j )G ( j ) 20 log k 20 log j / z1 1 20 log j / z 2 1
20 log 1 /( j ) 2 20 log

1
1
1
20 log
20 log
j / p1 1
j / p 2 1
j / p3 1

Step 3:
Gc ( j )G ( j ) k ( j / z1 1) ( j / z 2 1) (1 /( j ) 2 )
(

1
1
1
) (
) (
)
j / p1 1
j / p 2 1
j / p3 1

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Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

## Step by step bode plot construction

Let Gc ( s )G ( s ) k

Lecture 20

( s / z1 1)( s / z 2 1)
s 2 ( s / p1 1)( s / p2 1)( s / p3 1)

## 20 log Gc ( j )G ( j ) 20 log k 20 log j / z1 1 20 log j / z 2 1 20 log 1 /( j ) 2

20 log

1
1
1
20 log
20 log
j / p1 1
j / p 2 1
j / p3 1

Gc ( j )G ( j ) k ( j / z1 1) ( j / z 2 1) (1 /( j ) 2 )
(

1
1
1
) (
) (
)
j / p1 1
j / p 2 1
j / p3 1

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Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

## Step by step bode plot construction

Gc ( j )G ( j ) k

20 log Gc ( j )G ( j ) 20 log k
Bode Diagram

0
Magnitude (dB)

Magnitude (db)

20

20 log(
-20k )

-40
-60

Phase (deg)

Phase (deg)

-80
-90

Why 0 or 180?
It depends to
sign of k.

0 or
180
-135

-180
0
10

10

10

10

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Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

## Step by step bode plot construction

20 log Gc ( j )G ( j ) 20 log j / z1 1
Let

z1 20
Bode Diagram

40
50

30
40
Magnitude (dB)

Magnitude (db)

Gc ( j )G ( j ) ( j / z1 1)

20 db / dec

20
30

10
20
0
10

Phase (deg)

Phase (deg)

10
0
90
90

45
45

00
1000
10

11

10
10

z1
Frequency

22

10
10

33

10
10

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Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

## Step by step bode plot construction

20 log Gc ( j )G ( j ) 20 log 1 /( j ) 2
Bode Diagram

20
50

040
Magnitude (dB)

Magnitude (db)

Gc ( j )G ( j ) (1 /( j ) 2 )

20
30

40
20

10
60

Phase (deg)

Phase (deg)

800
90
90

180
45

270
0
00
10
10

11
10
10

22
10
10

Frequency

33
10
10

20

## Step by step bode plot construction

20 log Gc ( j )G ( j ) 20 log

1
j / p1 1

1
)
j / p1 1

Gc ( j )G ( j ) (
p1 20

Let

Bode Diagram

10
50

040
Magnitude (dB)

Magnitude (db)

Lecture 20

10
30

-20 db / dec

20
20
10
30

Phase (deg)

Phase (deg)

400
090

45
45

900
00
10
10

11
10
10

p1
Frequency

22
10
10

33
10
10

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Lecture 20

## Example 1: Derive the GM and PM of following system

by use of Bode plot.
C (s)

10
s( s / 5 1)( s / 10 1)

Magnitude (dB)

500
G (s)
s( s 5)( s 10)

040
20
30

40
20
10
60

800
90
90

Phase (deg)

## Open loop transfer function is:

Bode Diagram

20
50

Magnitude (db)

500
s( s 5)( s 10)

Phase (deg)

R (s )+

180
45

270
0
00
10
10

11
10
10

22
10
10

Frequency

33
10
10

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Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

## Example 1: Derive the GM and PM of following system

by use of Bode plot.
C (s)

c 6? .5 rad / sec
PM 10

## 180 ?7.2 rad / sec

GM 3 db

Magnitude (dB)

040
20
30

40
20
10
60

800
90
90

Phase (deg)

Bode Diagram

20
50

Magnitude (db)

500
s( s 5)( s 10)

Phase (deg)

R (s )+

180
45

270
0
00
10
10

11
10
10

22
10
10

33
10
10

Frequency

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Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Exercises
1: Derive the gain crossover frequency, phase crossover frequency ,
GM and PM of following system by use of Bode plot.
R(s )+

200

1
s( s 10)

C (s)

## Answer : c 12.5 , 180 , GM and m 38

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Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Exercises
2 The polar plot of an open loop system with negative unit feedback is
shown.
a) Find the open loop transfer function.
b) Find the closed loop transfer function.
Nyquist Diagram

2
1.5

Imaginary Axis

1
0.5
0

0.447

-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-1

-0.9

-0.8

-0.7

-0.6

-0.5
Real Axis

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

150
150
b: 2
s ( s 25) s 25s 150
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## Dr. Ali Karimpour Feb 2013

Lecture 20

Exercises
3 The Bode plot of an open loop system with negative unit feedback is
shown.
a) Find the open loop transfer function.
b) Find the closed loop transfer function.
Bode Diagram

40

Magnitude (dB)

20
0
-20
-40
-60

Phase (deg)

-80
-90

-135

-180
0
10

10

10

10

200
200
b: 2
s ( s 20) s 20s 200
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