UNIVERSITY OF DHAKA

COLLEGE OF TEXTILE ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

REPORT ON
PROJECT WORK ANALYSIS OF SPECIFICATIONS OF BASIC SINGLE JERSEY FABRIC. SUPERVISING TEACHER
SHAH ALIMUZZAMAN

Assistant professor, College of Textile Engineering & Technology Technolog Tejgaon, Dhaka-1208

SUBMITTED BY:
S/N 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11. 12. 13. NAME FAISAL BIN ALAM MIR ABDUL NIME ROLL NO REG NO SESSION

TO THOSE WHO ARE INTERESTED TO LEARN

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
College of Textile Engineering & Technology has given us the opportunity to perform the project work. We are obliged to MD. SHAH ALIMUZZAMAN, Assistant professor, supervising Teacher of the college for giving us the opportunity to accomplish of the project work.

We also take the opportunity to express our sincerest gratitude to Md. MASHUD AHMED, principle in-charge for his kind co-operation.

Heartfelt thanks goes to Senior Textile Engineers of various industries (DBL, MEGHNA, ESQUIRE, S.M KNITTING INDUSTRY.) from whom we collect the sample.

Above all, we would like to acknowledge our deep debt to all teachers of our college and especially of FMT department for their kind inspiration and help, which remain us the backdrop of all our efforts.

Finally, we would like to convey our acknowledgement that we remain responsible for the inadequacies and errors, which doubtless remain.

ABSTRACT
At first we collect some of knitted fabric samples along with required data which are needed to commence our project work with effective analysis. We also separate the fabrics according to their class so that we can establish an acceptable result which will be perfect for effective use and will help to carry out further activities depending on the established form of work.

During our industrial attachment we manage to watch carefully and effectively the knitted fabric specification along with machine specification and the major factors which are necessary to calculate different types of variation and variable on which the whole fabric construction depends. Our efforts were to develop a dependable way so that we can easily visualize or can forecast the resulting fabric specification with required configuration.

We have tried our best to emphasize on the adjustable points on which fabric G.S.M., stitch length, fabric width, & compactness directly or indirectly depends. The theoretical as well as the practical knowledge that we gathered from our classes and in the industry, help us to perform our project with credit and for this we specially convey thanks to our honorable teachers.

KEY WORD
1. G.S.M. 2. Yarn Count. 3. Stitch length. 4. Yarn Diameter. 5. Fabric Width. 6. Machine gauge. 7. Needle gauge. 8. Wales space. 9. Needle pitch.

CONTENTS
Chapter no Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter name General Introduction Literature review Terminology & definition Fabric specification Machine specification Result & discussion Bibliography Appendix Page no

CHAPTER 1

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Fabric is a manufactured assembly of fibres and yarns that has substantial surface area in relation to its thickness and sufficient cohesion to give the assembly useful mechanical strength. Fabrics are most commonly woven or knitted but the term includes assemblies produced by felting, lace making, net making, non woven processes and tufting. Our project basically is on knitted fabric specification and machines which are related to knitted fabric production. A precise statement of a set of requirement to be satisfied by a materials, product, and system or service that indicates the procedures for determining whether each of the requirements is satisfied. In the analysis of woven fabric specification we consider ends per inch, picks per inch, yarn count (warp & weft), and fabric width but in case of knitted fabric specification GSM, stitch length are mainly considered. The title of our project work is Analysis of knitted fabric specification and other related machine specification. There are problem in our industries to produce knitted fabrics of required G.S.M. Other specification like fabric width, fabric thickness is generally maintained in industries by previous data sheet. For this reason there are problem if any order comes which didn’t produced in previous. Our target is to find out the easy process to get decision about yarn count selection, loop length selection, machine Diameter selection & machine gauge selection.

We strongly think that by this process we can get decision about yarn count, loop length, machine gauge, and machine diameter for the single jersey, Rib and interlock fabric. Aims of the project work are the following: Find out relation between yarn count and GSM. Find out the logic of selection of stitch length selection. Selection of machine diameter and machine gauge to get specific width of fabric. Find out the fabric width.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

GSM: There are two formulas for calculating the GSM of a knitted fabric. i.e. First formula is GSM =

Course per inch × Stitch length × 39.37 × 39.37 × Tex 1000 × 1000
WPI × CPI × SL(mm) x 0.9155 Count(Ne)

GSM =

CALCULATION OF WALES PER INCH:

We calculated the number of wales in 10 inch fabric unraveling the yarn. Then we divide the no of total wales by 10 inch to getting the wales per inch.

CALCULATION OF COURSE PER INCH:

We calculated the number of course in five inch with the help of counting glass and needle. Then we divide the total no of course by five inch to getting the course per inch.

MEASUREMENT OF STITCH LENGTH:

Stitch length is theoretically a single length of yarn which includes one needle loop and adjacent needle loops on either side of it. Loop exits in coarse in course length and it is that which influence fabric dimension and other properties including weight. In order to determine the stitch length, we count 100 no wales or stitch and count its length by hanging the yarn on the stitch counter. The reading is found in mm unit.

MEASUREMENT OF YARN COUNT:

We have fallowed a different way to find out the count of the yarn. At first we unravel a considerable no yarn from the fabric. Then we measured the total length of the yarn and measured the weight of that no of yarn. From these weights, we find out the count of the yarn. The equation we followed is as follow: Count = Where, n= number of yarn in bundle. L= length of yarn. Wt= weight of yarn.
n × l × 453.6 wt × 36 × 840

MEASUREMENT OF GSM: GSM is a very important parameter for specified a certain quality of knitted fabric. The production of knitted fabric is calculated in weight. The GSM cutter is very popular and easy usable GSM testing instrument used in most knitted factory. But the construction of this cutter is very simple. It is circular disk of 100 square cm area with sharp blade attached to its edge. So 100 square cm of fabric can easily cut by it and weighted at the electric balance to get GSM reading.

Another formula is the following: GSM =

Ks × Tex Stitch length (mm)

Where, Ks is a constant. Its value is different for different fabric structure and fabric type. Ks is calculated and estimated as below:
GSM × Stitch length Tex

Ks =

Fabric Type

Color

Value of Ks

Single jersey Single lacoste Double lacoste Polo pique Plain interlock 1×1 Rib 1×1 Rib 2×1 Rib Flat back rib 3 Thread fleece

Average Average Average Average Average Light Average Average

19.55 22.4 22.75 25 39.3 24.5 26.5 28.3 81 40.92

COMMENT: It is very convenient to determine the stitch length against the required GSM by using the value of Ks. We could not determine the value of Ks for other decorative fabric. It requires large time and industry.

GSM DEPENDS ON: 1. TYPE OF YARN: The main material for knitting process is yarn. The quality of knitted yarn should be like as follows:
30/1 Cotton Combed Paramete rs Best Acceptable limit Uniformit y% Thin (50%) Thick (+50%) Neps (+200%) Hairiness 4.04.4 Tenacity (CN/tex) Elongatio n 21.822.6 6.76.9 6.2-6.4 7.3-7.08 6.6-6.4 14.7-13.7 11.8-11.2 18.4-18.9 16.7-17.6 16.2-15.4 25.5-24 23.4-22.1 4.6-4.9 4.75-5.1 5.5-5.8 4-4.44 4.45-4.8 38-47 73-88 140-175 300-380 30-45 48-58 7-12 32-43 75-90 250-300 15-20 34-42 0 3-5 16-22 50-60 2-3 7-10 9-9.5 9.7-10.2 11.5-12.1 Best Acceptable limit 12.8-13.5 9.5-9.8 Best Acceptable limit 10.4-10.7 30/1 Cotton Carded 30/1 poly Cotton

2. YARN COUNT: The following counts of yarn that are widely used for knitting process are given: a) Cotton: 20/1, 24/1, 26/1, 28/1, 30/1, 34/1, 40/1 Ne. b) Terylene cotton: 20/1, 24/1, 26/1, 28/1, 30/1 Ne. c) CVC: 26/1, 28/1, 30/1, 34/1 Ne. d) Melange: 20/1, 22/1, 26/1, 30/1 Ne. e) Spandex: 40D, 70D. f) Polyester: 75D, 150D. g) Sewing thread: 40/2, 150D etc.

Other parameters are: Stitch length Fabric Structure. Finishing process. Depth of shade. Stitch density. Machine gauge.

RELATION BETWEEN YARN COUNT, FABRIC TYPE, STITCH LENGTH AND FINISH GSM:

Fabric Type

Yarn count

Stitch length (mm) Color D×G

Finished diameter (inch)

Finished GSM

Plain S/j ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,

18s/1 20s/1 24s/1 26s/1 28s/1 30s/1 34s/1

2.94 2.98 2.68 2.66 2.70 2.68 2.40

White White White White Avg Avg Avg

26×24 30×24 30×24 30×24 26×24 30×24 26×24

30 33.5 32 31 25 30 24

220-230 200-210 175-185 160-170 150-160 130-140 125-135

,, Single lacost ,, ,, ,, 1 × 1 Rib ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 2 × 1 Rib ,, 1 × 1 lycra rib ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 2 × 2 rib ,, ,, ,, ,, 2 × 2 lycra rib ,, ,,
s s

40s/1 18s/1 24s/1 26s/1 30s/1 26 /1 24s/1 26s/1 26s/1 26 /1 36 /1 24 /1 24s/1 28s/1 34s/1 34s/1 20 /1 +40D 24s/1 +40D 26s/1 +40D 28s/1 +40D 30 /1 +70D 34 /1 +70D 40 /1 28s/1 26s/1 24s/1 20s/1 20 /1 +40D 24s/1 +40D 30s/1 +70D
s s s s s s s

2.44 3.00

Avg Avg

24×24 30×24

20 46

100-110 245-255

2.64 2.60 2.50 2.50 2.75 2.54 2.55 2.65 2.65 2.95 2.90 2.40 2.60 2.70 3.30

Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg

30×24 30×24 30×24

40 36 33 41

210-215 200-210 180-190 240 235 245 235 230 170 220 225 232 190 185 320

30×18 40×18 40×18 32×18 32×18 34×18 40×18 30×24 40×18 32×18 36×18

64 40 47 32 33 32 38 38.5 23 20 32

3.00 2.90 2.80 2.60 2.44 2.76 2.87 3.25 3.50 3.25 3.10

Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg Avg

30×18 30×18 30×18 32×20 30×18 30×20 34×18 34×18 34×18 34×20 30×18

30 30 30 28 26 35T 32T 31T 31.5T 55OP 18T

280 260 250 260 240 160 260 205 285 260 390

2.90 2.90

Avg Avg

30×18

18T

320 240

,, ,, Fleece

30s/1 +40D 30s/1 +40D 26s/1GM + 24 /1 c
s

2.98 2.80 2.78 + 1.36

Avg Avg Avg 30×18 30×24 32T

240 220 220

,,

26s/1GM + 26s/1 c 26s/1GM + 24 /1 c
s

2.78 + 1.36

Avg

30×24

32T

220

,,

2.85 + 1.35

Avg

30×24

32T

240

,,

26s/1GM + 20s/1 c 28s/1GM + 28 /1 c
s

2.90+ 1.35

Avg

30×24

32T

220

,,

2.8 + 1.35

Avg

30×24

32T

235

,,

30s/1GM + 26s/1 c

2.8 + 1.36

Avg

30×24

32T

175

By the following three tables, we can summarize the above data: FOR SINGLE JERSEY:
Finished GSM 140 160 180 200 220 Count 30/1 26/1 24/1 20/1 18/1 Finished Diameter Machine dia = Finished dia Machine dia +1 = Finished dia Machine dia + 2 = Finished dia Machine dia + 3 = Finished dia Machine dia + 4 = Finished dia

N.B: If the fabric is to be Enzyme washed, the stitch length should be kept (10%) less than the normal range. Because, enzyme wash reduces the total weight of the fabric by removing the floating fibre and hairy fibre. For light color, the finished GSM varies 1-2% from grey GSM.

For average color, the finished GSM varies 2-4% If the GSM varies 25-30%, it is not only necessary to control the VDQ pulley dia but also yarn tension & take-up roller.

COMMENT (Reference 1): 1. It is very distinct from these tables that there is no proof that these values are true, as they are not actual or experimental and they have taken these values from the mill and factory. 2. They have determined the value of count by beesleys balance. We never give the value of count in fraction but by our method we find that the value of count is most of the time is fraction.

From our project work we manage to find the following equations for the selection of yarn count to get required G.S.M. equations vary for fabric types, fabric construction. List of equations are tabulated below:

Name of the fabrics Single jersey Pique Double lacoste 1 x 1 Rib Lycra 1 x 1 Rib Lycra 2 x 2 Rib Interlock

Equations Yarn count = - 0.141 GSM + 50.22 Yarn count = - 0.146 GSM + 57.16 Yarn count = - 0.167 GSM + 64.36 Yarn count = - 0.123 GSM + 54.57 Yarn count = - 0.119 GSM + 59.12 Yarn count = - 0.108 GSM + 56.62 Yarn count = - 0.206 GSM + 80.56

EQUATIONS FOR GETTING REQUIRED GSM FROM THE SPECIFIC YARN COUNT:

Fabric Single jersey Lycra single jersey Pique 1 1 Rib Lycra 1 1 Rib Lycra 2 2 Rib Interlock

Equations

GSM = -6.879yarn count + 350.4 GSM = -4.9716 yarn count + 354.56 GSM = -6.6737 yarn count + 386.44 GSM = -7.9731 yarn count + 437.66 GSM = -8.2839 yarn count + 494.08 GSM = -9.1216 yarn count + 519.05 GSM = -4.778 yarn count + 388.41

EQUATION FOR DETERMINING FABRIC WIDTH: Fabric width = No. of wales X Wales space. =No. of needle X Wales space. = Π dg X Wales space Where, d = Cylinder diameter. g = Gauge. FOR CALCULATING YARN DIAMETER: dα Tex
d= Tex mm For Cotton 26.7

dα d=

1 Ne 0.91 Ne

Relation among GSM, stitch length and yarn count can be derived from the following equation:
GSMα 1 Yarn count × Stitch length

(When Yarn count and Stitch length both are variable)

∴ Yarn count × Loop length × G.S.M. = K

Where K is a Constant. K which can be derived as follows:

CONSTANT AT A GLANCE:
Fabric Sinlgle jersey plain Double Lacoste 1 X 1 Rib 2 X 1 Rib Interlock Constant 12068.509 14855.2 16431.497 19005.333 24013.8

Wales space = 4d; [where d is the yarn diameter] Minimum stitch length = 14d

FABRIC THICKNESS: In the fully relaxed state the fabric thickness for double jersey, t= 4d

For single jersey, t = 2d

COMMENT (Reference 2): 1. It is understandable that gauge is an important factor for fabric width but actually the width of fabric is dependent upon the number of needle present in the machine. Often the number of needle present in the machine is not equal to Π dg . So the equation should only be like following: COMMENT (Reference 3): Different properties were found in Different knit structures according to stitch length, stitch density that means wales per inch, course per inch. Shortly they told loose structure that means higher loop length gives less GSM on fabric & compact structure that means shorter loop length gives high GSM on fabric. In their project analysis, they observed that single jersey plain structure & 1×1 plain rib structure variation of calculated GSM with respect to actual GSM is too small. But in single lacoste & polo-pique structure variation of calculated GSM with respect to actual GSM is high. Because single lacoste & polo-pique structure are made by combination of knit & tuck loops. They also analyzed that one knit loop consumes 30% more yarn than tuck loop. So calculated GSM is higher in single lacoste & polo-pique structure than single jersey plain structure & 1×1 plain rib structure. In general, the angle of spirality values decreases when the tightness factor values gets higher that is decrease of loop length in all knitted samples. In slack knitted fabric structures, the loop can easily find an area to rotate & spirality increases. The spirality angle of the fabrics knitted with ring yarns are very high comparing with the fabrics knitted with open end yarns. This shows the effect of the spirality on twist liveliness. Fabric shrinkage depends on different fabric structure i.e.; single jersey, rib, interlock & their derivatives, yarn composition i.e.; 100% cotton, cotton & polyester & synthetic yarn.

CHAPTER 3

TERMINOLOGY & DEFINITION

TERMINOLOGY

AND

DEFINITION

OF

DIFFERENT

KEYWORDS

ARE

DISCUSSED BELOW: WALES PER INCH: Wales per inch means how many numbers of wales are present in one inch, it is very important for calculation of knitted fabric GSM and fabric properties. COURSES PER INCH: Courses per inch mean how many numbers of courses are present in one inch. It is also very important for calculation of knitted fabric GSM. STITCH LENGTH: Stitch length is theoretically is a single length of yarn which include one needle

loop and half the length of Yarn (half of a sinker loop) between that needle loop and the adjacent needle loops on either side of it. Loop exists in course in course length and it is that which influence fabric dimension and other properties including weight. YARN COUNT: Yarn count is a numerical expression of fineness or coarseness of yarn. Yarn count is calculated in two systems: a. Direct system b. Indirect system They are described below: Direct system: In this system the count lf yarn express the no. wt. units in one length unit. In direct system “higher the count, coarser the yarn” This system is used for thrown silk, artificial silk, jute etc and count calculation formula is the following: Count = Here,
W ×l w× L

W = weight of sample. L = length of sample. w = unit weight in system. l = unit length in system.

Indirect system: In this system the count of yarn express the no of unit length per unit weight. In this system higher the yarn count finer the yarn. It is generally used for cotton, worsted, woolen, linen etc and the yarn count calculation formula is the following: Count = Here,
L×w W ×l

W = weight of sample. L = length of sample. w = unit weight in system. l = unit length in system.

GSM: GSM means the weight in gram per square meter of fabric. Fabric area density: Fabric area density can be calculated by the following formula, Area density = Here, T = Tex, S = Stitch density, l = Stitch length. Fabric width: Fabric width can be calculated by the following formula: Fabric width = =
course length × Stitch length Kw S ×l ×T gm/m2 100

π × d × G × Stitch length
Kw

Where, Stitch length is in cm D = Machine diameter, G = Machine Gauge and Kw = 38 (for dry relaxed state) = 41 (for wet relaxed state) = 42.2 (for finished relaxed stat

CHAPTER 4

FABRIC SPECIFICATION

Elements of Specification:
1. GSM. 2. Loop length. 3. Yarn count. 4. Fabric width.

1. G.S.M:

The weight of fabric in gm per square meter is called G.S.M.

FACTORS CONSIDERED FOR REQUIRED G.S.M: Yarn Count (English count): Through our project work we manage to find out the following relation between yarn count and G.S.M: i.e. GSM α GSM α
1 Yarn count

(When Stitch length is same ) ………….(1)

1 Loop length

(When Yarn count is same) ………….(2)

From the equation (1) & (2) we get, GSM α
1 Yarn count × Stitch length

(When Yarn count and Stitch length both are variable)

∴ Yarn count × Loop length × G.S.M. = K

Where K = Constant. K varies for the single jersey with different gsm, count, and loop length.

CONSTANT FOR SINGLE JERSEY FROM COLLECTED FABRIC (Ref-Appendix):
S/N GSM SL COUNT EQUATION AVERAGE STD DVE CV

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

122.488 127.038 135.77 141.36 144.5 148 153 155.22 163.715

2.664324 37.777 2.965405 31.6278 2.319347 32.92 3.046935 31.8744 2.698962 30.87 2.610811 28.8 2.701087 30 2.881429 27.12405 2.880883 26.97

12328.44 11914.8 10366.43 13728.77 12039.3 11128.32 12397.99 12131.38 12720.23

12083.96

946.3509 7.831462

ACTUAL PRACTICING OF CONSTANT VALUE IN THE INDUSTRY: Type Ne Max GS M 220 Min GS M 200 GS M 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 170 160 150 155 150 140 150 140 130 S/L (mm) 2.85 3.00 3.10 2.70 2.85 3.00 3.15 2.75 2.90 3.00 2.70 2.80 2.95 2.65 2.80 3.00 Consta nt K Avg Std CV%

Singl 20 e jerse y 24

190

160

26

170

150

28

155

140

30

150

130

12540 12600 12400 12312 12312 12240 12096 12155 12047.625 12064 11700 11718 11760 11564 11925 11676 11700

334.9383774

2.780119546

Deflection =

12083.96 − 12047.625 × 100 12047.625 = 0.3%

ACTUAL DETERMINATION OF FABRIC GSM AND YARN COUNT FROM THE COLLECTED FABRIC:

S/N 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

COUNT 36.74 32.13 30.87 37.77 31.63 28.8 27.12 35.29 29.99 26.97 32.13 32.92 25.57 22.71

G.S.M 116 134.33 172.33 121.33 139.33 142.63 176.67 154.33 165.33 168.33 134.33 139.33 181.67 138.33

GRAPH SHOWN THE RELATION BETWEEN THE COUNT AND THE GSM:

By taking two points from the straight line, we can find the following equation:

Yarn Count (y)

(116,36.74) (181.67,25.57) x = GSM , y = Count x − 116 y − 36.74 = 116 − 181.67 36.74 − 25.54 x − 116 y − 36.74 ⇒ = −65.67 11.17 ( y − 36.74)( −65.67) ⇒x= + 116 11.17 ⇒ x = −5.88 y + 216 + 116 ⇒ x = 332 − 5.88 y

From (i) ( x − 116)11.17 y= + 36.74 −65.67 = ( x − 116)( −0.17) + 36.74 = ( −0.17 x) + 19.72 + 36.74 y = 56 − 0.17 x Example : Count , y = 30 GSM = 332 − 5.88 × 30 = 155.6

2. FABRIC WIDTH:
Along the fabric width there presents the wales. The total no. of needle is fixed for the same cylinder having the equal gauge as well as diameter. Fabric width = No. of wales X Wales space. =Total no of needle in the machine X Wales space.

The above concepts clarify that Fabric width closely depends on total no. of needle not directly related to machine diameter or machine gauge.

WALES SPACE: The space covered by a wale is called wale space for that wale. Wales space depends on: a. Yarn diameter. b. Loop length. They are described below: 1. YARN DIAMETER:

For English count
1.4 1.2

yarn diameter

1

0.8

yarn dia
0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0 20 40 60 80

yarn count

From the experiment it is seen that yarn diameter decreases with the increases of yarn count. The count which are generally used in circular knitting machine in Bangladesh

(20 to 40) the rate of decrease is generally slow than that of below 20 count in which the rate of increase of yarn count is higher or it increase rapidly. When the loop length is minimum, the leg of loop comes in close contact with each other and there is no free space among left, middle and right zone of interloping area.
Left Zone Middle Zone x y Right Zone z

Interloping Area

Fig.: Impact of yarn diameter on free space in interlooping area Under the circumstance the wales space will be less than four times of yarn diameter.
dd dd

Wales space = d+d+d+d = 4d When loop length is minm

COMMENT: In case of minimum loop length there is no space left in interloping area.

i.e. stretched due to tension the wales space become less than 4d (d is the yarn diameter) When loop length is increased the space into the interloping area i.e. the zone a, b & c are increased as a result wales space becomes wider. It may be upto 5.2d (depending on the collected data)

ACTUAL VALUE OF RATIO OF WALES SPACE AND DIA OF YARN:

Count 18 18 18 18 18 18 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 30 30 30 30 30 30

Wales space(mm) 0.808917197 0.808917197 0.889808917 0.808917197 0.889808917 0.808917197 0.73027247 0.73537927 0.73537927 0.723663669 0.723663669 0.702185067 0.723663669 0.696567587 0.674097665 0.73027247 0.692121666 0.692121666 0.692121666 0.674097665 0.674097665 0.674097665

Yarn dia(inch) 0.008417938 0.008417938 0.008417938 0.008417938 0.008417938 0.008417938 0.007290148 0.007290148 0.007290148 0.007290148 0.007290148 0.007290148 0.007290148 0.007290148 0.007290148 0.007290148 0.006520507 0.006520507 0.006520507 0.006520507 0.006520507 0.006520507

Yarn dia(mm) 0.213815622 0.213815622 0.213815622 0.213815622 0.213815622 0.213815622 0.18516976 0.18516976 0.18516976 0.18516976 0.18516976 0.18516976 0.18516976 0.18516976 0.18516976 0.18516976 0.165620869 0.165620869 0.165620869 0.165620869 0.165620869 0.165620869

Ratio 3.78324647 3.78324647 4.161571119 3.78324647 4.161571119 3.78324647 3.943799834 3.971378851 3.971378851 3.908109336 3.908109336 3.792115223 3.908109336 3.761778304 3.640430618 3.943799834 4.178952036 4.178952036 4.178952036 4.070125165 4.070125165 4.070125165

Average

3.97625

COMMENT:

It’s clear from the chart that, the ratio of yarn dia to wales space is very near of 4. So we can say that one wales occupy 4d space, where d is the yarn diameter.

So, from the above chart, we found the relation between the yarn count and the WPI as follow,
WPI =
28 × Ne 4

TABLE SHOWS THE ACTUAL WPI IN ACCORDANCE TO THE COUNT:

Count Wales space(mm) 18 0.808917197 18 0.808917197 18 0.889808917 18 0.808917197 18 0.889808917 18 0.808917197 24 0.73027247 24 0.73537927 24 0.73537927 24 0.723663669 24 0.723663669 24 0.702185067 24 0.723663669 24 0.696567587 24 0.674097665 24 0.73027247 30 0.692121666 30 0.692121666 30 0.692121666 30 0.674097665 30 0.674097665 30 0.674097665

Wales space(inch) 0.031847134 0.031847134 0.035031847 0.031847134 0.035031847 0.031847134 0.028750885 0.02895194 0.02895194 0.028490696 0.028490696 0.027645081 0.028490696 0.027423921 0.026539278 0.028750885 0.027248884 0.027248884 0.027248884 0.026539278 0.026539278 0.026539278

WPI

Avg

Std

Cv%

31.4 31.4 28.54545 30.44848 1.474081 4.841229 31.4 28.54545 31.4 34.78154 34.54 34.54 35.09918 35.09918 35.42579 1.024035 2.890649 36.1728 35.09918 36.46452 37.68 34.78154 36.69875 36.69875 36.69875 37.18937 0.537453 1.445178 37.68 37.68 37.68

COMMENT: From the above chart, we came to the decision that WPI the equation as follows:
WPI =
28 × Ne 4

CHAPTER 5

MACHINE SPECIFICATION

MACHINE SPECIFICATION: 1. Machine gauge. 2. Machine Diameter. 3. Needle gauge. They are described below:

1. MACHINE GAUGE: No. of needles per inch present in a needle bed of a knitting machine is called machine gauge for that knitting machine. A term giving a notational indication of the no. of needles per unit length along a needle bed or needle bar of a knitting machine in current practice, a common unit length of one English inch (25.4mm) is used for all types of warp and weft knitting machine. Selection of machine gauge depends upon yarn diameter. Yarn diameter depends upon the following: 1. Yarn count 2. Fibre type 3. Yarn twist 4. Yarn finished General practice of yarn count and machine gauge in different industries in Bangladesh given below: TYPICAL SELECTION OF M/C GAUGE FOR DIFFERENT COUNT YARN: M/C Gauge 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 Ne 14.0/1 – 23.5/1 18.0/1 – 26.0/1 21.5/1 – 29.5/1 23.5/1 – 35.5/1 26.0/1 – 41.5/1 29.5/1 – 47.5/1 35.5/1 – 59.0/1 41.5/1 – 70.0/1

2. MACHINE DIAMETER: Machine diameter is mainly diameter of cylinder. It is important for fabric width. Only diameter does not determine the fabric width. It need helps machine gauge and wales space which is depend upon yarn count and loop length.

MACHINE DIAMETER SELECTION: S/N Count (Ne) 18 18 20 20 22 22 22 24 24 24 26 26 26 28 28 28 30 30 30 32 32 32 34 34 34 36 36 36 Gauge WPI Fabric found from 1 inch machine perimeter 0.64516129 0.774193548 0.634920635 0.761904762 0.606060606 0.727272727 0.848484848 0.571428571 0.685714286 0.8 0.555555556 0.666666667 0.777777778 0.540540541 0.648648649 0.756756757 0.526315789 0.631578947 0.736842105 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.487804878 0.585365854 0.682926829 0.476190476 0.571428571 0.666666667 Percentage of fabric found X% 64.51612903 77.41935484 63.49206349 76.19047619 60.60606061 72.72727273 84.84848485 57.14285714 68.57142857 80 55.55555556 66.66666667 77.77777778 54.05405405 64.86486486 75.67567568 52.63157895 63.15789474 73.68421053 50 60 70 48.7804878 58.53658537 68.29268293 47.61904762 57.14285714 66.66666667

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

20 24 20 24 20 24 28 20 24 28 20 24 28 20 24 28 20 24 28 20 24 28 20 24 28 20 24 28

31 31 31.5 31.5 33 33 33 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 42

29 30 31 32 33 34

38 38 38 40 40 40

20 24 28 20 24 28

43 43 43 44 44 44

0.465116279 0.558139535 0.651162791 0.454545455 0.545454545 0.636363636
Fabric dia X 100 X%

46.51162791 55.81395349 65.11627907 45.45454545 54.54545455 63.63636364

So, the machine dia for particular fabric dia is =

X = percentage of fabric found in relation to The m/c perimeter. So, the relation between the machine dia and the machine dia is = 7 x Again, the relation can be inversely shown that, Fabric dia (Tubular) =
Machine dia × M/C Gauge 7 × Ne Fabric dia × Ne M/C Gauge

For example, if the machine dia is 32”, yarn count 24Ne, and the machine gauge is 24 then the fabric dia will be =
32 × 24 = 22.4 inch. 7 × 24

GRAPH SHOWN THE RELATION BETWEEN THE COUNT AND THE WPI:
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 WPI

WPI

COUNT FIG: Relation between the yarn count and the wpi.

3. NEEDLE GAUGE: Thickness of needle express by the needle gauge. It is important for selection of machine gauge. Needle gauge is different for the different gauge and different Brand. Some needle gauge found in industries is given below:

Machine gauge

Needle thickness in (mm)

24 28

0.52 0.41

CHAPTER 6

RESULT & DICUSSION

From our project work we manage to find the following equations for the selection of yarn count to get required G.S.M. equations vary for fabric types, fabric construction. List of equations are tabulated below:

The constant for the plain single jersey is as follow: K (Yarn count X stitch length X GSM) = 12083.96 Relation between the fabric GSM and the yarn count: if the GSM of the fabric is “x” and the count of yarn is “y”, then the equation for determining GSM and the Yarn count is as follows: GSM, x = 332 – 5.88y & Yarn count(Ne), y = 56 – 0.17x Machine diameter selection: The relation between the Fabric dia and the Machine dia is = 7 x
Fabric dia × Ne M/C Gauge

Again, the relation can be inversely shown that, Fabric dia (Tubular) =
Machine dia × M/C Gauge 7 × Ne

Bibliography
1. Knitting technology

By – Devid J. Spencer
2. Handbook of Technical Textile

By – Horrocks & Anand
3. Textile Terms & Definitions

By – J E Mclintyre
4. Circular knitting 5. Knitting calculation

6. Reference 1(Project On Analysis of knitted fabric specification and

related machine specification)
7. Reference 2 (Project On Analysis of knitted fabric specification and

related machine specification)
8. Reference 3 (Project On analysis of weft knitted fabric specifications and properties)

APPENDIX

CPI S/ L N O LENGT H OF FABRIC NO. OF COURS E LENGT H OF FABRIC

WPI NO. OF WALE S LENGT H OF YARN

STITCH LENGTH NO OF WALE S LENGT H OF EACH YARN NO OF YAR N

COUNT TOTAL LENGT H TOTAL WEIGH T AVG COUN T

GSM DEFELECTION % OF ACTUAL GSM FROM CAL GSM

SAMPL E NO

CPI

AVG CPI

WPI

AVG WPI

S.L

AVG S.L

COUN T

GS M

AVG GSM

CACULATE D GSM

UNIT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 1

INCH

UNIT 53 54 52 54

UNI T 53 54 52 54 53 53 54 52 53 53 52 50 50 51 51 52 51 50 52 50

UNI T

INCH

UNIT 289 289 289 289

UNI T 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 37 38 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37

UNI T

MM 775 785 785 775 775

UNIT 289 289 289 289 289 289 289 289 289 289 372 376 373 372 373 372 372 373 372 372

1

53 53 54 52 53 53 52 50 50 51

53.1

9

289 289 289 289 289 289 372 376 373 372

34 775 785 785 775 785 988 1010 991 988 991 37 991 996 991 993 991

1

51 52 51 50 52 50

50.9

10

373 372 372 373 372 372

MM 2.68 2 2.71 6 2.71 6 2.68 2 2.68 2 2.68 2 2.71 6 2.71 6 2.68 2 2.71 6 2.65 6 2.68 6 2.65 7 2.65 6 2.65 7 2.66 4 2.67 7 2.65 7 2.66 9 2.66 4

MM

INCH

UNI T

INCH

GM

NE

NE

GM

GM

GM

%

170 27 10 270 0.14 28.93

2.69 9

30.87

175

172.3 3

144.5

19.23%

35

10

350

0.16

32.81 172

120

2.66 4

34

20

680

0.27

37.78

37.78

127

121.3 3

122.5

(-)0.945%

117

CPI S/ L N O LENGT H OF FABRIC INCH NO. OF COURS E UNIT LENGT H OF FABRIC INCH

WPI NO. OF WALE S UNIT LENGT H OF YARN MM

STITCH LENGTH NO OF WALE S UNIT LENGT H OF EACH YARN INCH NO OF YAR N UNIT

COUNT TOTAL LENGT H INCH TOTAL WEIGH T GM AVG COUN T NE

GSM DEFELECTION% OF ACTUAL GSM FROM CAL GSM %

SAMPL E NO UNIT

CPI UNI T

AVG CPI UNI T

WPI UNI T

AVG WPI UNI T

S.L MM

AVG S.L MM

COUN T NE

GS M GM

AVG GSM GM

CACULATE D GSM GM

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 4 1 3 1

43 40 40 40 39 40 40 39 40 39 48 49 49 49 48 47 48 49 47 48

43 40 40 40 39 40 40 39 40 39 48 49 49 49 48 47 48 49 47 48 48. 2 5 40 10

370 370 370 370 370 370 370 370 370 370 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185

37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37

1100 1105 1100 1095 1097 1095 1095 1093 1097 1095 483 485 485 486 485 484 480 480 480 482

370 370 370 370 370 370 370 370 370 370 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185

2.97 3 2.98 6 2.97 3 2.95 9 2.96 5 2.95 9 2.95 9 2.95 4 2.96 5 2.95 9 2.61 1 2.62 2 2.62 2 2.62 7 2.62 2 2.61 6 2.59 5 2.59 5 2.59 5 2.60 5

139 24 18 432 0.2 32.4

2.96 5

31.63

140

139.3 3

127

9.68%

24

18

432

0.21

30.86 139

144 12 16 192 0.1 28.8

2.61 1

28.8

142

142.6 7

148

(-)4.05%

12

16

192

0.1

28.8 142

CPI

WPI

STITCH LENGTH LEN GTH OF EAC H YAR N INC H

COUNT

GSM

s/ L no

SAMP LE NO UNIT

LENG TH OF FABR IC INCH

NO. OF COUR SE UNIT

CPI UN IT

AV G CPI UNI T

LENG TH OF FABR IC INCH

NO. OF WAL ES UNIT

WP I UN IT

AV G WP I UN IT

LENG TH OF YAR N MM

NO OF WAL ES UNIT

S.L MM

AVG S.L MM

NO OF YA RN UNI T

TOTA L LENG TH INCH

TOTA L WEIG HT GM

COU NT NE

AVG COU NT NE

GSM GM

AVG GSM GM

CACULAT ED GSM GM

DEFELECTI ON% OF ACTUAL GSM FROM CAL GSM %

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 4 1 3 1

43 40 40 40 39 40 40 39 40 39 48 49 49 49 48 47 48 49 47 48

43 40 40 40 39 40 40 39 40 39 48 49 49 49 48 47 48 49 47 48 48. 2 5 40 10

370 370 370 370 370 370 370 370 370 370 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185

37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37

1100 1105 1100 1095 1097 1095 1095 1093 1097 1095 483 485 485 486 485 484 480 480 480 482

370 370 370 370 370 370 370 370 370 370 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185 185

2.973 2.986 2.973 2.959 2.965 2.959 2.959 2.954 2.965 2.959 2.611 2.622 2.622 2.627 2.622 2.616 2.595 2.595 2.595 2.605 12 16 192 0.1 28.8 142 2.61 1 28.8 142 142.6 7 148 (-)4.05% 12 16 192 0.1 28.8 144 24 18 432 0.21 30.86 139 2.96 5 31.6 3 140 139.3 3 127 9.68% 24 18 432 0.2 32.4 139

CPI

WPI

STITCH LENGTH

COUNT

GSM

S/ L N O

SAMPL E NO

LENGT H OF FABRIC

NO. OF COURS E

CPI UNI T

AVG CPI UNI T

LENGT H OF FABRIC

NO. OF WALE S

WPI UNI T

AVG WPI UNI T

LENGT H OF YARN

NO OF WALE S

S.L

AVG S.L

LENGT H OF EACH YARN

NO OF YAR N

TOTAL LENGT H

TOTAL WEIGH T

COUN T

AVG COUN T

GS M

AVG GSM

CACULATE D GSM

DEFELECTION % OF ACTUAL GSM FROM CAL GSM

UNIT

INCH

UNIT

INCH

UNIT

MM

UNIT

MM

MM

INCH

UNIT

INCH

GM

NE

NE

GM

GM

GM

%

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 10 1 5 1

42 44 43 43 42 42 43 43 42 42 46 45 48 44 46 45 46 45 45 46

42 44 43 43 42 42 43 43 42 42 46 45 48 44 46 45 46 45 45 46 45. 6 10 42. 6

180 180 180 180 5 180 180 180 180 180 180 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350

36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 36

375 375 365 390 380 375 380 375 380 380 1012 1010 1008 1008 1008 1000 1006 1010 1015 1008

180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350

2.08 3 2.08 3 2.02 8 2.16 7 2.11 1 2.08 3 2.11 1 2.08 3 2.11 1 2.11 1 2.89 1 2.88 6 2.88 2.88 2.88 2.85 7 2.87 4 2.88 6 2.9 2.88

113 12 10 120 0.05 36

2.09 7

36.75

115

116

80.13

44.77%

15

10

150

0.06

37.5 120

176 29 19 551 0.32 25.83

2.88 1

27.12

176

176.6 7

155.2

13.82%

36

20

720

0.38

28.42 177

CPI

WPI NO. OF WALE S UNIT

STITCH LENGTH NO OF WALE S UNIT LENGT H OF EACH YARN INCH NO OF YAR N UNIT

COUNT

GSM DEFELECTIO N% OF ACTUAL GSM FROM CAL GSM %

S/L NO

SAMPL E NO UNIT

LENGT H OF FABRIC INCH

NO. OF COURS E UNIT

CPI UNIT

AVG CPI UNIT

LENGT H OF FABRIC INCH

WPI UNIT

AVG WPI UNI T

LENGT H OF YARN MM

S.L MM

AVG S.L MM

TOTAL LENGT H INCH

TOTAL WEIGH T GM

COUN T NE

AVG COUN T NE

GSM GM

AVG GSM GM

CACULAT ED GSM GM

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 8 1 7 1

47 47 46 47 48 47 48 47 47 47 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51

47 47 46 47 48 47 48 47 47 47 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 10 47.1 10

367 367 367 367 367 367 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368

37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37

1110 1110 1110 1110 1110 1110 1110 1110 1110 1110 995 994 995 995 992 993 994 995 994 993

367 367 367 367 367 367 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368 368

3.02 5 3.02 5 3.02 5 3.02 5 3.02 5 3.02 5 3.02 5 3.02 5 3.02 5 3.02 5 2.70 4 2.70 1 2.70 4 2.70 4 2.69 6 2.69 8 2.70 1 2.70 4 2.70 1 2.69 8

153

3.02 5

40

20

800

0.34

35.29

35.29

155

154.3 3

135.6

13.80%

155

166

2.70 1

36

20

720

0.36

30

30

165

165.3 3

153

8%

165

CPI LENGT H OF FABRI C INCH LENGT H OF FABRI C INCH

WPI NO. OF WALE S UNIT

STITCH LENGTH NO OF WALE S UNIT LENGT H OF EACH YARN INCH

COUNT

GSM DEFELECTION% OF ACTUAL GSM FROM CAL GSM %

S/L NO

SAM PLE NO UNIT

NO. OF COURS E UNIT

CPI UNIT

AVG CPI UNI T

WPI UNI T

AVG WPI UNI T

LENGT H OF YARN MM

S.L MM

AVG S.L MM

NO OF YARN UNIT

TOTAL LENGT H INCH

TOTAL WEIGH T GM

COUN T NE

AVG COUN T NE

GSM GM

AVG GSM GM

CACULAT ED GSM GM

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 1 9 1

79 80 78 81 82 79 80 83 80 81 46 47 47 46 47 46 46 47 46 46

79 80 78 81 82 79 80 83 80 81 46 47 47 46 47 46 46 47 46 46 46. 4 5 80. 3 10

290 289 289 292 291 289 290 289 289 290 182 180 183 182 181 179 178 179 180 180

29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 36 36 37 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 29

780 777 777 786 783 777 780 777 777 777 523 518 525 524 520 520 515 516 518 518

290 289 289 292 291 289 290 289 289 290 182 180 183 182 181 179 178 179 180 180

2.69 2.68 9 2.68 9 2.69 2 2.69 1 2.68 9 2.69 2.68 9 2.68 9 2.67 9 2.87 4 2.87 8 2.86 9 2.87 9 2.87 3 2.90 5 2.89 3 2.88 3 2.87 8 2.87 8

217 27 12 326 0.19 25.77

2.68 8

25.18

216

216.6 7

227.7

(-)4.85%

28

13

361

0.22

24.6 217

168 40 12 480 0.27 26.67

2.88 1

26.97

169

168.3 3

163.7

2.82%

40

10

400

0.22

27.27 168

CPI S/ L N O LENGT H OF FABRIC INCH NO. OF COURS E UNIT LENGT H OF FABRIC INCH

WPI NO. OF WALE S UNIT LENGT H OF YARN MM

STITCH LENGTH NO OF WALE S UNIT LENGT H OF EACH YARN INCH NO OF YAR N UNIT

COUNT TOTAL LENGT H INCH TOTAL WEIGH T GM AVG COUN T NE

GSM DEFELECTION% OF ACTUAL GSM FROM CAL GSM %

SAMPL E NO UNIT

CPI UNI T

AVG CPI UNI T

WPI UNI T

AVG WPI UNI T

S.L MM

AVG S.L MM

COUN T NE

GS M GM

AVG GSM GM

CACULATE D GSM GM

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 1 11 1

43 42 43 44 43 42 43 42 43 42 51 53 53 52 53 53 52 53 52 53

43 42 43 44 43 42 43 42 43 42 51 53 53 52 53 53 52 53 52 53 52. 5 10 42. 7 10

383 379 384 379 383 380 380 383 379 384 398 398 398 398 398 398 398 398 398 398

38 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 38

1166 1155 1170 1155 1167 1158 1158 1167 1155 1170 927 927 915 915 915 921 935 921 915 940

383 379 384 379 383 380 380 383 379 384 398 398 398 398 398 398 398 398 398 398

3.04 4 3.04 7 3.04 7 3.04 7 3.04 7 3.04 7 3.04 7 3.04 7 3.04 7 3.04 7 2.32 9 2.32 9 2.29 9 2.29 9 2.29 9 2.31 4 2.34 9 2.31 4 2.29 9 2.36 2

135 20 16 324 0.15 32.4

3.04 7

32.14

133

134.3 3

141.4

(-)4.97%

43

10

425

0.2

31.87 135

140 35 10 345 0.16 32.34

2.31 9

32.92

140

139.3 3

135.8

2.62%

34

10

335

0.15

33.5 138

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