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THE NATURE OF

SCIENCE
4th Period

THE SCIENTIFIC WORLD VIEW

The World Is Understandable


In science events happen in
corresponding patterns.
Scientists conclude that through
using instruments/devices we can
uncover all the patterns in the
universe.

Scientific Ideas Are Subject To Change


The process depends on making
observations and inventing theories.
Change in Science is inescapable.
In science testing theories and
observations are constant, this makes
more room for change.

Scientific Knowledge Is Durable


Science is not always the absolute truth and accepts
some uncertainties as part of nature
Most knowledge and ideas in science are durable and the
ideas are usually modified rather than rejected

e.g: Albert Einstein did not discard the Newtonian laws of motion but rather showed
them to be only an approximation of limited application

As scientist grow in the ability to make more precise and


accurate predictions our knowledge of how the world
really works grows

Science Cannot Provide Complete


Answers to All Questions
Not all matters can be examined in a scientific way and
can not be proved or disproved either

e.g: existence of supernatural powers and beings, or the true


purposes of life

However scientists can sometimes provide to the


discussion of these issues by identifying the likely
results of actions, which may be helpful in comparing
alternatives.

SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

Science Demands Evidence

Anything in science (Proofs, theories, ideas) demands concrete evidence. Which


is why in science it is so important to accurate data.

This evidence is so vital to the research that a scientist does that there is so
much that has to be done to ensure accuracy. (Running multiple tests, changing
small and large conditions in experiments, checking their own senses compared
to the equipment)

Evidence isnt just ensured by one person, it will be backed up by many other
researchers or research groups to make sure again that it is accurate.

WIthout any research; any idea, any theory will be easily turned down or
disproven. Again evidence is a foundation, without it you have nothing to be
backed up by.

Links to Pictures:
http://janiczek.com/why-choose-us/evidence-based-investing/
http://www.cebma.org/frequently-asked-questions/scientific-evidence/

Science Is a Blend of Logic and


Imagination

You need imagination to come up with ideas, and logic


to create senseful ideas.
Scientists can disagree on ideas and evidence, but they
cannot disagree on logical conclusions.
Hypotheses (created from imagination ideas) then
guide scientists on what data to look for
Logic is then used to analyze the data discovered
from researching the hypothesis
Logic is required for close analysis, but analysis does
not always help us discover new science.

Imagination builds on logic as logic builds on imagination

Science Explains and Predicts


- science is here to try to make sense of observations
through using explanations or theories
- theories: logically sound, valid scientific evidence, gains
credibility
- theories should have predictive power (how one theory
relates to other scientific observations)
- predictions related to evidence from the past that has not
been studied

Scientists Try to Identify and Avoid Bias

Bias is when someone or something results in favor or against


an experiment or idea, being subjective
One way to avoid bias is to have the experiment done by
different types of people
Cant be avoidable in every experiment
Bias can also be found in the sample, instrument, or type of
method
Ask the right type of questions

Double check results


Exclude anything that could
potentially have bias

Science Is NOT Authoritarian

No scientist, however high up in society they are, is in


charge of telling other scientists what is true

One investigations final results does not have to meet


the same ending conclusion of the scientist who
previously conducted the investigation.

If the ideas arent mainstream it might be hard for the


scientist to gain support to fund his/her
investigations/experiments

Challenges to new ideas is the foundation for building


valid knowledge in science. Sometimes new ideas aren
t accepted no matter how much support it has.

When someone comes up with a new or improved


theory that explains/makes more sense and is more
effective than the one before it, the new one eventually
takes its place.

Authoritarian-Favoring or enforcing
strict obedience to authority,
especially that of the government, at
the expense of personal freedom.

THE SCIENTIFIC ENTERPRISE

Science is

a complex social
activity.

A Complex Social Activity:


Involves a diverse range of
people of all races and
nationalities
Reflects social viewpoints and
customs
Influences where research is
directed to
Which project to fund?
Interesting question?
Best method of investigation?
Involves a different settings of
employment and work

A Complex Social Activity:


For the betterment of science and
ultimately, the world, scientists must
work together.
To advance science, it is crucial that
scientists share and publish their
work around the world
To inform others
To expose ideas to criticism
The advancements and
developments of science and
technology affect each other.

Science Is Organized Into Content Disciplines and Is


Conducted in Various Institutions

Science is divided into fields of study, for example


-Biology
-Chemistry
-Geology
-Physics
There are no defined borders between the fields
-Chemistry bleeds into Biology
-Physics into Geology, Chemistry, etc.
University research often reinforces or emphasises knowledge, while private
companies explore new ideas
Research funding can come from funding agencies, public interest groups,
private foundations, and state governments.
funding can control the direction of science (i.e. state governments often limit
experimentation on human and animal test subjects.

There Are Generally Accepted Ethical Principles


in the Conduct of Science
Scientists have ethics and hold tradition. They are however
competitive in their ideas and tend to publish their research as
soon as possible.
One of the main problems with science is that it has the ability to
hurt other people. Scientists or govt. tend to set regulations so this
does not happen. Also if they make an experiment that has the
capacity to harm others they others must know the risk and be fine
with it.

Scientists Participate in Public Affairs Both


as Specialists and as Citizens
-Scientists play 2 different roles
-specialists
-citizens
-Help the public with their concerns
-distinguish fact from interpretation
using scientific inquiry
-Wont always bring the right answers to a
public issue
-Avoid bias
-theirs as well as others

Citations

http://www.project2061.org/publications/sfaa/online/chap1.
htm#Nature