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NSN Response to Telkomsel

RFP for NG TINEM

Efficient Refarming of Spectrum


with NSN Optimized Solution

1. Introduction
Mobile broadband demand continues to rise exponentially around the world. The demand for
this service far outstrips the currently available spectrum for delivering this service.

As depicted below, the current operator spectrum pool will be unable to cope with the
growing demand of mobile broadband unless the usage of existing spectrum is optimized or
new spectrum is obtained.

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Acquisition of new spectrum is dependent on regulatory policy and usually comes with a high
price tag. This makes refarming of existing spectrum for use with more efficient technologies
a more viable option in the near term for meeting the growing demand.
In Telkomsel, besides with existing 900MHz, 1800Mz and 2100Mz, there is a plan to acquire
new license in 700MHz, 850MHz, 2300MHz and 2600MHz, subjected to market environment
and regulatory approval.

2. Refarming Trends
Refarming is largely driven by the need to move to technologies which provide far more
efficiency in the existing spectrum over older generation technologies.
Moving from existing 2G spectrum to WCDMA or LTE provides >100% efficiency.

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3GPP and most of the global operators have identified use cases for specific bands which
have also lead to the device ecosystem to be developed in step with the market need.
Use of lower frequencies for radio access coverage building is beneficial due to better signal
propagation. This leads to remarkably less base station sites and thereby to significantly
reduced OPEX and CAPEX for an operator.
Today the 900/1800MHz spectrum is very often already used by GSM. This makes the
WCDMA/LTE deployment to these bands challenging. As operators naturally want to serve
also their existing GSM subscribers the available spectrum needs to be divided between
GSM and WCDMA/LTE networks. The challenge is how to successfully accommodate
WCDMA/LTE into frequency band that is currently used by GSM, and at the same time keep
the GSM capacity and quality unchanged.
Terminal availability and penetration are important for refarming feasibility. First device for
U900/L1800 are already available and more are coming. According to GSA report (Sept,
2012), a total of 978 UMTS900 and 98 LTE1800 user devices across all categories
(Smartphone, dongles, router and tablets) were confirmed as having been officially
announced by manufacturers, including carrier and frequency variants. From these devices,
96 of them can support both U900 and L1800 simultaneously.

3. Current Telkomsel Spectrum Situation


Below diagram show the possible frequency scenario in Telkomsel by 2015.
a. New spectrums: 2.3GHz for TD-LTE; 2.6GHz for FD-LTE; 850MHz for UMTS; 700MHz for
APT-LTE
b. Evolve spectrum: Additional two carriers bandwidth in UMTS2100
c.

Refarmed spectrums: GSM900 for UMTS900; GSM1800 for LTE1800

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In this paper, we will focus on U900 and L1800 refarming. Below are the available 900 and
1800 spectrum in Telkomsel network:

GSM900:
o

2 x 7.5MHz (Uplink: 900 907.5MHz; Downlink: 945-952.5MHz)

GSM1800:
o

2 x 7.5MHz (Uplink: 1722.5 1730MHz; Downlink: 1817.5 1825MHz)

2 x 5MHz (Uplink: 1745 1750MHz; Downlink: 1840 1845MHz)

2 x 10MHz (Uplink: 1765 1775MHz; Downlink: 1860 1870MHz)

4. U900/L1800 Refarming
a. U900 Refarming
i.

U900 refarming Value propositions:

Network costs for HSPA coverage at 900 MHz can be only about one third compared to the
costs for HSPA coverage at 2100 MHz

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Especially attractive for rural area HSPA coverage


Better indoor coverage in urban areas (10 .. 20 dB)
Possible to reuse existing GSM900 sites and infrastructure

ii.

U900 Refarming in Telkomsel:

Required 900MHz bandwidth: 3.8MHz (from the available 7.5MHz)


Enabled by advanced narrower design of Flexi filter. Up to -66 dBm GSM uplink blocker can
be tolerated, hence higher GSM interference (up to 22-24 dB) can be tolerated
Supported with standard UEs
Slight degradation (10% capacity loss) on refarmed U900 network compared with standard
UMTS 4.2MHz
Carrier Separation: GSM GSM: 0.2 MHz; WCDMA GSM: 2.0MHz

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b. L1800 refarming
i.

L1800 coverage area about 2x larger than LTE2600.


Possible to reuse antenna lines of UMTS2100 or GSM1800.
Possible to deploy multi-RAN BTS with simultaneous LTE&GSM.
1800 MHz (ITU band 3) widely available in Telkomsel network
Not big regulatory issues: 1800 band often technology neutral.
Often easier to refarm than 900 MHz

ii.

L1800 value propositions

L1800 refarming in Telkomsel

To refarm on the existing 2x10MHz on band (Uplink: 1765 1775MHz; Downlink: 1860
1870MHz) for L1800
o 2013 with 5MHz
o 2014 onwards with 10MHz
Spectrum required for coordinated case (share site)
o 5 MHz needs 5.2MHz (in Downlink)
o 10 MHz needs 9.6MHz (in Downlink)

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capacity same as with normal LTE 5MHz and 10 MHz


Closest frequencies at both sides of the LTE carrier recommended to be used for GSM nonBCCH carriers (with power control)
Carrier Separation:
o GSM GSM: 0.2 MHz;
o LTE GSM: 2.6 MHz (for 5MHz refarming, co-ordinated case)
o LTE GSM: 5.1MHz (for 10MHz refarming, co-ordinated case)

c. Capacity compensation after refarming


There is one important challenge need to be addressed with refarming. Refarming will mean
reduced spectrum for GSM. How to provide enough capacity with reduced spectrum to serve
the GSM traffic after refarming?

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To compensate the loss in GSM capacity due to


to refarming, Nokia Siemens Networks
propose OSC to be used to quadruple the GSM capacity by software. Orthogonal Sub
Channel (OSC) serves 4 users in the same GSM timeslot

The OSC features greatest asset is its ability to double radio capacity, enabling
enabling operators to
efficiently exploit and even reduce installed hardware. With the trunking effect, the OSC
could bring even greater gains to smaller BTS configurations. As the OSC increases voice
capacity, it also frees up capacity for data traffic. The OSC also increases spectral efficiency
measured in Erl/MHz/cell, especially when the number of carriers is restricted in the
available spectrum. Simulations show that the OSC reduces per-Erlang
per Erlang energy consumption
by 20 to 50%. Last but not least, deploying the OSC successfully requires mobile handsets
that support SAIC. Estimates put the total number of such devices on the market today at
about with penetration ~50% (Source: Yankee Group 2009),, Telkomsel can benefit
immediately by introducing the OSC.
From Telkomsel OSC trial, TCH traffic at BANDARAKPG2MD3 increased by 27% after OSC
activation and at the same time TCH blocking rate was reduced.

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d. Base Station evolution


After refarming, the traditional cabinet type base stations will be replaced with small
size, modular Flexi Multiradio10 base station from Nokia Siemens Networks. Existing
Dual-band antenna and feeders will be reused for GSM900/1800. For L1800, a new
2-port antenna will be used. Below diagram show the BTS site after U900 and L1800
refarming.

e. Mobility between layers and layering strategy


After the refarming, Telkomsel will have to maintain a multi-layer network with different
technologies (GSM/UMTS/LTE) and frequencies (900/1800/2100). In such heterogeneous
networks (HetNets), end users are moving and expecting constant network availability and
full service continuity. Besides, smooth transitions between different technologies when
UEs are being in idle mode or coverage or service limited should be available. In the case of
congestion, there should be a mechanism to offload between layers to ensure the network to
run much more efficiently (traffic steering and load balancing).
In Nokia Siemens networks, all the necessary mobility between layers will be offered to
Telkomsel. Below figure shows the summary of the available mobility in Telkomsel HetNets.

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The objective of the layering strategy is to ensure seamless interworking between all
frequency bands and layers that maintains end user quality of experience. The proposed
strategy:

f.

To keep U900 capable UEs camping on U900 most of the time


Voice call preferred on U900 layer; dongle preferred on U2100 layer; Fast moving UE on
U900 layer
To use G900 voice calls only in case absolutely needed (i.e. neither G1800, U900 nor U2100
coverage available)
To actively push UEs from U900 to U2100 when U2100 coverage is good enough to offload
U900 traffic to U2100 (since there are more carriers in U2100). Load Balancing within U900
and U2100 bands possible
To keep U2100 Carrier 1 for R99&HSPA; UMTS carrier 2 and 3 preferred HSPA; U2100
carrier 4 for small cell eg. Femto
To keep L1800 capable UEs camping on L1800 most of the time. CSFB to UMTS/GSM when
out of coverage. Another option is to use VoIP with IMS, then CSFB is not needed

Interference mitigation

For the 900 limited band like Telkomsel, the same frequencies have to be re-used .There is
a possible co-channel interference when these layers are using the same frequency within
the same geographical area. If not controlled, it may decrease the network performance
significantly.

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To mitigate such interference, Nokia Siemens Networks propose to implement Buffer Zone.
In the Buffer Zone, a chosen frequency will not be reused, effectively created a buffer zone
between two areas using the same frequency band. Similar concept applies for both U900
and L1800 refarming.
The method has been used to calculate the interference analysis between UMTS900 and
GSM900 (or LTE1800 and GSM1800) in the case of Co-channel
Co channel Interference is the MCL
(Minimum Coupling Loss) approach. The Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL) is defined as the
minimum distance loss including antenna gain measured between antenna connectors
where we assume that the total interfering power should equal the thermal noise floor o
of the
victim system. This allows us to calculate a link-loss
link loss from the interferer to the victim system.

Typical buffer zone distance:

GSM900: 15Km to 30Km (worst case)


GSM1800:
o With 5MHz refarming: 6Km-6.6Km
6Km
(worst case);
o With 10Mhz refarming: 5Km-5.3Km (worst case)

The buffer zone distance can be reduced by:

correct frequency plan for GSM network


lower antenna heights and tilting of GSM networks
Lower number of GSM TRX

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Copyright 2011 Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved)

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g. Fragmented 1800MHz bands rearrangement proposal


As stated in Chapter 4 Technical Specifications and Requirement, Clause 4.6.3, Telkomsel
would like to have a proposal of rearrangement of their currently fragmented bands in
1800MHz. Nokia Siemens Networks is proposing below spectrum rearrangement for
1800MHz as shown in below figure. After the rearrangement, Telkomsel 1800MHz should try
to get the spectrum for one end of 1800Mz band. Nokia Siemens Networks proposes to get
1857.5MHz to 1880MHz (22.5MHz contiguous band). The center frequency for LTE1800
should also be the center of the band (1868.75MHz). The advantage of getting the whole
1800MHz band on one side is to reduce the possible interference since only one end is
directly interfering the other operator 1800MHz frequency band.

The effort and cost involved in such rearrangement exercise are:

Possible fee from regulator for rearrangement exercise


Possible resistance from existing operator to change their existing allocation; as there will be
impact
Neighbors re-planning for all existing GSM1800 site
All the existing GSM1800 BTS new center frequency to be retuned

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(Copyright 2011 Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved)

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5. Nokia Siemens Networks Experience in refarming


1) U900 refarming capability
Below are the highlights of Nokia Siemens Networks U900 refarming capabilities:

NSN highlights for deployment on 900MHz spectrum


3.8 & 4.2 MHz WCDMA/HSPA solutions

Unique GSM spectral efficiency features: DFCA&OSC

Feasibility of 3G refarming in narrow spectrum allocation:


-> more remaining GSM spectrum in parallel to WCDMA/HSPA
supporting continuous 2G voice revenue generation

OSC: 2x voice capacity vs. AMR-HR (4users per GSM time-slot)


AMR HR

OSC-HR

Half Rate voice codec

Dual Half Rate voice codes

4.2 MHz

A
QPSK
Transmitter

WCDMA
De/Multiplexing

WCDMA Deployment on just 4.2 MHz bandwidth


without performance degradation

Encoding
Encoding

B
A

B
MIMO
Receiver

Decoding
Decoding

3.8 MHz

2 users per TSL

WCDMA

Refarming tools & track-record 900 MHz refarming

4 users per TSL

OSC principles

Ready ecosystem for WCDMA/HSPA-900

World-leading experience from worlds first


WCDMA/HSPA- 900 MHz refarming project
with Elisa in commercial service since 2007
NetAct Optimizer tool for optimizing
GSM & WCDMA/HSPA 900 performance

700 terminals in all device categories & price points (GSA)


support tri-band WCDMA,HSPA-850/1900/2100

WCDMA/HSPA for 900 MHz


rich device ecosystem

According to GSA report (August, 2012), there are currently 44 UMTS900 commercial networks in 33
countries. Nokia Siemens Network is supplying U900 solution to 40 customers where 28 of them have
commercially launched the networks.
Below figure shows Nokia Siemens Network U9000 refarming references:

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2) L1800 refarming capability


Below are the highlights of Nokia Siemens Networks L1800 refarming capabilities:

NSN highlights for deployment on 1800MHz spectrum


Flexi remote RF - Full 80W power for GSM

Unique GSM spectral efficiency features: DFCA&OSC


OSC: 2x voice capacity vs. AMR-HR (4users per GSM time-slot)

Full 60W power available for optimum GSM performance

AMR HR

240 W
Flexi 180
W RF Module

OSC-HR

Half Rate voice codec

Dual Half Rate voice codes

80 W
Tx1/RX1 LTE 60
W

A
QPSK

80 W
Tx2/RX2 LTE 60
W

Transmitter

De/Multiplexing

MIMO
Receiver

2 users per TSL

4 users per TSL

Decoding
Decoding

OSC principles

Optimum GSM & LTE performance


Independent tilts for GSM & LTE ; dedicated bands

Encoding

Tx3/RX3 GSM 60
80 W
W
RX3div

Encoding

NSN customers leading LTE 1800MHz deployment

Max. flexibility from spectrum allocation over the full 75 MHz bandwidth
Independent optimization of antenna tilts
4-port
or

2 X-pol

[W / MHz]

rG
Tilt fo

WCDMA/
LTE
f1 f2 f3 f4

6 GSM TRXs
in 20 MHz

5Mhz 5Mhz 5Mhz 5Mhz

max 20 MHz
Max 75 MHz BW (1800 MHz 3GPP band 3)

SM

r LT
ilt fo

Antenna

C
E/W

A
DM

for
Sector

Denmark, Finland,

Finland

Germany, Croatia,

Frequency
Latvia

Optimum GSM & LTE performance

Australia

South Korea

Live commercial LTE-1800 operation today

LTE for 1800 MHz specifically on bandwidth of 2x10 MHz or more (beyond GSM needs)

Currently Nokia Siemens Networks has 21 references networks with LTE1800, where 13 of them (out
of total 32 commercial networks) have commercially launched the network.
Below figure shows Nokia Siemens Network U1800 refarming references:

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NSN Response to Telkomsel RFP for NG TINEM
(Copyright 2011 Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved)

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6. Why refarming with Nokia Siemens Networks


As a leading vendor in SingleRAN, Nokia Siemens Networks can offer a holistic approach for
efficient technology evolution for Telkomsel including U900 and L1800 frequency refarming
based on truly SDR platform (Flexi Multiradio and multi-controller).

Why NSN ? Nokia Siemens Networks SingleRAN Solution


Site solution
Network management

Network architecture

NetAct

High performance site


SON

GSM/EDGE & HSPA

I-HSPA & LTE

BS

BS

BSC/RNC
SGSN
GGSN

&

GW

GSM HSPA LTE

Flexi Multiradio BTS


Multicontroller Platform

LTE/LTE-A
Capacity

High capacity transport

Short Latency

HSPA/HSPA+
QoS
Battery Life

LTE FDD/TDD
Refarming
New bands
Bandwidth flexibility

Efficient Spectrum Usage

Seamless software evolution

A holistic approach for efficient technology evolution

As proven leader in Frequency Refarming, Nokia Siemens Networks offers Telkomsel a


thorough consultation process before implementing any solution to ensure we fully
understand your business situation, opportunities and challenges. Working collaboratively
we can model your business and help you see the impact of different technical options.
Together, we can quickly improve your performance and results.

Technical Package
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C4-4.6.2 Efficient Refarming with NSN Optimized Solution


NSN Response to Telkomsel RFP for NG TINEM
(Copyright 2011 Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved)

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