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EX. SR. FACULTY (BANSAL CLASSES)

THINGS TO REMEMBER :

1.

LOGARITHM OF A NUMBER :

The logarithm of the number N to the base 'a' is the exponent indicating

the power to which the base 'a' must be raised to obtain the number N.

This number is designated as loga N.

logaN = x

Hence :

ax

REMEMBER

log102 = 0.3010

log103 = 0.4771

ln 2 = 0.693

ln 10 = 2.303

If a = 10 , then we write log b rather than log10 b .

If a = e , we write ln b rather than loge b .

The existence and uniqueness of the number loga N follows from the properties of an exponential

functions.

From the definition of the logarithm of the number N to the base 'a' , we have an

identity :

log a N

NOTE :loga1 = 0

(a > 0 , a 1)

loga a = 1

(a > 0 , a 1) and

log1/a a = - 1 (a > 0 , a 1)

2.

Let M & N are arbitrary posiitive numbers , a > 0 , a 1 , b > 0 , b 1 and is any real number

then ;

(i)

loga (M . N) = loga M + loga N

(ii)

loga (M/N) = loga M loga N

(iii)

loga M = . loga M

(iv)

logb M =

log a M

log a b

x

ln a

e = ax

3.

(i)

For a > 1 the inequality 0 < x < y & loga x < loga y are equivalent.

(ii)

For 0 < a < 1 the inequality 0 < x < y & loga x > loga y are equivalent.

(iii)

0 < x < ap

(iv)

x > ap

(v)

x > ap

(vi)

0 < x < ap

NOTE THAT :

If the number & the base are on one side of the unity, then the logarithm is positive ; If the number &

the base are on different sides of unity, then the logarithm is negative.

The base of the logarithm a must not equal unity otherwise numbers not equal to unity will not have

a logarithm & any number will be the logarithm of unity.

a = a1/n.

ETOOS Academy Pvt. Ltd. : F-106, Road No. 2, Indraprastha Industrial Area, End of Evergreen Motors 2

(Mahindra Showroom), BSNL Office Lane, Jhalawar Road, Kota, Rajasthan (324005)

EXERCISEI

Q.1

Let

2

ab (ab) 2 4(a b)

A denotes the value of log10

10

2

2

when a = 43 and b = 57

Find the value of (A B).

and

Q.2(a) If x = log34 and y = log53, find the value of log310 and log3(1.2) in terms of x and y.

(b) If k

log2 5

(log2 5) 2

Q.3

log b log b N

log b a

Q.4

(b) a

Q.5

Q.6

Q.7

Let a and b be real numbers greater than 1 for which there exists a positive real number c, different

from 1, such that

2(logac + logbc) = 9logabc. Find the largest possible value of logab.

Q.8

log3x log4x log5x = log3x log4x + log4x log5x + log5x log3x.

Q.9

Q.10

Calculate : 4

5log

81

4 2

3 6 6log8

1

log 9

5

3

409

2

3

.

log 4 (2000) 6 log 5 (2000) 6

3 2

3

log

2

log 25 7

125 log 25 6

Q.11

Simplify :

Q.12

Simplify : 5

Q.13

Q.14

log

log1 / 5 12

4

1

.

log1 / 2

7 3

10 2 21

(a, b, c > 0, c 1).

1log7 2

s2

c

log 5 4

2 2

= 0.

2

a 2 b5

. Write log2 4 as a function of 's'

s3 1

c

Q.15

Q.16

Given that log2 3 = a , log3 5 = b, log7 2 = c, express the logarithm of the number 63 to the base

140 in terms of a, b & c.

log 2 24 log 2192

Prove that

= 3.

log 96 2 log12 2

Q.17

+5

ETOOS Academy Pvt. Ltd. : F-106, Road No. 2, Indraprastha Industrial Area, End of Evergreen Motors 3

(Mahindra Showroom), BSNL Office Lane, Jhalawar Road, Kota, Rajasthan (324005)

Q.18

Q.19

loga b & y =

log3 7

= 27 ; b

log7 11

= 49 and c

log11 25

= 11 . Find the

(log 7 ) 2

(log 11) 2

(log 25) 2

c 11

value of a 3 b 7

.

Q.20

log10 ( x 3)

log10 x 21

2

1

2

(b)

(c) logx2 . log2x2 = log4x2

(d) 5logx + 5 xlog5 = 3 (a > 0) ; where base of log is a.

Q.21

10

xy

If x, y > 0, logyx + logxy =

and xy = 144, then

=

3

2

value of N.

Q.22

log a y log a ( xyz) 12 , a > 0, a 1.

log a z log a ( xyz) 84

Q.23

Q.24

(a)

(b)

(c)

Find the number of positive integers which have the characteristic 3, when the base of the

logarithm is 7.

If log102 = 0.3010 & log103 = 0.4771, find the value of log10(2.25).

(d)

(a) 5200

Q.25

(b) 615

&

Let

and

and

'M' denotes the number of digits in 610 (Given log102 = 0.3010, log103 = 0.4771)

'N' denotes the number of positive integers which have the characteristic 2, when base of the

logarithm is 6.

Find the value of LMN.

EXERCISEII

Q.1

xlogx+4 = 32, where base of logarithm is 2.

Q.2

logx+1 (x + x 6)2 = 4

Q.4

Q.5

1 log 2 ( x 4)

log

( x 3 x 3)

Q.3

=1

ETOOS Academy Pvt. Ltd. : F-106, Road No. 2, Indraprastha Industrial Area, End of Evergreen Motors 4

(Mahindra Showroom), BSNL Office Lane, Jhalawar Road, Kota, Rajasthan (324005)

Q.6

Q.7

1

log 4 + 1 log 3 = log

2x

Q.8

If 'x' and 'y' are real numbers such that, 2 log(2y 3x) = log x + log y, find

Q.9

The real x and y satisfy log8x + log4y2 = 5 and log8y + log4x2 = 7, find xy.

Q.10

Q.11

Q.12

If p = loga bc, q = logb ca, r = logc ab, then prove that pqr = p + q + r + 2.

Q.13

If logba . logca + logab . logcb + logac . logb c = 3 (Where a, b, c are different positive real numbers 1),

then find the value of abc.

Q.14

Let y =

Q.15

Q.16

Q.17

4

4

2 2

Find x satisfying the equation log 2 1 log 2 1

1 .

2 log

x

x4

x 1

Q.18

Solve : log3

Q.19

Prove that :

a

a

a

b

b

a

b

2

Q.20

1

1

2

2

x 3 27 .

x

.

y

3

log4(x + 2)2 + 3 = log4(4 x)3 + log4(6 + x)3.

2

x 1 = log9 4 x 3 4

(2008) ( x )

x 1

log 2008 x

x2 .

2

= loga b

2

if ba 1

if 1ba

EXERCISEIII

Q.1

Q.2

(A) 3

(B) 1

(C) 2

(D) 0

ETOOS Academy Pvt. Ltd. : F-106, Road No. 2, Indraprastha Industrial Area, End of Evergreen Motors 5

(Mahindra Showroom), BSNL Office Lane, Jhalawar Road, Kota, Rajasthan (324005)

ANSWER

SHEET

LOGARITHM

EXERCISEI

Q.1

12

Q.2 (a)

xy 2 xy 2 y 2

,

; (b) 625

2y

2y

Q.10 9

Q.6 (a) 2

1

25

Q.14 2s + 10s2 3(s3 + 1) Q.15

100

2

or 2

Q.16

Q.9 1/6

1 2ac

2c abc 1

1 1 1

Q.21 507 Q.22 (a4, a, a7) or 4 , , 7 Q.23 (a) 0.5386; 1.5386 ; 3.5386 (b) 2058 (c) 0.3522 (d) 343

a a a

1

Q.1 x = 2 or

32

(c) 47

Q.25 23040

EXERCISEII

Q.2 x = 1

Q.3 x = 1

Q.16 (2008)2 Q.17 x 2 or 6

Q.14 y = 6 Q.15 x = 2 or 1

Q.20 0 ,

33

7 3 24

,

4

2

EXERCISEIII

Q.1 x = 3 or 3

Q.2

ETOOS Academy Pvt. Ltd. : F-106, Road No. 2, Indraprastha Industrial Area, End of Evergreen Motors 6

(Mahindra Showroom), BSNL Office Lane, Jhalawar Road, Kota, Rajasthan (324005)

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