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CHAPTER 1

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

INTRODUCTION OF HRM
Human resources may be defined as the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and
aptitudes of an organizations workforce, as well as the values, attitudes, approaches and beliefs
of the individuals involved in the affairs of the organization. It is the sum total or aggregate of
inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills represented by the talents and aptitudes of the
persons employed in the organization.The human resources are multidimensional in nature. From
the national point of view, human resources may be defined as the knowledge, skills, creative
abilities, talents and aptitudes obtained in the population; whereas fromthe viewpoint of the
individual enterprise, they represent the total of the inherent abilities, acquired knowledgeand
skills as exemplified in the talents and aptitudes of its employees.
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: DEFINED
Human Resource Management has come to be recognized as inherent parts of management,
which is concernedwith, the human resources of an organization. Its objective is the maintenance
of better human relations in theorganization by the development, application and evaluation of
policies, procedures and programmes relating tohuman resources to optimize their contribution
towards the realization of organizational objectives. In other words, HRM is concerned with
getting better results with the collaboration of people. It is an integral but distinctive part of
management, concerned with people at work and their relationships within the enterprise.
HRMhelps in attaining maximum individual development, desirable working relationship
between employees and employers, employees and employees, and effective modeling of human
resources as contrasted with physical resources. It is the recruitment, selection, development,
utilization, compensation and motivation of human resources by the organization.
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: EVOLUTION

The early part of the century saw a concern for improved efficiency through careful design of
work. During the middle part of the century emphasis shifted to the employee's productivity.
Recent decades have focused on increased concern for the quality of working life, total quality
management and worker's participation in management. These three phases may be termed as
welfare, development and empowerment.
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: NATURE
Human Resource Management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that
the goals of each are met. The various features of HRM include:
1. It is pervasive in nature as it is present in all enterprises.
2. Its focus is on results rather than on rules.
3. It tries to help employees develop their potential fully.
4. It encourages employees to give their best to the organization.
5. It is all about people at work, both as individuals and groups.
6. It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results.
7. It helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and wellmotivated employees.
8. It tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people working at various levels in the
organization
9. It is a multidisciplinary activity, utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn from psychology,
economics, etc.

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: SCOPE

The scope of HRM is very wide:


1. Personnel aspect
This is concerned with manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, transfer,
promotion, training and development, layoff and retrenchment, remuneration, incentives,
productivity etc.
2. Welfare aspect
It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteens, creches, rest and lunch
rooms, housing, transport, medical assistance, education, health and safety, recreation
facilities, etc.
3. Industrial relations aspect
This covers union-management relations, joint consultation, collective bargaining,
grievance and disciplinary procedures, settlement of disputes, etc.
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: BELIEFS
The Human Resource Management philosophy is based on the following beliefs:
1. Human resource is the most important asset in the organization and can be developed and
increased to an unlimited extent.
2.a healthy climate with values of openness, enthusiasm, trust, mutuality and collaboration is
essential for developing human resource.
3. HRM can be planned and monitored in ways that are beneficial both to the individuals and the
organization.
4. Employees feel committed to their work and the organization, if the organization perpetuates a
feeling of belongingness.
5. Employees feel highly motivated if the organization provides for satisfaction of their basic and
higher level needs.
6. Employee commitment is increased with the opportunity to discover and use one's capabilities
and potential ionones work.

7. It is every manager's responsibility to ensure the development and utilization of the


capabilities of subordinates.
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: OBJECTIVES
1. To help the organization reach its goals.
2. To ensure effective utilization and maximum development of human resources.
3. To ensure respect for human beings. To identify and satisfy the needs of individuals. To
ensure reconciliation of individual goals with those of the organization.
4. To achieve and maintain high morale among employees. To provide the organization with
well-trained and well-motivated employees.
5. To increase to the fullest the employee's job satisfaction and self-actualization. To develop
and maintain a quality of work life.
6. To be ethically and socially responsive to the needs of society.
7. To develop overall personality of each employee in its multidimensional aspect.
8. To enhance employee's capabilities to perform the present job.
9. To equip the employees with precision and clarity in transaction of business.
10. To inculcate the sense of team spirit, team work and inter-team collaboration.
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: FUNCTIONS
In order to achieve the above objectives, Human Resource Management undertakes the
following activities:
1.Human resource or manpower planning
2.Recruitment, selection and placement of personnel.

3.Training and development of employees.


4.Appraisal of performance of employees.
5.Taking corrective steps such as transfer from one job to another.
6.Remuneration of employees.
7.Social security and welfare of employees.
8.Setting general and specific management policy for organizational relationship.
9.Collective bargaining, contract negotiation and grievance handling.
10.Staffing the organization.
11.Aiding in the self-development of employees at all levels.
12.Developing and maintaining motivation for workers by providing incentives.
13.Reviewing and auditing manpower management in the organization
14.Potential Appraisal. Feedback Counseling.
15.Role Analysis for job occupants.
16.Job Rotation.
17.Quality Circle, Organization development and Quality of Working Life.
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: MAJOR INFLUENCING FACTORS
In the 21st century HRM will be influenced by following factors, which will work as various
issues affecting its strategy:
1. Size of the workforce.

2. Rising employees' expectations


3. Drastic changes in the technology as well as Life-style changes.
4. Composition of workforce. New skills required.
5. Environmental challenges.
6. Lean and mean organizations.
7. Impact of new economic policy. Political ideology of the Government.
8. Downsizing and rightsizing of the organizations.
10. Culture prevailing in the organization etc.
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: FUTURISTIC VISION
On the basis of the various issues and challenges the following suggestions will be of much help
to the philosophy of HRM with regard to its futuristic vision:
1.There should be a properly defined recruitment policy in the organization that should give its
focus on professional aspect and merit based selection.
2.In every decision-making process there should be given proper weight age to the aspect that
employees are involved wherever possible. It will ultimately lead to sense of team spirit, teamwork and inter-team collaboration.
3.Opportunity and comprehensive framework should be provided for full expression of
employees' talents and manifest potentialities.
4.Networking skills of the organizations should be developed internally and externally as well as
horizontally and vertically.
5.For performance appraisal of the employees emphasis should be given to 360 degree feedback
which is based on the review by superiors, peers, subordinates as well as self-review.

6.360 degree feedback will further lead to increased focus on customer services, creating of
highly involved workforce, decreased hierarchies, avoiding discrimination and biases and
identifying performance threshold.
7.More emphasis should be given to Total Quality Management. TQM will cover all employees
at all levels; it will conform to customer's needs and expectations; it will ensure effective
utilization of resources and will lead towards continuous improvement in all spheres and
activities of the organization.
8. There should be focus on job rotation so that vision and knowledge of the employees are
broadened as well as potentialities of the employees are increased for future job prospects.
9. For proper utilization of manpower in the organization the concept of six sigma of improving
productivity should be intermingled in the HRM strategy.
10. The capacities of the employees should be accessed through potential appraisal for
performing new roles and responsibilities. It should not be confined to organizational aspects
only but the environmental changes of political, economic and social considerations should also
be taken into account.
11. The career of the employees should be planned in such a way that individualizing process
and socializing process come together for fusion process and career planning should constitute
the part of human resource planning. To conclude Human Resource Management should be
linked with strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop
organizational cultures that foster innovation and flexibility. All the above futuristic visions
coupled with strategic goals and objectives should be based on 3 H's of Heart, Head and Hand
i.e., we should feel by Heart, think by Head and implement by Hand.

CHAPTER 2
HUMAN RESOURCE POLICIES
INTRODUCTION

Human resource policies are the formal rules and guidelines that businesses put in place to hire,
train, assess, and reward the members of their workforce. These policies, when organized and
disseminated in an easily used form, can serve to preempt many misunderstandings between
employees and employers about their rights and obligations in the business place. It is tempting,
as a new small business owner, to focus on the concerns of the business at hand, and put off the
task of writing up a human resource policy. All business analysts and employment lawyers will
advise a new business owner to get a policy down on paper, even if it is a simple one drafted
from a boilerplate model. Having policies written is important so that it is clear to all what the
policies are and that they are applied consistently and fairly across the organization. Moreover,
when issues concerning employee rights and company policies come before federal and state
courts, it is standard practice to assume that the company's human resource policies, whether
written or verbal, are a part of an employment contract between the employee and the company.
Without clearly written policies, the company is at a disadvantage.
Small businessesand especially business startupscannot afford to fritter away valuable time
and resources on drawn-out policy disputes or potentially expensive lawsuits. Having a human
resource policy in place from the start can help to avoid this situation. The business owner who
takes the time to establish sound, comprehensive human resource policies will be far better
equipped to succeed over the long run than the business owner who deals with each policy
decision as it erupts. The latter ad hoc style is much more likely to produce inconsistent,
uninformed, and legally questionable decisions that may cripple an otherwise prosperous
business. For as many small business consultants state, human resource policies that are
inconsistently applied or based on faulty or incomplete data will almost inevitably result in
declines in worker morale, deterioration in employee loyalty, and increased vulnerability to legal
penalties. To help ensure that personnel management policies are applied fairly, business owners
and consultants alike recommend that small business enterprises produce and maintain a written
record of its HR policies and of instances in which those policies came into play. The
Department of Human Resource Management (DHRM) strives to keep the policies on this web
site current. From time-to-time policies are revised to keep pace with generally accepted business
practices and to comply with changes in state or federal law. Policies under review will be
indicated as such in the index with an asterisk. If the policy you are seeking is noted as "under

review," you should contact your agency Human Resources Officer or DHRM's Agency Human
Resource Services (AHRS)
DEFINITION
Human resource policy refers to formal rules and guidelines put in place by companies
concerning the hiring, training, assessment and reward of their employees. The purpose of
creating and disseminating a formal human resource policy is to prevent misunderstandings
between employees and employers about the rights and obligations of a workplace, according to
US Legal.com.

MEANING OF HR POLICIES
Policies are ground rules that keep people and processes in order. HR, or human resource,
policies are those that are written for the workplace, and must be adhered to by employees.

IMPORTANCE OF HR POLICIES
Human resources policies provide the framework by which employees are expected to behave in
the workplace. These policies are written statements of the company's standards and objectives
and include all areas of employment, including recruitment, compensation, termination, benefits,
employee relations and leaves of absence. They contain rules on how employees must perform
their jobs and interact with each other. Managers, employees and the HR department all have
roles in ensuring that HR policies are effectively implemented

PURPOSE
HR policies ensure that a company complies with relevant legislation, employment contracts and
collective agreements. These policies reduce the risk of corporate liability or employee lawsuits.
Policies address various areas that are critical to the company mission, thus ensuring operational
efficiency. They clarify expectations of performance and behavior and help create the desired

culture. On the other hand, HR policies protect employees from arbitrary and discriminatory
actions by management. Employees can refer to the policy manual in case of conflict or
disagreement.
FEATURES
Policies contain general guidelines for behavior, which employees are usually asked to
acknowledge in a written form. They also define consequences if the rules aren't followed, such
as various forms of disciplinary action, including termination. As policies may not cover all
situations, they should provide management with the flexibility to make decisions based on
individual circumstances. Organizations may have varying sets of policies for different groups of
employees. Senior management has the authority to approve policies for implementation.
HR ROLE
The human resources department develops policies and communicates them to all employees. It
provides all the forms and documents required for policy implementation. This department is
also responsible for reviewing, adding, deleting or revising policies to ensure that they remain
current with legislation or company needs. HR staff help interpret policies, ensuring that they're
applied fairly and equitably throughout the organization. Staff members assist managers in
applying policies to work situations such as hiring new employees, conducting performance
appraisals or disciplining subordinates.
EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES
Employees are responsible for following the established norms of behavior. HR policies often set
standards for working hours, attendance, workplace conduct, and health and safety. Policies on
respect, anti-harassment and nondiscrimination provide guidelines in resolving workplace
conflicts and handling complaints. This promotes a positive work environment, enhances
working relationships and improves productivity. HR policies help employees better understand
their benefits, salaries and employment conditions, thus reducing the incidence of grievances.
MANAGEMENT TOOLS

HR policies serve as a resource for dealing with various situations that occur in the workplace.
They encourage managers to treat employees fairly and consistently. Policies on hiring,
termination, performance evaluation and disciplinary action provide managers with the
framework to manage staff. For example, managers must follow the procedures for progressive
discipline when dealing with performance or behavior problems.However, policies are often
general in nature, thus allowing managers to respond as specific situations demand.

IMPORTANCE OF HR POLICIES AND PROCEDURE


Small businesses often overlook the creation of policies and procedures. This simple task has the
ability to save time and money in a variety of ways.

SIGNIFICANCE

Businesses should establish policies and procedures and commit them to print before hiring the
first employee. Policies, defined simply as rules as to how the company and its representatives
should handle specific scenarios, and procedures, meaning instructions as how to accomplish
certain tasks, are crucial to every business, regardless of size.

BENEFITS

Establishing a company's policies and procedures provides several benefits. The company is able
to operate with greater consistency, both in its internal and external workings. Company morale
generally increases because guidelines are available on how to accomplish a task. Set policies
and procedures can also circumvent certain legal issues.

MANUALS

The policies and procedures manuals of a business should be in accordance with local, state and
federal laws, as well as conscious of Internet use. The books need to appear professional; a
financier may request a copy of the policies and procedures of a company under review.

PROCEDURES MANUAL

The procedures manual clearly describes processes, such as how to enter an invoice into the
system, processes with which the new employee will not yet be familiar. Describe procedures
specifically. This may seem quite simplistic to the writer who is familiar with the tasks at hand,
but to the novice, a precise explanation of the procedure may be invaluable.

THE POLICIES MANUAL

This manual should contain the company's policies on employment, disclosure, competition,
customer service, purchasing and so forth. When writing a policies manual, keep in mind
whether, if the owner could not be reached, what would an employee need to know to
accomplish his assigned tasks.

THE EMPLOYEE HANDBOOK

This will be the first formal communication the company has with a new employee. As an
abbreviated policies and procedures manual, it defines standards of behavior and outlines what
will happen when those standards are not upheld. The handbook should contain the company's
employee policies and procedures for asking for leave and similar requests. Management may
find this to be an empowerment tool should it need to discipline an employee.

THE BENEFITS OF POLICIES & PROCEDURES


Policies are rules, principles and guidelines an organizations management adopts to reach its
long-term goals, according to the businessdirectory.com website. They shape all important
decisions and activities. Procedures are the steps employees conduct in day-to-day operations to
ensure that what they do reflects and supports existing policies. When faithfully followed, wellwritten policies and procedures promote efficiency, effectiveness and consistency while
upholding the organizations philosophy or vision.

TOP-DOWN GUIDANCE

Policies define and provide guidance about how to achieve a businesss goals, strategies and
objectives, according to AME Info, a Middle Eastern business information website. Policies
identify the key activities and provide a general strategy for decision-makers on how to handle
issues as they arise," AME adds. Policies describe acceptable and unacceptable choices and
behavior and set a context and boundaries within which to develop procedures. For example, a
policy of not discriminating against any job applicant on the basis of race, gender, age or country
of origin helps the human resources department develop procedures to ensure that all candidates
are treated equally.

MANAGEMENT TOOL

Procedures explain employees' job duties and indicate the scope of their responsibilities. This
guidance helps to keep employees from interfering with each other or overstepping their ground,
which can lead to mistakes and misunderstandings. They are also sets of instructions employees
follow to ensure that they carry out specific tasks thoroughly and consistently. Following a wellwritten set of procedures helps employees learn about and do many or all aspects of their jobs
independently, reducing the need for managers to intervene frequently or micromanage. An
example of procedures would be the steps an employee takes to arrange for repair of a broken
machine. These might include: arranging for expert damage assessment, obtaining approval for
purchase of necessary parts and labor, identifying an appropriate vendor and coordinating
payment for products or services rendered.

CONSISTENCY

Established policies and procedures ensure that the organizations way of doing business doesnt
deviate or deteriorate over time, even if key leaders or other employees leave. They are tailored
for the organization and the job, not to a specific employee. By following them, even the newest
employee can learn quickly about how the organization operates and why, whats expected of
any person in that position, and what the job entails. But managers should review and update
policies and procedures periodically to reflect intentional organizational changes, Gene Levine, a
business management consultant, says on the Gene Levine Associates website.

ACCOUNTABILITY

Having well-established policies and procedures can help a company refute allegations of legal
or regulatory violations that employees or customers may lodge against them, Levine points out.
They provide proof of intent but must be accompanied by genuine efforts to adhere to federal,
state and local rules, of course. Managers who insist on and verify organization-wide compliance
with laws and regulations can help prevent enforcement action by the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration, the Department of Labor, the Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission, the Internal Revenue Service or local health departments, for example. This may
also help to stave off law suits.

EFFECTIVE HR POLICIES
Effective human resource policies are instrumental in shaping the behavioral parameters of a
companys work force. Without HR policies, employees would not have a clear understanding of
the expectations and rules set by their employers.

SIGNIFICANCE

According to an article in All Business, business owners should integrate effective HR policies
into their corporate structure due to the many compliance authorities that pervade todays legal
environment. HR policies protect the organization legally and help employees remain safe at
work.

PROPOSED POLICIES FOR OUR ORGANIZATION


1) EMPLOYMENT POLICY

Recruitment

The recruitment of staff of the desired quality and in sufficient numbers is a primaryrequisite for
the maintenance of a high standard of service to our clients, in turn; thecontinued progress of the
organization relies. To ensure that the success of theorganization is not hampered by lack of
suitable personnel, from time to time theHuman Resource Manager will recruit suitable

personnel.The policy outlines; recruitment procedures, advertising (internally & externally) of


vacant

positions,

Head

hunting

procedure,

short

listing,

terms

of

employment-

contract,Permanent terms or casual, Qualifications and requirements e.g. Certificate of


goodConduct, References, academic certificates etc.

Interview

Based on the large numbers to be interviewed, recommended on an interview method of


selection, whether to be individual, panel or selection boards. The policy outlines they interview
procedures e.g. who is to conduct the interview (internally or outsourcing interviewing Co.), how
the interviews are conducted- aptitude test, oral interview, email, telephone etc.

Selection& Posting (placement)

This policy outlines selection criteria for a suitable candidate and the deployment procedure.

Induction

This is the process of orientation whereby, the candidate is introduces to the organizational day
to day activities through training. It can also be described the process of receiving and
welcoming employees when they first join a company, giving them the basic information they
need to settle down quickly and happily start to work. Employee hand book should be in place
that clearly conveys in simple terms to new staff the entire organization structure and the
hierarchy of command how it will look like.

Probation
This is the immediate period after deployment that enables the management to assess the
capabilities of the employee. It enables the management to understand the employee
better before confirmation. It also enables the new employee adapt to the organizations
working environment. This is usually 6 months; which is the case in many organizations

in Kenya.
Confirmation

This is a certificate awarded to the employee upon successful completion of probation period. It
applies if one is employed on permanent basis.

2) PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT POLICY) APPRAISALS

Appraisals

i)Balanced Scorecard
ii)Performance contract

Work plan

3) COMPENSATION POLICY
It is the goal of any company to maintain levels of pay and benefits that are competitive with the
average compensation of employers offering similar employment and competing in the same
labor market. This is in the form of:

Salary (remuneration)
Overtime
Commission
Bonus) Promotion
Certificate of recognitionvii) Reward in kind

4) TRANSFER POLICY
Transfers between departments may be permitted, when in the best interests of the organization
and the employee. The head of the department from which the employee is transferring should
verify that the employee is a satisfactory employee and eligible for transfer. Our organization
needs this policy to guide staff transfers and entitlements which include;

IDisturbance allowance
Traveling (movement) costs (Reimbursements)

5) STATUTORY CONTRIBUTIONS POLICY


This is the deductions on staff income which are backed-up by the law. They include NSSF,
NHIF, Training levy (Directorate of Industrial training).
6) EDUCATION, TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT

The major purpose of educating training and training are improving employee performance,
updating employee skills, avoiding managerial obsolescence, preparing for promotion and
managerial succession, and satisfying personal growth needs. Training needs are determined
based on the organization's and the employee's needs. Organizations provide training to
employees in the areas of company policies and procedures, specific skills, human relations, and
managerial skills. Some organizations also provide apprentice training. There are two types of
training methods - on-the-job and off-the-job. The policy should capture the scope of training
and Development activities, as in most other activities in an organization, depends on the policy
and strategies of the organization
7) TEAM BUILDING POLICY
Organizations are quickly adopting team building sessions for their staff to enhance team
cohesion and spirit. This policy gives the guidelines on how and when the team building sessions
should be carried out. For instance, Teambuilding events are no different from workplace events
in that managers are still responsible for the health and safety of their staff. Health and Safety
issues should always be taken into account and risk assessment prepared wherenecessary.All
events should have a clear structure and clearly defined objectives. The event should be
structured in such a way as to develop team skills such as leadership and communication skills,
decision-making, and organization and planning. It should be clear how they intend to develop
motivation and morale.
8) HEALTH, SAFETY &SECURITY AT WORK PLACE) FIRE/DISASTER ASSEMBLY
POINT
This policy is important to this organization and it spells the following; adequate and suitable
means of extinguishing fire must be provided in every building and persons trained in the correct
use of such means shall be present during all working periods. Detailed requirements are laid
down in the Act as to the special precautions necessary to ensure safety in the events of a fire.
Adequate means of escape in case of fire must be provided. Fire exits must be marked by a
notice printed in red letters of adequate size. Effective steps must be taken to ensure that the
workers are familiar with the means of escape and the routine to be followed in case of fire.

First Aid

In every workplace there must be provided a first-aid box or cupboard of a prescribed standard,
containing nothing except first-aid requisites, and in charge of a responsible person who must be
always readily available during working hours. In every workroom a notice must be affixed
stating the name of the person in charge of the box or cupboard provided in respect of that room.

Drinking Water supply

An adequate supply of wholesome drinking water must be provided. The policy also includes;
cleanliness of the workplace, ventilation, adequate lighting, drainage of floors, sanitary
accommodation, removal of waste materials, protective clothing and appliances and frequent
maintenance of hoist or lifts.
9) EMAIL AND INTERNET POLICY
In many organizations, access to the Internet was initially limited to anew people in the IT or
marketing groups. Today, with a PC on every desk, many employees find themselves with access
to the Internet and email but with little understanding of either the potential problems or the real
benefits which this can bring. The purpose of an acceptable use policy is to ensure that
employees understand the way in which these technologies should be used in the workplace. This
enables both employees and the organization to gain the maximum value from email and the
Internet, and alerts them to the dangers that can arise to the organization if they are misused,
which may put the organization at technical, legal or commercial risk. Employers are responsible
for their employees' activities when using email and the Internet. For example, if software for use
in an organization is obtained illegally, the employer is liable even if it was obtained without
their knowledge or permission. Similarly,
Information on an organizations website or in its email can give rise to legal action against the
company. The content of such policies will depend on the needs of the organization and the
expectations and requirements of its employees, so before producing an acceptable use policy, an
organization must have developed an agreed strategy for using email and the Internet. Butte
policy must always state the consequences of breaching the rules: since the issues covered range
from the inconsiderate through to illegal activities, the sanctions would similarly be expected to
range from verbal warning through to instant dismissal. The policy should be introduced and

explained during the employee inductionprogrammed. Where necessary, it should be reinforced


during specialist training sessions.
10) LEAVE POLICY ANNUAL LEAVE
Annual leave will be taken at the convenience of both the individual concerned and that of the
employer. Annual leave entitlement for different categories of staff, leave allowance,
accumulation of leave days and compensation of leave days not utilized are captured in this
policy. Employees are required to make written applications for leave through their head of
department. All leave applications, approvals, and related correspondence must be recorded in
the employees personal file.

Compassionate leave

An organization may give consideration to granting "special leave on compassionate grounds on


the production of proof of the necessity for such leave. Such may apply in cases of death of
employee's spouse, children or parents. The policy may set out the maximum number of days.

Maternity leave

This is a legal requirement by Kenyan labor laws (Employment Act); a female employee shall be
entitled to three months (3) maternity leave with full pay, in addition to her annual leave
entitlement for that year. Some organizations extend this by offering one and a half hour early
exit/late entry at workplace for nursing mothers for a period of one month.

Paternity leave

A staff member may be granted two (2) weeks paternity leave whenever his spouse delivers a
baby. The leave shall be taken within thirty (30) days from the date of delivery by the spouse.
This is a legal requirement by Kenyan labor laws.

Sick leave

In the event that a member of staff is unable to come to work as result of illness or accident, they
are expected to notify the supervisor at the earliest opportunity. A medical certificate is required
for absence and should be submitted to the HR office. Staff members may be entitled to a
specific number days per annum on full pay. If the staff member is still unfit to perform their

duties after this, the situation will be reviewed by the management and a decision to continue or
terminate their employment decided.

Study leave

The organization may offer study leave to members of staff for courses approved by the
management subject to job relevance. For self sponsored courses, leave will be granted but
deducted from annual leave days.

Leave of absence

A leave of absence without pay may be granted when the requirements of the department permit,
when such leave is for prolonged illness or injury, or for any exceptional personal or institutional
reason.Leaves of absence without pay may be granted only after all appropriate accumulated
leave has been used. Such leave must be requested by the employee and recommended by the
department chairperson or administrative head, and approved in accordance with the current
delegation of authority. Any regular employee may be granted a leave of absence without pay
when approved by the proper authority in order to preserve the employees employment rights
and benefits. A leave of absence may be granted only if the employee has a bona fide intention to
return to the organization following the leave.

Unpaid leave

In exceptional circumstances an employee may seek permission to take leave without pay. This
may be granted at the organizations discretion and only in the most deserving of cases.
11) MISUSE OF ORGANIZATIONS PROPERTY POLICY
This policy highlights how the organizations assets should be handled and the consequences for
mishandling.
12) TRAVELING POLICY
This policy highlights the entitlements and how staff should be reimbursed expenses incurred
while on is working out of the usual work station. This capture items like Per diem, Daily
allowancesetc
13) TRADE UNIONS POLICY

Trade unions are becoming popular and powerful in the modern world and they cannot be
ignored. Organizations need to recognize union staff in the organization and entrench the
bargaining agreement in the staff manual.
14) CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR) POLICY
Corporate social responsibility is a concept with a growing currency around the globe. CSR is a
concept that frequently overlaps with similar approaches such as corporate sustainability,
corporate sustainable development, corporate responsibility, and corporate citizenship. While
CSR does not have a universal definition, many seat as the private sectors way of integrating the
economic, social, and environmental imperatives of their activities. As such, CSR closely
resembles the business pursuit of sustainable development and the triple bottom line. In addition
to integration into corporate structures and processes, CSR also frequently involves creating
innovative and proactive solutions to societal and environmental challenges, as well as
collaborating with both internal and external stakeholders to improveperformance. Corporate
social responsibility (CSR) promotes a vision of business accountability to a wide range of
stakeholders, besides shareholders and investors. Key areas of concern are environmental
protection and the wellbeing of employees, the community and civil society in general, both now
and in the future. The concept of CSR is underpinned by the idea that corporations canon longer
act as isolated economic entities operating in detachment from broader society. Traditional views
about competitiveness, survival and profitability are being swept away.
15) ZERO TOLERANCE POLICY FOR HARASSMENT
There are many different kinds of harassment from sexual innuendos to religiousdiscrimination;
however, all forms of harassment present an element of risk in the office, so businesses institute
HR policies for maintaining a zero tolerance of harassment in the workplace. HR policies on
harassment encourage employees to report incidents immediately, so the issues can be addressed
and resolved timely by the HR department. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission states that employees should not feel threatened or harassed in the workplace.
Because harassment is considered a safety issue, HR policies on harassment will most likely
contain language about the repercussions involved in being found guilty of harassing others at
the office. Zero tolerance policies for harassment are put into place to protect employees and to
maintain a safe and comfortable work environment.

16) DRESS CODE


Policies on dress codes are common in the HR world because, according to Harvard Business
School, the way people dress can have a direct impact on how professional they appear and how
successful they are at what they do. HR dress code policies have different standards depending
on the company. For instance, dress code policies for construction workers are different than
dress code policies for people who work at a bank. Office environments typically require
employees to wear business formal or business casual attire. This includes slacks and dress shirts
for the guys and skirts, dresses, slacks or blouses for the ladies. HR dress code policies will list
attire that is not suitable for the workplace, such as jeans with holes, shirts that have fowl
language written on them, strapless tops and flip flops.

Here are some ideas for ensuring that your policy complies with the legal restrictions described
above:

1. Base the policy on business-related reasons. Explain your reasons in the policy so
Employees understand the rationale behind the restrictions. Common business-related
reasons include maintaining the organizations public image, promoting a productive
work environment, or complying with health and safety standards.
2. Require employees to have an appropriate, well-groomed appearance. Even casual
dress policies should specify what clothing is inappropriate (such as sweat suits, shorts,
and jeans) and any special requirements for employees who deal with the public.
3. Communicate the policy. Use employee handbooks or memos to alert employees to the
new policy, any revisions, and the penalties for noncompliance. In addition, explain the
policy to job candidates.
4. Apply the dress code policy uniformly to all employees. This can prevent claims that
the policy adversely affects women or minorities. However, you may have to make
exceptions if required by law.

5. Make reasonable accommodation when the situation requires an exception. Be


prepared to accommodate requests for religious practices and disabilities, such as head
coverings and facial hair.
6. Apply consistent discipline for dress code violations. When disciplining violators,
point out why their attire does not comply with the code and what they can do to comply.
17) Drug-Free Work Environment
According to the U.S. Department of Labor, employers must maintain a drug-free work
environment. The Virginia Department of Human Resource Management explains that the use or
possession of drugs and alcohol at work can have a negative impact on the work environment.
For instance, mood altering substances can cause workplace conflicts amongst employees,
prevent employees from performing at an optimal level, decrease productivity and create a health
and safety risk for the whole environment. For this reason, human resource departments issue
policies about maintaining a drug-free work environment. These policies will explain the
consequences for being found under the influence of substances or having substances in an
employee's possession while at work.

HR POLICIES & PROCEDURES

Human resource policies and procedures are industry-specific and will vary between different
business entities. Such policies help establish processes and practices that protect and enhance an
organization's objectives. These human resource practices manage a companys risks, address
employee needs and assist in adhering to state and federal labor laws. When policies and
procedures parallel the organizations mission, vision, values, strategic goals and objectives, they
become the tools used to help the company achieve those things.

STAFFING

HR policies and procedures dictate a protocol that is uniform and consistent in staffing the
organization with personnel that fits the business. Staffing procedures and policies take into
account where, when, why and how positions need to be filled or eliminated. Additionally, these
practices include employee orientations, succession planning, and retention and exit programs.
The size and type of an organization can dictate the extent to which these policies and procedures
are executed.

JOB PERFORMANCE

Businesses have procedures and policies in place to influence the efficiency and outcome of the
work being performed. Policies and procedures may include a means for employees to learn jobrelated tasks. However, they also inform employees what behavior is acceptable and what may
not necessarily be tolerated. A companys policies and procedures should be a reflection of its
employee manual, job performance reviews, and disciplinary actions. Attendance, dress codes,
cell phone and Internet usage are common issues found addressed in policies and procedures
relating to job performance.

COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS

An organization offering compensation and benefits needs policies and procedures to develop,
implement and administer such in accordance to state and federal law. Policies and procedures
may outline the course of action required for paid breaks, paid vacations, leaves of absence, job-

related injuries and illnesses. HR policies and procedures dictate the administration of health
insurance and other company benefits, as well as when and how employees are paid.

WORKPLACE RELATIONSHIPS

Policies and procedures spell out the process for which workers communicatewith each other.
Organizational charts may indicate who is whose boss, but the policies and procedures dictate
how the exchange of ideas should transpire. Employee and labor relations can be enhanced with
policies and procedures that implement good working relationships. Respect for cultural
differences is often addressed in the policies and procedures to prevent discrimination and
harassment.

SAFETYS

Establishing policies and procedures to provide a healthy, safe and secure working environment,
in compliance with labor laws, is critical to an organizations interests. Policies and procedures
include programs and training to respond to specific safety issues, in addition to providing or
requiring the proper safety equipment, tools or supplies to assure safe working conditions.

EMPLOYEE RETENTION POLICIES & STRATEGIES


There are two major difficulties facing human resources now days. The first is joblessness rate
which causes grossly under qualified people to apply to your company and the second is
employee retention. For business owners, retaining your best employees may pose as a
challenge.
Entrepreneurs know how competitive hiring is in the business sector and the fear of employees
jumping the fence to join a competitor is more palpable now more than ever. It is hard to find
good employees but it is even harder to promote company loyalty. Once you find top quality
people to work for you, you have to ensure that you can keep them because retaining quality
employees is one of the keys to ensure the growth of your business.
HERE ARE SOME TIPS OF RETENTION:

BE A FLEXIBLE AND TRANSPARENT EMPLOYER.

You have to realize the importance of having a work-life balance. You might be a workaholic
who needs to work 24 hours a day, 7 days a week for you to be productive, leaving little time for
your personal life. While that might work for you, you cannot expect the same from your
employees. If needed, you have to let them take some time off for a well-deserved vacation or
other situations which needs a little understanding on your part. Do not begrudge your best
employees of the time they need for themselves. This would help solve unease and stress in the
workplace.

PROVIDE GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES.

The most common reason for employees leaving jobs they have had for the longest time is
because of dissatisfaction when it comes to growth opportunities. Do not impede the growth of
your employees just because theyre already doing a great job where they are. You need to
implement seminars and conferences which would promote self-development. You also need to
constantly give challenges to your employees by way of giving them new responsibilities every
now and then. This would help your employees acquire new skill sets, make them feel good
about themselves and eliminate boredom and monotony in the workplace.

GIVE COMPENSATION WHERE IT IS DUE.

Not all employees are all about the money. You have to be fair in giving out compensation but
you also need to ensure that you are within your budget. If your employee deserves a raise
because of their performance and you can see that you are well within budget even after youve
given the raise, then do so. Giving your employees fair pay makes them feel that their
contributions to the company are being appreciated which in turn would make them more
committed to the company.

ENFORCE AN OPEN DESK POLICY.

You need to make your employees feel that what they have to say is important because it really
is. Whether they need to air a grudge or would offer you some suggestions for the betterment of

the company, you need to hear them out. Some of the best ideas come from employees
themselves since they are already familiar with the ropes of the business.

POLICIES
A policy is a predetermined course of action established as a guide toward accepted objectives
and strategies of the organization. A vision is formulated, business processes are analyzed, and
policy and procedure systems to support the vision are born. As policies and procedures are
written, approved, published, and implemented, the companys vision is articulated.

OBJECTIVE:

Objectives To provide fair, acceptable & efficient leadership To provide an opportunity for
expansion & voice in management To strengthen & appreciate the human assets continuously by
providing training & developmental programs To provide facilities & conditions of work
&creation of favorable atmosphere for maintaining stability of employment To attain an effective
utilization of human resources in the achievement of organizational goals, etc

POLICY MANUAL:

Policy manuals are developed to help staff and management teams run the organization. In best
use situations, policies play a strategic role in an organization. They are developed in light of the
mission and objectives of the company and they become the media by which managements
plans, rules, intents, and business processes become documented and communicated to all staff.
Carefully drafted and standardized policies and procedures save the company countless hours of
management time. The consistent use and interpretation of such policies, in an evenhanded and
fair manner, reduces management's concern about legal issues becoming legal problems.

MISSION ANDPOLICY:

Without policies boundaries and baselines related to the companys missions and objectives
would not exist. When developing your policies, you should start with your mission and
objectives. A mission statement should be a clear statement about who your company is trying to
serve. It should be a cultural reflection of the values, beliefs, and philosophy of the organization.

It should be very brief and very clear so that everyone in the organization can understand it and
so that objectives are seen clearly as steps to achieving the mission. Objectives are like goals;
they direct the staffs attention to important factors in running the organization and help define
unique ways to enhance performance of individuals and the organization as a whole.

DEVELOPMENT OF HR POLICY, PROCEDURES & PROCESSES

The Human Resource Manual is developed to enable managers and supervisors to fulfill their
human resources responsibilities effectively, by providing parameters and guidance for decisionmaking, as well as providing all staff with user-friendly and accessible information.
HR Manual covers a range of different areas including policies regarding agreements with staff,
policies defining recruitment and selection procedures, regulations laid down defining conditions
of employment, remuneration and recognition policies and all legal and ethical responsibilities.
Our clients are facilitated in determining their needs in this regard and to formulate and compile
prescribed policy and procedures adapted to their specific needs. During this interaction, we
draw upon our experience of HR practices, as observed in different operating environments and
industries. Clients are also assisted in the effective implementation of prescribed policies and
procedural guidelines to ensure that intended objectives are achieved.
HR MENTORS
Formulate and execute the contemporary HR Policies & Procedures in comparison with Labor
Laws and best market practices. Modification to existing Policies and to ensure that HR
initiatives are innovative and cost effective. For example:

Recruitment Policy
Insurance Policy
Salary Administration Policy
Grievance Handling Policy
Training & Development Policy
Resignation & Termination Policy
Performance Appraisal Policy

Code of Conduct
Transfer Policy
Staff Benefits & Compensation Policy
Travel Policy
Medical Policy
Overtime Policy
Gratuity / Provident Fund Policy
Attendance & Leave Policy

OTHERS
This service also includes: Drafting of HR related correspondence: Letter of Appointments
(Permanent, Contractual, Temporary), Demotions, Suspension, Charge Sheet, Show Cause
Notice, Warnings, Dismissals, Full and Final Settlement, Termination, Enquiry Letters,
Grievance Reply, etc. in alignment with the corporate HR Policies and Labour Laws .
HR Mentors train, support and advice department Managers in the operation of HR Policies &
Procedures and applicable Labour Laws.

TYPES OF HR POLICIES
Various Types of Policies Employment Policies These are the policies that guide hiring practices,
orientation of new employees, compliance with employment laws, and confidentiality.
Employment Status & Records these are the policies that define such issues as employment
classifications, access to personnel files and guidance on how background checks and
performance reviews are to be performed. Employee Benefits these are policies that explain
employee benefits such as insurance, vacations, holidays, leave, and employee reimbursements.
Payroll these are policies that are related to salary and wage administration including deductions,
pay advances, and time keeping.
Workplace Guidelines These policies are quite varied and their purpose range from defining
certain work arrangements such as flex time and telecommuting to offering guidelines on the use
of company assets and record retention. Employee Conduct these policies are guidelines that

control employer behavior and conduct on the job. The mainstay of this section is a code of
conduct but also important are policies regarding substance abuse, smoking, harassment, and
workplace violence. E-Policies These policies guide staff in the use of the organizations
information technology. Policies defining acceptable and prohibited activities and use of e-mail
and the Internet make up a majority of these policies.
There are many types of HR policies, which range from anti-discrimination policies to
emergency evacuation procedures. In a companys corporate policy manual, policies are usually
grouped together by subject.

BEHAVIORAL POLICIES

Behavioral policies outline expected work ethics, relationships, behaviors and levels of
professionalism from staff. When employees adhere to behavioral policies, it creates a more
orderly environment so work can get done with fewer distractions and interruptions.

SAFETY POLICIES

Safety policies come in handy by providing employees with ways to remain safe and healthy at
work. Policies about emergency evacuations, first aid and fire prevention will be effective in
maintaining a safe work environment.

PERFORMANCE POLICIES

Employers have strict rules about employee performance. Some of these policies include rules
about attendance, absenteeism, performance evaluations, and employee benefits and
compensation.

ETHICAL POLICIES

Ethical policies are not only good for keeping employees in line; they also benefit the company
because outside parties may be interested in what the company's ethical stances are. Stakeholders
and investors, for instance, may want to look at HR's ethical policies to see what policies are in
place for confidentiality, disclosures, personal affairs, conflicts of interest and political activities,
says the International Money Fund.

PROFESSIONALISM POLICIES

HR policies touch on standards for professionalism. For example, dress codes are policies that
establish the expectation for professional attire in the workplace. Other types of professional hr
policies include policies about employee relationship and performing work in a way that gives
the company a positive public image
Small business owners should make sure that they address the following basic human resource
issues when putting together their personnel policies:

Equal Employment Opportunity policies

Employee classifications

Workdays, paydays, and pay advances

Overtime compensation

Meal periods and break periods

Payroll deductions

Vacation policies

Holidays

Sick days and personal leave.

Performance evaluations and salary increases Termination policies.

Conclusion
All these policies when compiled in one booklet may be referred to as staff manual.
Policies depend on the strategies of an organization.
These policies must be inline with the labour laws, human rights and theconstitution.
The policies should also have a clause on how they can be amended to incorporate any changes.

BIBILOGRAPHY
www.google.com
www.wiki.in
www.hrp.com
www.hrm.com
www.wiki.org.com