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(ACTUS&REUS&++ATTENDANT+CIRCUMSTANCES)++&MENS&REA&+&CAUSATION&=&CRIME&+&RESULT&&DEFENSE(S)&

Actus&Reus&

+"A$endant"Circumstances?"

Omission&

Duty+Of+Care++

Act&

Moral+ObligaJon+

Status+relaJonship++
If+Yes+!+Acquit+
Contractual+Duty+
If+No+!+MR+Analysis+
Voluntary+Undertaking+
CreaJon+of+Peril+

Involuntary+or+Voluntary?+
""(Duress"se?)""""""""""""

Results+or+Conduct+Crime?+
++++++++++++++++++(no"causa7on"analysis)"

Mens&Rea&

Purposefully+
Knowingly+
Recklessly+PLUS"
Recklessly+
General+Intent+ Grossly+Negligent++
+++++(Negligence+PLUS)+
Negligently++
Specic+Intent+

Complete+&+Not+Successful+Crimes,+OR+
IncompleteATTEMPT&(next"page,"no""
"Causa7on"Analysis)"

Statutory&Interpreta1on&
Common&Law:&

1.+Plain+meaning+of+text,+if+unclear/ambiguous:+
2.+Cannons&of&Construc1on+
a) Statutory&Structure&+consider+in+all+parts+
b) Purpose+(and+contrary+legislaJve+purpose)+
c) Avoid&absurdity&
d) Legisla1ve&history&
e) Rule&of&Lenity&strictly+construed+against+the+
prosecuJon;+if+2+reasonable+interpretaJons,+
the+one+that+is+MOST+FAVORABLE+TO++applies+
"Doctrine+of+LAST&RESORT+
"Not&in&MPC+

MPC&

1.+Break+down+Elements+
+a.+Conduct+(what+youre+doing++act)+
+b.+AC++turns+purposefully+into+knowingly+
+c.+Results+or+not+results+crime?+
2.+ID+Material+v.+Nonmaterial+Element+of+oense+
+a.+NOT+procedural+shit,+unrelated+to+harm/evil,+
+++++existence+of+jusJcaJon++
3.+Determine+MR+
Default&Rule:&statute+silent+re+MR,+reckless+default+
Subs1tu1on&Rule:&lowest+MR+saJses+higher+ones.+
+a.+If+crime+lists+several+MR,+lowest+one+++++++
++++++establishes+culpability.++
+b.+Willful+=+Knowingly+
Condi1onal&Intent:&purpose+enough+to+establish+
culpability+unless+condiJon+negates+harm+sought+to+be+
prevented+
Travel&Rule:&except+w+SL,+proof+of+MR+to+each+element+of+
oense+when+one+term+is+menJoned,+MR+applies+to+
material+element+of+oense+unless+shown+otherwise+

&&&Defenses+!++

MO&Fact&

MO&Law&

Specic&Intent&

Defense+

Defense+

General&Intent&

Only+Reasonable+
Mistakes+

No+Defense+

Strict&Liability&

No+Defense+

No+Defense+

Complete+&+Successful+

Factual/Actual&

But++For+
SubstanJal+Factor+
Omission"

Causa1on&

Proximate&Cause&
Foreseeable+

Interven1on&of&Autonomous&Actor&
Cuts+o+Chain+
UlJmate+Harm+caused++by+another+actor+
+Ques7ons:""
1.
2.
3.

Who"caused"Ul7mate"Harm?"
Was"actor"autonomous?"
Mental"state"not"100%,"under"inuence"of"crim"Actor?"

Ins1tu1onal&Background&

ANALYSIS OF CRIMES

1. CATEGORIZE THE CRIME
a. Is this a conduct or results crime?
- Results Crime: offense defined in terms of a prohibited result
- Conduct Crime: crimes where the AR is defined in terms of the conduct
b. Is this a specific intent, general intent, or strict liability crime?

HOMICIDE CRIMES (Results) YES causation analysis
Specific Intent

(purposely to knowingly)

(recklessness+ to negligence)

General Intent

Strict Liability
(NO MR)

Depraved Heart Murder

Felony Murder (CL only)

Murder

Murder

Manslaughter

Voluntary Manslaughter
(heat of passion or EED)

escalate
Involuntary Manslaughter

Homicide

Negligent Homicide

Attempt

Attempted Murder or
Manslaughter

mitigate

RAPE CRIMES (Conduct) NO causation analysis


Specific Intent

General Intent

(purposely to knowingly)

(recklessness+ to negligence)

Strict Liability
(NO MR)

Attempted Rape

Rape

Statutory Rape


c. Is this an ATTEMPT? NO causation analysis, ATTEMPT is specific intent crime
- Attendant Circumstances for target crime also apply to attempt. If ACs not present, must
show s belief that ACs are present

COMPLETE, but not successful?
INCOMPLETE?
Result Crime
Conduct Crime
Do the AR tests
acted with the purpose/belief to cause a criminal purposely engages in criminal conduct
on p. 26.
result (belief that result will occur is enough)
if the ACs were as believes them to be

2. ASSESS THE DEFENSES:

CRIMINAL DEFENSES

ATTEMPT DEFENSES

Pure Legal Impossibility (CL only): law


doesnt criminalize what sets out to do
Self-Defense: non-aggressor, reasonably belief, of necessity to protect
Abandonment (MPC only): complete and
from imminent [unlawful use of force by another]/[threat of bodily harm] voluntary renunciation
Defense of Another: traditional (other would be justified) v. modern
RAPE DEFENSES
(actor believes other would be justified)
Defense of Property: depends on jurisdiction, see p. 30
Fraud in Inducement: victim understands
s/he had sex, misunderstanding re: facts
Necessity: choice of evils, faultless, see p. 31 (MPC only for homicide)
except marriage (impersonating a
EXCUSE
spouse) = fraud in factum, see p. 24
Duress (Insanity, Intoxication), see p. 32
JUSTIFICATION