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P.G.

DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY
UNIVERSITY OF JAMMU
Baba Saheb Amedkar Road, Jammu -180 006 (J&K) - India

No.: JU/ Botany/ Dated:……………………..

CERTIFICATE

It is certified that:

1. The thesis entitled Ecological studies and conservation of medicinal plants of Neeru
watershed (J&K) embodies the work of Mr. Harish Chander, himself.
2. The candidate has worked under my supervision for the period required under statutes.
3. The candidate has put in attendance in the department during the period required under
rules.
4. The thesis being submitted for the degree of Ph.D. by Mr. Harish Chander is worth
consideration for the award of Ph.D. degree of the University of Jammu, Jammu. The thesis
incorporates research work of the candidate and has not been earlier submitted in this or any
other University in the present or any other form.
5. The conduct of research scholar remained satisfactory during the period of research.

Prof. V.K. Anand Prof. Shashi Kant

H.O.D. Supervisor
Department of Botany
University of Jammu
A
ACCK
KNNOOW
WLLE
EDDG
GEEM
MEEN
NTTSS

IItt ggiivveess m mee iim mm meennssee pplleeaassuurree ttoo eexxpprreessss m myy ddeeeepp sseennssee ooff ggrraattiittuuddee aanndd
iinnddeebbtteeddnneessss ttoo mmyy rreevveerreedd tteeaacchheerr aanndd gguuiiddee PPrrooff.. SShhaasshhii K Kaanntt.. D Deessppiittee hhiiss bbuussyy
sscchheedduullee hhee aallw waayyss iinnssppiirreedd m mee w wiitthh iinnvvaalluuaabbllee ssuuggggeessttiioonnss,, iinneexxhhaauussttiibbllee aanndd
uunnttiirriinngg gguuiiddaannccee aanndd ccoonnssttrruuccttiivvee ccrriittiicciissmm aanndd pprroovviiddeedd iim mppeettuuss iinn oonnee ffoorrm m oorr
tthhee ootthheerr aatt eevveerryy sstteepp ooff pprreesseenntt ssttuuddyy,, wwithout which my study would have neevveerr
i tho ut w hi c h m y s tu d y w o u l d h a v e n
bbeeeenn ccoom mpplleetteedd..

II ggrraatteeffuullllyy aacckknnoow wlleeddggee tthhee ffiinnaanncciiaall ssuuppppoorrtt pprroovviiddeedd ttoo m


mee iinn tthhee ffoorrm m ooff JJPPFF
aanndd SSR RF by G.B.Pant Institute of Himalayan Ecology and Development, A
F b y G . B . P a n t In s ti t u te o f H im a l a y a n E c o l o g y a n d D e v e lo p m e n t, Allmmoorraa
((U
Uttttrraanncchhaall)) iinn tthhee PPrroojjeecctt ““C Coonnsseerrvvaattiioonn aanndd PPrrooppaaggaattiioonn ooff ttrraaddiittiioonnaall hheerrbbss ooff
JJaammm muu”” aassssiiggnneedd ttoo PPrrooff.. SShhaasshhii K Kaanntt ((A Apprriill 22000033--MMaarrcchh 22000066)),, w
wiitthhoouutt w whhiicchh iitt
w o u ld n o t ha v e be e n p o s si b l e f o r m e t o
would not have been possible for me to complete such a stupendous task. c o m p le te s u c h a s tu p e nd o u s t a s k .

II aamm tthhaannkkffuull ttoo tthhee PPrrooff.. VViijjaayy K K.. AAnnaanndd,, H HO OD DB Boottaannyy,, U Unniivveerrssiittyy ooff JJaammm muu,, ffoorr
eexxtteennddiinngg m me laboratory and other facilities. Prof. R.N. Gohil, Prof A.K. Waakkhhlluu,,
e la b o r a to r y a n d o t he r f a c il itie s . P r o f. R . N. G o h il, P r o f A . K . W
PPrrooff.. AAnniim maa L Laannggeerr,, PPrrooff.. II..A
A.. HHaam maall,, PPrrooff G Geeeettaa SSuum mbbaallii,, PPrrooff.. R Raannii M Maannggoottrraa,,
DDrr.. N Naam mrraattaa SShhaarrm maa,, aanndd D Drr.. VVeeeennuu K Koouull ooff D Deeppaarrttm meenntt ooff B Boottaannyy,, U Unniivveerrssiittyy ooff
JJaammm muu ddeesseerrvvee tthhaannkkss ffoorr iinnssppiirriinngg m mee ttoo ccoom mpplleettee tthhiiss w woorrkk.. D Drr.. Y Yaasshh PPaall
SShhaarrm ma, although has been my teacher, yet his brotherly treatment at eveerryy sstteepp
a , a l th o u g h h a s b e e n m y t e a c h e r , y e t his b r o th e r l y tr e a tm e n t a t e v
hheellppeedd m mee aa lloott iinn ccoom mpplleettiinngg tthhee ssttuuddyy.. M Myy ssppeecciiaall tthhaannkkss aarree dduuee ttoo D Drr.. ((M
Mrrss..))
KKrriisshhnnaa A Annaanndd aanndd SShh.. H Haarrii PPrraassaadd ffoorr ttaakkiinngg ccaarree ooff aallll m myy hheerrbbaarriiuum m sshheeeettss
aanndd aacccceessssiioonnss.. TThhaannkkss aarree aallssoo dduuee ttoo aallll nnoonn-- tteeaacchhiinngg ssttaaffff m meem mbbeerrss ffoorr tthheeiirr
hheellpp iinn tthhee ccoouurrssee ooff m y r e s e a r c
my research period.h p e r io d .

EEvveerryy w woorrkk nneeeeddss eennccoouurraaggeemmeenntt,, ccaarriinngg aanndd aaffffeeccttiioonnaattee aattm


moosspphheerree w
whhiicchh w
waass
pprroovviiddeedd bbyy M Mrs. Veena Kant. Her feelings shall always be cherished by m
r s. V e en a K a nt . H e r f ee l ing s s h a l l a l w a y s be c h e r ish e d b y mee
tthhrroouugghhoouutt m y l i
my life.f e .

II eexxtteenndd mmyy tthhaannkkss ttoo PPrrooff.. H H..SS.. K


Kiirrnn ffoorr hhiiss kkiinndd hheellpp iinn iiddeennttiiffiiccaattiioonn ooff ppllaanntt
ssppeecciim
mens. I extend a deep sense off ggrraattiittuuddee ttoo m
e n s. I e x te n d a de e p s e ns e o myy sseenniioorrss DDrr.. JJaaggbbiirr SSiinngghh,, D Drr..
RRajinder Sharma, Dr. Sanjay Arora, Dr. Neeraj Sharma, Dr. Susheel Verma, Drr..
a j in d e r S ha r m a , D r . S a n ja y A r o r a , D r . N e e r a j S ha r m a , D r . S u s h e e l V er m a , D
YYaasshh PPaall SSiinngghh,, DDrr.. MMaajjaadd JJhhaannggiirr,, DDrr.. T
Taannvviirr,, M
Mrr.. PPaannkkaajj SShhaarrm maa,, M Mrr.. JJaaggddeeeepp
GGuuppttaa,, aanndd M Mrr.. SSaannjjaayy SShhaarrm maa ffoorr eennccoouurraaggiinngg m mee ffrroom m ttiim mee ttoo ttiim mee ttoo w woorrkk
hhaarrdd ffoorr ccoom p i li n g th
mpiling this data.i s d a ta .

MMyy ccoolllleeaagguueess,, aa ppaarrtt ooff m


myy ssuucccceessss,, hhaavvee pprroovveedd aass bboooosstteerrss iinn m myy w woorrkk.. II aamm
tthhaannkkffuull ttoo MMrr.. R Raavvii SShhaarrm
maa,, M Miissss JJooyyttii SSuuddaann,, M Mrr.. A Anniirruuddhh R Raaii,, MMrr.. VViikkrraamm
SShhaarrm ma, Miss. Sukriti Sharma, Mr. Mohd. Arif, Miss Bhuvi, Mr. Arun Verma,,
a , M i ss. S u kr i ti Sh a r m a , M r . M o h d . A r if, M i s s B h u v i, M r . A r u n V e r ma
MMr. N..D
r . N D.. M Miisshhrraa,, M
Mrr.. Z Zuubbaaiirr,, MMiissss R Rooooppssii K Kaappoooorr,, M Mrr.. D Dhheeeerraajj SShhaarrm maa,, M Miissss
SSeeeem maa,, aanndd M Mrr.. SSaannjjeeeevv K
Koouull ffoorr tthheeiirr lloovvaabbllee bbeehhaavviioorr aanndd kkiinndd hheellpp dduurriinngg m
myy
rreesseeaarrcchh w
woorrkk..

FFrriieennddss aarree tthhoossee wwhhoo w waassttee ttiim


mee uunnnneecceessssaarriillyy bbuutt II aam
m bblleesssseedd bbyy ssuucchh ffrriieennddss
wwhhoo aallw waayyss ttooookk ccaarree ooff m myy pprreecciioouuss ttiimmee aanndd hheellppeedd m mee.. II ccaannnnoott ffoorrggeett tthhee
mmoorraall ssuuppppoorrtt,, aaffffeeccttiioonn,, kkiinndd hheellpp pprroovviiddeedd bbyy M Mrr.. M Maahhrrooooff K Khhaann,, DDrr.. ((MMrrss..))
SSeeeemmaa SShhaarrm maa,, M Mrr.. A Am miitt VVeerrm maannii,, aanndd MMiissss SSoonniiaa SShhaarrmmaa..
II eexxpprreessss m
myy tthhaannkkss ttoo MMrrss.. A Ammiittaa FFootteeddaarr ffoorr hheellppiinngg m
mee iinn ssooiill aannaallyyssiiss.. H
Heerr
ccoommppaannyy aanndd m moorraall ssuuppppoorrtt iinn w
whhoollee ooff m myy rreesseeaarrcchh ppeerriioodd hhaass iinnccoorrppoorraatteedd aa
ddeeeepp sseennssee ooff eenntthhuussiiaassm
m aanndd ddeetteerrm miinnaattiioonn iinn ppuurrssuuaannccee ooff m myy sscciieennttiiffiicc
eennddeeaavvoouurrss..

II aamm aallssoo iinnddeebbtteedd ttoo PPrrooff.. K Kaallssoottaarraa aanndd D Drr.. H Haakk N Niiw waazz ooff D Deeppaarrttm
meenntt ooff
CChheem miissttrryy,, U Unniivveerrssiittyy ooff JJaam mm muu ffoorr pprroovviiddiinngg m mee A Attoom miicc A Abbssoorrppttiioonn
SSppeeccttrroopphhoottoom
meetteerr ffaacciilliittiieess ffoorr m
miiccrroo--eelleem
meennttaall aannaallyyssiiss ooff ssooiillss..

II aam m aallssoo tthhaannkkffuull ttoo R


Raajjeesshh KKuum maarr aanndd R Raajjeesshh SSiinngghh w
whhoo hheellppeedd m
mee iinn tthhee ppllaanntt
ccoolllleeccttiioonn aanndd iinn m
maakkiinngg hheerrbbaarriiuum
m sshheeeettss..

II ffeeeell pprriivviilleeggee ttoo eexxpprreessss m


myy ggrraattiittuuddee ttoo mmyy ppaarreennttss aanndd ddeeaarr NNaavveeeenn C
Chhaannddeerr
DDutt for their great cooperation and moral support during the period of my ssttuuddyy..
u tt f o r t h e ir gr e a t c o o p e r a tio n a n d m o r a l s upp o r t d u r in g th e p e r io d o f m y

TThhee m meerriittss pprreesseenntt iinn tthhiiss tthheessiiss aarree dduuee ttoo aallll aabboovvee aacckknnoowwlleeddggeedd ppeerrssoonnss bbuutt tthhee
eerrrroorrss aanndd ddeeffiicciieenncciieess aarree m my own copyright and no otthheerr ppeerrssoonn sshhoouulldd bbee
y o w n c o p y r i g h t a n d n o o
ccrreeddiitteedd ffoorr tthheem
m..

H
Haarriisshh C
Chhaannddeerr
Introduction
DEMAND
TFOR
HE TREE IS A PECULIAR
KINDNESS AND BENEVOLENCE
ITS SUSTENANCE AND EXTENDS
ORGANISM OF
AND
UNLIMITED
MAKES
GENEROUSLY THE
NO

PRODUCTS OF ITS LIFE ACTIVITY. IT AFFORDS PROTECTION TO ALL


BEINGS OFFERING SHADE EVEN TO THE AXE-MEN WHO DESTROY IT.
Gautam Buddha
487 B.C.

Plants occur over the surface of the Earth in well-defined patterns


that are closely correlated with both climate and history of the planet. Forests are
the most important of all the natural communities from the stand point of area,
carbon content, annual carbon fixation, the cycling of nutrient elements, and
influence on energy and water budgets. They are also responsible for the rich and
varied biotic diversity on land.
The most extensive forests are the boreal coniferous forests of
North America, Scandinavia, Northern Europe and Northern Asia. The moist
forests of the tropics are the most diverse, often containing as many as 100
species of trees per hectare and occasionally many more. The mountain lands, in
this context, provide a scattered but diverse array of habitats in which a large
range of plants and animals can be found. The harsh environmental conditions
generally prevail at higher altitudes and the alpine vegetation, upon which the
present account is focused, is supported therein. Mountain forests commonly
cover lower slopes. At even lower levels mountain lands grade into other types of
landforms and vegetation.

Himalayan region is considered as a rich emporium of medicinal


and aromatic plants. India, rich in traditions, is only one such land on the Earth.
India has been rich in traditional pharmaceutical formulations used to cure
different ailments since historical past. Ayurveda is one such tradition which was
practiced in earlier times and is still being practiced in India and has been well
documented from the times of Rigvedic Period.

Rigveda, the oldest literature describes some medicinally important


plants. Vedic literature followed by the writings of Charaka, Sushruta,
Dhanwantri, Nagarjuna, Prashara, Balmiki and others bear testimony to the
Himalayan medicinal wealth. Plants still constitute one of the major raw
materials for drugs in the treatment of various ailments of human beings,
although there has been a significant development in the field of synthetic drug
chemistry and antibiotics. The isolation of active principles from medicinal
plants and characterization can be traced back to the beginning of 19th century.
From crude Ma-Huang (Ephedra sp.) of China, Ephedrine was isolated in 1887
and later introduced as drug in 1925. Likewise, from Opium (Papaver
somniferum), Morphine was isolated in 1804 and introduced as drug in 1818. At
present it is estimated that the plant sources of nearly 80 percent of Ayurvedic,
46 percent of Unani and 33 percent of Allopathic medicines exist in the Western
Himalayan region.

1.1. Himalayas and its vegetation:


Himalayas, constitutes the youngest mountain ranges of the world
(Wadia, 1953). Its central ridge which forms the southern limit of Tibet for 2,500
miles from Assam in the east to the Jammu and Kashmir in the west, especially,
possess series of more or less parallel or converging ranges intercepted by
numerous valleys and extensive plateaus. Due to variation in topography, it
enjoys a variety of climate, and thus has been divided into three ecological zones
i.e., sub-mountainous or outer zone, temperate zone and alpine zone. These
climatic variations make it very interesting and rich repository of biodiversity.
The average total annual rainfall of the area varies from 1000-2000 mm. The
inner dry valleys and Trans-Himalayan tracts, that lie north of the main
Himalayan mountain wall, receive very low monsoon rainfall but relatively
heavy snowfall. Based on altitude, the vegetation of this botanical region can be
sub-divided into following sub regions as per Saraswat and Thakur (1998):

1.1.1. Tropical vegetation: It is found in the extreme southern tract of


the Western Himalaya i.e. parts of Jammu, Himachal Pradesh and Terai tracts of
Kumoan. The main tree species found growing here are Acacia catechu, Bombax
ceiba, Butea monosperma, Ficus glomerata, Shorea robusta, Terminalia arjuna,
Toona ciliata and Zizyphus mauritiana.

1.1.2. Subtropical vegetation: This type of vegetation extends up to


an elevation of about 1,500 msl. The main tree species of the zone are Acacia
catechu, Dalbergia sissoo, Ficus benghalensis, Grewia optiva, Hardwickia
pinnata, Kydia calycina, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Pinus roxburghii, Shorea
robusta, Terminalia arjuna, Toona ciliata and Zizyphus mauritiana.

1.1.3. Temperate vegetation: This zone extends from an elevation of


1,500msl to 3,500msl. The main tree species found here are Abies pindrow,
Aesculus indica, Alnus nepalensis, Betula alnoides, Cedrus deodara, Juglans
regia, Picea smithiana, Pinus roxburghii, Pinus wallichiana, Quercus
himalayana, Quercus leucotrichophora and Rhododendron arboreum.
1.1.4. Sub-alpine vegetation: This vegetation extends from 3,500 msl
till the tree line. The main tree species of the region are Abies pindrow, Acer
acuminatum, Acer caesium, Alnus nitida, Betula utilis, Juniperus wallichiana,
Picea smithiana, Pinus wallichiana and Rhododendron sp.
1.1.5. Alpine vegetation: Alpine vegetation lies just below the
snowline, usually above an altitude of 4,200 m. The tree growth is slow and
stunted and most of the vegetation is alpine scrub.

1.2. Himalayas and its vicinity:


Owing to enormous size and elevation, the Himalayas are grouped
into four belts on the basis of geomorphology, hydrography and vegetation.
These belts are:
1. Trans- Himalaya or Tibet Himalaya.
2. Great or Inner or higher Himalaya or Himadri.
3. Lower Himalaya or lesser Himalaya or Himachal.
4. Sub-Himalaya or outer Himalaya or Shivalik.

From west to east, the great chain is recognizable into western,


central and eastern Himalayas. The north-western Himalayas embrace the states
of Jammu and Kashmir (Kashmir Himalaya), Himachal Pradesh (Bashar
Himalaya) and Uttranchal (Kumaon Himalaya).

Jammu and Kashmir state covering an area of 2,22,235 square km.


with a population of 10,069,917 (as per 2001 census) is stretched between
latitude 32017/- 37003/ North and longitude 72003/-80020/ East. The average
annual rainfall in the state is between 600-800 mm and annual average
temperature lies between 150C - 170C. On the basis of geographic features and
location the state of Jammu and Kashmir is divided into five divisions. These
divisions are:
1. Southwest alluvial plains of Chenab and Ravi.
2. Pir-Panjal Range and Shiwalik Range.
3. Valley of Kashmir.
4. Great Himalayas.
5. Trans Himalayas.

1.3. Neeru watershed – A profile:


Neeru watershed in Bhadarwah tehsil of district Doda, lies at
latitude 32008/24//-32052/26//North and longitude 75048/38//-75032/41//East
(Calculated from topo-sheet No. 43-P and 43-O on 1:250,000 scale). Bhadarwah
is a bowl shaped valley having Neeru drainage from south to north-west (Plate-
1). Neeru nallah is doubly fed by Kaplash Kund (4341msl) and Ashapatti Glacier
at an altitude of 3300 msl. It comprises a vast catchment area spread in 64,024
hectares. The area is richly endowed with thick vegetation of coniferous forests.

1.3.1. Topography of the area: The study area i.e. Neeru watershed
(Bhadarwah) is flanked by lofty mountains on all the sides. The alpine meadows
of the area add to the beauty of the area (Plate-2 Figs.-1-3). Neeru catchment is
surrounded by Kishtwar and Doda tehsils of district Doda in north-west, by
Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh in the east and Kathua and Udhampur
districts of J&K in the south and south-west respectively. The land of Bhadarwah
town is suitable for cultivation of Paddy. The paddy fields are in the form of
terraces due to mountainous terrain (Plate-3, Fig.-2).

The area primarily lies in the Pir Panjal range very near to where
Dhauladhar range bifurcates into smaller ranges. In its south-west of the area
there is a famous Kaplash range (Kaplash Kund: 4341 msl) and in south-east a
famous Ashapatti Glacier (3300 msl) along the area bordering Kathua. The
Neeru nallah which originates from Kaplash Kund and Ashapatti Glacier is a
tributary of river Chenab in district Doda of Jammu and Kashmir. The Neeru
valley is located in high mountain ranges, more than 1000 msl in altitude, on
both the banks over most of its stretch. Hence Neeru nallah, a perennial torrential
snow fed nallah has a dual origin; one tributary originating from Kaplash Kund, a
holy lake shrine and the other originating from Ashapatti glacier. The lake which
is almost circular in outline and about 2.4 km in circumference is surrounded on
all sides by barren mountains (Plate-3, Fig.-1). On its way Neeru nallah receives
a large number of snow and spring fed tributaries from Chattergali, Sharthal, and
passes to Basti area, where it is named as Basti nallah. At Monda village it
receives tributaries originating from Ashapatti Glacier, Thanala and Sartingal
villages and at this point the main stream is named as Neeru nallah. After this, it
traverse through the Bhadarwah town, Gatha, Dradoo, Dranga, Bhalla, Parnoo,
and ultimately flows into river Chenab at Pul-Doda (821 msl). All the tributaries
of the catchment join the main stream at different positions.

1.3.2. Geology of the area: The area is represented by high mountains,


deep valleys and steep slopes. The rock formations exposed to the area are
garnetiferous mica schists, gneisses, garnetiferous phyllites, slates, limestones,
granite, volcanic rocks, terrace, scree and glacial deposits (Fig.-1). These rocks
range from Precambrian to recent. The lithology of the area is as comprise of:

1.3.2.1. Salkhala formation: The rocks of the Salkhala


formation are composed of low to high grade metamorphosed highly puckered
and granulated garnetiferous mica schists with quartzite bands at places. These
are easily susceptible to weathering and are well exposed in Thathri and Gandoh
area. Salkhalas are divided into three members, which in ascending order are (i)
central gneisses and schists (ii) garnetiferous quartz mica schists and (iii) mica
schists with bands of calciferous rock.

1.3.2.2. Bhadarwah formation: Bhadarwah formation has been


divided into three members which are (i) garnet phyllite (ii) Bhadarwah slates
and (iii) quartzite. The garnet phyllites have been thrown in deep puckers,
corrugations and crenulations which show shearing and slipping along the axial
planes. These are well exposed along the Jai area in south and extend towards
Dranga in the west and towards Ludenal, (south of Kansaroo) in the east. The
Bhadarwah slates are well exposed in and around Bhadarwah town and extend
through Kalotran – Tipri and Siru to Bhja Topi beyond which they merge into
Chamba slates of Tissa area. These are dark grey to grey and carbonaceous. The
Sunbain quartizite is a coarse grained greyish white to greenish hard quartzite. At
some places slate bands which are gritty and pebbly are also noticed. These rocks
form the Sunbain (Ashapatti) ridge in the south east of Bhadarwah.

1.3.2.3. Kaplash granite: An extensive body of granite forms


the most prominent physiographic feature of the area. It occurs in the form of an
elongate dome, which rises to an elevation of 4500 msl in central part. It is
massive, highly jointed course grained porphyritic granite. It shows spheroid
weathering. It intends in a north-east to south-east direction and is situated on the
south of Bhadarwah town.

1.3.2.4. Langera conglomerate: It is composed of ortho-


quartzite and lithic greywacke. The rock is hard, massive and can withstand
weathering effect. It can be traced from south-east of Bhadarwah to Langer-
Sangned area through Padri pass.

1.3.2.5. Katarigali formation: It is composed of dark ash grey


and bleached carbonaceous, ferruginous and calcareous slates, quartzite and
lenticular bands, and bodies of limestone. These are very well exposed in
Pasrigali, Katarigali, Sceppa–chola and Bandhar area and also along Bisrana
nallah of the Chaund ridge.

1.3.2.6. Panjal formation: These rocks are also divided into two
members i.e. agglomerated slates and Punjab trap. Agglomerated slates are
composed of shale, slates, sandstone, limestone and conglomerates with
interstratified and infolded bands of massive trap. These are followed by Panjal
trap, which is fairly wide in distribution in the area. The main trap band occupies
the highest topographic ridges i.e. the Batile pattern ridge and extends upto
Chalipurgali in the south-east on a strike length of 15 kms. It is a very hard
compact rock and is generally of greenish grey colour.

1.3.2.7. Tramwala formation: It is composed of Talai pebbly


sandstone bed. Talai pebbly band varies in thickness from 1m to 8m. It is well
exposed in Chimlo-di-Gali Talai section and is composed of olive green to rusty
brown dirty white sandstone and sandy shales.
1.3.2.8. Gamgul formation: It is composed of carbonaceous
shales, yellowish calcareous sandstone, shale and impure limestone. These rocks
are well exposed along Ban - Ka- Got, Gulu - Ki - Maddi and Gamgul - Talai
foot path.
1.3.2.9. Dalmon formation: It is composed of shale-slate
interstratified with thinly bedded fine grained grey limestone. Its typical
development is seen around the Dalmon peak, and also the Dalmon-Bishot and
Kiara-maund Tibba area.

1.3.2.10. Metamorphism: The lithological descriptions of the


rocks of Thathri- Gandoh and Bhadarwah area reveal that these rocks show
progressive increase in the grade of metamorphism from shale-slate stage in the
youngest rocks of Gamgul and Dalmon formation to high grade Kyanite,
sillimanite stage in the oldest rocks of the Salkhala group.

1.3.3. Climate of the area: Neeru watershed passes great distinction


interns of relief and physiography. Climate varies from hot and dry at lower
elevations (821-1000 msl), to moderate between 1000-2000 msl and intensely
cold above 2000 msl. Annual rainfall, snowfall, temperature, relative humidity
and winds are the important factors which influence the commencement,
development and maturity of the vegetation.

1.3.3.1. Temperature: The monthly mean maximum


temperature (34.3oC) for the year 2002 was recorded in the month of July and the
monthly minimum temperature (0.5oC) for the year 2002 was recorded in the
month of January. Likewise the monthly mean maximum temperature (32.6oC)
for the year 2003 was recorded in the month of June, whereas the monthly mean
minimum temperature (0.6oC) was recorded in the month of February (Plate 4,
Figs. 1-2).
1.3.3.2. Relative humidity at 0830 hrs: Maximum relative
humidity for the year 2002 was recorded as 83% in the month of September
while the minimum relative humidity was recorded as 57% in the month of
November. Likewise, the maximum relative humidity for the year 2003 was
recorded as 84% in the month of August whereas the minimum relative humidity
for the year 2003 was recorded as 57% in the month of May (Plate-4, Figs. 1-2).

1.3.3.3. Relative humidity at 1730hrs: Maximum relative


humidity for the year 2002 was recorded as 66% in the months of February and
August, while the minimum relative humidity was recorded as 39% in the month
of May. Likewise the maximum relative humidity for the year 2003 was recorded
as 73% in the month of August, while the minimum relative humidity was
recorded as 41% in the month of January (Plate-4, Figs. 1-2).

1.3.3.4. Total rainfall and number of rainy days: The


heaviest rainfall for the year 2002 was recorded as 175.6 mm in the month of
February with 9 rainy days, and the least rainfall was recorded as 1.0 mm in the
month of November with only 1 rainy day. Likewise the heaviest rain fall for the
year 2003 was recorded as 249.6 mm in the month of February with 12 rainy
days and, the least rainfall was recorded as 8.7 mm in the month of October with
only 2 rainy days (Plate-4, Figs. 1-2).

1.3.3.5. Rainiest day with rain fall amount: The rainiest day
for the year 2002 was observed as 14th September with 84.8 mm rainfall.
Likewise the rainiest day for the year 2003 was observed as 19th February with
118.2 mm rainfall (Plate-4, Figs. 1-2).

Table 1.1: Meteorological data of the study area for the year 2002-2003
YEAR Temperature (0C) Relative Humidity (%) Rainfall No. of Rainiest day
2002 Mean Mean 0830hrs 1730hrs (mm) rainy days with rain fall
maximum minimum amount (mm)
th
Jan. 13.9 00.5 77 55 65.0 09 18 / 17.0
th
Feb. 12.4 00.9 79 66 175.6 09 8 /51.0
th
Mar. 20.0 05.2 71 47 118.4 11 10 /39.4
April 23.9 09.1 71 51 133.9 09 25th /47.5
May 30.9 12.5 59 39 6.4 04 7th /2.2
th
June 33.1 15.4 67 52 83.0 10 17 /37.4
nd
July 34.3 17.1 71 51 91.4 07 22 /23.0
th
Aug. 30.6 18.3 81 66 153.6 11 12 /65.4
th
Sept. 26.3 11.8 83 62 133.2 08 14 /84.8
th
Oct. 24.3 07.7 73 53 17.2 03 11 /13.4
th
Nov. 22.5 04.6 57 41 1.0 01 8 /1.0
Dec. 16.5 01.8 63 46 13.4 04 25th /5.6

o
YEAR Temperature ( C) Relative Humidity (%) Rainfall No. of Rainiest day
2003 Mean Mean 0830hrs 1730hrs (mm) rainy days with rain fall
maximum minimum amount (mm)
th
Jan. 16.0 0.7 58 41 37.2 03 28 /22.6
Feb. 12.0 0.6 81 70 249.6 12 19th /118.2
rd
Mar. 16.9 3.7 73 58 176.0 13 3 /59.6
th
April 24.5 9.3 70 47 78.1 10 20 /20.6
rd
May 26.4 9.9 57 45 96.6 07 3 /39.8
June 32.6 16.0 63 48 43.2 09 28th /8.2
July 31.3 18.7 79 62 112.4 13 11th /18.0
th
Aug. 28.5 18.1 84 73 151.3 15 4 /44.1
Sept. 27.9 14.8 81 65 77.2 07 26th /31.0
th
Oct. 25.2 7.6 67 53 8.7 02 10 /7.7
th
Nov. 19.5 3.5 68 52 51.5 03 18 /23.5
Dec. 14.0 1.9 77 66 78.0 08 16th /35.2

Source: Govt. of India, India Meteorological Department, Meteorological Centre Rajbagh, Srinagar

1.4. Biodiversity and study area:


India harbours 17,500 species of angiosperms which represent
about 7% of the worlds’ known plants. Some 6200 of these species are endemic
to Indian sub-continent (Chowdhery and Murti, 2000). Neeru catchment has an
area of 64,024 hectares. The plant species flourish very well in the study area due
to a very favourable climate and topography. About 488 plants have been
collected from the Bhadarwah forests (Raina and Kant, 1993). Among macro
fungi about 80 species have been reported from Bhadarwah forest (Rampal,
1988), while Kumar (1987) recorded 129 economically important plant species
from the area. 164 medicinal plants have been classified in five classes on the
basis of altitudinal distribution in Neeru catchment (Kant and Dutt, 2003).The
study area falls under subtropical, temperate, sub-alpine, alpine and high alpine
zone and is dominated by annual and perennial flora.

1.4.1. Threats to biodiversity: It has been estimated that we are


loosing around 86,400 hectares of forests per day throughout the globe, on
account of extension in farming and increased urbanization. As a result, 10% of
world’s vascular plant species are driven to extinction every day. At this rate
25% of all the species existing today will become extinct during the next 30
years, unless preventive measures are taken now. In the loss of so many species
we loose edible, medicinal, aromatic and other useful plants.

India, with 12 floristic regions is considered as a store-house of


plant species Rao (1994) reported 1,566 taxa of flowering plants as rare and
endangered in India. The biggest threat, by far, to biodiversity is habitat
destruction. Loss of habitat or fragmentation of original habitat into pieces
eventually leads to the irreversible loss of species.
At present ten of the Indian medicinal plants are included in the
appendices of CITES. Saussurea lappa (=S. costus) is the only plant included in
Appendix I while Appendix II includes nine Indian medicinal plants. These
plants are Aquilaria malaccenis, Dioscorea deltoidea, Rauvolfia serpentina,
Cibotium barometz, Podophyllum hexandrum, Pterocarpus santalinus,
Nardostachys grandiflora, Picrorhiza kurroo and Taxus wallichiana.

Wanton exploitation of plants for medicinal purposes, for perfume


extractions and for timber, constitutes one of the major factors for the loss of the
biodiversity. To save the biodiversity from the habitat destruction, exploitation
and climatic changes, it is necessary to explore more plants with new habitats
and to explore pure lines for better establishments of species. The recent
developmental activities, the pressure of human population, unscientific and over
exploitation of resources, over grazing, fuel extraction and changing ecology are
now threatening this most important Himalayan ecosystem in the world.

As per the reports of given by International Union for Conservation


of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) about 20,000-30,000 species of
vascular plants are rare or under threat in the world. The preparation of Red Data
Books, lists of threatened and endemic taxa and symposia organized by various
countries in Europe, Africa, North and South America etc. on rarity, endemism
and threatened plants have recently stimulated the Asian countries including
India, to look into the fate of their depleting resources. A brief review of work
done so far in India on the threatened plants and habitats has been published by
Jain and Sastry (1982). The projects like Man and Biosphere (MAB) and
Projects on Study, Survey and Conservation of Endangered species of Flora
(POSSCEF) have been recently started in India to achieve the goal.

It is true that there are many factors, both natural and man-made
which are responsible for extinction of species but anthropogenic factors have
accelerated rarity and extinction of plant species to a level where the very
existence of ecosystems is threatened. The consumption of medicinal plants in
unscientific manner is yet another major factor for extinction of species. In
remote area of Ladakh, some wild plants like Polygonum, Chenopodium,
Taraxacum, Rheum, Astragalus, Cardamine, Plantago, Pedicularis etc., growing
in the oastic conditions or at the snowline are consumed in juvenile stages, which
leads to their depletion and extinction (Kachroo et al 1977).

1.4.2. Medicinal flora: The medicinal plants play very important role in
the day to day social and spiritual life of human beings and Ayurvedic system of
medicine. Some of the widely used medicinal plants are Aconitum species,
Podophyllum hexandrum, Picrorhiza kurroa, Viola species, Jurinea
macrocephala, Saussurea costus, Colchicum luteum, Berberis lycium etc. Kaul
(1997) has tabulated 23 medicinal herbs of Western Himalaya as core group of
medicinal herbs (Table 1.2). 50% of the medicinal herbs of this group are
endangered and other 50% fall under vulnerable category.

Table 1.2: Status of core group of medicinal herbs of the western


Himalayas.
Botanical name Trade name Part (s) Present
used status
Aconitum heterophyllum Atis Roots V
Arnebia benthamii Gaozaban Herb E
Artemisia absinthium Tethwan Herb V
A. maritima Seski Herb E
Atropa acuminata Brand Herb/Root E
Berberis lycium Daruharidra Root V
Bergenia ligulata Pashan Bed Root V
Datura stramonium Datur Herb V
Dioscorea deltoidea Shingli Mingli Root E
Ephedra gerardiana Ephedra Herb V
Equisetum arvense Sehat Band Herb V
Fritillaria roylei Sheethkar Bulb E
Heracleum candicans Krendel Root E
Inula racemosa Pushkar Root E
Lavatera cashmeriana Sazmul Root E
Physochlaina praelata Lang Tang Herb V
Picrorhiza kurroa Kutki Root V/E
Podophyllum emodi Bankakri Root E
Rheum emodi Rhubarb Root E
Saussurea lappa Kuth Root E
Taxus baccata Himalayan Yew Bark/Shoots E
Tribulus terrestris Meticher Kund Fruit V
Valeriana wallichii Mushkibala Root V
E = Endangered Source : M.K. Kaul (1997) Medicinal Plants of Kashmir & Ladakh.
V = Vulnerable

Out of these twenty three plant species 90% plants have been
collected from the study area i.e. Neeru watershed. These are considered as
botanical gems in wild habitat. However, collection of these gems in wild is
unscientific.

Scientists all over the world are encouraging cultivation of


medicinal plants. In the state of J&K, RRL Jammu is a pioneer institution to start
cultivation of important indigenous medicinal plants.

Medicinal plants and their conservation have attained a greater


importance in the present day scenario. The Western Himalayas is known for its
unique flora with a bulk of endemic medicinal and aromatic germplasm. The
herbs mostly consist of rhizomes and roots, which remain dormant for more than
six months through out the year under heavy snow. An urgent need thus arise to
cultivate them on mass scale in temperate regions of north-west Himalayas.

***********
Review of Litrature
Ethno-medicines have gained considerable importance, during the
past few decades, because of their being safe and with no side effects, since they
are all derived from the plant materials. Even the so called ‘Wonder Drugs’ of
the recent past like reserpine, colchicines, podophyllotoxin, vincoblastine,
strophanthine, steroids, and cortisones etc. owe their origin to the plants, which
are a part of our ancient cultural heritage. Despite remarkable progress in
laboratory drug development at present, the plants of the planet earth are still the
most important source for potential drugs.

India is a very rich repository of floral elements with more than


53,000 plant species, of which 17,500 species belong to angiosperm plants
(Sharma et al, 1997).

The traditional system of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani


etc. have a long history. About 2000 plant species find use in Ayurvedic System
of Medicines.
A well documented record of the flora and vegetation of western
Himalaya have been presented by the workers like Royle (1833-40); Duthie
(1893-94); Bamber (1916); Stewart (1916-17, 1972); Collett (1921); Coventry
(1923-30); Blatter (1927-29); Singh and Wafai (1973); Dhar and Kachroo
(1983); Sharma and Kachroo (1983); Polunin and Stainton (1984); Kaul
(1986); Singh and Kachroo (1987 & 1994); Kapur and Sarin (1989); Sharma
and Kant (1992); Swami and Gupta (1998).

Hamal (1982), Hamal and Karihaloo (1982), Hamal and Koul


(1983), Kirn (1983), Kirn and Kapahi (1998), Kirn and Kapahi (2001a), Kant
and Chander (2003), Dutt and Kant (in press), to name a few, have made new
additions to the flora and vegetation of western Himalaya.

Similarly, there are notable contributions on peridophytic flora of


western Himalaya (Clarke, 1880; Hope, 1899-1904; Stewart, 1945, 51, 57, and
72; Bir, 1964; Javeid, 1965; Bir and Trikha, 1976; Bir et al, 1979-80; Kapoor,
1985; Khullar, 1984, 88 & 1994; Khullar et al, 1988; Kirn, 2000).

All living organisms and their environment are mutually reactive,


affecting each other in various ways. Animal population, flora and vegetation are
interdependent through the environment and are mutually reactive.
Phytosociology is the study of the characteristics, classification, relationships,
and distribution of plant communities. It is useful to collect such data to describe
the population dynamics of each species studied and how they relate to the other
species in the same community. Detailed studies on phyto-sociology and ecology
have been brought forward in recent years.

Mahabale and Kharadi (1946) studied “Some ecological features


of the vegetation at Mt. Abu” and presented, on a small scale, an account of the
principal plant formations found at various levels and of the factors controlling
them. According to the study, the vegetation of the region is of the monsoon
deciduous type but abounds in many xerophytic species governed largely by the
edaphic and climatic factors. The vegetation at the foot of the mountain has a
woodland savannah on the eastern side and a scrub on the western side. The
vegetation in the valleys conforms to the usual monsoon deciduous type found in
the valleys in Peninsular India, and Western Himalaya. In particular, it shows a
greater resemblance with the vegetation found in the forests on the borders of
Western Himalaya up to about 1,500 feet elevation.

Curtis and McIntosh (1950) worked on “The Inter-relations of


certain analytic and synthetic phyto-sociological characters” and presented
the mathematical interrelations of frequency, density, mean area, abundance,
constancy and presence on the log-normal basis. It was concluded that a
practicable size for the quadrat study is one which will give frequencies of less
than 86% for all random or contagious species. Ordinarily, this will be a quadrate
which is twice as large as the mean area of the most numerous species. Such a
quadrat will give maximum information about all the important species of the
community.

Kaul and Zutshi (1966) described the “Vegetation of Kashmir


University campus, Srinagar” along with the phytosociology of various
species, with in an area of 125 acres. They also studied the vegetation in relation
to local ecological factors and a number of physiographic habitats, viz. level
grounds, slopes, mounds and low-lying areas and concluded that biotic
interference seems to be the most important factor in controlling the course of
vegetation, while soil characters do not seem to play any important role in
controlling the vegetation.

Yadav and Shah (1982) while working on “Phytosociological


studies on the vegetation of Dangs forest in South Gujarat” concluded that
the maturity index of the vegetation indicated the moderate nature of the
vegetation. Community coefficients were categorized into five classes. On the
basis of index of similarity, the ordination methods supported the observations
that most of the stands have similar vegetation pattern accompanied by similar
environment. Saputara has been described as quite distinct in vegetation from
rest of the stands.
Sharma et al (1983) standardized the quadrat size for the
classification and mapping of the forest communities during their studies on the
“Forest vegetation survey and classification with special reference to South
India”. The data was collected from South Indian dry deciduous, moist
deciduous, semi-evergreen and evergreen type of forests. The minimal quadrate
size of 400 m2 to 900 m2 was taken for trees and 9 m2 for shrubs.

Curtis and Bignal (1985) while working on “Quantitative


description of the vegetation physiognomy using vertical quadrates”
described a simple, rapid, vertical quadrate method for the quantitative
description of vegetation physiognomy. Examples have been given of its use
with data analysis by principal components ordination, TWINSPAN
classification, and the trend surface analysis, as well as relationship to
microclimate. The method provides quantitative data, suitable for numerical
analysis, examples of which have been considered in terms of ordination and
classification.

Deva and Rajwar (1985) while working on “Forest types of


Rispana valley, Jharipani, Mussorie” recorded three types of forest cover in
the area. The first type of the forest, Olea-Machilus community on right bank of
Rispana river was followed by Bauhinia retusa dominating forest on left bank,
while third type dominated by Ilex odorata was restricted to a narrow strip along
the river where water-logged perpendicular cliffs contain many herbs. The rocks
and boulders possess Bergenia ciliata, other herbs and shrubs, and the river
contains aquatic species. It has been concluded that the right bank receives the
sunlight for a short period whereas the left bank slopes get the light throughout
the day. Consequently, the plants such as Berberis species and Wendlandia
puberula on these slopes are adapted to drier conditions as compared to the
plants on the right bank.
Rigveda is considered as the oldest record about the use of some
medicinal plants. This was followed by Charaka-Samhita by Charak. Van
Rheed’s (1678-1703) monumental work in 12 volumes on the study of Indian
plants resulted in the form of a book, Hortus Malabaricus. Drury (1873)
published Useful Plants of India, while Dymock (1891) published
Pharmacographica India – A History of the Principal Drugs of Vegetable Origin
in British India. An outstanding work containing wealth of information on
economic plants in six volumes was produced by Watt (1889-93) in the form of
Dictionary of Economic Plants of India.

Kirtikar and Basu (1935) published a voluminous work on Indian


Medicinal Plants. Chopra (1933) produced a treatise on Indigenous Drugs of
India. This was followed by Indian Materia Medica by Nadkarni (1955).
Chopra et al (1956) wrote Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. Later CSIR
came out with a consolidated account and updated information on economic
plants in Wealth of India series. Many regional flora and accounts on medicinal
plants appeared in India during the last few decades.

A good deal of work has been done on the ethno-botany and


medicinal plants in India and abroad. Several reports on the Amchi system of
medicine in Ladakh enumerating the herbs used by the local medicine
practitioners (Amchis) have appeared in the recent past (Ragunathan, 1976;
Satyavati et al, 1976; Kurup, 1977; Dhar, 1980; Srivastava and Gupta, 1982;
Visvanath and Mankad, 1984; Nawchoo and Buth, 1989; Chatterjee and
Pakrashi, 1991; Kaul et al, 1995). An in-depth ethno-botanical survey of
Western Himalaya has been carried out by Kaul (1996). However, the Neeru-
watershed of the Western Himalaya has remained neglected from this point of
view except for some stray records.

The loss of biological diversity and the degradation of habitats and


ecosystems will profoundly effect the present and future generations as the
species lost today may have food, medicinal and industrial value. Now it is well
understood and realized that, as a result of various natural and unnatural (mainly
man-made) causes, the earth’s biological resources are under severe pressure and
are dwindling very fast. This loss of biodiversity also has serious impact on the
world’s economy and environment. During last 2-3 decades there has been
significant consciousness with regard to the loss of biodiversity and its
conservation. An outstanding work on cultivation and utilization of medicinal
and aromatic plants was produced by Atal and Kapur (1977).

Borthakur (1976) presented an account of the “Less known


medicinal uses of plants among the tribes of Karbi-Anglong (Mikir Hills),
Assam”. He also described 43 species of plants and their uses which were
gathered from among the tribes inhabiting Karbi-Anglong district of Assam State
in eastern India, which hitherto were not recorded earlier from that area.

Singh and Singh (1981) while working with “Edible wild plants
of eastern Rajasthan” reported 97 species of wild plants belonging to 75 genera
and 49 families, which provide edible fruits, seeds, grains, tubers, tender stem
and leaves from eastern Rajasthan. Attempts have also been made to cite the
main chemical contents of edible parts based on available literature. About 14
species have been recommended for cultivation.

Kaul and Atal (1983) in their short communication “Studies on


Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. - Botany, medico-ethno-botany and
distribution” discussed the traditional medicinal properties and ethno-botanical
uses of the species in traditional medicines and its distribution in India.

Sarin and Kapur (1984) studied the “Plant resources


exploitation and their utilization in Trikuta hills of Jammu province (J&K
state)” and concluded that 123 plant species having economic utility are growing
in the Trikuta hills. Of these, about 64 are of medicinal value, 11 of aromatic
value, 9 yield resins or gums, 19 are the source of vegetable tannins, 7 produce
fatty oil rich seeds and 5 produce laticifers. About 16 plant species, constituting
the raw materials for the industry, can be collected in large quantities. The rest of
the plants are used as crude drugs in the indigenous system of medicine and have
a good scope for exploitation.

Kaul et al (1985) worked on “Ethno-botanic studies in north-


west and trans Himalaya – contribution to the wild food plants of Ladakh”
and evaluated eleven species for nutritional use and concluded that these species
are good as a part of food by the people living in the remote areas of Ladakh due
to the presence of crude proteins, crude fiber, crude fat, soluble sugars,
carbohydrates and minerals like sodium, calcium, iron and phosphorus.

Singh’s (1985) article on the “Threatened taxa and scope for


conservation in Rajasthan” deals with endemic, endangered, threatened and
rare taxa of three main physiographgic regions, Mt. Abu., Thar Desert and
Aravalli with Eastern Plateau in Rajasthan. The probable factors for threat and
rarity, and the scope for conservation of such taxa in Rajasthan have also been
discussed.

Kaul et al (1986), in their paper on “Ethno-botanic Studies in


north-west and trans-Himalaya IV. Some traditionally used tea substitutes
from Jammu and Kashmir”, collected seven plants which have been
traditionally used as tea substitutes by the ethnic groups of Jammu and Kashmir
State. The tea is prepared from the decoction of roots of Bergenia ligulata
(Wall.) Engl., Fragaria vesca L., Geranium wallichianum D.Don ex Sw. and
Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don. Leaves of Potentilla fruticosa L., bark of
Taxus baccata L., and aerial portions of Thymus serpyllum L. are also used for
the preparation of tea.

Gaur et al (1987) published “Notes on the distribution of rare


and little known Carex rostrata stocks from north- west Himalaya”. This
species has been collected for the first time in India from Khatling Glacier
(Bhumka, 3200 m, Tehri district, Garhwal) in the north- west Himalaya. The
plant has fodder, religious and local medicinal value.

Sharma and Gaur (1987) during their studies on “Palyno-


taxonomy of Himalayan Blue Poppy (Meconopsis aculeata Royle.)”
commented that the two common wild poppies, Meconopsis aculeata Royle.
(Blue poppy) and Meconopsis robusta Hook. (Yellow poppy) are distributed
from 3700 m to 4600 m in Western Alpine Himalaya, of which Meconopsis
aculeata (varn. Kalyari) is widely used by the tribes and natives for medicinal
purposes. The plant paste is applied externally in rheumatic pains as anodyne by
the inhabitants.

Gurung (1988) while studying “Useful pteridophytes of Nepal


Himalaya” concluded that the area is represented by about 500 species of
pteridophytes, of which about 125 species have been found economically useful.
Out of these 125 species about 30 species have been considered as medicinally
important, 8 species are used as edible, 82 species as ornamental, one species as
poisonous and 4 species as soil conserving species in the study area.

Kapur (1989) worked on the “Economically useful fodder plants


of Ram Nagar - Dudu valley (Jammu Province)” and enumerated 87 fodder
species with their local names, altitudinal range, lopping period and present
content of dry matter. Out of 87 species listed 43 are tree species.

Kaul et al (1989) presented a paper on “Ethno-botanical studies


in north-west and trans-Hmalaya VI. Contribution to the ethno-botany of
Basohli –Bani region, J&K” and reported 38 economically important plant
species from the region. The medicinal use of Rosulaire alpestris and Viburnum
grandiflorum has been reported for the first time.

Sharma and Singh (1989) worked on “Ethno-botanical studies in


north - west and trans- Himalaya -V. Ethno-veterinary medicinal plants
used in Jammu and Kashmir, India.” In this study, explorations carried out
during the three years have brought to light 18 plant species which have been
used to alleviate the common sufferings of livestock of this region.

Sharma et al (1989) gave an account of the “Ethno-medicinal


plant lore from Mukundara Ranges, Jhalawar district, Rajasthan” and
enumerated twenty species with common name, family, specific location,
distribution and habitat. The plant part collected, storage, preparation of drugs
and therapy of each plant has also been discussed in the communication.
According to the study the major causes of deaths in tribals are due to diseases
caused by unhygienic conditions, poor sanitation, and due to some epidemic
diseases. The religious heads and Ojhas possess medical background and treat
the tribals.

Brahmam and Sexena (1990) while studying the “Ethno-botany


of Gandhamardan Hills - Some noteworthy folk medicinal uses” concluded
that there are about 200 species which find use in the folk- medicine. They
enumerated 77 species in alphabetical order with notes on their local names,
uses, methods of administration, dosage, etc.

Caceres et al (1990) gave an account of the “Plants used in


Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders 1. Screening of 84
plants against Enterobacteria” and stated that 385 plants from 95 families are
used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The activity of
84 most commonly used plants was screened in vitro against five enterobacteria
pathogenic to man. The results indicate that 34 (40.48%) plants inhibit one or
more of the enterobacteria tested. On the basis of their studies they concluded
that Salmonella typhi was the most inhibited bacterium (33.73%) and E. coli the
most resistant bacterium (7.35%). The plants of American origin which exhibited
the best antibacterial activity have been enumerated`as: Byrsonima erassifolia,
Diphysa robinioides, Gnaphalium stramineum, Guazuma ulmifolia, Psidium
guajava, Sambucus mexicana, Simarouba glauca, Smilax lundelii, Spondias
purpurea and Tagetes lucida.

Joshi et al (1990) made “A preliminary synecological approach


for the study of herbal wealth of high altitude Garhwal Himalaya and their
conservation”. The authors reported that the frequency, density and abundance
values of medicinal herbs are lowest among all species occurring in the area
because of over-exploitation. The authors emphasized the standardization and
evolution of agro-techniques for their cultivation and consequent conservation.

Kaul et al (1990) presented their findings on the “Ethno-botanical


studies in north-west and trans-Himalaya VII. Home remedies for arthritis
in Kashmir Himalaya” and reported five herbs used in the treatment of arthritis
in Kashmir Himalayas. In this paper the ethno-medical properties of three species
namely Delphinium roylei, Polygonum alpinum and Senecio chenopodifolius, the
root parts of which are only being used against arthritis, have been reported for
the first time. The other two species used for the purpose have been reported as
Rheum australe and Saussurea costus.

Mukherjee and Namhata (1990) while studying “Medicinal


plant lore of the tribals of Sundergarh district, Orrisa” concluded medico-
ethno-botanical information concerning 22 plants. The information of these 22
plants has been collected from tribals, namely; Oraon, Munda, Bhuiyan, Gond,
Dhanuar and Routia. The study also includes mode of drug preparation, plant
names etc.

Negi and Pant (1990) worked on “Ethno-botany of the Gangwal


- A tribe of Garhwal Himalaya” and highlighted the Ethno-botany of the
Gangwal tribe of Garhwal Hills in northern India.

Panwar (1990) provided “Some suggestions for conservation of


biodiversity in India” and stressed that India is richly endowed with a unique
biodiversity. This bio-resource has rich economic potential, but needs to be
protected from degradation. The study focuses on the main priority areas in this
field which are effective conservation of biodiversity, both natural and domestic
and rapid enhancement of information base and know-how towards harnessing
the potential by ourselves.

Caceres et al (1991) while continuing their work on “Plants used


in Guatemala” presented the list of plants for the treatment of respiratory
diseases and screened 68 plants against Gram- Positive Bacteria. They conducted
ethno-botanical surveys and after reviewing the extent literature during 1986-88
listed 234 plants from 75 families, most of them of American origin. Three
Gram-positive bacteria causing respiratory infections (Staphyllococcus aureus,
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes) were used to screen 68
of the most commonly used plants for the activity. 28 of these (41.2%) species
inhibited the growth of one or more of the bacteria tested. Staphylococcus aureus
was inhibited by 18 of the plant extracts, while 7 extracts were effective against
Streptococcus pyogenes. The plants of American origin which exhibited
antibacterial activity were: Gnaphalium viscosum, Lippia dulcis, Physalis
philadelphica, Satureja brownie, Solanum nigrescens and Tagetes lucida.

Gauniyal et al (1991) worked on “Major medicinal plants as


foreign exchange earner” and suggested coordinated efforts of concerned
agencies for promoting cultivation of identified medicinal plants to ensure their
regular supply and stabilization of raw material prices.

Gogoi and Borthakur (1991) presented a case study on “Plants in


religio - cultural beliefs of the Tai Khamtis of Assam (India)”.They grouped
the plants related to the religious and cultural traditions into four main categories:
fruit plants cultivated in the Buddhist temple-yards, cultivated ornamental plants,
plants used as offerings and adornments and plants used in Buddhistic and
traditional faiths and rituals. In addition, plants used in religio-cultural activities
have also been dealt with.

Hembrom (1991) attempted to record “Tribal medicine in


Chotanagpur and Santhal Parganas of Bihar, India”. A brief account of some
general aspects of tribal medicine, like the kind of medicine-men and diagnosis
of diseases has been presented along with few prescriptions for polio, asthma,
tuberculosis, epilepsy, cancer and leprosy as example of the vast ethno-medicinal
heritage of the region.

Loewenthal and Peer (1991) conducted a survey of the


“Traditional methods used in the treatment of ophthalmic diseases among
the Turkana tribe in north-west Kenya”. They collected the data from people
who suffered from chronic eye diseases. It has been concluded that local practice
of treatment includes about nine plant species of nine families.

Meena et al (1991) studied “Status of tribal medicinal plants of


Hazaribagh” and discussed the ethno-botanical field studies in different parts of
the Hazaribagh district, where a large number of people have been using wild
plants for food, medicine and insecticides. The data has been collected from
tribal medicine men and very experienced old tribals. The study has been
restricted to medicinal uses of 22 plants.

Pandey et al (1991) studied the “Conservation inventory of high


altitude medicinal plants of western Himalayas” used in Indian system of
medicine. The authors identified 36 such herbs in the region and described their
economic importance and utility.

Gupta et al (1992) while studying “Conservation and cultivation


of medicinal plants of Hyderabad forest division, A.P.” concluded that the
wealth of medicinal plants in Andhra Pradesh is depleting on account of
deforestation and biotic interference because of which many species are in
danger of becoming extinct. The authors stressed upon a measure of conservation
in which most of the medicinal plants are being transplanted in the mini-herbal
gardens of Central Research Institute for Unani Medicines at Hyderabad.

Pandit (1992) concentrated on one region and worked on


“Conservation of over-exploited medicinal plants of Gujarat”. He concluded
that there has been a depletion of natural resources of medicinal plants like
Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera and Glycyrrhiza glabra in the region.

Raina and Jamwal (1992) worked on “Environmental stress and


conservation strategies for Bunium persicum (Kala Zira)”and concluded that
the species is under various biotic and abiotic pressures. In the communication
some points have been highlighted to divert the pressure and relieve the plant
from environmental stresses.
Srivastava and Kapahi (1992) during their studies on the
“Medicinal and aromatic plant resources of Sikkim Himalaya” explored 280
plant species belonging to 207 genera and 92 families growing wild/ cultivated.
Local names, families/ abundance and active constituents of each species have
also been given by them.

Goel (1993) while working on “Conservation of medicinal plant


resources in Himalayas” enumerated important medicinal plants of the
Himalayas, with particular reference to the North-western and Central
Himalayas. The list also included certain threatened species. The author
emphasized development of a strategy for conservation of medicinal plants.

Gupta et al (1993) worked on the “Medicinal plant inventory of


Kuna Indians” and reported 90 plants used by the Kuna Indians of San Blas
Island. This study also includes medicinal uses, known constituents and
pharmacological effects. Of the 90 species reported in this study 49 (54.4%) have
been used topically, 24 (26.7%) internally and 17(18.9%) externally and
internally. Generally the plants are being used for the common diseases of the
area like muscle and joint aches, fever, wound healing, snakebite, childbirth,
acne, colds, tonics etc. Three plants belonging to the genera Hyptis and Ocimum
are used as aromatic. Five plants, Anthurium sp., Cyclanthus hipartitus, Hibiscus
rosa-sinensis, Genipa americana and Spathiphyllum friedrichsthalii are used by
pregnant women to prevent the enlargement of the uterus.

Aswal’s (1994) work on “Conservation of ethno-medicinal plant


diversity of Garhwal Himalayas and ethno-biology in human welfare” is
both interesting and valuable. He laid stress on the fact that important ethno-
medicinal plants of Garhwal Himalayan region (an important source of variety of
medicinal plants since Vedic periods) face threats to their survival and therefore
need proper utilization and conservation.

Hutchings and Staden (1994) gave an account of the “Plants used


for stress - related ailments in traditional Zullu, Xhose and Sotho medicine:
Plants used for headaches”. They reviewed the usage and indications of
possible therapeutic and harmful effects of 96 plants reported to be used for
headaches in traditional Zulu, Xhosa and Sotho medicine and observed that 89%
of plants used for headaches may possess one or more useful therapeutic
properties, while 58% of the plants may contain potentially toxic compounds. 62
species (67%) had possible analgesic effects. 25 species are also used to treat
pain in other ailments. 45 species (48%) were with possible decongestant effects.
Possible antispasmodic effects were indicated in 27 species (30%). Two of these
species, Datura stramonium and Datura metel have been used pharmaceutically
for asthma. Possible anti-inflammatory effects were indicated in 20 species
(22%) while 20 species (22%) were with possible sedative effects. Possible
hypertensive effects were noted in three species, while possible antidepressant
effects in two species. Potential toxicity was observed in 56 species (58%).
Seventeen of these species are reported to have been suspected for causing
human or animal deaths. Further more, ten other species are reported to have
caused some form of morbid poisoning. Plants suspected of causing fatal human
poisoning include Acokanthera oppositifolia, Asclepias fruticosa, Bersma lucens,
Boophane disticha, Capparis tomentosa, Bowiea volubilis, Clutia pulchella,
Spirostachys Africana, Synadenium cupulare, Datura metel, D. stramonium,
Erythrophleum lasianthum, Senecio retrorsus and Plumbago auriculata.

Rai (1994) discussed the “Role of emerging technologies for


conservation of biodiversity” and emphasized that a prime reason for erosion of
global biodiversity is unwise and unsustainable exploitation of natural resources,
both animate and inanimate. Another reason is ecological changes on a
significant scale due to indiscriminate industrialization using technologies
hazardous to environment. He suggested that frontier areas of technology, viz.
IT, GIS, Remote Sensing, Biotechnology etc. are some of the disciplines that
have important roles to play for conservation of biodiversity. Biotechnology even
has the potential to reverse the trend of erosion of biodiversity.

Raveendranathan (1994) discussed the “Prospects of herbal


drugs”. He argued that in respect of the wide use of plant drugs in different
indigenous systems of medicine in India the need to conserve and multiply these
natural resources is essential. He further emphasized that the clinical efficiency
of Ayurvedic treatment of certain diseases as compared to that of Allopathy is
much more and attempts regarding the quality control and standardization of
plant drugs, that had been a major lacuna, are succeeding.

Sivadas (1994) while working on the “Monitoring and


assessment of the environment for harmonizing its preservation and
development” laid stress on understanding the environment systematically as the
essential step towards sustainable use of the natural resources. He also pointed
out that investigation methodologies depend on the instruments made available
from time to time and electronic instruments have to play better roles in this area.

Manandhar (1995) conducted “A survey of medicinal plants of


Jajar Kot District, Nepal” and reported 60 plant species for 25 types of diseases
which have been identified in this area through the field data.

Saha (1995) worked on the “Conservation, regeneration and a


species selection in (India) Sunderbans” and concluded that Sunderbans is
floristically poorer, due to higher salinity and human interference. It is imperative
to conserve the ecosystem for maintaining ecological balance, for protecting
inland areas and for commercial exploitation. He further proposed that artificial
regeneration in foreshore lands has been done by hand and aerial seeding.
Species are selected on the basis of greater utilizable biomass but should actually
be done with respect to conditions prevailing at the particular area.

Siddique et al (1995) determined the “Status of important


medicinal plants of Kashmir Himalayas”. During their three-year survey, the
well known medicinal and aromatic plants used in the area have been listed along
with the plant part(s) used and the mode of administration. The authors also
formulated a list of rare and endangered plants of the area.

Smit et al (1995) published their work on “Ayurvedic herbal


drugs with possible cytostatic activity” and presented an ayurvedic model for
the pathogenesis of cancer. Based on this model, selection criteria were formed,
that were used to select plants from a list of ayurvedic herbal drugs. The dried
material of 14 plant species were submitted to ethanol (70% v/v) extraction and
the extracts were tested for cytotoxicity on COLO 320 tumor cells, using the
micro-culture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The Lc50 value, the concentration
causing 50% growth inhibition of the tumour cells, was used as a parameter for
cyto-toxicity. The extracts of the flowers of Calotropis procera and nuts of
Semecarpus anacardium displayed the strongest cyto-toxic effect with Lc50
values of 1.4 µg/ml and 1.6 µg/ml, respectively.

Amatya (1996) gave an account of the “Ethno-medicinal use of


plants of Bara district, Nepal”. The inhabitants of this sub-tropical region
including Tharu, Ahir, Muslim, Mushar, Majhi, Chamar, Brahman and Tamang
utilize same plants for medicinal, as well as tanning purpose. The important tanin
bearing medicinal plants are Acacia catechu, Acacia concina, Albizia procera,
Aegle marmelos, Cassia fistula, Dillenia pentagyna, Emblica officinalis,
Mallotus philippensis, Schleichera bleesa, Shorea robusta, Terminalia bellerica
and T. chebula. The vernacular name, local name, tanin source, tanin percentage
and ethno-medicinal uses have also been given.

Bhadula et al (1996) while studying the “Genetic resources of


Podophyllum hexandrum Royle. - an endangered medicinal species from
Garhwal Himalayas, India” pointed out that the frequency of this species in
nature has declined considerably because of over-exploitation to meet the ever
increasing demand of pharmaceutical companies. The characteristics of various
populations of P. hexandrum and future conservation strategies of the species
have also been described.

Brahma and Boissya (1996) presented “Ethno-botanical notes on


certain medicinal plants used by the Bodos of Assam with particular
reference to Kokrajhar District”. They made an inventory of 109 medicinal
plants used by the Bodo tribal of Assam either singly or in combination,
spreading over four families. The families, Bodo names and the local names have
also been given in the communication. The detailed uses of the plants, as
suggested by the local Bodo people, have also been mentioned.

Darshan (1996) while working with “Conserving the medicinal


plants of India: the need for a bicultural perspective” discussed the
importance of conservation of medicinal plants and recognized two streams of
traditional medicines in India (i) Folk medicine existing in all rural communities
throughout the country and (ii) codified traditional medicine (Ayurveda, Unani,
Siddha and Tibetan Systems of medicine) which is documented in a number of
medical manuscripts.

Mahato et al (1996) while working on the “Ethno-botanical


wealth of Chhota Nagpur plateau India: Some medicinal plants used against
diarrhoea by the people of Singhbhum district, Bihar” concluded that the
people of Chhota Nagpur depend upon plants for their daily needs including
medicine. During the survey of medicinal plants, 27 plant species which are
being used to cure diarrhoea by the people of Singhbhum district of Chhota
Nagpur, Bihar have been recorded. Among them 12 plant species are known to
control dysentery also.

Pandit et al (1996) collected “Ethno-medicinal plant lores from


Gir Forest, Gujarat” and published some interesting information on 45 plant
species (belonging to 32 families) used by Maldharis tribe of Gir forest to relieve
various ailments. The plant species so collected have been enumerated along
with their botanical name, vernacular name and ethno-botanical uses.

Joshi and Rawat (1997) stressed on “Need for conservation and


propagation of alpine and sub-alpine medicinal plants of north-west
Himalayas” and suggested some conservation measures and recommendations
including systematic rotational collection in different areas, the development of a
Germplasm Centre and ex-situ and in-situ conservation.

Kumar et al (1997) carried out “Studies on weeds used as ethno-


medicinal plants by some tribal people” and observed that weeds play a key
role in maintenance of successive vegetation for environment. The ethno-
medicinal value of some weeds used as plant medicine, among different tribal
communities like Santhal, Patharia, Oraon, Nunda, Kol and Kharwar, etc., has
been given along with the botanical name, family, tribal name, parts used and
the ailments for which they are used.

Mondal et al (1997) while undertaking “Ethno-botanical studies


on some aquatic plants of the Lateritic belt of West Bengal” observed that in
India, the work on ethno-botany has paved a new way for folk-medicine. This
study is focused on a preliminary contribution to the use of aquatic medicinal
plants by the local inhabitants of the lateritic belt of West Bengal.

Raina (1997) studied the “Botany, conservation strategies and


cultivation of Bunium persicum (Boiss.) Fedtsch” and concluded that the
species in nature is under constant threat of biotic and abiotic factors viz.
trampling, grazing, browsing and indiscriminate collection by humans. The
species can be exploited as cash crop when conserved and cultivated. During the
study some standardized agro-technological and tissue culture techniques for the
large scale regeneration and conservation of species have been suggested.

Chaudhary and Rao (1998) while working on the “Notes on the


genus Aconitum L. (Ranunculaceae) in north-west Himalayas (India)”
indicated the current status of the species as being critically endangered in its
type localities owing to its high medicinal value. The authors suggested in-situ
and ex-situ methods for the conservation of genetic diversity in these species.

Kumar and Pande (1998) studied “The tribals and the utility of
the medicinal plants in their day-to-day lives in Santal Pargava, Bihar,
India” and came to the conclusion that most of the tribals are well acquainted
with the know-how of the age-old treatment by medicinal plants. They developed
the tribal medicines from different local medicinal plants which have become a
part of their culture. The medico-ethno-botanical data obtained from the survey
of five districts of Santal Pargava, revealed the medicinal usage of different parts
of plant species.

Khasim and Mohana Rao (1999) studied “Medicinal importance


of orchids” and observed that many medicinal orchids have useful alkaloids.
They also concluded that some of the orchids fall in endangered category due to
over-exploitation and habitat destruction. Paper suggests different strategies for
conservation of orchids.
Kirn et al (1999) reported “Ethno-botanical observations on the
gymnosperms of Poonch district (J&K state), India” and enumerated nine
species of gymnosperms such as Abies pindrow, A. spectabilis, Cedrus deodara,
Juniperus communis, J. recurva, Picea smithiana, Pinus roxburghii, P.
wallichiana and Taxus wallichiana, which are being used by the Gujjars and
Bakkarwals of the area, during their trans-humane migration in the upper hill
regions for meeting their all kinds of daily needs including the medicinal uses.
The paper deals with their botanical description, distribution and uses. All the
nine species are found wild in the district.

Mamgain et al (1998) studied the “Conservation assessment of


some important threatened medicinal plants of India”. In the study the
emphasis has been laid on 10 threatened medicinal plants for their distribution,
medicinal properties, uses and conservation. Over exploitation was cited as the
main cause of depletion of natural populations of these taxa.

Rana et al (1998) worked on “Diversity and conservation


strategies of medicinal plants in the north-western Himalayas” and
enumerated the major medicinal herbs present in the north – west Himalayas
from Kashmir to Kumaon which have been lost due to continuous loss of forest
land, uncontrolled grazing and unscientific collection. On the basis of this
observation they emphasized upon the importance of conservation of medicinal
plant diversity and demanded a national concern for it.

Karuppusamy et al (2000) while studying the “Needs for


diversity conservation of traditional medicinal plant resources of Dindigul
District, Tamil Nadu” stressed upon the role of ethnic and rural communities
for in-situ conservation. Authors expressed concern for the lack of
documentation of indigenous knowledge on the rich native diversity of useful
medicinal plants of this region and to promote and implement the conservation
strategies for sustainability of the natural ecosystem.

Srivastava et al (2000) while working on the “Threatened plants


of medicinal and aromatic value of north-west Himalayas” reported twenty
taxa of medicinal and aromatic value in the north - west Himalayan region under
the category of threatened plants due to large scale and indiscriminate collection
in the past. At least one of these, i.e., Ferula narthex has already been wiped out
from geographical boundaries of the country while the survival of three others,
i.e., Aconitum chasmanthum, A. deinorrhizum and Dactylorhiza hatagirea is
unlikely if present casual factors continue to operate. There are dozen or so taxa
which are highly vulnerable. These include some which have been over-exploited
for commercial purposes, while others have been exposed to the danger of
deforestation, habitat destruction etc. The paper also suggests cultivation of some
of the threatened plants on lines with Saussurea lappa, Inula racemosa and
Bunium persicum. Successful cultivation has brought these medicinal plants out
of the endangered list.

Kant and Sharma (2001) presented their studies on the


“Medicinal plants of Patnitop and adjoining hills (J&K) and their
conservation”. They reported 56 medicinally important plant species, parts of
the plants used and their utility, from the study area. According to the study the
area is under the stress of a lot many biotic activities like tourism, development,
nomadism, encroachments and over exploitation of resources. Thus there is as
urgent need of application of sound conservation strategies and proper
management practice to save this useful bio-resource of the area.

Kirn and Kapahi (2001b) while presenting “Ethno-botanical


notes on some ferns and fern-allies of Jammu and Kashmir state, India”
enumerated 19 taxa belonging to 12 genera and 11 families of pteridophytes of
Jammu & Kashmir. Local names, family and ethno-botanical details of all the
taxa have been discussed. The data presented has been obtained through
interviews conducted with ethnic groups of the region.

Kumar et al (2001) studied “In-vitro conservation of germplasm


of medicinal plants” and suggested long term conservation by cryopreservation
technology for some medicinal plants to harness potential benefits of the
technique. Cell cultures of Atropa, Datura, Dioscorea, Catharanthus, etc. have
been successfully cryopreserved.

Badola and Pal (2002) in their communication “Endangered


medicinal plant species in Himachal Pradesh” enumerated 14 medicinal plant
species as endangered and recommended these species for ex-situ cultivation in
Himachal Pradesh. Four agro-climatic zones have been identified for cultivation
of these 14 plant species.

Roy and Agrawal (2002) carried out a survey of the


“Phytoconstituents and worldwide uses of ethno-medicinal plants for
hypoglycemic activity” and concluded that some plants are common to many
regions, where as some uses are unique to a particular country. In this study the
authors reported a worldwide account of 36 plants, which possess hypoglycemic
activity.

Adhikari et al (2003) presented their paper on “Medicinal trees of


Uttaranchal state: distribution, use pattern and prospects for conservation”.
They reported 170 medicinal trees from sub-tropical, 64 from warm temperate,
22 from cool-temperate, 10 from sub-alpine and 4 from alpine region. The
prospects of in-situ and ex-situ conservation of medicinal trees in Uttaranchal
state have been elaborately discussed.

Igoli et al (2003) made an ethno-botanical survey of the Igede-


speaking areas of Nigeria. In an article “Traditional medicinal practices
among the Igede people of Nigeria” authors enumerated 39 plant species
belonging to 23 families used in the traditional medicinal system of the Igede.
From these plants, 31 prescriptions or recommendations were recorded for
treatment of approximately 21 ailments or therapeutic indications, including
hypertension, lack of energy, and fish and arrow poisons. The family Rubiaceae
had the largest number of plants used, and, the largest numbers of prescriptions
were for fever.
Rajendran et al (2003) studied “Lesser known ethno-medicinal
plants of the Ayyakarkoil Forest of Southwestern Ghats, Tamil - Nadu” and
concluded that in the forested area, only the Palian Tribes made settlements,
usually camping near foothills or on pavements of lower hill range during
nomadic times. With the help of local people and tribal practitioners, 43
medicinally important plant species belonging to 42 genera and 24 families have
been recorded from the Ayyakarkoil forest.

Sarin (2003) presented an appraisal of resources of the “Medicinal


plant raw materials for Indian drug and pharmaceutical industry” and
concluded that about 340 plant species are used as raw material for Indian drug
and pharmaceutical Industry. Among these 145 occur wild in forests, 54 grow as
weed, 70 grow as cash crop, 30 cultivated as medicinal crop and around 40
species are imported from other countries. Due to tremendous increase in the
demand of the plant species in the market of drug industry, the natural population
of many medicinal plants has declined to a great extent, while a few are at the
verge of extinction.

Augustine and Sivadasan (2004) while presenting “Ethno-


botanical plants of Periyar tiger reserve, Kerala, India” enumerated 180
species of plants as ethno-botanically important. Among these species 66 are
used as ethno-medicinal species by the tribal groups, namely Mannan, Paliyan,
Urali, Malayarayan and Malapandaram.

Beigh et al (2004) while working on “Ethno-botany of Kashmir –


studies on traditional veterinary medicine in Kashmir Himalayas, J&K
State” documented 25 plants and their use as veterinary medicines. Each plant
species is discussed with family, local name and part used for the treatments. The
information on the utilization of plants for curing common ailments of animals
was obtained from knowledgeable persons and ethnic persons by filling a
questionnaire.

Bondya and Sharma (2004) while working on “Ethnobotanical


studies on plants used in diabetes (Madhumeha) under the Baharagora
block of Jharkhand”, enumerated 11 ethno-medicinal plant species used in
Baharagora block of Jharkhand State for the treatment of diabetes.

Borthakur et al (2004) while exploring “Folklore hepato-


protective herbal recipes from Assam in north-east India” reported 39
hepato-protective herbal prescriptions prevalent among different ethnic groups of
Assam. These 39 empirically accepted prescriptions include some 46 plant
species

Brussell (2004a) while enumerating “Medicinal plants of Mt.


Pelion, Greece” reported a total of 225 taxa representing 77 families along with
habitat data and ethno-botanical information. He (2004b) also presented “A
medicinal plant collection from Montscrrat, West Indies” and reported 272
taxa representing 78 families along with habitat information and ethno-botanical
notes.

De Feo (2004) reported “The ritual use of Brugmansia species in


traditional Andean medicine in Northern Peru”. The curranderos on Northern
Peru use Brugmansia species for therapeutic-divinatory, phyto-therapeutics,
illness and black magic.

Gupta et al (2004) while working on “Anticancer activities of


Oldenlandia diffusa” tested in-vitro anti-proliferating activities of water extract
of the raw herb Oldenlandia diffusa, against eight cancer cell lines and one
normal cell line. The extract exhibited a strong anti-proliferating activity against
all cancer cell lines and induces significant increase of apoptosis. The extract
exhibited minimum toxic effect on normal pancreatic cells. Hence the herb
extract could be a potential anticancer agent.

Haui and Pei (2004) while working on “Plants used medicinally


by folk healers of the Lahu people from the autonomous county of Jinping
Niao, Yoa, and Dai in Southern China” reported 118 species of medicinal
plants belonging to 57 families and 98 genera used by Lahu healers. According
to field investigations skin disease and broken bones are the main medicinal
problems for the Lahu people. Among the 118 species of medicinal plants used
by Lahu healers, 54 species are used to treat skin disease and fractured bones,
accounting for 45.76% of the total species.

Hermans et al (2004) while working on “Medicinal plants used


to treat malaria in Southern Benin” reported 85 species and 30 mixtures for
curing malaria in a restricted area. A mixture consisting of 4-28 species are in use
in Southern Benin. Modern plant based anti-malaria medicines assure much
faster healing, provided the parasites have not developed resistance against them.

Jadhav and Yadav (2004) while working on “Phyto-sociological


studies on the vegetation of Trimbakeshwar, Vani and Saptashringi forests
of Nasik district, Maharashtra- Maturity Index” recorded very small maturity
index at Saptashringi forest. The highest maturity index was observed at Vani
forest followed by Trimbakeshwar forest.

Janni and Bastien (2004) worked out “Exotic botanicals in the


Kallawaya Pharmacopoeia”. The Kallawaya are the most renowned herbalists
of South America and travel extensively throughout the Andes to collect
medicinal plants. Approximately 30% of the Kallawaya pharmacopoeia is
composed of exotic plant species.

Ji et al (2004) while working on “Ethno-botanical study of


medicinal plants used by the Lisu people in Nujiang, north-west Yunnan,
China” enumerated 52 medicinal plants, belonging to 32 families, used locally
for the treatment of human ailments. Among the 52 species, 11 species (21.2%)
were reported as rare and 16 were widely commercialized in the region. Over
exploitation and deforestation in the region are the main causes for the depletion
of medicinal plants in this region.

Kant and Dutt (2004) while enumerating “Plant species causing


dermatitis from Bhadarwah, J&K”, discussed eleven dermatitis producing
plant species with local names, families and taxonomic characters. Species like
Aconitum heterophyllum¸ Arisaema jacquemontii, Euphorbia helioscopia and
Rhus succedanea are reported as fetal species. But professionals like herbs-men
and Vaidyas use the plant parts in Ayurvedic preparations after destroying the
poisonous nature of the plant species.

Maliya (2004) while discussing “Some new or less known folk


medicines of District Bahraich (U.P)” reported 16 medicinal plants
traditionally used by the Thoru tribals and other rural inhabitants. The plant
species are used either singly or in combination with others as poly herbal
medicines by them for the treatment of various ailments.

Nawchoo et al (2004) while discussing “Studies on the


conservation biology of Jurinea dolomiacea and Gentiana kurroa, two
important medicinal plants of North West Himalaya” proposed a protocol for
conservation of Himalayan species. Study also concluded that 60 days chilling,
30 days chilling, 90 days chilling and GA3 treatment to the seeds of J.
dolomiacea help in early germination and survival in vivo conditions. Further, G.
kurroa show best results after treatments of 120 days chilling, 90 days chilling,
GA3 and 60 days chilling in-vivo. In-vitro cultivation may not be as successful.

Punjani (2004) conducted field survey in north Gujarat and


described “Ethno-medicinal uses of vitaceae among the tribals of north
Gujarat”. A total of 3 genera and 6 species of vitaceae have been reported. It is
also concluded that the traditional and locally available plant species are valuable
and important contributors to the treatment of fractured bones and other
disorders.

Sarangi and Sahu (2004) while discussing “Ethno-medicinal


plants used in venereal and gynecological disorders in Kalahandi, Orissa”
stated that tribal and scheduled castes of Kalahandi district use 32 plant species
in gynecological and venereal disorders. It has been observed that medicinal uses
and mode of applications vary from those in other neighboring districts.
Siddiqui (2004) while documenting “Anti-cancer drugs from
traditional plants of Sitapur district (Uttar Pradesh)” reported 10 such plant
species which are used by the locals for anti-cancer activities.

Sikarwar et al (2004) while working on “Uses of some important


medicinal plants of Chitrakoot region of Satna M.P.” reported 28 plants
utilized by tribal communities to alleviate their local ailments and diseases.

Srinivasan et al (2004) contributed to “The antimicrobial


spectrum of Hop constituents”. During the study it was observed that there is a
remarkable activity of hop compounds against protozoa especially ciliates and
flagellates. The activity of hop against protozoa is enhanced by CO2. There was
no co-action between hop acids and CO2 with E. coli or fungi. Fungi have low
sensitivity to hops.

Srivastava and Sekar (2004) while studying the “Ethno-medicine


of the Pin valley national park, Himachal Pradesh: Plants used in treating
dysentery” enumerated 10 plant species used by the tribals for treating
dysentery.

Strong (2004) while working on “African Plum and benign


prostatic hypertrophy” reported that the bark of Pygeum africanum (African
Plum) has been used in Europe since the mid 1960’s and is currently the most
popular medicine in France for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). In 1998 the
demand for Pygeum africanum extract was so high that it caused the African
plum tree to become a threatened species.

Tirkey (2004) while documenting “Some ethno-medicinal plants


of Chattisgarh State” enumerated 50 plant species used as ethno-medicine by
the tribal group Vaidayas.

Upadhye and Kulkarni (2004) discussed “Traditional phyto-


therapy for insect bites among the tribals in western Maharashtra” and
enumerated 12 plant species as remedies used by the local tribal communities to
cure the insect bites.

Chandra et al (2005) while working on “Medicinal plants


conservation with reference to Ho and Munda tribals of Bihar and Orissa”
enumerated 217 plant species which are in use by these tribals. Tribals use all
these species in a judicial way because they have a deep-rooted feeling for the
native vegetation and assume the herbs as one of the prime component of the
nature which provide and maintain the basic elements for livelihood.

Sharma (2005) while working on “Conservation of medicinal


and aromatic plant diversity in western Himalayas” discussed the causes of
loss of biodiversity and stressed on peoples participation and role of R&D
institutes for restoration and conservation of biodiversity.

***********
Material and Methods
Plants growing together have mutual relationships among
themselves and with the environment. Community is a part of an ecological
system in which transformation, accumulation, and flow of energy are
involved. The functioning of this system is intimately related with the
components of community. The components vary in quality as well as in
quantity and impart a structure to the community.

Number of characters grouped under two heads viz. analytical


and synthetic form the structure of a community. Analytical characters like
frequency, density, abundance and dominance can be expressed as
quantitative characters while sociability, periodicity and stratification as
qualitative characters. Synthetic characters include presence, constancy and
fidelity components.

The analytical characters of a community are determined by


means of three sampling units – area, line and point, as employed in
quadrate, transect and point methods, respectively. In the present study
quadrate method has been employed in the study area. The analytic
(Quantitative) characters viz. frequency, density, and basal area were
calculated by laying quadrates in each stand of each site. The quadrates
were randomly laid to include maximum diversity, with regard to
topography, geology, soil and vegetation. Since the coniferous forests are
spread in most of the area and alpine region as well as high altitudinal oak
forest were not approachable for detailed study, the coniferous forest area
was chosen for phytosociological study. The sites were selected in the field by
visual inspection of each stand for internal uniformity with respect to species
composition and structure.

Twelve different sites were selected for phytosociological data


collection, which were later on clubbed to six sites for secondary data analysis.

3.1. Climatological data:


Data regarding climate of the two years i.e. January 2002 to
December 2003 was procured from the meteorological department.

3.2. Collection of Plant species:


Plant species were collected in flowering stage for three
consecutive years i.e. April 2002- April 2005 by visiting the study area monthly.
All species collected were dried using herbarium preservation techniques and
mounted on herbarium sheets. All herbarium sheets have been deposited in the
Herbarium of the Department of Botany, University of Jammu. The identification
of the species was done by using different floras and taking help of the experts in
taxonomy. Herbaria of RRL, Jammu and University of Jammu were also
consulted.
Sampling for phyto-sociological analysis was carried by visiting
the selected sites monthly. Soil samples were also collected from all the
twelve sites for physico-chemical analysis.

3.3. Photography:
Photography of the plant species has been done in the natural
habitat. More emphasis was given to the flowering stage of plants. Pentax camera
with micro, normal and tele-lenses was used for the purpose.
3.4. Phytosociological studies:

3.4.1. Quantitative characters: The quantitative characters recorded


in the field were:

3.4.1.1. Frequency: Frequency represents the number of


sampling units in which a given species occurs. It expresses the distribution or
dispersion of various species in a community. Therefore, percentage frequency
was calculated as under:

Total number of quadrates in which the species occurred


% Frequency = X 100
Total number of quadrates studied

The density and frequency taken together are of prime importance


in determining community structure and have a variety of uses far beyond those
of other quantitative values. Abundance, if considered along with frequency,
gives an idea of the distribution pattern of the species while density represents
the number of individuals per unit area.

3.4.1.2. Density: Density represents the number of individuals of


a species per sampling unit.

Total number of individuals of the species


Density =
Total number of quadrates studied

3.4.1.3. Basal cover: Basal area refers to the ground actually


penetrated by the stem. The basal cover for herbs was calculated by using
formula:

(cgh)2
Basal cover = [where cgh is circumference at ground height]

These parameters were taken in the field. This field data was
analysed for computation of Importance Value Index (IVI), which is the sum of
relative density, relative frequency and relative dominance. IVI provides total
picture of the sociological structure of species in a community (Mishra, 1969). It
thus incorporates three important parameters:

Frequency of a species
3.4.1.4. Relative frequency = X 100
Sum of frequencies of all the species

Density of a species
3.4.1.5. Relative density = X 100
Sum of densities of all the species

Total basal cover of a species


3.4.1.6. Relative dominance = X 100
Total basal cover of all the species

3.4.2. Species richness (Diversity indices):


Species richness can be described as the number of the species in a
sample or habitat per unit area. Various indices have been formulated, based on
the total number of species and total number of individuals in the sample. Higher
the value of the index, greater is the species richness. The indices used for
calculation of Species Richness in the present study include:

1) Shannon - Wiener’s Index (1949): This species index is the


simplest and represents average degree of uncertainty in predicting to
which particular species, an individual chosen at random from a
sample, will belong.

ni ni
H/ = ∑ log n
N N

/
{Where H = index value
ni = number of individuals of ith species
N = total number of individuals of all species}
2) Menhinick’s index (1964):
s
Db = {Where s= number of species
√n n= number of individuals}

3) Margalef’s index (1968):


s-1
Da = {Where s = number of species
Log n (n) n = number of individuals}

3.5. Life forms and Biological Spectrum:


The determination of life forms was preceded by detailed floristic
studies. Raunkiaer’s (1918) system as modified by Braun-Blanquet (1932) and
Cain (1950) has been used in the present study for the classification of the
vegetation on physiognomic basis. The percentage of various life form classes
put together constitutes the biological spectrum. The biological spectrum of the
present study has been prepared and compared with Raunkiaer’s normal
spectrum as well as biological spectrum of the adjoining areas.

3.6. Biomass:
Methods for biomass determination depend on the type of
vegetation to be studied. Complete harvesting was done for estimating the
biomass of the medicinal herbs. For the estimation of below ground biomass, the
under ground parts of the plants were separated and taken from the soil after
washing them continuously under the tap. The plant material was separated into
above ground and under ground parts.
All plant parts were oven dried for 24 hours at 800C or till whole
moisture was removed. The final dry weight for each herb was recorded using
digital balance for the determination of biomass.

3.7. Soil analysis:


Soil samples were collected from twelve different sites at random,
to cover almost whole of the area, in which the vegetational studies were made.
All the soil samples were taken 9-12 inches below the surface of the soil. Soil
analysis was done for all twelve sites. Out of these twelve sites six study sites i.e.
A,B,E,F,G and L were selected on the left bank of Neeru nallah, while study
sites C,D,H,I,J and K were distributed on the right bank of Neeru nallah. Sites A
(1740 msl-1850 msl), E (1280 msl-1380 msl) and L (2060-2200 msl) were
located in the moist coniferous forests, while sites B (1180 msl-1300 msl), F
(1500 msl-1600 msl) and G (1700 msl–1860 msl) were located in the open land
in between coniferous forests. On the right bank of Neeru nallah sites C (1200
msl- 1300 msl) and D (1600 msl –1720 msl) were located in the sub-tropical Dry
Evergreen forests, while sites H (2400 msl – 2480 msl) and J (2020-2240 msl)
were located near the agricultural land in between coniferous forests and sites I
(2260 msl – 2380 msl) and K (1680 msl – 1780 msl) were located in pure deodar
forests.

3.7.1. Physical parameters:


Physical parameters like moisture, temperature and pH were studied
in the field, while the soil samples stored in polythene bags were brought to the
laboratory for the analysis of organic carbon, bicarbonates, carbonates, calcium,
magnesium, chloride, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, sulphates, and nitrates.

3.7.1.1. Moisture: Soil moisture was determined directly by


using moisture meter “Model DM – 33”.

3.7.1.2. Texture: Soil texture was determined by textural triangle


method of “U.S. Department of Agriculture” after asserting the percentage of
various soil components viz. coarse, sand, silt and clay by sieving the samples
through an electrically operated sieve set.

3.7.1.3. pH: Portable pH meter “Hanna” make was used for


recording the pH of the soil solution (10 g. of soil + 50 ml. of distilled water).
3.7.1.4. Temperature: The temperature was recorded in the field
by placing soil Thermometer horizontally about 15 cm below the soil surface.
3.7.1.5. Electric conductivity: Electric conductivity of the soil
samples was determined after making a solution of soil by dissolving 20 g. of soil
sample in 40 ml of distilled water (1:2). Digital Direct Reading conductivity
meter (Systronics 304) was used to determine the electric conductivity of the
solution.

3.7.2. Chemical parameters:


For chemical analysis of soil, the samples were separated in
three different groups:

1) Soil water extract (1:2) for CO//3, HCO/3, Cl/, Ca, Mg, Na and K.
2) Ground dry soil samples for available phosphorus, available sulphur,
available organic carbon and available nitrate.
3) Ground dry soil samples, 10 gm each, for microelements.

3.7.2.1. Macroelements:
3.7.2.1.1. Determination of Carbonates and
Bicarbonates: Carbonates and Bicarbonates from the soil extract were determined by titrimetric method by titrating
the solution (extract) against standard acid using phenolpthalein and methyl orange, respectively, as indicators (Gupta, 1999).

3.7.2.1.2. Determination of Chloride: Chloride in the


soil water extract was estimated by titrating the extract against standard AgNO3
solution using K2CrO4 as indicator (Gupta, 1999).

3.7.2.1.3. Determination of Calcium: Calcium was


determined by Versenate (EDTA) titration method. This method developed by
Schwarzentach and Biederman, is very useful on account of its accuracy,
simplicity and speed (Gupta 1999).

3.7.2.1.4. Determination of Magnesium:


Magnesium was determined by Versenate (EDTA) titration method (Gupta
1999).
3.7.2.1.5. Determination of Sodium: Sodium was
determined from soil water extract using flame photometer (EEL model)
(Gupta 1999).

3.7.2.1.6. Determination of Potassium:


Potassium was determined from soil water extract using flame photometer with
Potassium filter (EEL model) (Gupta, 1999).

3.7.2.1.7. Determination of Phosphorus: The soil of the


area being acidic in nature Bray and Kurtz no.1 method as suggested by Bray
and Kurtz (1945) was followed for the estimation of available phosphorus.
Intensity of blue colour was recorded using 730 nm wavelength on
spectrophotometer, (Systronics 106) (Gupta 1999).

3.7.2.1.8. Determination of Sulphur: Available sulphur


was determined as suggested by Cottenie et al (1979) by using
spectrophotmeter (Systronics 106) (Gupta, 1999).

3.7.2.1.9. Determination of Organic Carbon:


Colorimetric method as suggested by Datta et al (1962) was followed for the
determination of organic carbon.

3.7.2.1.10. Determination of Nitrate: Available nitrate


was determined by colorimetric determination method (Jackson, 1973).

3.7.2.2. Microelements: Microelements were determined from


the soil samples by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The sample
solutions were introduced into an air – acetylene flame instead of nitrous oxide-
acetylene flame because of its toxicity and laughing gas nature. The soil samples
were digested using EDTA (ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid) extracting
solution.

EDTA extracting solution = 0.05 M disodium EDTA + 0.01 M CaCl2 + 0.1TEA


[Where EDTA= ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid; CaCl2 = Calcium Chloride; TEA = Tri-ethanol-
amine]

Procedure given by Lindsay & Norwell (1969) was followed for the
determination of microelements.

****************
Observations
4.1 Forest cover of the study area:

For most of the recorded history, forests have been recognized not
only as a source of personal succour, even wealth, but also as a communal
resource, a source of water, game, land, fuel, timber, food, fodder, medicine and
much more for all. India is one of the richest countries in the world in both
inorganic and organic natural resources. Indian landmass is connected with the
Chinese and the Asiatic regions of the world which exercise a powerful influence
on the natural characteristics of the physical landscape, climate, plants, animals
and human populations. Both geologically and geographically these influences
have contributed a great deal in determining what may be called the Indian and
the non-Indian or the exotic elements in Indian floristic.

The study area i.e. Neeru watershed, bound on all sides by


Himalayan ranges, is dominated by coniferous trees viz. Abies pindrow Royle,
Cedrus deodara Roxb., Picea smithiana (Wall) Boiss. , Pinus roxburghii Sargent
and Pinus wallichiana Jackson.

In some areas below 1200 msl, tree species like Olea ferruginea
Royle, Trema politoria Planch., Zizyphus mauritiana Lam., Quercus species,
Punica granatum Linn., Ficus palmata Forssk. dominate the flora. These species
are very common on hillocks on the right bank of Neeru drainage, while Pinus
roxburghii is found in addition to the above species on the slopes of the left
bank. Between 1200 msl to 2000 msl, Alnus nitida Endl., a broad leaved tree,
dominate the vegetation along both the banks of the Neeru nallah. Pinus
wallichiana and Cedrus deodara extend between elevations of 1,500 msl to
3,000 msl in the forest area. At higher elevations (above 2,500 msl) the stands of
Abies pindrow and Picea smithiana are found on the mountain peaks, while
Taxus wallichiana Zucc. occurs well above 2,000 msl elevation and is very
poorly represented in the area.

Quercus incana Roxb., Q. dilatata Lindl., Q. semecarpifolia


Smith, Alnus nitida Endl., Prunus cornuta Wall., Fraxinus excelsior Linn.,
Aesculus indica Coleb., Rhus succedanea Linn., Juglans regia Linn., Ficus
palmata, Populus ciliata Wall. and Acer species are important broad leaved
species of the area.

In shrub vegetation, Berberis lycium Royle., Daphne oleoides


Schreib., Elaeagnus umbellata Thund., Cotoneaster bacillaris Wall., Prinsepia
utilis Royle., Ficus palmata, Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana Dcne., Rabdosia
rugosa Wall., Rubus ellipticus Smith., Spiraea canescens D. Don., Rosa
macrophylla Lindl., Indigofera gerardiana Wall., and Lonicera quinquelocularis
Hardw. are dominating species in the area. At low elevation (below 1200msl)
Punica granatum is one more addition to the flora.

The forests of Neeru watershed have been divided into six types
and further in seven sub-types of five groups as per the classification of
Champion and Seth (1964). These types and sub-types are: -
4.1.1. Group 10: Subtropical dry evergreen forests
4.1.1.1. Type 10/C1: Subtropical dry evergreen forest
4.1.1.1.1. Sub-type 10/C1a: Olea cuspidata scrub
forest: This type of forest extends from Pul Doda (821 msl) to Paranoo (1180
msl) on the slopes of right bank of Neeru Nallah. The scrub forest is
characterized by Olea ferruginea (syn. Olea cuspidata) followed by few stands
of Quercus baloot Griff. on the right bank of Neeru Nallah, while towards higher
slopes, Trema politoria is well represented. The slopes of left bank of Neeru
Nallah between Pul Doda and Paranoo are represented by Olea ferruginea
followed by Q. baloot, Zizyphus mauritiana and Punica granatum. Besides these
species, patches of Pinus roxburghii and Trema politoria are found on these
slopes.

It is also observed that Olea ferruginea scrub forest, on left


bank doesn’t extend above Nali Dangri, Bigotha, Grondi, Bhubba, Bata and
Masiri villages. On the slopes, towards the mouth of Neeru Nallah, patches of
Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., Nerium indicum Mill., Calotropis procera Br. and
Opuntia vulgaris are commonly seen, while Zizyphus mauritiana and Punica
granatum Linn. are distributed towards Paranoo. Alnus nitida a broad leaved tree
species shows a transition towards temperate region. The area covering sub-type
10/C1a is directly exposed to sun. Thus, low moisture content in soil is
characteristic of the slopes of this zone. The soils of these slopes are loose, grey
in color with neutral to alkaline pH (Plate-5, Fig.1).

4.1.2. Group 12: Himalayan moist temperate forests:

4.1.2.1. Type 12/C1: Lower Western Himalayan temperate


forests

4.1.2.1.1. Sub-type 12/C1a: Ban Oak forest: Sub-type


12/C1a i.e. Ban Oak forest is restricted to pockets at high altitudes in Neeru
valley. The dominant tree species of this zone are Quercus dilatata, and Quercus
leucotrichophora Camus. (syn. Q. incana) while Rhododendron arboreum
Smith, Rhododendron campanulatum D. Don., Juniperus recurva Ham. are
represented as associated species. This forest sub-type extends from Gul-Danda
Dhar (2770 msl) to Ramtund (3500 msl) including some parts of Chatter-Dhar
(3236 msl) and Chuncholu slope (3430 msl). Seoj-Dhar slope (3570 msl- 3690
msl) facing Ramtund peak doesn’t possess this sub-type but stands of Q.
leucotrichophora are distributed towards the top of this slope. Generally moist
soil is the characteristic feature of this zone while some places are devoid of
shrub vegetation due to rocky surface of the area. Towards Sundrikot and Kirmiri
Gali, sub-type 12/C1a forest is stretched on the lower belt of Sunderikot (3870
msl) and Kirmiri Gali (3570 msl). It is observed that Ban Oak Forest i.e. sub-type
12/C1a with Quercus species in lower stratification and Rhododendron species in
upper stratification are represented in the area ( Plate-6, Figs.1-3).

4.1.2.1.2. Sub-type 12/C1b: Moru Oak forest:


Moru Oak forest i.e. 12/C1b is represented by the stands of Quercus dilatata,
Abies pindrow and Pinus wallichiana in some grooved pockets in between the
hills of left bank of Neeru nallah. However, this sub-type is totally absent on the
right bank of Neeru nallah. Between Dhar Lachran (2700 msl) to Mushdeo-ro-
Nal (2800 msl) the stands of Quercus dilatata, Abies pindrow, Pinus wallichiana
represent sub-type 12/C1b in deep grooved valleys, while Abies pindrow
flourish well towards the periphery of those grooves where sunlight reach easily.
Due to heavy precipitation in the form of snowfall in winters and rainfall in
summers the soil remains moist throughout the year. Moderate acidic pH range
from 5.0-6.5 is the characteristic feature of the soil of this forest type (Plate-7,
Figs. 1-2).

4.1.2.1.3. Sub-type 12/C1c: Moist deodar forest:


Sub-type 12/C1c of the area is represented by pure Cedrus deodara stands with
few countable trees of Aesculus indica. On hills and peaks of right bank of
Neeru nallah, sub-type 12/C1c stretches between Subar Dhar and Thanala. This
area includes Lanchan Dhar in east and south facing slope of Thubba in west,
with width getting narrowed between Kansaroo and Duggi slopes. This forest
sub-type extends up to Thanala and forms a pure continuous belt of Cedrus
deodara. Beside some grooves, 12/C1c forest sub-type is also distributed in
mountains and sub-valleys of left bank of Neeru nallah. Forest sub-type 12/C1c
extends from slopes of Nalthi to Dhar Lachran as continuous stand while sub-
type 12/C1b is suspended in the grooved pockets in this (12/C1c) forest sub-type.
It has also been observed that sub-type 12/C1c also extends in the form of narrow
stretch between Dhar-Lachran and Bigotha in Kellar range. This narrow stretch
includes Dranga, Gutasa, Darodoo, Galian, Niota, Panj Gram, Chanti, upper
Bhalla, Traown and Bigotha.

Although the area of this forest sub-type remain moist throughout


the year due to frequent rains but evidences of forest fires are common in this
forest sub-type due to the availability of abundant resin. Acidic soils are a
characteristic feature of this region (Plate-8, Figs.1-3).

4.1.2.1.4. Sub-type 12/C1d: Western mixed


coniferous forest: The sub-type 12/C1d in the area is represented by Abies
pindrow, Cedrus deodara, Picea smithiana and Pinus wallichiana. Just above
Sub-type 12/C1c, at higher elevations of left bank of Neeru nallah, sub-type
12/C1d stretches from upper portion of Dharaphar to Ramtund (2600 msl) in the
form of narrow continuous stand. On right bank of Neeru nallah, this forest type
is restricted to the upper peaks of Nagni Mandir and peaks above Duggi-Nal.
Some patches have been located in between Padari Gali (2800 msl) and Katari-
di-Gali. Mixed forest stands of Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, and Picea
smithiana are also present between Ashapatti tributary and Kaplash tributary of
Neeru watershed. Few plants of Betula utilis, on rocky surface, and Taxus
wallichiana, in the grooves are also located in between these two tributaries.
Zamana-ri-Dhar is known for Himalayan Yew i.e. Taxus wallichiana. The soils
of the forest type remain wet due to frequent rainfall in summer while winters are
characterized by heavy snowfall (Plate-9, Figs. 1-5).

4.1.2.1.5. Sub-type 12/C1f: Low level blue pine


forest: 12/C1f forest sub-type is represented by pure Pinus wallichiana stand in
Bhadarwah and its close vicinity. These stands are present in the lower belt of
sub- type 12/C1c on the peaks along left bank of Neeru nallah. The soils of the
area remain acidic and rich in humus (Plate-10, Figs. 1-2).

4.1.2.2. Type 12/C2: Upper West Himalayan temperate forest

4.1.2.2.1. Sub-type 12/C2a: Kharsu Oak forest: Sub-type


12/C2a i.e. Kharsu Oak forest is represented by pure stands of
Quercus semecarpifolia and few stands of Trema politoria on the hill
slopes of right and left banks near Paranoo. The soil of the area
remains dry and grey in colour (Plate-5, Fig.2).

4.1.3. Group 13: Himalayan dry temperate forests


4.1.3.1. Type 13/C1: Dry broadleaved and coniferous
forest: Climatically intermediate between sub-tropical and temperate zone, type
13/C1 is represented from Paranoo to Bhalla, while upper peaks of Kellar forest
range do not fall in this type. On the slopes of right bank, between Paranoo to
Bhalla, Pinus roxburghii, Quercus dilatata, Fraxinus species are distributed.
Zizyphus mauritiana, Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana represent the 13/C1
type above Bhalla and in the vicinity of Gurakha (slopes on right bank). The
populations of Alnus nitida and Ficus palmata, two broad leaved species, are
distributed along both the banks of Neeru nallah and its tributaries from Bhalla to
Bheja (2200 msl). Slopes of left bank between Paranoo and Bhalla are
characterized by Pinus wallichiana, Pinus roxburghii, Quercus dilatata at low
elevations, while Cedrus deodara dominates the vegetation at higher elevations.
Snowfall is the prime requisite for this forest type. Berberis lycium, Rosa
macrophylla, Rubus ellipticus, Daphne oleoides, Viburnum grandiflorum
dominate the shrub vegetation. Ficus palmata grow as individual pockets near
the nallahs (Plate-11, Figs. 1-3).

4.1.4. Group 15: Moist alpine scrub


This type of vegetation is found at very high elevations, along the
snow line.

4.1.4.1. Type 15/C1: Birch/Rhododendron scrub forest:


This forest type is mainly represented by dwarf, stunted trees interspersed in
pastures and are restricted to the slopes of Ashapatti (3300 msl) and below
Sankh-ro-Padhar (3860 msl). The flora of this zone includes Betula utilis,
Rhododendron arboreum, R. campanulatum, Corydalis species and Lonicera
parviflora etc. The trunks are short and extremely branched attaining a girth of
about 50 cms. The area is characterized by very heavy snowfall (Plate-12, Figs.
1-2).

4.1.5. Group 16: Dry alpine scrub


4.1.5.1. Type 16/E1: Dwarf Juniper scrub: Dwarf Juniper
scrub forest type is restricted in distribution to the upper portion of the Neeru
valley particularly in Ramtund area towards Kaplash lake. Adjacent to the open
meadows, the species like Juniperus communis, Juniperus recurva, Caragana
are distributed in patches. The species grow well in the rocky area, which
remains dry with intense sun-shine. Although frequent rainfall in summer is
characteristic feature of the area, yet the area remain dry due to rocky surface.
Winters bring heavy snowfall in the area (Plate-13, Figs. 1-2).

4.2 Floristic studies:


4.2.1. Floristic details of medicinal plants:
The area of Neeru watershed from Pul Doda to Kaplash represents
sub-tropical to temperate climatic conditions. The area thus has all the floristic
elements ranging from sub-tropical to temperate. 194 medicinal plant species
belonging to 72 families have been collected from the area. The entire specimens
collected from the area have been deposited in the herbarium of the department
of Botany, University of Jammu and enlisted in Annexure-A along with their
respective families. Each plant species with its medicinal importance has been
given in Annexure-B. Asteraceae is the most dominant family among the
medicinal flora with 18 genera and 20 species (Table 4.1).

Table 4.1: Names of families, number of genera and number of


species.

S. No. Families No. of Genera No. of Species

1. Acanthaceae 1 1

2. Acoraceae 1 1

3. Aizoaceae 1 1

4. Amaranthaceae 1 1
5. Anacardiaceae 2 2

6. Apiaceae 9 10

7. Apocynaceae 1 1

8. Araceae 2 2

9. Araliaceae 1 1

10. Asclepiadaceae 1 1

11. Asteraceae 18 20

12. Balsaminaceae 1 1

13. Berberidaceae 1 1

14. Betulaceae 1 1

15. Boraginaceae 3 3

16. Brassicaceae 7 8

17. Campanulaceae 1 1

18. Cannabaceae 1 1

19. Caprifoliaceae 2 2

20. Caryophyllaceae 2 2

21. Commelinaceae 1 1

22. Convolvulaceae 1 2

23. Crassulaceae 1 1

24. Cucurbitaceae 1 1

25. Cyperaceae 1 1

26. Dioscoreaceae 1 1

27. Ericaceae 2 2

28. Euphorbiaceae 2 3

29. Fabaceae 3 5

30. Fumariaceae 3 4

31. Gentianaceae 1 2

32. Geraniaceae 2 3

33. Hypericaceae 1 1

34. Iridaceae 1 1

35. Juglandaceae 1 1

36. Juncaceae 1 1

37. Lamiaceae 12 12

38. Liliaceae 5 5
39. Loranthaceae 1 2

40. Meliaceae 1 1

41. Moraceae 1 1

42. Morinaceae 1 1

43. Oleaceae 1 1

44. Oxalidaceae 1 1

45. Papaveraceae 1 1

46. Papilionaceae 1 1

47. Phytolaccaceae 1 1

48. Plantaginaceae 1 2

49. Poaceae 3 3

50. Podophyllaceae 1 1

51. Polemoniaceae 1 1

52. Polygalaceae 1 1

53. Polygonaceae 5 8

54. Primulaceae 2 2

55. Punicaceae 1 1

56. Ranunculaceae 8 12

57. Rosaceae 7 11

58. Rubiaceae 3 5

59. Rutaceae 1 1

60. Salicaceae 1 1

61. Sapindaceae 1 1

62. Saxifragaceae 1 1

63. Scrophulariaceae 4 5

64. Solanaceae 5 7

65. Symplocaceae 1 1

66. Taxaceae 1 1

67. Thymealaeaceae 1 1

68. Ulmaceae 1 1

69. Urticaceae 2 2

70. Valerianaceae 1 2

71. Verbenaceae 1 1

72. Violaceae 1 4
Total 161 194

4.2.2. Life forms and Biological spectrum:


The life form of the plant is the physiognomic form produced as a
result of all the life processes in unison with the environment. The life form
classification and construction of the biological spectrum for medicinal plants of
the Neeru watershed was undertaken after a complete enumeration of the floristic
composition of medicinal plants. A total of 194 medicinal plant species have
been listed and grouped into various life forms (Annexure-A). The units of
classification used are as per Raunkiaer (1918) as modified by Braun-Blanquet
(1932). The various classes used in the present study for the life forms are as
under.

Therophytes (TH): All annuals; perennating buds are the embryo in the
seeds.
Hydrophytes and Helophytes (HH): Water, marshy and swampy plants
with perennating organs submerged in water in unfavorable conditions.
Geophytes (G): Perennating buds below ground.
Hemi-crytophtes (H): Renewal buds situated at ground level, including
biennials.
Chamaephytes (CH): Woody or semi-woody perennials with renewal buds
situated at 25cm height or less above ground level.
Nanophanerophytes (N): Shrubs with vegetative organs less than 2m
above soil.
Phanerophytes (PH): Trees with vegetative organs more than 2m above
soil.
Lianas (L): Climbing plants.
Epiphytes (E): Those plants, which settle down on the trunks and branches
of trees.

Out of 194 medicinal plants collected from the study area, 52


species belong to Therophytes, 18 to Macrophanerophytes, 1 to
Hemicryptophytes, 15 to Nanophanerophytes, 4 to Epiphytes, 15 to Geophytes, 6
to Hydrophytes / Helophytes, 1 to Lianas, and 32 to Chamaephytes respectively
(Annexure- A).

Each life form of the study area has been calculated as percentage
and compared with Raunkiaer’s normal biological spectrum (Table-4.2, Plate-
25).

Table 4.2:-Total percentage of medicinal plants of different life form


classes.

Life Forms TH HH G H H N M L E

Raunkiaer’s
13.0 2.0 4.0 26.0 9.0 15.0 28.0 - 3.0
spectrum (%age life
form in normal
spectrum)
Study area (%age life 26.80 3.09 7.73 26.28 16.49 7.73 9.27 0.51 2.06
form in study area)
Deviation From +13.8 +1.09 +3.73 +0.28 +7.49 -7.27 -18.73 +0.51 -0.94
Raunkiaer’s spectrum

4.2.3. Phytosociological studies:


Phytosociological studies were conducted in all the selected sites of
the study area. The primary data (frequency, density and basal area) was
evaluated using field observations and its results were incorporated for secondary
data analysis. The secondary data includes relative frequency, relative density,
relative dominance, importance value index, Margalef’s index, Menhinick’s
index and Shannon Wiener’s index.

4.2.3.1. Frequency, density and Importance Value Index


(IVI):
4.2.3.1.1. Frequency (Winter): The vegetation of the
area varies from season to season and from site to site. During the data collection
and sampling in winter months of the year, it was observed that Taraxacum
officinale was represented with highest frequency i.e. 80% at site A; Duchesnea
indica was represented with 65% frequency among medicinal plants at site B;
Gentiana argentea and Viola pilosa were represented with 55% frequency
among medicinal plants on site C; Cannabis sativa was represented with
frequency of 60% among medicinal plants at site D; Colchicum luteum was
represented with frequency of 55% among medicinal plants at site E; while at
site F, Tulipa stellata with 65% frequency is followed by Verbascum thapsus
with 55% frequency among medicinal plants. The less frequent species among
medicinal plants during winter season were Viola pilosa with a frequency of 10%
at site A; Fumaria parviflora with a frequency of 15% at site C; Bistorta
amplexicaulis with a frequency of 15% at site C; Viola pilosa with a frequency of
10% at site D; Urtica dioica with a frequency of 10% at site E; and Viola
patrinii, Ajuga parviflora and Galium aparine with a frequency of 10% each at
site F (Annexure-C).

4.2.3.1.2. Density (Winter): The most densely


distributed medicinal plant species recorded during winters include, Fumaria
parviflora with a value of 1.90 at site A; Duchesnea indica with a value of 1.4 at
site B; Viola pilosa with a value of 1.25 each at site C; Thymus serpyllum with a
value of 1.3 at site E and Taraxacum officinale with a value of 1.25 at site F. The
least densely distributed medicinal plant species during winter months were
Indigofera heterantha with a value of 0.20 at site A; Fumaria parviflora and
Hedera nepalensis with a value of 0.4 at site B; Carpesium abrotanoides with a
value of 0.25 at site C; Viola pilosa with a value of 0.20 at site D; Urtica dioica
each with a value of 0.1 at site E; Datura stramonium with a value of 0.1 at site F
(Annexure-C).

4.2.3.1.3. Importance Value Index (IVI) (Winter):


The maximum Importance Value Index among medicinal plants during winter
months was calculated for Phytolacca acinosa with IVI value of 23.540 at site A;
Verbascum thapsus with IVI value of 22.518 at site B; Taraxacum officinale with
IVI value of 20.392 at site C; Verbascum thapsus with IVI value of 21.554 on
site D; Arisaema jacquemontii with IVI value of 28.228 at site E and Hedera
nepalensis with IVI value of 28.011 at site F. Likewise the minimum Importance
Value Index among medicinal plants during winter season was calculated in
Viola pilosa with IVI value of 2.953 at site A; Fumaria parviflora with IVI value
of 4.365 at site B; Galium tenuissimum with IVI value of 4.133 at site C; Viola
pilosa with IVI value of 4.225 at site D; Urtica dioica with IVI value of 4.308 at
site E and Galium aparine with IVI value of 2.533 at site F (Annexure-C).

4.2.3.2.1. Frequency (Spring): The most frequent


medicinal plant species during the months of spring were Tulipa stellata, Mentha
longifolia, Micromeria biflora with 90% frequency at site A; Thymus serpyllum
with 85% frequency at site B; Geranium wallichianum and Capsella bursa-
pastoris with 80% frequency each at site C; Saussurea heteromalla, Micromeria
biflora, Viola pilosa, Thymus serpyllum with 90% frequency at site D; Fragaria
vesca with 85% frequency at site E; and Saussurea heteromalla, Dioscorea
deltoidea, Duchesnea indica, Ranunculus arvense, Fumaria parviflora,
Micromeria biflora with 80% frequency each at site F. Beside the frequent
species few species were less frequent in the months of Spring. These species
were Justicia adhatoda seedlings, Achillea millefolium and Geranium
wallichianum with only 5% frequency each at site A; Polygala abyssinica with
20% frequency at site B; Hedera nepalensis with 5% frequency at site C; Datura
stramonium seedling with 10% frequency at site D; Valeriana wallichii with 15%
frequency at site E, and Primula denticulata with 10% frequency at site F
(Annexure-C).

4.2.3.2.2. Density (Spring): The most densely


distributed medicinal plant species during spring months were Ranunculus
arvensis and Micromeria biflora with a value of 1.2 at site B; Viola pilosa with
a value of 1.8 at site B; Fragaria vesca and Fumaria parviflora with a value of
1.15 at site C; Fumaria parviflora with a value of 1.35 at site D; Ajuga parviflora
with a value of 3.6 at site E; Dioscorea deltoidea with a value of 1.45 at site F.
Likewise least densely distributed medicinal plant species were also recorded
from each site during the months of spring. These species were Justicia adhatoda
with a value of 0.1 at site A; Verbascum thapsus with a value of 0.4 at site B;
Rabdosia rugosa and Potentilla argyrophylla with a value of 0.4 at the site C;
Potentilla nepalensis with a value of 0.3 at the site D; Rumex hastatus with a
value of 0.5 at the site E and Primula denticulata with a value of 0.2 at site F
(Annexure-C).

4.2.3.2.3. Importance Value Index (Spring): The


maximum Importance Value Index among medicinal plants during spring months
was calculated for Justicia adhatoda with IVI of 13.00 followed by Saussurea
heteromalla, Tulipa stellata, Mentha longifolia and Plantago major with IVI
values of 11.682, 11.590, 11.408 and 11.218 respectively at site A; Salvia
lanata with IVI of 15.415 followed by Verbascum thapsus and Duchesnea indica
with IVI values of 14.923 and 12.014 respectively at site B; Hypericum
perforatum with IVI of 13.162 followed by Phytolacca acinosa with IVI of
12.746 at site C; Gnaphalium leuto-album with IVI of 20.226 followed by
Saussurea heteromalla, Plantago major and Solanum nigrum with IVI values of
19.476, 16.658 and 14.429 respectively at site D; Rabdosia rugosa with IVI of
15.181 followed by Verbascum thapsus, Tagetus minuta and Hypericum
perforatum with IVI values of 13.972, 13.707 and 13.238 respectively at site E;
Saussurea heteromalla with IVI of 26.273b followed by Arisaema jacquemontii,
Tagetus minuta and Bergenia ciliata with IVI values of 18.875, 17.247 and
13.739 respectively at site F. Likewise the minimum Importance Value Index is
also calculated for medicinal plants of the area in spring months. The calculated
data reveals that Geranium wallichianum with IVI of 0.771 at site A; Fumaria
parviflora with IVI of 3.54 at site B; Galium aparine with IVI of 2.643 at site C;
Achyranthes bidentata with IVI of 2.659 at site D; Fumaria parviflora with IVI
of 3.009 at site E and Primula denticulata with IVI of 1.616 at site F exhibit the
minimum IVI in the study area (Annexure-C).

4.2.3.3.1. Frequency (Summer): The most frequent


medicinal plant species during the months of summer were Plantago ovata and
Galium elegans with 90% frequency each followed by Geranium wallichianum
with a frequency of 85% at site A; Fumaria parviflora with a frequency of 85%
each at site B; Thymus serpyllum with a frequency of 80% at site C; Plantago
ovata with a frequency of 80% at site D; Micromeria biflora with a frequency of
80% at site E and Arisaema jacquemontii with a frequency of 75% at site F
followed. Besides the frequent species few species were represented as less
frequent in the months of summer. These include Desmodium podocarpum and
Gentiana argentea each with only 10% frequency at site A; Taraxacum officinale
with 10% frequency at site B; Phytolacca acinosa with 10% frequency at site C;
Commelina benghalensis with 10% frequency at site D; Corydalis rutifolia with
5% frequency at site E, and Capsella bursa-pastoris and Oxalis parviflora with
15% frequency each at site F (Annexure-C).

4.2.3.3.2. Density (Summer): The most densely


distributed medicinal plant species during summer months were Achillea
millefolium with a density value of 1.35 at site A; Fumaria parviflora, Plantago
ovata and Duchesnea indica each with a density value of 1.2 at site B; Thymus
serpyllum with a density value of 1.45 at site C; Plantago ovata with a density
value of 1.2 at site D; Micromeria biflora with a density value of 1.2 at site E
and Rabdosia rugosa with a density value of 1.2 at site F. Likewise least densely
distributed medicinal plant species were Gentiana argentea with a density value
of 0.15 at site A; Taraxacum officinale with a density value of 0.3 at site B;
Phytolacca acinosa and Cannabis sativa each with a density value of 0.35 at the
site C; Commelina benghalensis with a density value of 0.1 at the site D;
Corydalis rutifolia with a density value of 0.15 on the site E and Plantago ovata
with a density value of 0.125 at site F (Annexure-C).

4.2.3.3.3. Importance Value Index (Summer): The


maximum Importance Value Index among medicinal plants during summer
months was in Arisaema jacquemontii with IVI value of 14.689 followed by
Verbascum thapsus and Saussurea heteromalla with IVI value of 12.3 and
11.695 respectively at site A; Indigofera heterantha with IVI value of 10.013 at
site B; Rabdosia rugosa with IVI value of 14.269 at site C; Xanthium strumarium
with IVI value of 13.71 at site D; Phytolacca acinosa with IVI value of 19.252
followed by Potentilla species with IVI value of 15.47 at site E; and Verbascum
thapsus with IVI value of 19.552 followed by Taraxacum officinale with IVI
value of 10.96 at site F. Gentiana argentea with IVI value of 0.998 at site A,
Taraxacum officinale with IVI value of 2.141 at site B; Viola patrinii with IVI
value of 4.471 at site C; Anagallis arvensis with IVI value of 3.684 at site D;
Corydalis rutifolia with IVI value of 1.128 at site E; and Capsella bursa -
pastoris with IVI value of 2.335 at site F represented the minimum IVI values in
the area for this season (Annexure-C).

4.2.3.4.1. Frequency (Autumn): The most frequent


medicinal plant species during the months of autumn were Dioscorea deltoidea
with a frequency of 60% at site A; Verbascum thapsus with a frequency of 55%
each at site B; Galium aparine with a frequency of 70% at site C; Plantago ovata
and Achillea millefolium each with frequency of 60% each at site D; Artemisia
vestita with a frequency of 60% at site E; and Artemisia vestita with a frequency
of 80% at site F. Beside the frequent species, the less frequent species such as
Ranunculus arvensis with a frequency of 10% at site A; Micromeria biflora,
Oxalis corniculata and Euphorbia helioscopia with a frequency of 10% each at
site B; Bistorta amplexicaulis with a frequency of 10% at site C; Desmodium
podocarpum with a frequency of 10% at site D; Phytolacca acinosa with a
frequency of 10% at site E; and Oxalis corniculata with a frequency of 10% each
at site F were also recorded (Annexure-C).

4.2.3.4.2. Density (Autumn): The most densely


distributed medicinal plant species during autumn months were Cannabis sativa
with a density value of 1.40 at site A; Capsella bursa-pastoris with a density
value of 3.75 at site B; Galium aparine with a density value of 1.15 at site C;
Xanthium strumarium with a density value of 0.45 at site D; Mentha longifolia
with a density value of 1.05 at site E; and Artemisia vestita, Plantago major with
a density value of 0.45 each at site F. Likewise least densely distributed
medicinal plant species were Arisaema jacquemontii with a density value of 0.20
at site A; Euphorbia helioscopia and Micromeria biflora with a density value of
0.25 each at site B; Xanthium strumarium with a density value of 0.3 at the site
C; Datura stramonium with a density value of 0.2 at site D; Phytolacca acinosa
with a density value of 0.35 at site E and Capsella bursa-pastoris with a density
value of 0.1 at site F (Annexure-C).
4.2.3.4.3. Importance Value Index (Autumn): The
maximum Importance Value Index among medicinal plants during autumn
months was recorded in Commelina benghalensis with IVI value of 19.695 at site
A; Verbascum thapsus with IVI value of 25.468 at site B; Phytolacca acinosa
with IVI value of 15.591 at site C; Xanthium strumarium with IVI value of
19.334 at site D; Digitalis purpurea with IVI value of 19.252 at site E; and
Verbascum thapsus with IVI value of 30.147 at site F. The minimum Importance
Value Index for medicinal plants of the area in autumn months was represented
by Micromeria biflora with IVI value of 3.075 at site A, Micromeria biflora with
IVI value of 2.464 at site B, Bistorta amplexicaulis with IVI value of 4.647 at
site C; Desmodium podocarpum with IVI value of 3.215 at site D; Ainsliaea
latifolia with IVI value of 3.773 at site E; and Capsella bursa-pastoris with IVI
value of 3.155 at site F (Annexure-C).

4.2.3.2. Diversity Indices:


4.2.3.2.1. Margalef’s index: In the secondary data
analysis, during winter, the maximum value of Margalef’s index was calculated
as 6.306 at site A and minimum value of Margalef’s index was calculated as
4.850 at site E. During spring, the maximum value of Margalef’s index was
calculated as 7.471 at site C and minimum value of Margalef’s index was
calculated as 5.535 at site B. During summer, the maximum value of Margalef’s
index was calculated as 7.527 at site E and minimum value of Margalef’s index
was calculated as 5.975 at site D, while during autumn the maximum value of
Margalef’s index was calculated as 6.093 at site A and minimum value of
Margalef’s index was calculated as 4.695 at site F (Table-4.3; Plate-26, Fig.1).

4.2.3.2.2. Menhinick’s index: Similarly, during winter,


the maximum value of Menhinick’s index was calculated as 2.315 at site F and
minimum value of Menhinick’s index was calculated as 2.030 at site B. During
spring, the maximum value of Menhinick’s index was calculated as 2.292 at site
A and minimum value of Menhinick’s index was calculated as 1.726 at site B.
During summer the maximum value of Menhinick’s index was calculated as
2.315 at site E and minimum value of Menhinick’s index was calculated as 1.924
at site D, while during autumn the maximum value of Menhinick’s index was
calculated as 2.266 at site A and minimum value of Menhinick’s index was
calculated as 1.792 at site C (Table-4.3; Plate-26, Fig.1).

4.2.3.2.3. Shannon-Wiener’s index: During winter the


maximum value of Shannon-Wiener’s index has been calculated as 3.416 at site
B and minimum value of Shannon-Wiener’s index has been calculated as 3.083
at site E. During spring the maximum value of Shannon-Wiener’s index has been
calculated as 3.749 at site A and minimum value of Shannon-Wiener’s index has
been calculated as 3.457 at site B During summer the maximum value of
Shannon-Wiener’s index has been calculated as 4.400 at site F and minimum
value of Shannon-Wiener’s index has been calculated as 3.394 at site C. During
autumn the maximum value of Shannon-Wiener’s index has been calculated as
3.481 at site A and minimum value of Shannon-Wiener’s index has been
calculated as 3.078 at site F (Table-4.3; Plate-26, Fig.1).

Table-4.3:- Showing the diversity indices for different sites of the


study area for all the four seasons of the year 2003.

Sites/Season Margalef’s index Menhinick’s index Shannon-Wiener’s


index
A/Winter 6.306 2.241 3.302
B/Winter 5.023 2.030 3.416
C/Winter 5.290 2.055 3.256
D/Winter 5.288 2.179 3.215
E/Winter 4.850 2.106 3.083
F/Winter 5.902 2.315 3.213
A/Spring 6.934 2.292 3.749
B/Spring 5.535 1.726 3.457
C/Spring 7.471 2.263 3.689
D/Spring 5.891 1.953 3.714
E/Spring 6.884 2.137 3.608
F/Spring 6.991 2.031 3.660
A/Summer 7.210 2.128 3.455
B/Summer 7.119 2.198 3.529
C/Summer 6.281 2.219 3.394
D/Summer 5.975 1.924 3.418
E/Summer 7.527 2.315 3.806
F/Summer 7.523 2.261 4.400
A/Autumn 6.093 2.266 3.481
B/Autumn 5.183 1.879 3.112
C/Autumn 5.001 1.792 3.127
D/Autumn 5.847 2.139 3.204
E/Autumn 5.443 2.090 3.183
F/Autumn 4.695 1.940 3.078

4.2.4. Biomass studies:


Eleven species were taken for biomass studies from all the twelve
sites of study area (Table-4.4). These species were selected for biomass because
of the variation in size of these plants observed at different study sites. Maximum
above ground biomass in case of Ajuga parviflora was recorded as 0.990g at site
J between 2020-2240 msl and the minimum biomass of the same species was
recorded as 0.710g at site F between 1500-1600 msl; the maximum below ground
biomass was recorded as 0.533g at site C between 1200-1300 msl and the
minimum below ground biomass was recorded as 0.307g at site E between 1280-
1380 msl.

In case of Bistorta amplexicaulis the maximum above ground


biomass was recorded as 0.720g at site K between 1600-1700 msl and minimum
above ground biomass was recorded as 0.280g at site G between 1700-1860 msl;
the maximum below ground biomass was recorded as 4.100g at site F between
1500-1600 msl and minimum below ground biomass was recorded as 2.194g at
site A between 1740-1850 msl. In case of Fragaria vesca the maximum above
ground biomass was recorded as 1.926g at site L between 2060-2200 msl, while
the minimum above ground biomass was recorded as 0.128g at site H between
2400-2480 msl; maximum below ground biomass was recorded as 0.588g at site
H between 2400-2480 msl while minimum below ground biomass was recorded
as 0.06g at site A between 1740-1850 msl.
In case of Galium aparine the maximum above ground biomass
was recorded as 0.812g at site E between 1280-1380 msl and the minimum above
ground biomass was recorded as 0.420g at site G between 1799-1860 msl; the
maximum below ground biomass was recorded as 0.121g at site E between 1280-
1380 msl and minimum below ground biomass was recorded as 0.020g at site G
between 1799-1860 msl. In case of Genetiana argentea maximum above ground
biomass was recorded as 0.320g at site F between 1500-1600 msl and minimum
above ground biomass was recorded as 0.115g at site H between 2400-2480 msl;
the maximum below ground biomass was recorded as 0.141g at site F between
1500-1760 msl and the minimum below ground biomass was recorded as
0.014msl at site D between 1600-1720 msl. In case of Gnaphalium leuto-album
the maximum above ground biomass was recorded as 2.850g at site L between
2060-2200 msl and minimum above ground biomass was recorded as 0.780 at
site K between 1600-1700 msl; the maximum below ground biomass was
recorded as 0.721g at I between 2260-2360 msl and minimum below ground
biomass was recorded as 0.012g at site D between 1600-1720 msl. In case of
Micromeria biflora the maximum above ground biomass was recorded as 1.621g
at site B between 1180-1300 msl and minimum above ground biomass was
recorded as 0.132g at site C between 1200-1300 msl; the maximum below
ground biomass was recorded as 1.498 at site B between 1180-1300 msl and
minimum below ground biomass was recorded as 0.102 at site C between 1200-
1300 msl. In case of Plantago lanceolata the maximum above ground biomass
was recorded as 1.923g at site K between 1600-1700 msl and minimum above
ground biomass was recorded as 0.334g at site C between 1180-1300 msl; the
maximum below ground biomass was recorded as 0.768g at site K between
1600-1700 msl and minimum below ground biomass was recorded as 0.338 at
site B between 1180-1300 msl. In case of Sauromatum guttatum the maximum
above ground biomass was recorded as 3.210g at site E between 1280-1380 msl
and minimum above ground biomass was recorded as 1.552g at site H between
2400-2480 msl; the maximum below ground biomass was recorded as 10.87g at
site E between 2060-2200 msl and minimum below ground biomass was
recorded as 8.191g at site H between 1280-1380 msl.
In case of Taraxacum officinale the maximum above ground
biomass was recorded as 1.326g at site G between 1700-1860 msl and the
minimum above ground biomass was recorded as 0.210g at site C between 1200-
1300 msl; the maximum below ground biomass was recorded as 1.225g at site H
between 2400-2480 msl and minimum below ground biomass was recorded as
0.200g at site C between 1200-1300 msl. In case of Valeriana wallichii the
maximum above ground biomass was recorded as 0.812g at site L between 2060-
2200 msl and the minimum above ground biomass was recorded as 0.500g at site
H between 2400-2480 msl; the maximum below ground biomass was recorded as
1.821g at site L between 2060-2200 msl and minimum below ground biomass
was recorded as 0.298g at site H between 2400-2480 msl (Table-4.4).
Table 4.4 :- Biomass studies of eleven herbs at different study sites. (All values in grams.)

Plant Species Biomass Sites

A B C D E F G H I J K L
Ajuga parviflora Above
ground 0.892 0.912 0.740 - 0.879 0.710 0.820 - - 0.990 0.870 0.720
Below
ground 0.421 0.451 0.533 - 0.307 0.410 0.510 - - 0.450 0.510 0.320
Bistorta Above
amplexicaulis ground 0.291 0.312 0.520 0.320 0.412 0.500 0.280 0.570 0.621 0.488 0.720 0.451
Below
ground 2.194 2.791 3.920 2.970 2.821 4.100 3.220 2.280 2.711 3.691 3.820 3.940
Fragaria vesca Above
ground 0.197 - - 0.370 0.145 0.163 1.296 0.128 0.512 0.146 0.260 1.926
Below
ground 0.06 - - 0.587 0.075 0.261 0.120 0.588 0.213 0.238 0.236 0.184
Galium aparine Above
ground 0.750 0.652 - 0.610 0.812 0.570 0.420 0.520 0.670 0.720 0.790 0.521
Below
ground 0.100 0.070 - 0.050 0.121 0.04 0.020 0.050 0.040 0.090 0.080 0.060
Gentiana Above
argentea ground 0.153 - - 0.155 0.118 0.320 0.251 0.115 0.224 0.215 0.230 0.173
Below
ground 0.021 - - 0.014 0.031 0.141 0.132 0.051 0.102 0.112 0.102 0.015
Gnephalium Above
leuto- album ground 0.798 0.822 - 0.825 1.108 - 2.285 2.013 1.820 0.839 0.780 2.850
Below
ground 0.023 0.032 - 0.012 0.022 - 0.223 0.231 0.721 0.049 0.032 0.318
Micromeria Above
biflora ground 0.188 1.621 0.132 - - 0.165 0.493 0.211 0.282 0.150 - 0.160
Below
ground 0.167 1.498 0.102 - - 0.142 0.170 0.198 0.188 0.131 - 0.129
Plantago Above
lanceolata ground 1.212 0.364 0.334 0.382 0.346 1.334 0.684 1.632 1.251 1.732 1.923 1.811
Below
ground 0.352 0.338 0.339 0.412 0.375 0.388 0.422 0.381 0.340 0.521 0.768 0.341
Sauromatum Above
guttatum ground 2.101 - 1.750 - 3.210 - 2.030 1.552 - - 1.991 2.50
Below
ground 9.721 - 9.212 - 11.72 - 10.11 8.191 - - 9.230 10.87
Taraxacum Above
officinalis ground 0.892 0.721 0.210 0.285 0.270 0.521 1.326 1.211 - 0.721 1.201 1.100
Below
ground 0.710 0.502 0.200 0.231 0.220 0.322 0.821 1.225 - 0.812 0.922 0.981
Valeriana Above
wallichii ground - - - - - - - 0.500 0.794 0.501 - 0.812
Below
ground - - - - - - - 0.298 1.092 0.922 - 1.821
4.2.5. Altitudinal distribution of medicinal plants:
During explorations the medicinal plants of the area have been
categorized in five different groups (below 1500 msl, 1500-2000 msl, 2000-2500
msl, 2500-3000 msl, 3000-3500 msl and above 3500 msl) on the basis of their
altitudinal distribution (Table 4.5). 44 medicinal plants species have been
collected below 1500 msl, 100 medicinal plant species between 1500-2000 msl,
96 plant species between 2000-2500 msl, 66 medicinal plant species between
2500-3000 msl, 44 medicinal plants between 3000-3500 msl and 14 medicinal
plants above 3500 msl. It has also been observed that few plant species are
distributed in a wide range of altitudinal stretch. The maximum medicinal plants
grow between the range of 1500-2000 msl and 2000-2500 msl. The range above
3500 msl represents few exclusive medicinal species having rhizomes and bulbs
in their below-ground parts. This is because the area remains under snow for
most time of the year. The flora of this region get only four months (July-
October) to come out of ground to complete their life cycle. (Table-4.5; Plate-26,
Fig. 2)
Table 4.5:- Altitudinal distribution of medicinal plants.
S. No. Below 1500 msl 1500-2000 msl 2000-2500 msl 2500-3000 msl 3000-3500 msl Above 3500 msl
1. Acalypha Acalypha Acalypha Achillea Achillea Aconitum
brachystachya brachystachya brachystachya millefolium millefolium heterophyllum
2. Ajuga parviflora Achillea millefolium Achillea Aconitum Aconitum ferox Aconitum hookeri
millefolium heterophyllum
3. Anagallis Achyranthes Achyranthes Anemone Aconitum Adonis aestivalis
arvensis bidentata bidentata obtusiloba heterophyllum
4. Berberis lycium Acorus calamus Acorus calamus Arisaema Aconitum hookeri Bromus patulus
jacquemontii
5. Cannabis sativa Aesculus indica Agropyron repens Arundo donax Adonis aestivalis Draba gracillima
6. Capsella bursa- Agropyron repens Ajuga parviflora Atropa acuminate Bergenia ciliata Jurinea
pastoris macrocephala
7. Colchicum Ajuga parviflora Anagallis arvensis Berberis lycium Bidens pilosa Nepeta elliptica
luteum
8. Commelina Anagallis arvensis Arisaema Bergenia ciliata Bromus patulus Oxyria digyna
benghalensis jacquemontii
9. Daphne oleoides Arisaema Artemisia scoparia Bidens pilosa Caltha palustris Pleurospermum
jacquemontii brunonis
10. Datura Artemisia brevifolia Berberis lycium Bromus patulus Codonopsis ovata Potentilla
stramonium argyrophylla
11. Duchesnea Berberis lycium Bupleurum Bupleurum Corydalis Rhododendron
indica falcatum falcatum govaniana campanulatum
12. Euphorbia pilosa Bistorta Cannabis sativa Caltha palustris Corydalis Saussurea costus
amplexicaulis thyrsiflora
13. Ficus palmata Bunium persicum Capsella bursa- Cannabis sativa Cynoglossum Tanacetum
pastoris micranthum longifolium
14. Fumaria Bupleurum falcatum Cardamine Capsella bursa- Delphinium Thymus serpyllum
parviflora impatiens pastoris inacana
15. Galinsoga Cannabis sativa Colchicum luteum Cardamine Erysimum -
parviflora impatiens repandum
16. Galium aparine Capsella bursa- Commelina Commelina Euphrasia -
pastoris benghalensis benghalensis officinalis
17. Geranium Cardamine Datura Corydalis rutifolia Fagopyrum -
nepalense impatiens stramonium esculentum
18. Girardinia Carpesium Delphinium Cynoglossum Fritillaria roylei -
heterophylla abrotanoides vestitum micranthum
19. Hedera Cichorium intybus Desmodium Desmodium Hedera nepalensis -
nepalensis podocarpum polycarpon
20. Hydrocotyle Colchicum luteum Desmodium Desmodium Hyoscyamus niger -
javanica tiliaefolium tiliaefolium
21. Hypericum Commelina Digitalis lanata Digitalis purpurea Juncus bufonius -
perforatum benghalensis
22. Ipomoea nil Daphne oleoides Digitalis purpurea Dioscorea Leontopodium -
deltoidea himalayanum
23. Justicia Datura stramonium Dioscorea Erigeron Meconopsis -
adhatoda deltoidea canadensis aculeata
24. Lithospermum Dioscorea deltoidea Duchesnea indica Erysimum Morina longifolia -
arvense repandum
25. Mentha Duchesnea indica Erigeron Euphrasia Nepeta elliptica -
longifolia canadensis officinalis
26. Micromeria Erodium cicutarium Erodium Fagopyrum Origanum normale -
biflora circutarium esculentum
27. Origanum Euphorbia Euphorbia pilosa Fragaria vesca Oxyria digyna -
normale helioscopia
28. Oxalis Euphorbia pilosa Fagopyrum Fritillaria roylei Pedicularis -
corniculata cymosum pectinata
29. Pistacia Fagopyrum Fagopyrum Geranium Pleurospermum -
integerrima cymosum esculentum wallichianum brunonis
30. Plantago Ficus palmata Fragaria vesca Geum roylei Podophyllum -
lanceolata hexandrum
31. Plantago major Fragaria vesca Fritillaria roylei Gnaphalium luteo- Polemonium -
album caeruleum
32. Polygala Fumaria parviflora Fumaria parviflora Hedera nepalensis Polygala -
abyssinica abyssinica
33. Punica granatum Galinsoga parviflora Gallium aparine Heracleum Rhododendron -
candicans campanulatum
34. Ranunculus Galium aparine Gentiana argentea Hyoscyamus niger Rosa brunonii -
aquatilis
35. Ranunculus Gentiana kurroo Gentiana kurroo Juncus bufonius Rumex nepalensis -
arvensis
36. Rubia cordifolia Gentiana argentea Geranium Mentha longifolia Salvia lanata -
wallichianum
37. Rubus niveus Geranium Geum roylei Micromeria biflora Sedum ewersii -
wallichianum
38. Rumex hastatus Geranium nepalense Girardinia Origanum normale Selinum vaginatum -
heterophylla
39. Sauromatum Girardinia Gnaphalium luteo- Pedicularis Solidago virgaurea -
guttatum heterophylla album pectinata
40. Solanum Gnaphalium luteo- Hedera nepalensis Phytolacca Tanacetum
surrattense album acinosa longifolium
41. Stachys sericea Hedera nepalensis Heracleum Plantago major Taxus wallichiana -
candicans
42. Taraxacum Heracleum Hyoscyamus niger Podophyllum Thymus serpyllum -
officinale candicans hexandrum
43. Viscum album Hydrocotyle Ipomoea pilosa Polemonium Trillium
javanica coeruleum govanianum
44. Zanthoxylum Hypericum Juglans regia Polygala Valeriana wallichii -
alatum perforatum abyssinica
45. - Ipomoea nil Juncus bufonius Polygonum - -
nepalense
46. - Juglans regia Lonicera alpigena Potentilla - -
nepalensis
47. - Juncus bufonius Melothria Rhododendron - -
heterophylla anthopogon
48. - Lonicera alpigena Mentha longifolia Rorippa islandica - -
49. - Mariscus Micromeria biflora Rosa brunonii - -
sieberianus
50. - Mentha longifolia Nasturtium Rumex nepalensis - -
officinale
51. - Micromeria biflora Origanum normale Salvia lanata - -
52. - Mollugo pentaphylla Oxalis corniculata Sedum ewersii - -
53. - Nasturtium officinale Pergularia daemia Selinum veginatum - -
54. - Origanum normale Phytolacca acinosa Silene conoidea - -
55. - Oxalis corniculata Plantago Solanum nigrum - -
lanceolata
56. - Pergularia daemia Plantago major Solidago virga- - -
aurea
57. - Phytolacca acinosa Polemonium Spiraea canescens - -
caeruleum
58. - Pistacia integerrima Polygala Symplocos - -
abyssinica crataegoides
59. - Plantago lanceolata Polygonum Taraxacum - -
nepalense officinale
60. - Plantago major Populus ciliata Taxus wallichiana - -
61. - Polygala abyssinica Potentilla Thymus serpyllum - -
nepalensis
62. - Polygonum glabrum Primula Trifolium repens - -
denticulata
63. - Populus ciliata Prinsepia utilis Urtica dioica - -
64. - Potentilla nepalensis Punica granatum Valeriana wallichii - -
65. - Primula denticulata Rabdosia rugosa Verbascum - -
thapsus
66. - Prinsepia utilis Ranunculus Viola odorata - -
aquatilis
67. - Punica granatum Rhododendron - - -
anthopogon
68. - Rabdosia rugosa Rhus succedenea - - -
69. - Ranunculus aquatilis Robinia - - -
pseudacacia
70. - Ranunculus arvensis Rorippa indica - - -
71. - Rhus succedanea Rorippa islandica - - -
72. - Robinia pseudacacia Rosa brunonii - - -
73. - Rorippa indica Rubia cardifolia - - -
74. - Rorippa islandica Rumex nepalensis - - -
75. - Rosa macrophylla Sauromatum - - -
guttatum
76. - Rubia cordifolia Saussurea - - -
heteromalla
77. - Rubus niveus Selinum - - -
vaginatium
78. - Rumex hastatus Siegesbeckia - - -
orientalis
79. - Rumex nepalensis Silene conoidea - - -
80. - Saussurea Sium latijugum - - -
heteromalla
81. - Siegesbeckia Solanum nigrum - - -
orientalis
82. - Silene conoidea Spiraea cancescens - - -
83. - Sisymbrium irio Tagetus minuta - - -
84. - Solanum nigrum Taraxacum - - -
officinale
85. - Spiraea cancescens Thymus serpyllum - - -
86. - Spiraea sorbifolia Trifolium repens - - -
87. - Stellaria aquatica Tulipa stellata - - -
88. - Tagetus minuta Urtica dioica - - -
89. - Taraxacum Valeriana pyrifolia - - -
officinale
90. - Thymus serpyllum Valeriana wallichii - - -
91. - Trachyspermum Verbascum thapsus - - -
ammi
92. - Trifolium repens Viola canescens - - -
93. - Urtica dioica Viola odorata - - -
94. - Valeriana wallichii Viola patrinii - - -
95. - Verbascum thapsus Viscum japonicum - - -
96. - Viola odorata Xanthium - - -
strumarium
97. - Viscum album - - - -
98. - Viscum japonicum - - - -
99. - Withania somnifera - - - -
100. - Xanthium - - - -
strumarium
4.3. Soil Chemistry:
Soil from twelve different sites within the study area was analysed
for the physico-chemical parameters. 20 soil samples were collected (9-12 inches
below the soil surface) at random from each of the sites and mixed to form a
single sample for a single site. Thus 12 samples in general were taken for the
analysis.

4.3.1. Physical Parameters:


4.3.1.1. Texture: At majority of the sites within the study
area soil was observed as sandy-loam followed by silt loam and sandy-clay loam,
while loam type of soil was found at only one site. Sandy-loam soils were
observed between 1180- 1300 msl at site B; between 1200-1300 msl at site C;
1600- 1720 msl at site D; between 2400-2480 msl at site H; between 2020- 2240
msl at site J and between 2060-2200 msl at site L. Silt-loam soils were observed
between 1740-1850 msl at site A; between 1280-1380 msl at site E; between
1500-1600 msl at site F. Sandy-clay-loam soils were observed between 2260-
2360 msl at site I; between 1680-1700 msl at site K and loam soils were observed
between 1700-1860 msl at site G (Table-4.6).

4.3.1.2. Moisture: The moisture content of the soil in the


study area was dependent upon the aspect, altitude and position of the study site
because the study area is mountainous with altitudinal slope gradient due to
which the water holding capacity of the soils is low. The moisture content of the
soils at different sites varies between maximum of 30% at site D & I between
1600-1720 msl & 2260- 2360 msl to minimum of 15% at site C between 1200-
1300 msl. Majority of the soils had a moisture content of 20 ± % (Table-4.6;
Plate-27, Fig 1).

4.3.1.3. Temperature: The soil temperature of the area


ranged from maximum of 22oC at site D between 1600-1720 msl to minimum
8oC at site K between 1680-1780 msl. It has been observed that the site more
exposed to the sun rays was hotter than the site less exposed to the sun rays.
Moreover the moisture and texture of the soil also affect the soil temperature
(Table-4.6; Plate-27, Fig.1).

4.3.1.4. pH: The pH of the soils, in the study area, has


been recorded as more or less acidic and ranged from 4.2 at site B between 1180-
1300 msl to 6.7 at site G between 1700-1860 msl. The acidic condition of the soil
gets support from the analysis of carbonates as nil and very less bicarbonates. In
most of the cases the soil pH ranged from 4.5 – 6.5 at sites A, C, D, E, F, H, I, J,
K & L while pH below 4.5 (4.2) was observed at only one site i.e. site B
between 1740-1850 msl. Similarly pH above 6.5 (6.7) has also been observed at
only one site i.e. site G between 1700-1860 msl (Table-4.6; Plate-27, Fig. 2).

4.3.1.5. Electric Conductivity: The electric conductivity


of the soils at maximum sites ranged from 102µ Mhos/cm at site L between
2060-2200 msl to 178 µ Mhos/cm at site I between 2260-2360 msl. The lowest
electric conductivity was determined as18µ Mhos/cm at site F. In deodar forest
area the EC has been determined as 178 and 136µ Mhos/cm at site I and K
between 2260-2360 msl and 1680-1780 msl, respectively, while in open land the
EC has been determined as 18, 19.4 and 123 µ Mhos/cm at sites F, G and A
between 1500-1600 msl, 1700-1800 msl and 1740-1850 msl, respectively. Site A
is nearer to the deodar forest as compared to the sites F and G. Rest of the sites
B, C, D, E, H & J showed maximum EC ranging from 102 to 178 µ Mhos/cm as
these sites have been either in the dense forest area or in the agricultural area
(Table-4.6; Plate-27, Fig. 2).

4.3.2. Macroelements:
4.3.2.1. Organic Carbon: For chemical analysis the
humus and litter was first separated from the soil samples. The analysed soil of
the study area exhibited low organic carbon ranging from 0.1% at site A between
1740-1850 msl to 0.6% at site H between 2400-2480 msl. This reveals that the
decomposition under these soils has been very much low and the availability of
nutrients due to decomposition of organic matter has also been low (Table-4.6;
Plate-29, Fig. 2).
4.3.2.2. Carbonates: The carbonates and bicarbonates
play a very important role in the alkalinity of the soil. Due to the acidic nature of
soils on all the sites, the carbonate has been found absent. (Table-4.6; Plate-30,
Fig. 1).

4.3.2.3. Bicarbonates: Bicarbonates has been found low


in all soils of all the sites ranging from 0.0122% at site E between 1280-1380 msl
to 0.0244% at site C between 1200-1300 msl in the study area (Table-4.6; Plate-
30, Fig.1).

4.3.2.4. Calcium: In all soils, calcium has been determined


low as all the soils were acidic in nature. Thus in consonance with the acidic
nature of the soils. The calcium content of all the soils, on all sites, in the study
area, has also been low. Calcium has been determined with low value ranging
from 0.12% at site J between 2020-2240 msl to 0.36% at sites B & D between
1180-1300 msl & 1600-1720 msl, respectively, in the study area (Table-4.6;
Plate-28, Fig. 2).

4.3.2.5. Magnesium: Like calcium, magnesium has also


been determined low in consonance with the acidic nature of the soil. Magnesium
registered a minimum value of 0.19% at sites C & K between 1200-1300 msl &
1680-1780 msl, respectively and a maximum value of 0.41% at site D between
1600 msl-1720 msl. It is interesting to know that calcium and magnesium are
also responsible for the acidic nature of the soil on all sites of the study area
(Table 4.6; Plate 28, Fig. 2).

4.3.2.6. Chlorides: Chlorides have also been determined


as low in all the soils of the study area. The values of the chloride percentage
ranged between a minimum of 0.0053% at site A between 1740-1850 msl to a
maximum of 0.0177% at site C between 1200-1300 msl. Thus, it is evident from
the analysis that chlorides were also not available in appreciable quantity in the
study area (Table-4.6; Plate-29, Fig.1).
4.3.2.7. Sodium: Sodium has been determined in all soil
samples ranging from a minimum of 2.1% at site B between 1180-1300 msl to
maximum of 2.28% at site E between 1280-1380 msl (Table-4.6; Plate-28, Fig.
1).

4.3.2.8. Potassium: The amount of potassium has been


determined between a minimum of 2.81% at site J between 2020 – 2240 msl to a
maximum of 4.02% at site C between 1200-1300 msl in the study area. Besides
these two sites, values of potassium range from 3.245 to 3.98% at other ten sites
i.e. A, B, D, E, F, G, H, I, K & L (Table-4.6; Plate-28, Fig. 1).

4.3.2.9. Phosphorus: The percentage of total phosphorus


has been found to be in fractions at all the sites and ranged between a minimum
of 0.01% to maximum of 0.04%. The minimum value (0.01%) has been
determined at two sites D & H between 1600-1720 msl & 2400-2480 msl and the
maximum value (0.04%) has also been determined at two sites A & G between
1740-1850 msl & 1700-1860 msl; the other sites exhibited value of 0.02% on
sites B, E, J, K and 0.03% on C, F, I, L (Table-4.6; Plate-29, Fig.1).

4.3.2.10. Sulphate: The percentage of sulphate has also


been determined in all the soil samples at all the sites and it ranged between a
minimum of 0.032% at site G between 1700-1860 msl to a maximum of 0.084%
at site B between 1180-1300 msl (Table-4.6; Plate-29, Fig.1).

4.3.2.11. Nitrate: The percentage of nitrate has also been


determined at all the sites and it ranged between a minimum of 1.1% at site A
between 1740-1850msl to a maximum of 5.01% at site K between 1680-1780
msl (Table-4.6; Plate-28, Fig. 1).

4.3.2.12. Iron: The percentage of iron ranged from 0.72%


to 6.52%. The minimum percentage (0.72%) has been recorded at site G between
1700-1860 msl, and the highest percentage (6.52%) was recorded at site K
between 1680-1780 msl. Majority of the sites registered a range from 1.08%-
6.04% (Table- 4.6; Plate-29, Fig. 2).
4.3.3. Microelements:
4.3.3.1. Copper: The amount of Copper showed a great
fluctuation. The range varied between 0.85ppm to 12.722ppm. The minimum
value of 0.85 ppm was recorded at only one site i.e. site J between 2020-2240
msl followed by 0.934 ppm on site K between 1680-1780 msl. The maximum
value of 12.722 ppm followed by 12.224 ppm has been determined for site A and
site E between 1740-1850 msl & 1280-1380 msl, respectively. At majority of the
sites the value of copper has been registered between 2.614 ppm- 6.988 ppm
(Table-4.7; Plate-31, Fig 2).

4.3.3.2. Cadmium: The amount has been determined as


low and the range varied between a minimum of 0.009 ppm to 0.089 ppm in the
study area. The minimum value of 0.009 ppm has been recorded at site J between
2020-2240 msl while the maximum value of 0.089 ppm followed by 0.071 have
been recorded at site A and L between 1740-1850 msl and between 2060-2200
msl respectively. At majority of sites the values of copper ranged between 0.021
ppm to 0.045 ppm (Table-4.7; Plate-31, Fig 2).

4.3.3.3. Zinc: The amount of Zinc exhibited very little


fluctuation. The range varied between a minimum of 0.448 ppm at site C
between 1200-1300 msl to 1.1ppm at site E between 1280-1380 msl. At majority
of the sites the value ranges between 0.457 ppm to 0.833 ppm (Table-4.7; Plate-
31, Fig. 2).

4.3.3.4. Nickel: A great fluctuation has been observed in


the amount of Nickel. The value ranged from a minimum of 3.83 ppm to 9.27
ppm. The minimum value of 3.83 ppm has been observed at three sites B, H & K
between 1180-1300 msl, 2400-2480 msl & 1680-1780 msl, respectively, while
the maximum value of 9.27 ppm has been recorded for only one site A between
1740-1850 msl. At majority of sites, the values ranged between 4.15 ppm to 5.11
ppm (Table-4.7; Plate- 31, Fig. 1).
4.3.3.5. Cobalt: The amount of cobalt exhibited a very
small fluctuation and values ranged from minimum of 0.86 ppm at site H
between 2400-2480 msl to maximum of 2.28 ppm at sites E & L between 1280-
1380 msl & 2060-2200 msl, respectively. At majority of the sites the values
ranged between 1.19ppm to 1.95ppm (Table-4.7; Plate-31, Fig. 1).

4.3.3.6. Lead: The amount of lead exhibited a very small


fluctuation and value ranged from the minimum of 6.32 ppm at site E and J
between 1280-1380 msl and 2020-2240 msl to maximum of 9.03 ppm at site L
between 2060-2200 msl (Table-4.7; Plate-31, Fig. 1).
Table-4.6: Physico - chemical parameters of soil (macro-elements).
SITES TAROWN PARAN00 BALERU BRAM- SANII PANJ- DHARA KANSRU MANT- BHEJA DUGGI MOTHLU
PUR GRAM HLU
A B C D E F G H I J K L
ALTITUDE 1740- 1180- 1200- 1600- 1280- 1500- 1700- 2400- 2260- 2020- 1680- 2060-
1850m 1300m 1300m 1720m 1380m 1600m 1860m 2480m 2360m 2240m 1780m 2200m
TEXTURE Silt Loam Sandy Sandy Sandy Silt Silt Loam Sandy Sandy Sandy Sandy Sandy
Loam Loam Loam Loam Loam Loam Clay Loam Clay Loam
Loam Loam
MOISTURE (%) 25 20 15 30 25 20 20 25 30 20 20 25
TEMPRATURE (oC) 10 15 13 22 13 15 20 18 17 10 8 9
pH 6.5 4.2 6.1 4.5 5.5 4.5 6.7 6.2 6.5 5.5 5.3 6.5
CONDUCTANCE 18.9 123 117 112 19.5 18 19.4 168 178 18.7 136 102
(µMho/c)
ORGANIC 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.4
CARBON (%)
CARBONATES (%) Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent
BICARBONATES(%) 0.02135 0.01355 0.0244 0.0183 0.0122 0.0164 0.0244 0.01526 0.0183 0.0188 0.0171 0.0143
CALCIUM (%) 0.22 0.36 0.2 0.36 0.18 0.32 0.24 0.16 0.3 0.12 0.24 0.32
MAGANESIUM (%) 0.32 0.35 0.19 0.41 0.25 0.29 0.25 0.38 0.25 0.38 0.19 0.25
CHLORIDES (%) 0.0053 0.0071 0.0177 0.0142 0.0124 0.0122 0.0088 0.0106 0.0126 0.0124 0.0117 0.0123
SODIUM (%) 2.22 2.1 2.24 2.2 2.28 2.12 2.14 2.16 2.2 2.14 2.1 2.19
POTASSIUM (%) 3.98 3.24 4.02 3.94 3.52 3.71 3.68 3.84 3.88 2.81 3.52 3.89
PHOSPHORUS (%) 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.03
SULPHATE (%) 0.076 0.084 0.068 0.044 0.0482 0.044 0.032 0.076 0.072 0.052 0.056 0.06
NITRATE (%) 1.1 1.5 3.03 2.03 2.52 2.01 3.03 4.02 2.02 1.5 5.01 3.01
IRON ppm 5.44 2.52 3.96 1.08 6.04 4.36 0.72 4.72 3.6 2.52 6.52 1.44
Table-4.7 : Physico – chemical parameters of soil (microelements).

SITES TAROWN PARANU BALERU BRAM- SANII PANJ DHARA KANSRU MANTH- BHEJA DUGGI MOTH-
PUR GRAM LU LU
A B C D E F G H I J K L
ALTITUDE 1740- 1180- 1200- 1600- 1280- 1500- 1700- 2400- 2260- 2020- 1680- 2060-
1850m 1300m 1300m 1720m 1380m 1600m 1860m 2480m 2360m 2240m 1780m 2200m
Copper ppm 12.722 6.988 5.016 3.297 12.224 4.032 3.777 1.989 2.614 0.85 0.934 5.771
Cadmium 0.089 0.044 0.03 0.032 0.021 0.028 0.03 0.045 0.037 0.009 0.021 0.072
ppm
Zinc ppm 0.725 0.833 0.448 0.626 1.1 0.812 0.457 0.52 0.722 0.607 0.616 0.812
Nickel ppm 9.27 3.83 4.47 5.11 4.71 4.71 5.11 3.83 4.15 4.47 3.83 5.11
Cobalt ppm 1.2 0.97 1.19 1.95 2.28 2.17 1.41 0.86 1.73 1.19 1.52 2.28
Lead ppm 7.45 7.22 6.77 7.82 6.32 7.9 7.15 8.73 7.3 6.32 7.67 9.03
4.4. Conservation of Medicinal Plants of the Study Area:
A threatened species is one which is at significant risk of extinction
in the foreseeable future, due to various causes like environmental factors,
ecological substitutions, biological factors, pathological cause and anthropogenic
interferences in the form of habitat destruction, human overexploitation etc. The
Species Survival Commission of IUCN first attempted to categorise the
threatened taxa according to different degrees of threat perceptions as: Extinct;
Endangered; Vulnerable and Rare. Soon after the publication of IUCN’s Red
Data Book in 1978 on global basis, several countries including India brought out
their own red data books on Plants and Animals. During the last 2 decades,
Botanical Survey of India with continued explorations, inventorisation and
assessment of various parameters of floral diversity has identified about 1500
species of plants which are rare and threatened. It has also been observed that the
species are becoming rare or threatened mainly due to anthropogenic factors like
habitat destruction and overexploitation.

In the study area the same anthropogenic factors have also been
observed for the heavy loss of floral elements. The overexploitation of medicinal
plants is the major factor among anthropogenic activities in the study area. Some
of the threats observed in the study area are:-

1. The collection of immature floral elements for medicinal


uses viz. Gentiana species.
2. The collection of all the flowers in the wild habitat viz. Viola
species, Pleurospermum species, Corydalis species.
3. The collection of below ground parts for medicinal uses
(Bergenia species, Jurinea macrocephala, Saussurea costus,
Picrorhiza kurroo) etc.
4. Collection of immature fruits for food and medicinal uses.
5. Grazing by goat and sheep flocks.
6. Cleaning of forests for agricultural purposes.
7. Cutting and cleaning of forests for timber.
8. Illegal collection of herbs for medicinal uses and traditional
rituals.
9. Construction of circular roads and link roads in the study
area.
10. Collection of herbs by pilgrims on their way towards
pilgrimage destinations at high altitudes.
11. Forest fires.

In the collected medicinal flora of the area there are only few
threatened floral elements according to Red Data Book of BSI. These are:-

1. Dioscorea deltoidea
2. Gentiana kurroo
3. Podophyllum hexandrum
4. Saussurea costus
5. Taxus wallichiana

Of the five threatened medicinal plants, Dioscorea deltoidea and


Podophyllum hexandrum were taken for developing conservation strategies. The
two plant species have been studied for both seed germination and
transplantation in the study area as well as University Botanical Garden. After
the regular trials it has been observed that conservation and propagation of plants
through seed germination is useful only in the study area, while under proper
care and proper artificial conditions the below ground parts of both the plant
species germinate in University Botanical Garden (320 msl). In the second year
of study the Podophyllum hexandrum was not able to germinate from the one
year old transplanted below ground parts, but the plants of Dioscorea deltoidea
germinated from the last year’s transplanted germplasm (Plate-32; Figs. 1-12). In
the second year of study some rhizomes of the Dioscorea deltoidea were cut in
suitable one and half inches pieces (taking care that germinating bud shouldn’t
damage) and planted again in pots in the glass house (Plate-33; Figs. 1-12). By
the year 2005, the plants were again germinated in the glass house from these
pieces of rhizomes. Data showing the stages of germination and conservation
practices has been tabulated below (Table- 4.8).

Table-4.8: Conservation practices of Dioscorea deltoidea.


Date Jan.15, Jan.15, Jan.16, Jan.16, Jan.16, Jan.17, Jan.17, Jan.17,
2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005
Pot no. 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4
Plant no. I II I II III I II I
BG (Rhizome)
Length 3in. 3 in. 3 ½ in. 3 in. 2 in. 2 in. 2 in. 4 in.
Girth 2 ½ in. 2 in. 3 in. 2 in. 2 in. 1 ½ in. 2 in. 2 ½ in.
NOSB 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
NNSB 2 1 4 1 1 2 1 3
BG (Root)
Length
(max.) 8cm 12 cm 5 ½ in 3 in. 5 in. 9 in. 13 in. 12 in.
(min.) 1cm 1 ½ cm 1 in. 1 in. 1 in. 1 cm. 1 1½
NOR 27 14 15 11 10 16 12 18
AG (shoot)
Number 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Length 22in 23 in. 62 in. 24 in. 18 in. 23 in. 16 in. 22
NOL 17 22 Nil Nil. 13 14 8 8&3
SOL N.A. N.A.
(max.) 2 ½ X 2 in. 2 X 2 in 2 X 1½ in. 2 X 1½ in. 2 X 2in. 3 X 1 ½ in.
&
3 X 1 ½ in.
(min.) 0.5X0.2 in. 0.2X0.1cm 0.1X0.1 cm 1.2 X 1cm 1 X 1in. 1 X 1 ½ in.
& nil.
CNY 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 3

BG: Below ground part; NOSB: Number of old shoot bud; NNSB: Number of new
shoot bud; NOR: Number of Roots; AG: Above ground part; NOL: Number of leaves;
SOL: Size of Leaves; CNY: Cutting for New Year.
For the next year, 19 vegetative buds from rhizomes were separated
from the last year’s planted species. These 19 buds have been planted again in
the separate pots. Bhat and Bindroo (1982) were followed for the induction of
early bud sprouting in Dioscorea deltoidea. Soil used in pots was maintained to
acidic pH to provide the maximum availability of the micronutrient to the crop.
All the buds have germinated into plantlets within two months. Within four
months of plantation of the species few plants have reached maturity by
producing flowers. Data showing the stages of germination for the season have
been tabulated below (Table-4.9).
Table 4. 9: Data recorded for Conservation practices of Dioscorea deltoidea on July 9, 2005

PN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
NOC 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
NOS 4 1 4 1 5 2 1 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 1 1 2 2 4
NOFS 1 Nil 2 Nil 2 1 Nil Nil 1 Nil Nil Nil Nil 1 Nil Nil Nil Nil 1
NOFr Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil

PN: Pot number; NOC: Number of cuttings; NOS: Number of Shoots; NOFS: Number of Flowering shoots; NOFr: Number of Fruiting
shoots.
5 pots of last year were not disturbed and have been placed in
glasshouse as such to observe the growth, development and propagation of
propagules.

Seeds of Podophyllum hexandrum have not germinated in the


university botanical garden but in the research station at an altitude of 1600 msl
within the study area seeds sown in August 2003 have germinated after 21 months
(Table-4.10; Plate-34; Figs.1-5).

Table-4.10: Cultivation trial for Podophyllum hexandrum at research


station Bhadarwah (1600msl).
Date/Year Number of seeds sown Number of seeds germinated
August 2003 50 Nil
April 2004 Nil Nil
August 2004 Nil Nil
April 2005 Nil 48

In the same year of study germplasm of one more plant (Digitalis


purpurea) was collected from the study area and tried in the University Botanical
Garden. Firstly three plants of the species were transplanted to the botanical
garden in open field. The plant species was transplanted in the month of
September 2003. The species survived for eight months (September 2003 - April
2004) without any distortion in the greenery of the leaves. But during month of
May 2004, the symptoms of the death of the plant were observed and then the
plants were shifted to greenhouse. Likewise in August 2004, 35 plants were also
taken to the University Botanical Garden for experimental purpose. Out of these
five are planted in pots of the Glasshouse and 30 are planted in the open field of
University Botanical Garden. Out of these 30 plants only two plants attained
maturity phase by flowering in the botanical garden and only one plant in the
glasshouse was observed in flowering. (Plate-35; Figs. 1-9).
***********
Discussion
5.1. Forest cover:
During exploration of the medicinal plants of the study area, the
vegetation types and forest types of the Neeru watershed were also recorded. After
a detailed survey for three years, a forest map has been compiled in which the
forests of the study area have been grouped in five groups which are further
classified in types and sub-types (Plate-14 & Fig.2). From these observations it has
been concluded that the area is dominated by Cedrus deodara trees and the
dominating forest sub-type is 12/C1c i.e. moist deodar forest. This observation is
in consonance with the observations of Kumar (1987) who reported Cedrus
deodara as the dominating tree species in the Bhadarwah area. Abundance of
Cedrus deodara in the present study area indicate that in addition to the rainfall
the distribution of the precipitation during the year plays an important role in the
general make up of the forest vegetation. This has also been emphasized by
Champion (1936). The thick canopy of Cedrus deodara forest in the study area
does not allow the ground flora to grow but the areas devoid of thick forests have
the maximum ground flora. This may be due to the minimum availability of
sunlight to the ground vegetation because of the thick canopy of giant Cedrus
deodara and other broad-leaved shrubs. This observation is supported by the
findings of Mayers (1980).

5.2. Floristic details:


Ethno-botany is the study of how people of a particular culture and
region make use of indigenous plants. Ethno-historic research in India reveals that
Indians are conservationists. The floristic study of the medicinal plants has shown
that the area is endowed with large number of medicinal herbs than other plants on
each study site (Annexure-C). In the present study, 161 genera with 194 species of
medicinal plants have been recorded (Table-4.1). Dominant family among
medicinal plants in the study area is Asteraceae with 18 genera and 20 species
followed by Lamiaceae with 10 genera and 11 species ( Table-4.1), while the total
number of 323 genera with 488 species represent the flora of Bhadarwah forests
and the dominating family in the study area is Asteraceae with 61 species
(Kumar, 1987). Although in the present study only the medicinal plants have been
considered but it becomes very evident from the observation of Kumar (1987)
that the climate of the area favours the Asteraceae family to establish well in the
Neeru-valley. The climatic zonation of the study area resembles the climatic
features of Mussoori (now in Uttaranchal), but the flora of study area is somewhat
different from the flora of Uttaranchal. In Mussoori, there is a coniferous climate
(Gupta, 1967) while in Neeru watershed at most of the hills the Rhododendron
sp. and Quercus sp. are also seen along with the Juniperus sp. On comparison of
the flora of the study area with the flora of Mussoori, it becomes apparent that
Graminaeae (Poaceae) falls at number one with 123 species in Mussoori while as
it is Asteraceae in the study area. Similarly the flora of Simla is again dominated
by Graminaeae (Poaceae) with 133 species (Collett, 1921).
5.2.1. Life forms:
The life form classification of the medicinal plant species favour the
therophytic flora to flourish well in the area because of the topography, climate
and soil chemistry. This observation is in consonance with the observations of
Kumar (1987), but doesn’t conform to the Raunkiaer’s normal spectrum. In the
study area therophytic and chamaephytic medicinal plants show a great positive
divergence from the Raunkiaer’s normal spectrum, reflecting a thero-
chamaephytic climate of the region (Table-4.2). As per the Raunkiaer’s normal
spectrum the phytoclimate of the study area should be phanero-hemicryptophytic
while the studies of the Kumar (1987) reveal that the phytoclimate of the
Bhadarwah forest is thero-hemicryptophytic, because of so many factors, at
macro, meso and micro-climatic level. It is interesting to observe that the study for
medicinal plants only, in the same area, reflects that the area favours thero-
chamaephtic phyto-climate. Kaul and Sarin (1976), while working in another
belt and aspect of the Bhadarwah forest, reported chamaephytes and
hemicryptophytes as the largest life form classes. But present study of medicinal
plants registers therophytic and chamaephytic life forms as the largest life form
classes in the study area. Moreover the geophytes register double the value than
the Raunkiaer’s normal spectrum. This may be because of the temperate climate of
the area which favours such plants which can preserve their vegetative
(propagative) buds under the soil during the chilling winters.

When the life forms of the present study were compared with the life
forms of adjoining areas the results showed that the therophytes register a high
percentage at all the places except Trikuta Hills (Table-5.1). According to
Bharucha and Dave (1944) the high value of therophytes is an indicator of the
amount of influence of man and animal.
Table 5.1: Comparison of Life forms of medicinal flora of study area
with adjoining areas.
Life forms TH HH G H CH N M L E
Study area Author, 26.80 3.09 7.73 26.28 16.49 7.73 9.27 0.51 2.06
2005
Bhadarwah Kumar, 29.3 3.30 4.5 37.1 11.5 6.14 6.35 1.43 0.40
Forest 1987

Trikuta Kour, 27.31 3.09 7.73 26.00 16.49 15.0 28.0 1.03 3.0
Hills 2001

Patnitop Kumar, 29.8 3.2 3.5 26.4 15.2 8.5 10.4 2.6 0.2
1997
Kathua Jhangir, 32.89 1.27 2.55 15.77 12.36 12.79 16.63 5.11 0.63
2004

Jammu Sharma, 35.45 1.78 2.02 9.11 13.93 11.64 16.70 8.87 0.50
2003

Raunkiaer’s normal 13.0 2.0 4.0 26.0 9.0 15.0 28.0 - 3.0
Spectrum

5.2.2. Phytosociology:
In the present study, the medicinal flora of the area has been
classified in two classes (i) known medicinal plants, and (ii) unknown medicinal
plants. During the phytosociological studies it has been observed that the
maximum plants in each quadrate are from the first class i.e. known medicinal
plants. This observation also reveals that the study area is very much suitable for
the cultivation of medicinal plants.

During the phytosociological analysis of the flora of Neeru


watershed in winters, the medicinal species like Taraxacum officinale, Verbascum
thapsus, Oxalis corniculata, Duchesnea indica, Phytolacca acinosa, Tagetus
minuta, Hedera nepalensis, Colchicum luteum, Girardinia heterophylla, Arisaema
jacquemontii and Bergenia ciliata register a high IVI and this is in consonance
with the studies of Kumar (1987) in Bhadarwah and Kumar (1997) in the
Patnitop (temperate regions) of the province. The phytosociological analysis of the
herbaceous flora of other three seasons is in consonance with the earlier studies of
Kumar (1987), Kumar (1997), and Kesar (2002). The medicinal plants are
though dominant in the study area, yet most of them are not taken by the grazing
animals. This observation is similar to the observations of Kumar (1987), Kumar
(1997), Behera (2000), Kesar 2002, Sharma (2003), and Jhangir (2004).

Comparison of the diversity indices of the present study with the


diversity indices calculated by Sharma (2003) for Himalayan Sub-tropical
vegetation of Jammu shows that there is a great variation among the Margalef’s
index. The Margalef’s index as calculated by Sharma (2003) for three types of
vegetation i.e. sub-tropical deciduous forest, Himalayan sub-tropical scrub and
Himalayan subtropical Pine forest ranges between 17.68-34.89 while the
Margalef’s index in the study area ranges between 4.695-7.527 in all the study
sites in all the four seasons (Table 4.3). The calculated Menhinick’s index from
the study area is almost similar to that of Sharma (2003) in the Jammu forests.
Similarly the Shannon-Wiener’s index calculated from the study area is similar to
that of Sharma (2003).

5.2.3. Biomass studies:


The differences in the nutrient content and their distribution in the
ecosystem are governed by several inter-related factors. Kumar (1987), while
working on the phytosociological and productive studies of Bhadarwah forests,
reported that the root-shoot ratio increase from moist to mesic and xeric
conditions. These observations have been supported by Bray (1963), Struik
(1965) and Monk (1966). After consulting the work of Kumar (1987) and visual
observations only few species were taken for the biomass study. The criteria for
the selection of these species were the variation in size of these plants at different
study sites. In the present study similar findings have been recorded as given by
Bray (1963). The sites falling in xeric conditions (A, B, C and D) possess
maximum root-shoot ratio, as compared to the other sites (Table-4.4). This may be
due to the high demand for water contents by the plants.

5.3. Soil Chemistry:


Edaphic factors more or less control the occurrence, composition
and succession of forests within a climatic zone. The soil temperature was found
to be related to air temperature, though exposure and plant cover tend to modify
this relationship. The surface soil temperature was lower than the air temperature.
Temperature and mountain aspect relationship was in consonance with the studies
of Kumar (1987) and Wazir (1984). The results of the present study are in
consonance with the results of the Shanks (1956), who have observed that soil and
air temperature differences tend to be greater in higher temperature range than at
lower temperature.

Soil moisture had a direct relationship with soil temperature. Wetter


soils were colder than the dry ones. These results find the support from the
observations of Kumar (1987). Krishnaswamy et al (1957) studied the micro-
climate of a plantation in Dehradun and concluded that soil temperature remained
higher throughout the year in open habitat while it was observed to be lower under
plantation. Similar results have also been observed during the soil studies in the
study area.
The soils of the study area have been observed as acidic and are in
consonance with the observations of Wazir (1984) and Kumar (1987) (Table
4.6). Our observations also find support from the works of Puri and Gupta
(1951) who observed values of pH ranging between 5.8 to 6.1 for soils under
Abies pindrow and 6.2 to 6.6 for Pinus wallichiana for forest soils of Kulu
Himalayas. As the soils of the area are acidic in nature, there is maximum
availability of mineral nutrients to the plants. This can be concluded by comparing
the results with the work of Lucas and Davis (1961). According to the findings of
Lucas and Davis (1961), nutrients viz. Mo, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, S, K, P and
N are available in the pH range of 5.5 to 6.5. Townsend (1974) has categorized the
various nutritional elements in four different classes viz.

1. Macro-nutrient elements
2. Micro-nutrient elements
3. Harmful elements
4. Incidental elements

In the present study about 18 macro and micro-elements from the


soil were analysed and classified in four classes as per the classification of
Townsend (1974). These are C, P, K, Mg, Ca Fe and Na as macronutrient
elements; Co, Cu, Zn as micro-nutrient elements; Ni and Pb as the harmful
elements and Cd as the incidental element. But in the present study, few other
elements like carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates were also analysed
from the soils because these elements are important for setting the pH gradient in
the soil. The absence of carbonate and low range of bicarbonate (from 0.012% to
0.024%) reveals that the soils are acidic in nature (Table-4.6). Gypsum pieces
present on the soil surface of the study area are slightly soluble, but release
sufficient sulphates to support plant growth. It has been observed that there is low
percentage of sulphates as compared to the percentage of calcium (Table-4.6).
This observation is in consonance with the observations of Taiz and Zeiger
(2002).

According to Taiz and Zeiger (2002) root growth is generally


favoured in slightly acidic soils at pH value between 5.5 and 6.5. Our observations
conform to the above hypothesis. In the study area, the predominating medicinal
flora possesses the underground parts which are used for medicinal purposes in
local treatments. Moreover, the dominating tree species of the area Cedrus
deodara and many other floral elements bear a mycorrhizal association and all the
soils of the study area are acidic in nature. Acidity promotes the weathering of
rocks that release K, Mg, Ca and Mn and increase the solubility which facilitates
absorption by the roots. The amount of rainfall and decomposition of organic
matter in soils are major factors in lowering the soil pH.

5.4. Conservation of threatened medicinal plant species:


A classification of the medicinal vegetation on physiognomic basis
revealed that the study area is represented by therophytic type of flora. Thus seeds
were preferred for the conservation practice. Initially only two plant species were
taken to develop the conservation strategy. Seeds were tried for both the species at
research station Bhadarwah (1600 msl), but it was observed that the seeds
germination in both the species was very poor. The underground parts viz.
rhizomes for both Dioscorea deltoidea and Podophyllum hexandrum were tried for
further studies.

It has been observed that the rhizomes of D. deltoidea are woody in


nature but decay off due to the attack of tuber rotting fungi. To prevent the decay
during field growth of the species, the rhizomes were pre-treated with 3000 ppm
of Benamyl fungicide (Bhattacharjee, 2000). The protocol proposed by
Bhattacharjee (2000) for D. floribunda was followed to cultivate D. deltoidea.
The rhizomes of the species were divided into crown, median and tip parts. In case
of D. floribunda, it has been observed that tips grow slowly while rhizome pieces
from crown and median parts grow quickly (Bhattacharjee, 2000). Our
observations are slightly different for D. deltoidea. The crown of D. deltoidea
grows faster than the median and tip parts. It has also been observed that 3-4
plantlets grow simultaneously from the crown part, but later on only one attain
maturity. This is clear indication of resource allocation. Therefore, it may be
beneficial to separate the germinating buds in early stages and plant them
individually. The germinating buds in the rhizome are distinguishable from rest of
rhizome by few characters as follows:

1. The germinating buds are bright yellow in colour than the rest of rhizome
(dark brown).
2. The germinating buds are swollen outgrowths.
3. More often young shoots are observed on the germinating buds.
4. Germinating buds are soft than the rest of the rhizome.

In the present study, the methods as proposed by Bhat and Bindroo


(1982) were followed for the induction of early buds sprouting in D. deltoidea. D.
deltoidea produce viable seeds, but seed production is rare and germination is
slow. In the present study seeds were also studied for their germination after the
treatment with different concentrations of GA3 (Yousuf, 2002). In the present
study maximum germination was observed in the seeds treated with 50ppm GA3
(Plate 36).

According to Bhattacharjee (2000) Podophyllum sp. is propagated


from seeds or by division of rhizomes. Seed germination is poor. Seeds are sown
in spring season, seedlings are transplanted in a well pulverized and fertilized soil
at a distance of 30cm x 20cm. Organic rich moist soil, partially shaded borders,
marshes or bog gardens are suitable for its cultivation. In the present study the
rhizomes were collected from the altitude of 2800 msl to 1600 msl and were
transplanted at research station Bhadarwah. After one year of transplantation each
rhizome germinated into one plantlet only. Simultaneously, the seeds were also
sown at 1600 msl in spring season. These seeds sown in August 2003 germinated
after 21 months. This proves that the seeds of Podophyllum hexandrum possess a
long period of dormancy.

***********
Summary
The Himalayas are the youngest mountain ranges of the world,
especially the central ridge of that mountain system, which forms the southern
limit of Tibet for 2,500 miles from Assam in the east to Jammu and Kashmir in the
west. Himalayas are series of more or less parallel or converging ranges
intercepted by numerous valleys and extensive plateaus. Due to the variation in
topography, it enjoys a variety of climate, and has been divided into three
ecological zones i.e., sub-mountainous, temperate zone and alpine zone. These
climatic variations make it quite a bit interesting and rich zone of biodiversity. The
inner dry valleys and Trans-Himalayan tracts that lie north of the main Himalayan
mountain wall receive very low monsoon rainfall but relatively heavy snowfall.
Same is the condition in the area of study i.e. Neeru watershed.
Neeru watershed (J&K) situated in the Northwest Himalayas was
selected for ecological studies and conservation of medicinal plants. Climatically
and ecologically the area represents almost the whole state, as the climatic
conditions of the area range from sub-tropical to alpine. Neeru stream originating
from Kaplash Lake (4341 msl) and Ashapatti Glacier (3300 msl) is the main
stream of the area. Neeru stream is dual in origin and the two tributaries join each
other in main town of Bhadarwah (1600 msl) and then flow for about 30 km to
meet Chenab River at Pul Doda (821 msl).

The forests of Neeru- watershed have been divided into six types and
further in seven sub-types of five groups as per the classification of Champion
and Seth (1964). The vegetation of each type and sub-type has been described in
detail. The dominant forest type of the area includes moist Cedrus deodara forest.
Among medicinal flora, Asteraceae is the most dominant family in the area with
18 genera and 20 species. The other dominant families, with regard to the
medicinal plants, in the area include Lamiaceae (12 genera, 12 species),
Apiaceae (9 genera, 10 species), Ranunculaceae (8 genera, 12 species),
Rosaceae (7 genera, 11 species) and Brassicaceae (7 genera, 8 species).

A total of 194 medicinal plant species belonging to 161 genera of


tracheophytes grouped in 72 families have been recorded from the study area,
during three years (April, 2003 to April, 2005) of field study. A complete list of
194 medicinal plants, from the study area, with their medicinal values has been
presented. Most of the specimens have been collected, preserved and mounted on
herbarium sheets and deposited in the Herbarium of the Department of Botany,
University of Jammu. A large number of plants have been photographed in their
natural habitat.

Phytosociological studies have been conducted during all the four


seasons by laying quadrates of suitable size. The study includes the collection of
primary data, and based on the primary data the secondary data has been
calculated. The values have been presented in a tabular form and also discussed in
detail. During the phytosociological analysis of the flora of Neeru watershed in
winters, the medicinal flora like Phytolacca acinosa, Taraxacum officinale,
Verbascum thapsus, Arisaema jacquemontii and Hedra nepalensis registered a
high IVI. During spring, Justicia adhatoda, Salvia lanata, Hypericum perforatum,
Phytolacca acinosa, Gnaphalium leuto-album, Rabdosia rugosa registered a high
value of IVI. During summer, Arisaema jacquemontii, Rabdosia rugosa,
Phytolacca acinosa, Verbascum thapsus and Taraxacum officinale registered a
high value of IVI, while during autumn, Verbascum thapsus, Phytolacca acinosa,
Digitalis purpurea registered a high value of IVI. Diversity indices like
Margalef’s index, Menhinick’s index, and Shannon-Wiener’s index have been
calculated for the medicinal plants of the area.

Biomass studies for eleven medicinal plants have been conducted


because of the variation in size of the species at different sites. The relationship of
soil chemistry, meteorological data and altitudinal distribution of medicinal plants
in the area has also been discussed in relation to the vegetation.

Life forms and biological spectrum of the medicinal plants of the


study area have also been investigated. Out of 194 medicinal plants collected from
the study area, 52 species belong to therophytes, 18 to macro-phanerophytes, 51 to
hemi-cryptophytes, 15 to nano-phanerophytes, 4 to epiphytes, 15 to geophytes, 6
to hydrophytes/helophytes, 1 to lianas, and 32 to chamaephytes respectively.
These life forms have been compared with Raunkiaer’s normal biological
spectrum and the biological spectrum of the adjoining areas. Based on these
observations the phytoclimate of the area has been discussed thoroughly.

In the present study the medicinal flora of the region has been
grouped in five groups on the basis of altitudinal gradient and the altitudinal range
between 1500-2000 msl has been recognized as the zone with maximum diversity
of medicinal flora. Hence this zone has been chosen as an experimental station for
the conservation of some of the medicinal plants of the area.
In physico-chemical analysis of soil the parameters taken for the
analysis were, texture, moisture, temperature, pH, electric conductivity,
carbonates, bicarbonates, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sodium, Potassium,
Total Phosphorus, Sulphates, Nitrates, Iron, Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Nickel,
Cobalt and Lead.

Conservation of medicinal plants of the study area also has been


discussed and conservation practices for Dioscorea deltoidea and Podophyllum
hexandrum have also been carried out in situ and ex situ.

The thesis also contains a chapter on materials and methodology,


which has been described in detail. A separate chapter each on review of literature
and upto-date bibliography has also been included. The tabular data has been
given in the form of appendices and line charts. Bar charts have also been drawn,
where ever found necessary.

***********
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trees of Uttaranchal state: distribution, use pattern and prospects
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Amatya, G. 1996. Ethno-medicinal use of plants of Bara district, Nepal. In:


Environment and Biodiversity in the context of South Asia (Eds.) P.
K. Jha; G. P. S. Ghimire; S. B. Karmacharya; S. R. Baral and P.
Lacoul. Ecological Society, Kathamandu, Nepal, pp: 260-263.

Aswal, B. S. 1994. Conservation of ethno-medicinal plant diversity of Garhwal


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---------------*********---------------
Annexure A : List of medicinal plants from the study area ( Neeru Watershed ) with their families and
Life forms.

S. No. Name of species Family Plate No./Fig.No. Life form Acc. No.
1. Justicia adhatoda L. Acanthaceae 22-5 N
2. Acorus calamus L. Acoraceae 24-9 HH
3. Mollugo pentaphylla L. Aizoaceae TH
4. Achyranthes bidentata Bl. Amaranthaceae 23-3 H SKHC - NEERU-101/8249
5. Anacardiaceae 17-9 MPH SKHC-NEERU-102/8250
Pistacia integerrima Stew.

6. Rhus succedanea L. Anacardiaceae PH


7. Anethum sowa Roxb. Apiaceae 19-2 CH
8. Bunium persicum (Boiss) B. Apiaceae 19-1 CH SKHC-NEERU-103/8251
Fedtsch.
9. Heracleum candicans Wall. Apiaceae 19-3 H
10. Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb. Apiaceae H
11. Pleurospermum brunonis Benth. Apiaceae 19-4 H SKHC-NEERU-105/8253
12. Apiaceae H SKHC-NEERU-109/8257
Selinum vaginatum Clarke.

13. Sium latijugum Clark. Apiaceae HH


14. Apiaceae TH
Bupleurum longicaule Wall.

15. Bupleurum falcatum L. Apiaceae TH SKHC-NEERU-107/8255


16. Trachyspermum ammi Apiaceae TH
17. Nerium indicum Mill. Apocynaceae 21-3 N
18. Arisaema jacquemontii Engl. Araceae 24-10 G
19. Sauromatum guttatum Schott. Araceae 24-11 G
20. Hedera nepalensis K . Koch. Araliaceae 19-5 E (CLIMBER) SKHC-NEERU-110/8258
21. Pergularia daemia (Forskal) Asclepiadaceae CH
Chiov.
22. Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. Asteraceae CH
23. Artemisia vestita Wall. Asteraceae CH SKHC-NEERU-113/8261
24. Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae 20-3 CH
25. Inula royleana DC. Asteraceae 20-6 CH
26. Achillea millefolium L. Asteraceae 20-2 H SKHC-NEERU-131/ 8279
27. Gnaphalium luteo-album L. Asteraceae 20-4 H
28. Jurinea macrocephala Benth. Asteraceae 20-5 H
29.
Leontopodium himalayanum DC. Asteraceae H SKHC-NEERU-119/8267

30. Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. Asteraceae H


31. Saussurea heteromalla Asteraceae 20-7 H SKHC-NEERU-132/8280
(D. Don) Hand. – Mazz.
32. Solidago virga-aurea L. Asteraceae H SKHC-NEERU-126/8274
33. Tagetus minuta L. Asteraceae H SKHC-NEERU-125/8273
34. Tanacetum longifolium Wall. ex Asteraceae 20-8 H
DC.
35. Ainsliaea latifolia (D. Don) Sch.- Asteraceae 20-10 TH
Bip.
36. Bidens pilosa L. Asteraceae TH
37. Carpesium abrotanoides L. Asteraceae TH
38. Erigeron canadensis L. Asteraceae TH
39. Asteraceae TH
Siegesbeckia orientalis L.

40. Taraxacum officinale Wigg. Asteraceae 20-9 TH


41. Asteraceae TH
Xanthium strumarium L.

42. Balsaminaceae 17-5 TH


Impatiens roylei Klotz.

43. Berberis lycium Royle. Berberidaceae 16-1 N SKHC-NEERU-135/8283


44. Betula utilis D. Don. Betulaceae MPH
45. Cynoglossum micranthum Dalz. & Boraginaceae 21-6 CH SKHC-NEERU-137/8284
Gibs.
46. Macrotomia benthamii DC. Boraginaceae MPH
47. Lithospermum arvense L. Boraginaceae TH
48. Capsella bursa-pastoris Moench. Brassicaceae 16-8 TH SKHC-NEERU-141/8289
49. Cardamine impatiens L. Brassicaceae TH
50. Draba gracillima Hk. F.& T. Brassicaceae TH
51. Erysimum repandum L. Brassicaceae TH
52. Nasturtium officinale W.T. Ait. Brassicaceae TH
53. Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern. Brassicaceae TH
54. Rorippa islandica (Oeder) Borbas. Brassicaceae TH
55. Sisymbrium irio L. Brassicaceae TH
56. Codonopsis ovata Benth. Campanulaceae H
57. Cannabis sativa L. Cannabaceae 24-2 CH
58. Lonicera alpigena L. Caprifoliaceae N
59. Viburnum grandiflorum Wall. Caprifoliaceae 19-6 N SKHC-NEERU-145/8293
60. Stellaria aquatica (L.) Scop. Caryophyllaceae 16-12 H
61. Silene conoidea L. Caryophyllaceae TH SKHC-NEERU-146/8294
62. Commelina benghalensis L. Commelinaceae 24-8 TH SKHC-NEERU-152/8300
63. Ipomoea nil (Linn) Roth. Convolvulaceae CH
64. Ipomoea pilosa Cav. Convolvulaceae 21-7 CH
65. Sedum ewersii Ledeb. Crassulaceae N
66. Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cucurbitaceae TH SKHC-NEERU-154/8302
Cogn.
67. Mariscus sieberianus Nees. Cyperaceae H
68. Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. Dioscoreaceae 24-4 G
69. Cassiope fastigiata D.Don. Ericaceae 20-12 CH SKHC-NEERU- 156/8304
70. Rhododendron campanulatum Ericaceae 20-11 N
D.Don.
71. Acalypha brachystachya Hornew. Euphorbiaceae TH
72. Euphorbia helioscopia L. Euphorbiaceae 23-10 TH SKHC-NEERU-159/8307
73. Euphorbia pilosa L. Euphorbiaceae 23-11 TH
74. Desmodium podocarpum DC. Fabaceae CH SKHC-NEERU-161/8308
75. Desmodium polycarpum DC. Fabaceae CH
76. Desmodium tiliaefolium D. Don Fabaceae CH
77. Trifolium repens L. Fabaceae 17-10 H SKHC-NEERU-206/8354
78. Robinia pseudo-acacia L. Fabaceae MPH
79. Corydalis govaniana Wall. Fumariaceae 16-5 CH SKHC-NEERU-163/8311
80. Corydalis rutifolia Sibth. Fumariaceae 16-6 CH SKHC-NEERU-164/8312
81. Fumariaceae 16-4 CH SKHC-NEERU-165/8313
Corydalis thyrsiflora Prain.

82. Fumaria parviflora Lamk. Fumariaceae 16-7 TH


83. Gentiana argentea Royle. Gentianaceae 21-4 H SKHC-NEERU-169/8317
84. Gentiana kurroo Royle. Gentianaceae 21-5 H
85. Geranium wallichianum Sw. Geraniaceae 17-3 CH SKHC-NEERU-171/8319
86. Geranium nepalense Sw. Geraniaceae 17-2 CH SKHC-NEERU-170/8318
87. Erodium cicutarium Leman. Geraniaceae TH
88. Hypericum perforatum L. Hypericaceae 17-1 CH
89. Iris kemaonensis D.Don. Iridaceae 15-12 G
90. Juglans regia L. Juglandaceae MPH
91. Juncus bufonius L. Juncaceae HH
92. Prunella vulgaris L. Lamiaceae 22-8 CH SKHC-NEERU-187/8335
93. Saliva moorcroftiana Wall. Lamiaceae 22-10 CH
94. Clinopodium vulgare L. Lamiaceae H
95. Nepeta elliptica Royle. Lamiaceae H
96. Rabdosia rugosa (Wall.) Lamiaceae 22-9 H SKHC-NEERU-181/8329
Hara.
97. Salvia lanata Roxb. Lamiaceae H
98. Thymus serpyllum Auct. Lamiaceae 22-11 H SKHC-NEERU-184/8323
99. Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson. Lamiaceae 22-12 HH SKHC-NEERU-172/8320
100. Ajuga parviflora Benth. Lamiaceae TH SKHC-NEERU-189/8337
101. Micromeria biflora (Buch-Ham.) Lamiaceae 22-7 TH SKHC-NEERU-173/8321
Benth.
102. Origanum normale Don. Lamiaceae TH
103. Stachys sericea Wall. Ex Benth. Lamiaceae TH
104. Allium sp. Liliaceae G
105. Colchicum luteum Baker. Liliaceae 24-7 G SKHC-NEERU-190/8338
106. Fritillaria roylei Hook. Liliaceae G
107. Trillium govanianum Wall. Ex. D. Liliaceae 24-5 G SKHC-NEERU-192/8340
Don.
108. Tulipa stellata Hook. Liliaceae 24-6 G SKHC-NEERU-193/8341
109. Viscum album L. Loranthaceae 23-9 E SKHC-NEERU-194/8342
110. Viscum japonicum Thumb. Loranthaceae E
111. Melia azadirachta L. Meliaceae 17-6 PH
112. Ficus palmata Forssk. Moraceae 24-3 MPH
113. Morina longifolia Wall. Morinaceae 20-1 TH SKHC-NEERU-195/8343
114. Olea ferruginea Royle. Oleaceae 21-2 MPH
115. Oxalis corniculata L. Oxalidaceae 17-4 CH
116. Meconopsis aculeata Royle. Papaveraceae 16-3 H SKHC-NEERU-202/8350
117. Indigofera heterantha Wall. Papilionaceae PH
118. Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. Phytolaccaceae 23-4 CH
119. Plantago lanceolata L. Plantaginaceae 23-2 H SKHC-NEERU-210/8358
120. Plantago major L. Plantaginaceae 23-1 H SKHC-NEERU-209/8357
121. Arundo donax L. Poaceae CH
122. Agropyron repens Beauv. Poaceae TH
123. Bromus patulus Duthie. Poaceae TH
124. Podophyllum hexandrum Royle. Podophyllaceae 16-2 H SKHC-NEERU-211/8359
125. Polemonium caeruleum L. Polemoniaceae H
126. Polygala abyssinica R.Br. ex Polygalaceae H SKHC-NEERU-212/8360
Fresen.
127. Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill. Polygonaceae H SKHC-NEERU-214/8362
128. Bistorta amplexicaulis (D.Don) Polygonaceae 23-5 TH SKHC-NEERU-213/8361
Greene.
129. Fagopyrum cymosum Meissn. Polygonaceae TH
130.
Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. Polygonaceae TH

131. Polygonum glabrum Willd. Polygonaceae TH SKHC-NEERU-216/8364


132. Polygonum nepalense Meissn. Polygonaceae TH SKHC-NEERU-215/8363
133. Rumex hastatus D. Don. Polygonaceae 23-6 TH SKHC-NEERU-217/8365
134. Rumex nepalensis Spreng. Polygonaceae 23-7 TH
135. Primula denticulata Smith. Primulaceae H
136. Anagallis arvensis L. Primulaceae 21-1 TH
137. Punica granatum L. Punicaceae 18-10 MPH
138. Ranunculaceae 15-3 G SKHC-NEERU-227/8375
Aconitum ferox Wall.

139. Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. Ranunculaceae 15-1 G


140. Aconitum hookeri Stapf. Ranunculaceae 15-2 G SKHC-NEERU-220/8368
141. Anemone tetrasepala Royle. Ranunculaceae 15-5 G SKHC-NEERU-221/8369
142. Delphinium roylei Munz. Ranunculaceae 15-9 G
143. Delphinium vestitum Wall. Ranunculaceae 15-8 G SKHC-NEERU-219/8367
144. Adonis aestivalis L. Ranunculaceae H
145. Anemone obtusiloba D. Don. Ranunculaceae 15-4 H SKHC-NEERU-225/8373
146. Ranunculaceae 15-7 H
Clematis montana D.Don

147. Ranunculus arvensis L. Ranunculaceae 15-11 H SKHC-NEERU-230/8378


148. Ranunculaceae 15-6 HH
Caltha palustris L.
149. Ranunculus aquatilis L. Ranunculaceae 15-10 HH
150. Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Rosaceae 18-1 CH SKHC-NEERU-234/8382
Focke.
151. Fragaria vesca L. Rosaceae 18-2 CH SKHC-NEERU-233/8381
152. Rosa macrophylla Lindl. Rosaceae 18-7 E (CLIMBER)
153. Rosa brunonii Lindl. Rosaceae 18-6 E (LIANA) SKHC-NEERU-236/8384
154. Geum roylei Wall. Rosaceae 18-3 H
155. Potentilla argyrophylla Wall ex Rosaceae 18-4 H SKHC-NEERU-235/8383
Lehm.
156. Potentilla nepalensis Hook. Rosaceae H SKHC-NEERU-238/8386
157. Prinsepia utilis Royle. Rosaceae 18-5 N
158. Rosa webbiana Wall. ex Royle. Rosaceae N SKHC-NEERU-237/8385
159. Spiraea canescens D. Don. Rosaceae 18-8 N
160. Spiraea sorbifolia Hoof. Rosaceae N
161. Rubia cordifolia L. Rubiaceae 19-10 N SKHC-NEERU-246/8394
162. Rubus niveus Thunb. Rubiaceae 19-9 N SKHC-NEERU-240/8388
163. Galium rotundifolium L. Rubiaceae TH SKHC-NEERU-244/8392
164. Galium tenuissimum Bieb. Rubiaceae 19-7 TH SKHC-NEERU-245/8393
165. Gallium aparine L. Rubiaceae 19-8 TH SKHC-NEERU-248/8394
166. Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. Rutaceae 17-7 PH
167. Populus ciliata Wall. Ex Royle. Salicaceae MPH
168. Aesculus indica Hiern. Sapindaceae 17-8 PH
169. Bergenia ciliata (Hew.) Sternb. Saxifragaceae 18-9 H SKHC-NEERU-252/8400
170. Digitalis lanata Ehrh. Scrophulariaceae 22-2 CH SKHC-NEERU-253/8401
171. Digitalis purpurea L. Scrophulariaceae 22-1 CH SKHC-NEERU-254/8402
172. Scrophulariaceae CH
Euphrasia officinalis L.

173. Pedicularis pectinata Wall ex. Scrophulariaceae 22-4 H SKHC-NEERU-255/8403


Beth.
174. Verbascum thapsus L. Scrophulariaceae 22-3 H SKHC-NEERU-261/8409
175. Solanaceae 21-11 CH
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

176. Atropa acuminate L. Solanaceae N


177. Datura stramonium L. Solanaceae 21-8 TH
178. Hyoscyamus niger L. Solanaceae 21-12 TH SKHC-NEERU-269/8417
179. Solanum nigrum L. Solanaceae TH
180. Solanum pseudo-capsicum L. Solanaceae 21-9 TH
181. Solanum surrattense Burm.F. Solanaceae 21-10 TH
182. Symplocos crataegoides Buch- Symplocaceae MPH
Ham. Ex. D.Don
183. Taxus wallichiana Zucc. Taxaceae PH SKHC-NEERU-268/8416
184. Daphne oleoides Schreib. Thymealaeaceae 23-8 PH
185. Celtis australis L. Ulmaceae MPH
186. Girardinia heterophylla Dcne. Urticaceae 23-12 H
187. Urtica dioica Linn Urticaceae 24-1 H
188. Valeriana pyrolifolia Decne. Valerianaceae 19-11 H SKHC-NEERU-264/8412
189. Valeriana wallichii DC. Valerianaceae 19-12 H SKHC-NEERU-263/8411
190. Vitex negundo L. Verbenaceae 22-6 N SKHC-NEERU-271/8419
191. Viola canescens Wall. ex. Roxb. Violaceae H SKHC-NEERU-265/8413
192. Viola odorata L. Violaceae 16-9 H
193. Viola patrinii DC. Violaceae 16-10 H SKHC-NEERU-266/8414
194. Viola serpens Wall. Violaceae 16-11 H SKHC-NEERU-267/8415
Annexure B : Medicinally important plant species with families, medicinal importance and ethno-
botanical uses:

S. No. Name of species Family Medicinal importance/ Ethno botany


1. Acalypha brachystachya Euphorbiaceae Decoction of the leaves and flower heads is employed as a carminative, tonic and aromatic
stimulant. Locals of the area use leaves and flowers of the plant to cure cold.
2. Achillea millefolium Asteraceae Infusion of the species is diuretic, stimulant and haemostatic. Decoction of the leaves and
flowers are carminative, tonic and aromatic stimulant. Locals of the area use leaves and
flowers for vapour bath in cold and fever. The tea from the leaves of the plant is given in cold.
3. Achyranthes bidentata Amaranthaceae The plant is diuretic and astringent. The locals in case of kidney complaints use it.
4. Ranunculaceae It is given to infants in the cold, cough and stomachache by mixing root powder with milk. The
Aconitum ferox
roots are also useful in piles.
5. Aconitum heterophyllum Ranunculaceae The tubers and flowers are valuable febrifuge, a bitter tonic especially in combating debility
after malarial and other fevers. Powder of rhizome (in small quantity) is used in diarrhoea and
dysentery. The plant is poisonous in nature and is used cautiously.
6. Aconitum hookeri Ranunculaceae Powdered tubers are mixed with mustard oil and applied on head to cure hair fall due to fungal
infection.
7. Acorus calamus Acoraceae Rhizomes of the plant are carminative, stimulant and tonic. Rhizome is considered as the
digestive remedy for fatty food. Locals eat under ground parts for curing stomachache.
Rhizomes are tied around the neck of children to control the infection caused by intestinal
worms.
8. Adonis aestivalis Ranunculaceae Whole plant is cardiac stimulant. Ethno medicinally the leaf extract is used against boils.
9. Aesculus indica Sapindaceae Oil from the seeds is used externally in rheumatic complaints. Fruits of the tree are given to
sheep and goats in dry and cold season. Flowers are astringent and tonic
10. Agropyron repens Poaceae The rhizome is demulcent and diuretic. Decoction of under ground parts is used as a remedy
for kidney problems.
11. Ainsliaea latifolia Asteraceae The roots of the plant are used as anthelmintic.
12. Ajuga parviflora Lamiaceae Leaves and flowers are considered as astringent febrifuge, stimulant, diuretic and aperient.
The leaves and flowers are used as the tea material and are given in case of internal heat.
13. Allium sp. Liliaceae The species is used as the condiment in the food as it is a good carminative.
14. Anagallis arvensis Primulaceae It is used in cases of lung abscess and expectorant.
15. Anemone obtusiloba Ranunculaceae The roots are mixed with milk and given internally for convulsions and externally on wounds.
16. Anemone tetrasepala Ranunculaceae A paste of the crushed roots is used on wounds.
17. Anethum sowa Apiaceae The seeds of the plant are used as carminative.
18. Arisaema jacquemontii Araceae The dried tubers mixed with the rhizome of turmeric in sesame oil are rubbed on the skin for
the treatment of muscular pains. Leaf paste is antiseptic, but locals of the area use decoction of
the leaves as antidote for scorpion bite and snakebite.
19. Artemisia scoparia Asteraceae Leaves are anthelmintic and used in other stomach complaints like indigestion and liver
infections. Powder of leaves mixed with oil or ghee is massaged on joints to get relief from
joint pains.
20. Artemisia vestita Asteraceae An aromatic herb used as A. scoparia.
21. Arundo donax Poaceae The plant is used in hypertension.
22. Atropa acuminate Solanaceae Root preparation of this plant is used for the external treatment of gout and rheumatism. The
plant is extremely narcotic. Extract of the plant is employed in ophthalmology, psychiatry,
whooping cough, asthma, and gastric ulcers.
23. Berberis lycium Berberidaceae Resount, a preparation from this plant is used in household remedy during acute conjunctivitis,
and in chronic opthalmia. Rasount is also given in fevers by the locals of the area. A simple
decoction of plant roots is given in jaundice.
24. Bergenia ciliata Saxifragaceae Roots are used in fevers, diarrhoea and cough as astringent, diuretic and tonic. Roots are
antiseptic and used to treat wounds and injuries. The under ground parts of the species are used
to dissolve the kidney and bladder stone.
25. Betula utilis Betulaceae Oil is extracted from bark or twigs which has medicinal properties. An infusion of twigs and
bark is used to treat gout and rheumatism, and it is said to purify blood and stimulate urine
flow. Dusting powder prepared from dried leaves and twigs soothe chafed skin.
26. Bidens pilosa Asteraceae Dried leaves and flowers are used in cough. Locals use the decoction of the leaves and flowers
for treating cold and cough.
27. Bistorta amplexicaulis Polygonaceae Due to high tannin content, it is effective in checking bleeding and diarrhoea. Rhizomes are
used in the preparation of herbal tea which is supposed to be beneficial in checking heavy
menstrual bleeding.
28. Bromus patulus Poaceae Dried leaves and flowers are used in cough. Locals use the decoction of the leaves and flowers
for treating cold and cough.
29. Bunium persicum Apiaceae The fruits are regarded as stimulant, carminative and are useful in curing diarrhoea, dyspepsia,
fever, flatulence, stomachache, hemorrhoids and obstinate hiccups.
30. Bupleurum falcatum Apiaceae The roots of the species are reported to be used for liver troubles and stomach complaints.
Powdered roots are prescribed in liver infections.
31. Apiaceae Decoction of the plant is used for renal, colic and gastro-intestinal disturbances.
Bupleurum longicaule

32. Ranunculaceae The leaves of plant are vesicant and very bitter. It is used as febrifuge.
Caltha palustris

33. Cannabis sativa Cannabaceae Entire plant is analgesic and sedative. Locals smoke the Cannabis leaves as narcotic.
34. Capsella bursa- pastoris Brassicaceae Plant is rich in vitamin C and shows properties against ulcers, tumors and uterine cancer.
Locals of the area use decoction of the entire plant to treat bloody urine and diarrhoea.
35. Cardamine impatiens Brassicaceae Whole plant is used as a stimulant, diaphoretic, stomachic, carminative and diuretic. The leaves
are chewed for digestive process.
36. Carpesium abrotanoides Asteraceae The roots, leaves and seeds possess laxative, diuretic and anthelmintic properties. The seeds are
boiled and administrated to get rid from worms.
37. Cassiope fastigiata Ericaceae The leafy twigs are ground into a paste and applied in the fire burns.
38. Celtis australis Ulmaceae The fruits of the plant are used to treat amenorrhea and colic.
39. Cichorium intybus Asteraceae Roots extract are used in fevers, vomiting, and diarrhoea and spleen enlargement.
40. Clematis montana Asteraceae Locals of the area mix one black pepper with a pinch of leave’s powder of the plant species and
use as a remedy for the indigestion of infants.
41. Lamiaceae Whole plant is used as astringent, carminative and cardiac tonic.
Clinopodium vulgare

42. Codonopsis ovata Campanulaceae The roots and leaves are crushed to poultice and applied to ulcers and wounds.
43. Colchicum luteum Liliaceae Seeds and corms contain alkaloid called as colchicine. The dried corms are carminative,
laxative, aphrodisiac and aperient. Locals of the area eat the fresh corms.
44. Commelina benghalensis Commelinaceae Herb is a demulcent, emollient, laxative and refrigerant. The rhizomes of the plant are cooked
as vegetable and given to constipation patients.
45. Corydalis govaniana Fumariaceae Roots are administered against muscular and gastric pains. These are used in syphilitic,
scrofulous, and cutaneous affections.
46. Corydalis rutifolia Fumariaceae Whole herb is collected and dried in shade and mixed with C. govaniana having similar use.
47. Fumariaceae Used as C. govaniana.
Corydalis thyrsiflora

48. Cynoglossum micranthum Boraginaceae The roots mixed with milk are used as a tonic.
49. Daphne oleoides Thymealaeaceae The crushed leaves with wheat flour are used for poulticing boils.
50. Datura stramonium Solanaceae The plant is known as antispasmodic in asthma and Parkinson’s disease. The dried leaves are
smoked in a pipe or home made cigarette to treat asthma. A poultice made from the flowers is
applied to wounds to reduce pain. The leaves are also applied to boils and ulcers. A decoction
of flowers and roots has been used as a sedative to calm patients during setting of fractures.
51. Delphinium roylei Ranunculaceae Root extract is used for rheumatic pains.
52. Delphinium vestitum Ranunculaceae Used as a cardiac and respiratory depressant.
53. Desmodium podocarpum Fabaceae Decoction of plant used in cough.
54. Desmodium polycarpon Fabaceae Leaves of the plant are used as stomachic.
55. Desmodium tiliaefolium Fabaceae Whole plant is a emmenagogue, stomachic and mildly purgative.
56. Digitalis lanata Scrophulariaceae Used as cardiac stimulant.
57. Digitalis purpurea Scrophulariaceae Medicinally used for its effect on cardio-vascular system.
58. Dioscorea deltoidea Dioscoreaceae Steroid sapogenin and valuable drug cortisone is prepared from the species. Locally the
rhizomes are applied to kill lice. Rhizomes are also used for general gastric problems.
59. Draba gracillima Brassicaceae The plant is considered as antiscorbutic.
60. Duchesnea indica Rosaceae The leaves are crushed and applied on skin diseases and also on wounds and cuts.
61. Erigeron canadensis Asteraceae Leaves of the plant are used in diarrhoea, dysentery, uterine hemorrhages, and dropsy, gravel
and kidney infections.
62. Erodium cicutarium Geraniaceae The plant is used against dropsy. Extract is a good source of vitamin K and is also used in
dysentery.
63. Erysimum repandum Brassicaceae Plant is very useful in fever. Poultice of the plant is used for general gastric complaints.
64. Euphorbia helioscopia Euphorbiaceae The milky exude of the plant is used by locals for destruction of fungal infection of skin, like
ringworm infection.
65. Euphorbia pilosa Euphorbiaceae The roots are purgative and vermifuge. It is also used to treat fistula sores.
66. Scrophulariaceae The plant is believed to be effective for ophthalmic ailments. Locals use the plant extract for
Euphrasia officinalis
conjunctivitis and it is taken internally for jaundice.
67. Fagopyrum cymosum Polygonaceae The seeds are used in colic, choleretic, and diarrhoea and in all abdominal obstructions.
Decoction of root is used in rheumatic pains, lung disease and typhoid, while the juice is useful
in urinary disease.
68.
Fagopyrum esculentum Polygonaceae Leaves are used for the treatment of hypertension.

69. Ficus palmata Moraceae The fruits are demulcent and laxative. They are used in diseases of the lungs and the bladder.
Dried fruits are given to constipation by the locals.
70. Fragaria vesca Rosaceae The infusion of leaves of this plant is diuretic and diaphoretic. The fruits are refrigerant and
diuretic and sometimes laxative. It is recommended for gout also. The root is known as
astringent and useful in genito-urinary diseases.
71. Fritillaria roylei Liliaceae Bulbs are used as antipyretic and expectorant. Bulbs are dried, powdered and taken as the
remedy for lung problems (pain).
72. Fumaria parviflora Fumariaceae Dried plant is anthelmintic, diuretic, and diaphoretic in low fever and is used to purify blood in
skin diseases. Locals use the juice of the whole plant for liver infection and digestion.
73. Galium aparine Rubiaceae Infusion of the plant is aperient, diuretic, refrigerant, alternative and antiscorbutic.
74. Galium rotundifolium Rubiaceae The plant is used against colic, sore throat and chest complaints. Pounded leaves are applied to
check bleeding from fresh cuts.
75. Galium tenuissimum Rubiaceae Infusion of leaves is used to treat the skin eruptions.
76. Gentiana argentea Gentianaceae Roots and rhizomes of these plants have medicinal properties. It is used to treat indigestion,
rheumatism and also as tonic for nervous distress.
77. Gentiana kurroo Gentianaceae It is used as a bitter tonic to stimulate gastric secretion, improve appetite and cure debility. The
herb is good anthelmintic, blood purifier, carminative and diaphoretic.
78. Geranium wallichianum Geraniaceae The roots stock is important in medical science and used by the locals in eye troubles. The root
is chewed to stop gum bleeding.
79. Geranium nepalense Geraniaceae The entire plant is good diuretic and astringent. It is used to treat renal diseases.
80. Geum roylei Rosaceae Roots and leaves are astringent, stomachic, febrifuge and are toxic in higher doses.
81. Girardinia heterophylla Urticaceae The forced contact of the stinging shoots is made with swollen joints to activate blood
circulation. The blisters produced as a result thereof, give out watery juice and ultimately result
in subsiding of the swelling. The paste is applied to boils to enhance suppuration.
82. Gnaphalium luteo-album Asteraceae Plant species is medicinal and used as astringent to control bleeding from wounds.
83. Hedera nepalensis Araliaceae Leaves are stimulant, diaphoretic and cathartic. Locals chew leaves as stimulant.
84. Heracleum candicans Apiaceae Roots are extracted to prepare lotions for the skin to cure leukoderma. Locals use the roots to
cure skin diseases.
85. Hydrocotyle javanica Apiaceae Leaves are blood purifier, digestive, and used to treat dysentery. Leaves stalk is used for relief
from toothache.
86. Hyoscyamus niger Solanaceae The species is considered as the sedative in nervous diseases and irritable conditions such as
asthma and whooping cough.
87. Hypericum perforatum Hypericaceae The species is used as astringent, expectorant, diuretic and anthelmintic. Whole plant is used in
urinary troubles, diarrhoea and in the therapy of depression state. The decoction of the leaves is
used for the good flow of urine by locals.
88. Balsaminaceae The roots of the plant species are used for cooling effect.
Impatiens roylei

89. Indigofera heterantha Papilionaceae Flower infusion of the plant species is used for healing wounds.
90. Inula royleana Asteraceae The roots are poisonous and used as the substitute of Saussurea costus
91. Ipomoea nil Convolvulaceae The seeds are purgative, vermifuge, anti- inflammatory and carminative. Locals use the seeds
for constipation, rheumatic pains, scabies and other skin problems.
92. Ipomoea pilosa Convolvulaceae Dried leaves are used as an ointment for burns. The seeds are considered as purgative when
mixed with the seeds of china rose.
93. Iris kemaonensis Iridaceae The rhizome of these plants has medicinal properties. It is used to treat indigestion,
rheumatism and also as tonic for nervous distress.
94. Juglans regia Juglandaceae Leaves astringent, tonic and anthelmintic. Kernels are recommended in dysentery. Locals
apply the leaves paste on the old wounds by fungal infections.
95. Juncus bufonius Juncaceae Pith of the plant is considered as pectoral and diuretic. The pith portion boiled in water is given
in lung pains.
96. Jurinea macrocephala Asteraceae The decoction of the roots is given in colic, fevers after childbirth. The plant is considered as a
good antiseptic. Oil from roots is useful in gout and rheumatism.
97. Justicia adhatoda Acanthaceae The plant parts are boiled in water and used for both in the treatment of body inflammation and
body ache. The leaf decoction is administered in cough and chronic bronchitis. Locals use the
leaves in the preparations of cough and fever medicines. The twigs are used to cure pyorrhea.
98.
Leontopodium himalayanum Asteraceae The plant infusion is given in general weakness and headache.

99. Lithospermum arvense Boraginaceae Leaves are sedative. The decoction of roots and twig is given in the form of syrup in eruption
diseases. Seeds are diuretic. They are also used in gout pains. The twigs and seeds are boiled
by the locals to obtain syrup for skin infections.
100. Lonicera alpigena Caprifoliaceae Plant is considered as antipyretic in case of stomach problems. Locally decoction of leaves and
flowers is used against stomach complaints.
101. Macrotomia benthamii Whole plant is used as expectorant and in cardiac disorder.
102. Mariscus sieberianus Cyperaceae Locally the leaves of the plant are chewed to remove the worms from stomach and intestines.
103. Meconopsis aculeata Papaveraceae Water extract of the herb is used to wash wounds.
104. Melia azadirachta Meliaceae The leaves and the seeds are bitter, expectorant used in enlargement of the spleen and in heart
complaints, emetic, styptic, and stop epitasis, strengthen the teeth, allay inflammation, cure
scabies and dry skin eruptions. The flowers and leaves are used to relieve nervous headache
and cold swellings.
105. Melothria heterophylla Cucurbitaceae Roots are stimulant, invigorating and purgative. Roots are used for gonorrhea. Seeds are
purgative. Locals mix root extract with cold milk and sugar and use for cure of gonorrhea.
106. Mentha longifolia Lamiaceae Herb is carminative, antiseptic and stimulant. A decoction of the plant is used in fever. Locals
use the leaves as digestive medicine by mixing the leaves in chutneys and other food
preparations.
107. Micromeria biflora Lamiaceae Herb is used against worms of the wounds. Locals use the leaves of the plant as an ingredient
of tea for treating cold. The leaves are chewed to digest oily food by the locals.
108. Mollugo pentaphylla Aizoaceae Plant is a good aperient and antiseptic. Decoction of leaves is taken to cure stomach
complaints.
109. Morina longifolia Morinaceae Roots are powdered and administered on wounds to check the growth of insects.
110. Nasturtium officinale Brassicaceae Plant is considered as antiscorbutic, stimulant, antibacterial, blood purifier, vermifuge and
diuretic. The seeds are antidysenteric. Boiled seeds are taken as antidysenteric and leaves are
eaten to improve appetite by the locals.
111. Nepeta elliptica Lamiaceae The infusion of seeds is used as carminative and uterine disorders.
112. Nerium indicum Apocynaceae It is regarded poisonous and reported as anthelmintic, cardiac, carminative, diaphoretic,
febrifuge, ophthalmic, powerful heart poison and a good repellant. The plant is used for
swelling, leprosy, skin diseases and ulcers.
113. Olea ferruginea Oleaceae The root is a good application for scorpion-sting; its ashes are useful in rheumatism and
diseases of the brain. The fruit is tonic, emmenogogue, appetizer, useful in biliousness, liver
complaints, scabies, thirst, burning of the eyes, caries of the teeth, toothache. The oil has a bad
taste, purgative, tonic, useful in griping, liver troubles, pain in the joints, rheumatism, lumbago,
old wounds; the oil from green fruits is astringent and a good tonic for old people. Oil extracted
from the fruit and is used medicinally as a rubefacient. The leaves and bark are bitter and
astringent, and used as an antiperiodic in fever and debility.
114. Origanum normale Lamiaceae The leaves and flowers are carminative, diuretic, diaphoretic and emmenagogue. The oil of the
flowers of the species is used as stimulant and tonic in diarrhoea, colic and is applied on body
ache. The paste of the leaves of the plant species is used in fire burns, skin eruptions and boils.
115. Oxalis corniculata Oxalidaceae Plant is used to cure scurvy and is a good appetizer. Leaves and roots are used to treat
dysentery and diarrhoea. Locals prepare chutneys of the leaves to stabilize saliva.
116. Oxyria digyna Polygonaceae Leaves are considered as antiscorbutic and refrigerant.
117. Pedicularis pectinata Scrophulariaceae Leaves are diuretic, astringent and homeostatic.
118. Pergularia daemia Asclepiadaceae Leaves are considered as antibacterial, leaf decoction is generally used against diarrhoea and
menstrual troubles. Locals consider the plant a life saving plant for females.
119. Phytolacca acinosa Phytolaccaceae Locals use the plant species as a substitute for Atropa belladonna. Ethno medicinally the root
extract of the species is used in stomach cramps and dysentery.
120. Anacardiaceae Galls are used in asthma, phthisis and other diseases of the respiratory tract and in dysentery.
Pistacia integerrima

121. Plantago lanceolata Plantaginaceae Seeds are considered as good diuretic, purgative, haemostatic, astringent. Seeds and husk are
used to cure inflammation of the mucous membrane of gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary
tracts. The leaves of the plant are used as antiseptic by the locals.
122. Plantago major Plantaginaceae The husk of the seeds yields a colloidal mucilage which primarily consists of xylose, arbinose
and galacturonic acid. The seeds are used to cure gastric complaints, burning sensation in
stomach and dysentery.
123. Pleurospermum brunonis Apiaceae The powdered shoots are mixed with butter and massaged over the entire body to alley fever.
The same paste is used locally on head to get rid of headache.
124. Podophyllum hexandrum Podophyllaceae The root paste is applied on ulcers, cuts and wounds. It is also used as a purgative, for curing
skin diseases and arresting tumorous growth.
125. Polemonium caeruleum Polemoniaceae An astringent, infusion used on the wounds and boils.
126. Polygala abyssinica Polygalaceae The plant is considered as a good expectorant.
127. Polygonum glabrum Polygonaceae Colic, jaundice and piles are three diseases cured by the plant extract. Locals boil the uprooted
plant and generally use against liver infections.
128. Polygonum nepalense Polygonaceae A decoction of the species is used to control swelling due to internal injuries.
129. Populus ciliata Salicaceae The bark of the plant is used as a tonic, stimulant and blood purifier.
130. Potentilla argyrophylla Rosaceae The plant is used against angina pectoris (spasm due to heart disease).
131. Potentilla nepalensis Rosaceae Infusion of the roots is applied on the boils and burns. Locally the infusion of the roots is
considered as an indigenous ointment for burns.
132. Primula denticulata Primulaceae Infusion of the whole plant is used to remove leaches from the nostrils of cattle. Locals use the
same species for removing leaches from skin.
133. Prinsepia utilis Rosaceae Oil obtained from the seeds possesses rubifacient properties. Locals apply the oil externally in
rheumatism and pains resulting from over fatigue.
134. Prunella vulgaris Lamiaceae An infusion of leaves and flowers are used as a gargle for sore throat irritations. It is also used
to treat diarrhoea, hemorrhages, for relieving gas and colic.
135. Punica granatum Punicaceae Seeds contain steroid estrogen. Bark is anthelmintic and used in dysentery and diarrhoea. Fruits
are said to be stomachic, and cardiac. Leprosy patients use the juice of fruits. Locals apply the
paste of leaves on head to get relief from headache and blood pressure.
136. Rabdosia rugosa Lamiaceae Locals use the leaves extract for curing stomach pains.
137. Ranunculus aquatilis Ranunculaceae Plant is used in asthma.
138. Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculaceae Plant is antibiotic, used in intermittent fevers, gout and asthma. The paste made from the roots
is used in rheumatic pains of gout.
139. Rhododendron Ericaceae Leaves medicinal in chronic rheumatism. Leaves are mixed with tobacco and smoked for cold
campanulatum and hemicrania.
140. Rhus succedanea Anacardiaceae Used to treat diarrhoea and dysentery and fruit is used in ointment preparations.
141. Robinia pseudo-acacia Fabaceae Leaves are antispasmodic and laxative; an infusion is prescribed in digestive disorders. Flowers
are boiled and used as powerful diuretic.
142. Rorippa indica Brassicaceae Plant is diuretic, stimulant and antiscorbutic. Decoction is also given in diarrhoea, dysentery
and fever. Seed extract is given to treat asthma.
143. Rorippa islandica Brassicaceae Plant is antiscorbutic, stimulant, and diuretic. The decoction is used in hepatic and stomach
problems.
144. Rosa brunonii Rosaceae The plant is said to be used in bilious affections and the root is said to be beneficial in eye
diseases.
145. Rosa macrophylla Rosaceae The locals intake the fruits against scurvy disease.
146. Rosa webbiana Rosaceae Petals of the species are used to cures nasal bleeding, nose swelling, hepatitis, jaundice and
liver diseases.
147. Rubia cardifolia Rubiaceae Leaves are used to check bleeding from cuts.
148. Rubus niveus Rubiaceae Roots are considered as astringent, antidysenteric, and antiseptic. The leaves are also used by
the locals as antidysenteric.
149. Rumex hastatus Polygonaceae Leaves are rubbed by the locals against stings of Urtica dioica.
150. Rumex nepalensis Polygonaceae The sap of leaves and stem is applied on cuts for its astringent properties.
151. Salvia moorcroftiana Lamiaceae Roots are used in colds and cough. Leaves are used for guinea worm and are applied as
poultice for boils. Wounds and chronic affections of the skin. Seeds are emetic and are used in
hemorrhoids, colic and dysentery. Locally the root is used in stomach pains.
152. Salvia lanata Lamiaceae The crushed leaves are applied in laceration of toes during rainy season.
153. Sauromatum guttatum Araceae The tubers are used as the stimulating poultice.
154. Saussurea costus Asteraceae The plant is used as anti-rheumatic.
155. Saussurea heteromalla Asteraceae Crushed leaves are locally applied to wounds.
156. Sedum ewersii Crassulaceae The paste of roots and leaves is applied on moles. Leaves are emollient, refrigerant and are
prescribed as a remedy for sores, burns and piles.
157. Apiaceae The root possesses a sweet odour and is considered as a nervine sedative.
Selinum vaginatum

158. Asteraceae Parasitic infections and ringworm infections are cured by the infusion from the plant. Locally
Sigesbeckia orientalis
the plant is used to heel gangrenous ulcers.
159. Silene conoidea Caryophyllaceae The plant is emollient and is also used as fumigant. Its juice is prescribed in opthalmia.
160. Sisymbrium irio Brassicaceae Leaves and seeds are rich source of protein and vitamin C. Seeds are boiled and the extract is
used locally for reducing fever.
161. Sium latijugum Apiaceae Leaves and seeds are reported to be diuretic diaphoretic, expectorant, stimulant, antiscorbutic
and vermifuge. It is also used in gangrenous infections.
162. Solanum nigrum Solanaceae A rich source of riboflavin, nicotinic acid and vitamin C. The green immature fruits contain
four steroidal glycol - alkaloids. Herb is antiseptic and antidysenteric. Fruits are considered to
posses tonic, diuretic and cathartic properties. Fruits are domestic remedies for fevers,
diarrhoea, ulcers and eye trouble. Locals use leaves as a diuretic in gout.
163. Solanum pseudo-capsicum Solanaceae Alcoholic extract of roots and stem of the plant possess antibacterial activity. Systematic use
Solanocapsine - a compound from the species is used as for cardiac troubles but high doses are
fetal.
164. Solanum surrattense Solanaceae The juice of the plant is useful in dysentery and fever. The drug made from this is administered
against asthma.
165. Solidago virga-aurea Asteraceae Plant possesses diuretic and carminative properties.
166. Spiraea canescens Rosaceae Aerial parts are used in nervous system disorder.
167. Spiraea sorbifolia Rosaceae Aerial parts are used in nervous system disorder and cardiovascular disorders.
168. Stachys sericea Lamiaceae Whole of the plant is used in epilepsy.
169. Stellaria aquatica Caryophyllaceae The decoction of the leaves is used as a galactagogue.
170. Symplocos crataegoides Symplocaceae Leaves and bark are used in the treatment of opthalmia and also as tonic to prevent abortion.
171. Tagetus minuta Asteraceae The flowers are stomachic, aperient, diuretic and diaphoretic. Locals of the area use the flower
decoction to cure griping of the stomach
172. Tanacetum longifolium Asteraceae The roots are considered as medicinal. Root powder is given with milk or tea in extreme
stomach pain.
173. Taraxacum officinale Asteraceae Roots are diuretic, tonic laxative, cholagogue, anti-rheumatic and aperient. The leaves are
cooked and the preparation is a household remedy for chronic disorders of kidney and liver.
174. Taxus wallichiana Taxaceae Leaves and bark are emmenagogue and antispasmodic. Aril is used in asthma and bronchitis.
Stem bark is used as substitute for tea.
175. Thymus serpyllum Lamiaceae The herb is anti-spasmodic, antiseptic, expectorant, carminative, anthelmintic and stimulating
properties. An infusion of the leaves is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. The seeds are
considered as anti-febrile and anthelmintic. It is a popular remedy for locals to cure stomach
complaints, cough and cold.
176. Trachyspermum ammi Apiaceae Seeds are antispasmodic, stimulant, tonic and carminative. The seeds are eaten by the locals in
case of stomach pains.
177. Trifolium repens Fabaceae Tincture of the flowers is used in the rheumatic pains due to gout.
178. Trillium govanianum Liliaceae Roots are used for medicinal purpose against dysentery
179. Tulipa stellata Liliaceae The bulbs of the plant are eaten during sinking of heart.
180. Urtica dioica Urticaceae A powerful diuretic, lukewarm infusion control excessive menstrual flow. Leaves extract is
locally used for cleaning hair dandruff. Leaves are cooked and eaten to decrease the weight of
body.
181. Valeriana pyrolifolia Valerianaceae Dried rhizomes are considered as aphrodisiac, diuretic, emmenagogue, sedative, and tonic.
Locals use the powdered rhizome for liver and kidney disorders.
182. Valeriana wallichii Valerianaceae The root is bitter with a flavor; heating, cures epileptic fits, head troubles, diseases of the eye
and the blood, used in suppression of urine, poisoning, swooning.
183. Verbascum thapsus Scrophulariaceae Leaves and flowers are used for treatment of diarrhoea and pulmonary diseases. Leaves are
used as adulterant for Digitalis. Dried leaves and flowers are smoked in case of asthma and act
as stimulant.
184. Viburnum grandiflorum Caprifoliaceae The seeds of the plant show cooling effect.
185. Viola canescens Violaceae The decoction of plant is used to loosen phlegm in the chest and for pulmonary problems.
186. Viola odorata Violaceae Herb is considered as aperient, antipyretic, cooling, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic and
expectorant. Locals use the leaves and stem of the herb as one of ingredient of local tea.
Decoction of the leaves is used in cold, fever and throat infection in winters.
187. Viola patrinii Violaceae Locals boil the herb and use the extract in fever and cold.
188. Viola serpens Violaceae The plant is used in the treatment of lung trouble and blood disorder.
189. Viscum album Loranthaceae Plant is used for the treatment of hypertension, arteriosclerosis and tumors.
190. Viscum japonicum Loranthaceae The plant is diuretic.
191. Vitex negundo Verbenaceae The herb is alternative, anodyne, antiparasitic, appetizer, and aromatic, astringent, cardiac
demulcent, and emmenogogue, expectorant, febrifuge and nervine tonic. It has been credited
with curative effects in asthma, lung diseases, spleen enlargements, urinary troubles, tonsillitis,
sciatica, rheumatism etc.
192. Solanaceae The roots of the plant are considered as alternative aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, narcotic,
Withania somnifera
hypnotic, sedative and abortifacient. Locals use the root decoction in rheumatism, cough,
dropsy and general weakness.
193. Asteraceae The root is bitter tonic, useful in cancer and scrofula. Decoction of roots is used locally over
Xanthium strumarium
ulcers, boils and abscesses. The fruits are used as tonic, diuretic, diaphoretic, sedative, cooling
and demulcent and are also given in small-pox.
194. Zanthoxylum alatum Rutaceae Bark is used as an aromatic tonic in fever, dyspepsia and cholera. Fruits, branches and thorns
are used as a remedy for toothache and are considered carminative, stomachic and
anthelmintic. The stem has exhibited hypoglycemic activity in preliminary trials. An extract of
the fruits is reported to be useful in expelling roundworms. The seeds are utilised for making
hair lotions.
Annexure C : Phytosociological parameters during winter at site A for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
(%age) (m-2) COVER FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
SPECIES
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Phytolacca acinosa 15 0.45 8.045 1.162 1.581 20.796 23.540
Verbascum thapsus 50 1.00 3.142 3.875 3.514 08.123 15.514
Stipa brandisii 80 1.95 0.502 6.201 6.854 01.299 14.355
Duchesnea indica 70 1.65 1.131 5.426 5.799 02.924 14.150
Oxalis corniculata 75 1.85 0.282 5.813 6.502 00.731 13.047
Fumaria parviflora 65 1.90 0.282 5.038 6.678 00.731 12.448
Taraxacum officinale 80 1.50 0.282 6.201 5.272 00.731 12.205
Micromeria biflora 75 1.50 0.125 5.813 5.272 00.324 11.411
Galium elegans 75 1.40 0.125 5.813 4.920 00.324 11.059
Cynodon dactylon 55 1.85 0.031 4.263 6.502 00.081 10.847
Ajuga parviflora 65 1.20 0.502 5.038 4.217 01.299 10.556
Valeriana wallichii 15 0.30 3.142 1.162 1.054 08.123 10.340
Saussurea heteromalla 20 0.55 2.545 1.550 1.933 06.580 10.063
Ricinus communis 20 0.35 2.545 1.550 1.230 06.580 09.360
Geranium nepalense 50 1.10 0.502 3.875 3.866 01.299 09.042
Carex sp. 25 0.50 2.011 1.937 1.757 05.199 08.894
Anaphalis busua 50 1.00 0.502 3.875 3.514 01.299 08.690
Veronica polita 30 0.60 1.540 2.325 2.108 03.980 08.415
Carpesium cernuum 15 0.35 2.011 1.162 1.230 05.199 07.592
Hedera nepalensis 35 0.50 1.131 2.713 1.757 02.924 07.395
Androsace rotundifolia 30 0.55 1.131 2.325 1.933 02.924 07.183
Plantago lanceolata 30 0.60 0.785 2.325 2.108 02.030 06.465
Arthraxon prionodes 30 0.70 0.502 2.325 2.460 01.299 06.085
Fragaria vesca 20 0.60 0.785 1.550 2.108 02.030 05.690
Brunella vulgaris 20 0.60 0.502 1.550 2.108 01.299 04.959
Bistorta amplexicaulis 25 0.55 0.502 1.937 1.054 01.299 04.292
Bupleurum marginatum 20 0.50 0.282 1.550 1.757 00.731 04.038
Indigofera heterantha 15 0.20 0.785 1.162 0.702 02.030 03.896
Lespedeza cuneata 25 0.40 0.125 1.937 1.405 00.324 03.668
Urtica dioica 15 0.30 0.502 1.162 1.054 01.299 03.517
20 0.55 0.282 1.550 1.054 00.731 03.335
Mentha longifolia
Rumex hastatus 20 0.55 0.282 1.550 1.054 00.731 03.335
Galium asperifolium 25 0.35 0.031 1.937 1.230 00.081 03.249
Goodyera repens 10 0.10 0.785 0.775 0.351 02.030 03.157
Viola pilosa 10 0.25 0.502 0.775 0.878 01.299 02.953
Medicago lupulina 10 0.15 0.502 0.775 0.527 01.299 02.602

Phytosociological parameters during winter at site B for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
35 0.75 12.571 3.535 3.640 16.070 23.246
Sonchus arvensis
Verbascum thapsus 35 0.60 12.571 3.535 2.912 16.070 22.518
Tagetus minuta 20 0.55 12.573 2.020 3.000 16.070 20.760
Indigofera sp. 15 0.40 12.571 1.515 1.941 16.070 19.527
Duchesnea indica 65 1.40 01.131 6.565 6.796 01.446 14.808
Stipa brandisii 50 0.95 03.142 5.050 4.611 04.017 13.679
Plantago ovata 55 1.30 00.502 5.555 6.310 00.642 12.509
Thymus serpyllum 50 1.00 02.011 5.050 4.854 02.571 12.476
Viola pilosa 60 1.10 00.785 6.060 5.339 01.004 12.404
Cynodon dactylon 60 0.95 00.502 6.060 4.611 00.642 11.315
Rumex hastatus 50 0.85 01.540 5.050 4.126 01.968 11.145
Taraxacum officinale 50 1.10 00.282 5.050 5.339 00.361 10.751
Malva parviflora 25 0.50 04.525 2.525 2.427 05.785 10.737
Carex sp. 50 0.95 00.031 5.050 4.611 00.040 09.702
Bistorta amplexicaulis 30 0.90 01.540 3.030 4.368 01.968 09.367
Colchicum luteum 40 0.80 00.785 4.044 3.883 01.004 08.928
Arenaria serpyllifolia 25 1.00 01.131 2.525 4.854 01.446 08.825
Ajuga parviflora 35 0.95 00.502 3.535 4.611 00.642 08.789
Oxalis corniculata 35 0.80 00.502 3.535 3.883 00.642 08.061
Hedera nepalensis 20 0.40 03.142 2.020 1.941 04.017 07.979
Euphorbia helioscopia 25 0.45 02.011 2.525 2.184 02.571 07.281
Androsace rotundifolia 35 0.50 00.785 3.535 2.427 01.004 06.966
Tulipa stellata 25 0.45 01.539 2.525 2.184 01.789 06.499
Geranium wallichianum 30 0.50 00.502 3.030 2.427 00.642 06.100
Cannabis sativa 25 0.45 00.785 2.525 2.184 01.004 05.714
Micromeria biflora 25 0.55 00.125 2.525 3.000 00.160 05.355
Fumaria parviflora 20 0.45 00.125 2.020 2.184 00.160 04.365

Phytosociological parameters during winter at site C for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
50 1.20 7.071 5.235 6.106 7.213 20.392
Taraxacum officinale
Hedera nepalensis 40 1.20 7.071 4.188 6.106 7.213 20.392
Verbascum thapsus 45 0.80 7.071 4.712 4.071 7.213 18.356
Rumex nepalensis 30 0.50 7.071 3.141 2.544 7.213 16.829
Colchicum luteum 25 0.45 7.071 2.617 2.290 7.213 16.575
Ajuga parviflora 40 1.15 4.525 4.188 5.852 4.616 14.994
Bupleurum marginatum 30 0.50 5.311 3.141 2.544 5.418 13.274
Valeriana wallichii 30 0.65 4.525 3.141 3.307 4.616 12.450
Galium elegans 20 0.30 5.311 2.094 1.526 5.414 12.256
Calanthe tricarinata 15 0.40 4.525 1.570 2.035 4.616 11.178
Bistorta amplexicaulis 15 0.30 4.525 1.570 1.526 4.616 10.669
Salvia nubicola 15 0.20 4.525 1.570 1.017 4.616 10.160
Plantago ovata 40 0.65 3.142 4.188 3.307 3.206 09.656
Gentiana argentea 55 1.05 2.011 5.759 5.343 2.051 09.406
Geranium nepalense 25 0.55 3.142 2.617 2.798 3.206 09.147
Potentilla sp. 30 0.50 3.142 3.141 2.544 3.206 08.893
Arisaema jacquemontii 25 0.35 3.457 2.617 1.781 3.526 08.765
Viola pilosa 55 1.25 0.785 5.759 6.361 0.801 07.948
Stipa brandisii 35 1.10 0.879 3.664 5.597 0.897 07.375
Fragaria vesca 55 1.20 0.502 5.759 6.106 0.512 07.122
Micromeria biflora 50 0.90 1.131 5.235 4.580 1.154 06.865
Cynodon dactylon 55 1.25 0.031 5.759 6.361 0.032 06.424
Carpesium abrotanoides 10 0.25 2.545 1.047 1.272 2.596 06.414
Lespedeza cuneata 15 0.20 2.545 1.570 1.017 2.596 06.160
Oxalis corniculata 25 0.50 1.539 2.617 2.544 1.571 05.655
Carex sp. 35 0.65 1.131 3.664 3.307 1.154 05.593
Rabdosia rugosa 20 0.30 2.011 2.094 1.526 2.051 05.590
Plantago lanceolata 40 0.60 1.131 4.188 3.053 1.154 05.339
Galium tenuissimum 30 0.70 0.282 3.141 3.562 0.288 04.133
Phytosociological parameters during winter at site D for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) COVER FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
40 0.80 3.142 4.848 3.786 12.919 21.554
Verbascum thapsus
Sonchus arvensis 25 0.75 3.142 3.030 3.549 12.919 19.499
Girardinia heterophylla 30 0.55 3.142 3.636 2.602 12.919 19.159
Salvia sp. 15 0.30 3.142 1.818 1.419 12.919 16.157
Rumex hastatus 30 1.00 1.540 3.636 4.732 06.330 14.699
Cannabis sativa 60 1.10 0.502 7.272 5.205 02.067 14.545
Datura stramonium 30 0.70 1.540 3.636 3.312 06.330 13.279
Mentha longifolia 45 1.50 0.125 5.454 7.098 00.516 13.070
Duchesnea indica 35 0.80 1.131 4.242 3.786 04.651 12.679
Cynodon dactylon 45 1.30 0.031 5.454 6.152 00.129 11.736
Veronica polita 20 0.55 1.540 2.424 2.602 06.330 11.357
Stipa brandisii 45 1.00 0.282 5.454 4.732 01.162 11.349
Euphorbia hirta 50 1.00 0.125 6.060 4.732 00.516 11.309
Taraxacum officinale 30 1.35 0.282 3.636 6.389 01.162 11.188
Plantago major 35 0.75 0.785 4.242 3.549 03.229 11.021
Colchicum luteum 30 0.90 0.282 3.636 4.259 01.162 09.058
Plantago lanceolata 25 0.45 0.785 3.030 2.129 03.229 08.389
Thymus serpyllum 25 1.00 0.125 3.030 4.732 00.516 08.279
Micromeria biflora 35 0.70 0.125 4.242 3.312 00.516 08.072
Fumaria parviflora 25 0.80 0.282 3.030 3.786 01.162 07.979
Ajuga parviflora 20 0.64 0.502 2.424 3.028 02.067 07.520
Polygonum hydropiper 20 0.64 0.502 2.424 3.028 02.067 07.520
Oxalis corniculata 20 0.65 0.031 2.424 3.076 00.129 05.629
Galium aparine 20 0.65 0.031 2.424 3.076 00.129 05.629
Xanthium strumarium 20 0.40 0.282 2.424 1.893 01.162 05.480
Anaphalis busua 20 0.30 0.282 2.424 1.419 01.162 05.006
Cirsium arvense 20 0.35 0.125 2.424 1.656 00.516 04.597
Viola pilosa 10 0.20 0.502 1.212 0.946 02.067 04.225

Phytosociological parameters during winter at site E for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
30 0.60 28.285 4.255 4.081 19.891 28.228
Arisaema jacquemontii
Salvia nubicola 10 0.10 28.285 1.418 0.680 19.891 21.990
Digitalis purpurea 35 0.75 12.571 4.964 5.102 08.840 18.907
Cynodon dactylon 60 1.45 00.125 8.510 9.863 00.088 18.462
Bergenia ciliata 15 0.30 19.642 2.127 2.040 13.813 17.982
Thymus serpyllum 50 1.30 02.011 7.091 8.843 01.414 17.349
Stipa brandisii 55 1.30 00.125 7.801 8.843 00.088 16.733
Senecio arvense 20 0.50 12.571 2.836 3.401 08.840 15.078
Verbascum thapsus 25 0.35 12.571 3.546 2.380 08.840 14.767
Calanthe tricarinata 20 0.40 12.571 2.836 2.721 08.840 14.398
Colchicum luteum 55 0.90 00.125 7.801 6.122 00.088 14.012
Galium aparine 40 0.95 00.282 5.673 6.462 00.198 12.335
Taraxacum officinale 35 0.80 00.785 4.964 5.442 00.552 10.959
Euphorbia hirta 35 0.85 00.078 4.964 5.782 00.055 10.802
Carex sp. 40 0.70 00.282 5.673 4.761 00.198 10.634
Fragaria vesca 25 0.60 01.131 3.546 4.081 00.795 08.423
Impatiens brachycentra 20 0.40 01.697 2.836 2.721 01.193 06.751
Rumex nepalensis 20 0.35 01.539 2.836 2.380 01.082 06.300
Bupleurum marginatum 20 0.40 00.785 2.836 2.721 00.552 06.110
Viola pilosa 25 0.35 00.125 3.546 2.380 00.088 06.015
Mentha longifolia 15 0.20 02.545 2.127 1.360 01.790 05.278
Plantago ovata 15 0.35 00.502 2.127 2.380 00.353 04.862
Micromeria biflora 15 0.35 00.282 2.127 2.380 00.198 04.707
Gentiana argentea 15 0.35 00.125 2.127 2.380 00.088 04.597
Urtica dioica 10 0.10 03.142 1.418 0.680 02.210 04.308

Phytosociological parameters during winter at site F for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Hedera nepalensis 35 0.70 28.285 3.664 3.580 20.766 28.011
Verbascum thapsus 55 1.00 12.571 5.759 5.115 09.229 20.103
Bergenia ciliata 15 0.40 19.642 1.570 2.046 14.420 18.037
Indigofera sp. 25 0.45 15.211 2.617 2.301 11.167 16.087
Euphorbia helioscopia 15 0.75 12.571 1.570 3.836 09.229 14.636
Urtica dioica 40 1.00 07.071 4.188 5.115 05.191 14.495
Taraxacum officinale 45 1.25 00.282 4.712 6.393 00.207 11.313
Carex sp. 60 0.95 00.031 6.282 4.859 00.023 11.165
Colchicum luteum 45 1.15 00.282 4.712 5.882 00.207 10.802
Datura stramonium 10 0.10 12.571 1.047 0.511 09.229 10.787
Tulipa stellata 65 0.70 00.125 6.806 3.580 00.092 10.479
Cynodon dactylon 50 0.90 00.502 5.235 4.603 00.349 10.188
Stipa brandisii 55 0.80 00.125 5.759 4.092 00.092 09.943
Rumex hastatus 35 1.00 01.540 3.664 5.115 01.130 09.910
Mentha longifolia 40 0.65 02.011 4.188 3.324 01.476 08.989
Cannabis sativa 45 0.65 00.785 4.712 3.324 00.576 08.613
Fragaria vesca 20 0.55 04.525 2.094 2.813 03.322 08.230
Thymus serpyllum 25 0.65 02.011 2.617 3.324 01.476 07.419
Plantago ovata 30 0.60 00.502 3.141 3.069 00.349 06.559
Tagetus minuta 25 0.45 02.011 2.617 2.301 01.476 06.396
Viola pilosa 25 0.60 00.785 2.617 3.069 00.576 06.263
Duchesnea indica 25 0.55 01.131 2.617 2.813 00.830 06.261
Bupleurum marginatum 20 0.45 01.540 2.094 2.301 01.130 05.526
Bistorta amplexicaulis 20 0.30 02.514 2.094 1.534 01.845 05.474
Micromeria biflora 25 0.50 00.125 2.617 2.557 00.092 05.267
Fumaria parviflora 20 0.60 00.125 2.094 3.069 00.092 05.255
Medicago lupulina 25 0.45 00.502 2.617 2.301 00.207 05.127
Bunium persicum 15 0.35 02.011 1.570 1.790 01.476 04.837
Arthraxon prionodes 15 0.30 02.011 1.570 1.534 01.476 04.581
Viola patrinii 10 0.20 02.011 1.047 1.023 01.476 03.546
Ajuga parviflora 10 0.30 00.502 1.047 1.534 00.207 02.789
Galium aparine 10 0.25 00.282 1.047 1.278 00.207 02.533

Phytosociological parameters during spring at site A for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Bupleurum marginatum 40 1.25 0.101 2.539 4.570 07.544 14.654
Adhatoda vesca 05 0.10 0.166 0.317 0.365 12.317 13.000
Saussurea heteromalla 20 0.30 0.125 1.269 1.096 09.315 11.682
Tulipa stellata 90 1.20 0.020 5.714 4.387 01.489 11.590
Mentha longifolia 90 1.15 0.020 5.714 4.204 01.489 11.408
Plantago major 60 0.95 0.053 3.809 3.473 03.935 11.218
Ranunculus arvensis 80 1.20 0.011 5.079 4.387 00.837 10.304
Micromeria biflora 90 1.20 0.001 5.714 4.387 00.088 10.190
Rabdosia rugosa 75 1.10 0.015 4.761 4.021 01.133 09.917
Plantago lanceolata 50 1.00 0.037 3.174 3.656 02.794 09.624
Gentiana argentea 45 1.20 0.031 2.857 4.387 02.327 09.571
Androsace rotundifolia 70 1.10 0.011 4.444 4.021 00.837 09.303
Medicago lupulina 60 0.90 0.025 3.809 3.290 01.882 08.982
Lespedeza cuneata 60 0.90 0.025 3.809 3.290 01.882 08.982
Commelina benghalensis 10 0.15 0.101 0.634 0.548 07.544 08.727
Duchesnea indica 60 1.10 0.011 3.809 4.021 00.837 08.668
Clinopodium vulgare 40 1.10 0.025 2.539 4.021 01.882 08.444
Carex sp. 60 1.10 0.005 3.809 4.021 00.370 08.201
Arisaema flavum 15 0.25 0.080 0.952 0.914 05.958 07.825
Hedera nepalensis 50 0.75 0.025 3.174 2.742 01.882 07.799
Cannabis sativa 15 0.60 0.061 0.952 2.193 04.557 07.704
Fragaria vesca 50 1.05 0.005 3.174 3.839 00.392 07.406
Taraxacum officinale 50 0.90 0.002 3.174 3.290 00.207 06.672
Cynodon dactylon 50 0.90 0.0003 3.174 3.290 00.022 06.487
Valeriana wallichii 10 0.15 0.070 0.634 0.548 05.239 06.423
Euphorbia pilosa 40 0.55 0.020 2.539 2.010 01.489 06.039
Bistorta amplexicaulis 10 0.40 0.053 0.634 1.462 03.935 06.032
Youngia japonica 10 0.20 0.061 0.634 0.731 04.557 05.924
Urtica dioica 30 0.40 0.031 1.904 1.462 02.327 05.694
Rumex hastatus 40 0.60 0.007 2.539 2.193 00.578 05.311
Verbascum thapsus 40 0.60 0.007 2.539 2.193 00.578 05.311
Datura stramonium 10 0.15 0.045 0.634 0.548 03.349 04.533
Viola pilosa 30 0.70 0.0003 1.904 2.559 00.022 04.485
Phytolacca acinosa 15 0.20 0.031 0.952 0.731 02.327 04.010
Cardamine impatiens 30 0.40 0.007 1.904 1.462 00.578 03.945
Anagallis arvense 15 0.50 0.005 0.952 1.828 00.370 03.150
Galium elegans 25 0.40 0.0003 1.587 1.462 00.022 03.071
Goodyera repens 10 0.20 0.020 0.634 0.731 01.489 02.855
Achillea millefolium 05 0.10 0.020 0.317 0.365 01.489 02.172
Oxalis corniculata 15 0.25 0.0003 0.952 0.914 00.022 01.888
Geranium wallichianum 05 0.10 0.001 0.317 0.365 00.088 00.771
Phytosociological parameters during spring at site B for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Stipa brandisii 90 1.60 5.311 4.639 4.383 15.968 24.990
Salvia species 60 1.05 3.142 3.092 2.876 09.447 15.415
Verbascum thapsus 30 0.40 4.085 1.546 1.095 12.282 14.923
Duchesnea indica 60 1.05 2.011 3.092 2.876 06.046 12.014
Sonchus arvense 45 1.10 2.011 2.319 3.013 06.046 11.378
Cichorium intybus 65 1.15 1.539 3.350 3.150 04.627 11.127
Sonchus arvense 45 0.85 2.011 2.319 2.328 06.046 10.693
Androsace rotundifolia 30 0.50 2.545 1.546 1.369 07.652 10.567
Plantago ovata 35 0.90 2.011 1.804 2.465 06.046 10.315
Carex species 90 1.50 0.502 4.639 4.109 01.509 10.257
Rabdosia rugosa 50 1.15 1.130 2.577 3.150 03.397 09.124
Bistorta amplexicaulis 55 1.00 1.131 2.835 2.739 03.400 08.974
Micromeria biflora 80 1.35 0.282 4.123 3.698 00.847 08.668
Plantago lanceolata 80 1.10 0.502 4.123 3.013 01.509 08.645
Viola pilosa 60 1.80 0.125 3.092 4.931 00.375 08.398
Oxalis corniculata 70 1.60 0.125 3.608 4.383 00.375 08.366
Clinopodium vulgare 55 1.15 0.785 2.835 3.150 02.360 08.345
Thymus serpyllum 85 1.10 0.282 4.381 3.013 00.847 08.241
Cynodon dactylon 90 1.00 0.282 4.639 2.739 00.847 08.225
Gentiana argentea 85 1.35 0.031 4.381 3.698 00.093 08.172
Anagallis arvense 60 1.20 0.502 3.092 3.287 01.509 07.888
Mentha longifolia 60 1.40 0.282 3.092 3.835 00.847 07.774
Taraxacum officinale 60 1.40 0.031 3.092 3.835 00.093 07.020
Poa sp. 70 1.10 0.125 3.608 3.013 00.375 06.996
Rumex hastatus 40 1.05 0.502 2.061 2.876 01.509 06.446
Fragaria vesca 55 1.15 0.125 2.835 3.150 00.375 06.360
Ajuga parviflora 40 0.95 0.502 2.061 2.602 01.509 60.172
Galium asperifolium 60 1.05 0.031 3.092 2.876 00.093 06.061
Ranunculus species 45 1.15 0.125 2.319 3.150 00.375 05.844
Capsella bursa-pastoris 60 0.90 0.031 3.092 2.465 00.093 05.650
Youngia japonica 30 0.60 0.502 1.546 1.643 01.509 04.698
Cannabis sativa 45 0.60 0.125 2.319 1.643 00.375 04.337
Polygala abyssinica 20 0.65 0.502 1.030 1.780 01.509 04.319
Fumaria parviflora 35 0.60 0.031 1.804 1.643 00.093 03.540

Phytosociological parameters during spring at site C for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Hypericum perforatum 45 0.90 7.071 2.179 2.284 8.699 13.162
Phytolacca arvensis 60 0.45 7.071 2.905 1.142 8.699 12.746
Calanthe tricarinata 40 0.70 7.071 1.937 1.776 8.699 12.412
Dioscorea deltoidea 35 0.95 4.525 1.694 2.411 5.567 09.672
Ajuga parviflora 45 0.90 3.457 2.179 2.284 4.253 08.716
Taraxacum officinale 70 1.05 2.011 3.389 2.664 2.474 08.527
Agrostis pilosula 40 1.05 3.142 1.937 2.664 3.865 08.466
Carex species 90 1.20 0.785 4.358 3.045 0.965 08.368
Hedera nepalensis 05 1.00 4.525 0.242 2.538 5.567 08.347
Gentiana argentea 50 0.75 3.142 2.421 1.903 3.865 08.189
Cichorium intybus 70 0.90 2.011 3.389 2.284 2.474 08.147
Gnaphalium hypoleucum 40 0.90 3.142 1.937 2.284 3.865 08.086
Geranium wallichianum 80 1.10 1.131 3.874 2.791 1.391 08.056
Rabdosia rugosa 60 0.40 3.142 2.905 1.015 3.865 07.785
Bupleurum marginatum 60 0.90 2.011 2.905 2.284 2.474 07.663
Aquilegia pubiflora 15 0.40 4.525 0.726 1.015 5.567 07.308
Capsella bursa - pastoris 80 1.10 0.502 3.874 2.791 0.617 07.282
Fragaria vesca 60 1.15 1.131 2.905 2.918 1.391 07.214
Torilis japonica 40 1.00 2.011 1.937 2.538 2.474 06.949
Fumaria parviflora 65 1.15 0.502 3.147 2.918 0.617 06.682
Viola pilosa 50 1.10 1.131 2.421 2.791 1.391 06.603
Indigofera heterantha 25 0.60 3.142 1.210 1.522 3.865 06.597
Androsace rotundifolia 05 1.40 2.011 0.242 3.553 2.474 06.269
Cardamine impatiens 25 0.45 3.142 1.210 1.142 3.865 06.217
Plantago ovata 50 1.05 0.785 2.421 2.664 0.965 06.050
Brunella vulgaris 60 0.95 0.502 2.905 2.411 0.617 05.933
Duchesnea indica 60 0.90 0.502 2.907 2.284 0.617 05.808
Oxalis corniculata 40 0.70 1.539 1.937 1.776 1.893 05.606
Cynodon dactylon 60 1.00 0.031 2.905 2.538 0.038 05.481
Youngia japonica 60 0.45 1.131 2.905 1.142 1.391 05.438
Phleum himalaicum 40 1.10 0.502 1.937 2.791 0.617 05.345
Verbascum thapsus 70 0.75 0.031 3.389 1.903 0.038 05.330
Micromeria biflora 60 0.90 0.031 2.905 2.284 0.038 05.227
Arisaema jacquemontii 55 0.90 0.031 2.663 2.284 0.038 04.985
Veronica polita 45 1.05 0.031 2.179 2.664 0.038 04.881
Bistorta amplexicaulis 45 0.80 0.502 2.179 2.030 0.617 04.826
Clinopodium vulgare 35 1.10 0.031 1.694 2.791 0.038 04.523
Thymus serpyllum 30 1.10 0.031 1.452 2.791 0.038 04.281
Valeriana wallichii 35 0.90 0.031 1.694 2.284 0.038 04.016
Galium asperifolium 20 1.00 0.282 0.968 2.538 0.346 03.852
Poa annua 10 1.05 0.502 0.484 2.664 0.617 03.765
Colchicum luteum 35 0.25 1.131 1.694 0.634 1.391 03.719
Potentilla species 20 0.40 1.131 0.968 1.015 1.391 03.374
Ainsliaea latifolia 30 0.55 0.031 1.452 1.395 0.038 02.885
Galium aparine 20 0.60 0.125 0.968 1.522 0.153 02.643
Lespedeza cuneata 30 0.40 0.031 1.452 1.015 0.038 02.505

Phytosociological parameters during spring at site D for herbs:


NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Gnaphalium leuto-album 70 0.90 10.182 4.361 3.087 12.778 20.226
Saussurea heteromalla 90 1.10 08.045 5.607 3.773 10.096 19.476
Plantago ovata 80 1.15 06.159 4.984 3.945 07.729 16.658
Solanum nigrum 20 0.90 08.045 1.246 3.087 10.096 14.429
Micromeria biflora 90 1.15 02.011 5.607 3.945 02.523 12.075
Indigofera heterantha 30 0.70 04.525 1.869 2.401 05.679 09.949
Viola pilosa 90 1.15 00.282 5.607 3.945 00.353 09.905
Fumaria parviflora 80 1.35 00.125 4.984 4.631 00.156 09.771
Thymus serpyllum 90 1.15 00.125 5.607 3.945 00.156 09.708
Euphorbia helioscopia 20 0.50 05.311 1.246 1.715 06.665 09.626
Cynodon dactylon 90 1.05 00.125 5.607 3.602 00.156 09.365
Ranunculus arvensis 60 1.15 01.131 3.738 3.945 01.419 09.102
Girardinia heterophylla 45 0.65 03.142 2.803 2.229 03.943 08.975
Anagallis arvensis 40 0.70 03.142 2.492 2.401 03.943 08.836
Galium asperifolium 65 1.25 00.282 4.049 4.288 00.353 08.690
Bistorta amplexicaulis 45 0.95 02.011 2.803 3.259 02.523 08.585
Oxalis corniculata 70 1.00 00.502 4.361 3.430 00.630 08.421
Xanthium stramonium 35 0.65 03.142 2.180 2.229 03.943 08.352
Cichorium intybus 40 1.10 01.539 2.492 3.773 01.931 08.196
Datura stramonium 10 0.40 04.525 0.623 1.372 05.679 07.674
Arisaema flavum 40 0.65 02.011 2.492 2.229 02.523 07.244
Urtica dioica 20 0.55 03.142 1.246 1.886 03.943 07.075
Taraxacum officinale 60 0.90 00.125 3.738 3.087 00.156 06.981
Hedera nepalensis 55 0.80 00.502 3.426 2.744 00.630 06.800
Mentha longifolia 20 1.00 01.131 1.246 3.430 01.419 06.095
Salvia species 35 0.60 01.131 2.180 2.058 01.419 05.657
Galium elegans 35 0.90 00.282 2.180 3.087 00.353 05.620
Duchesnea indica 35 0.90 00.282 2.180 3.087 00.353 05.620
Cannabis sativa 25 0.60 01.131 1.557 2.058 01.419 05.034
Euphorbia pilosa 25 0.90 00.125 1.557 3.087 00.156 04.800
Rumex hastatus 15 0.70 01.131 0.934 2.401 01.419 04.754
Cirsium arvense 30 0.60 00.502 1.869 2.058 00.630 04.557
Verbascum thapsus 20 0.40 01.539 1.246 1.372 01.931 04.549
Potentilla nepalensis 15 0.30 02.011 0.934 1.029 02.523 04.486
Achyranthes bidentata 15 0.40 00.282 0.934 1.372 00.353 02.659

Phytosociological parameters during spring at site E for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Rabdosia rugosa 65 1.05 7.071 3.367 2.720 09.094 15.181
Verbascum thapsus 25 0.90 8.045 1.295 2.331 10.346 13.972
Tagetus minuta 30 0.70 8.045 1.554 1.813 10.340 13.707
Hypericum perforatum 35 0.90 7.071 1.813 2.331 09.094 13.238
Cichorium intybus 60 0.80 5.311 3.108 2.072 06.830 12.010
Bergenia ciliata 20 0.70 7.071 1.036 1.813 09.094 11.943
Ajuga parviflora 35 3.60 0.282 1.813 9.326 00.362 11.501
Calanthe tricarinata 10 0.35 7.071 0.518 0.906 09.094 10.518
Taraxacum officinale 75 1.05 2.011 3.886 2.720 02.586 09.192
Carex species 90 1.40 0.282 4.663 3.626 00.362 08.651
Fragaria vesca 85 1.15 0.942 4.404 2.979 01.211 08.594
Urtica dioica 25 0.55 4.525 1.295 1.424 05.819 08.538
Plantago lanceolata 60 1.40 0.785 3.108 3.626 01.009 07.743
Plantago major 75 1.00 0.942 3.886 2.590 01.211 07.687
Indigofera species 45 0.50 3.142 2.331 1.295 04.041 07.667
Ranunculus arvense 80 1.15 0.031 4.145 2.979 00.039 07.163
Impatiens sulcata 55 1.20 0.785 2.849 3.108 01.009 06.966
Oxalis corniculata 70 1.10 0.031 3.626 2.849 00.039 06.514
Galium asperifolium 70 1.10 0.028 3.626 2.849 00.036 06.511
Ipomea purpurea 70 1.00 0.125 3.626 2.590 00.160 06.376
Cynodon dactylon 60 1.20 0.125 3.108 3.108 00.160 06.376
Cannabis sativa 50 0.90 1.131 2.590 2.331 01.454 06.375
Micromeria biflora 65 1.10 0.031 3.367 2.849 00.039 06.255
Artemisia species 45 0.90 1.131 2.331 2.331 01.454 06.116
Youngia japonica 45 0.90 1.131 2.331 2.331 01.454 06.116
Potentilla species 50 1.10 0.502 2.590 2.849 00.645 06.084
Arisaema jacquemontii 40 0.60 1.539 2.072 1.554 01.979 05.605
viola pilosa 60 0.90 0.125 3.108 2.331 00.160 05.599
Gentiana argentea 50 1.10 0.031 2.590 2.849 00.039 05.478
Euphorbia helioscopia 40 0.60 1.131 2.072 1.554 01.454 05.080
Galium elegans 40 1.05 0.125 2.072 2.720 00.160 04.952
Arthraxon prionodes 55 0.70 0.031 2.849 1.813 00.039 04.701
Senecio species 30 0.40 1.539 1.554 1.036 01.979 04.569
Geranium wallichianum 25 0.70 1.131 1.295 1.813 01.454 04.562
Valeriana wallichii 15 0.60 1.539 0.777 1.554 01.979 04.310
Mentha longifolia 25 0.90 0.502 1.295 2.331 00.645 04.271
Bupleurum marginatum 35 0.60 0.502 1.813 1.554 00.645 04.012
Rumex hastatus 20 0.50 1.131 1.036 1.295 01.454 03.785
Capsella bursa-pastoris 35 0.60 0.125 1.813 1.554 00.160 03.527
Thymus serpyllum 30 0.70 0.028 1.554 1.813 00.036 03.403
Fumaria parviflora 25 0.60 0.125 1.295 1.554 00.160 03.009
Aquilegia pubiflora 10 0.35 0.502 0.518 0.906 00.645 02.069

Phytosociological parameters during spring at site F for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Saussurea heteromalla 80 1.15 13.859 3.411 2.634 20.228 26.273
Arisaema Jacquemontii 70 1.15 09.082 2.985 2.634 13.256 18.875
Tagetus minuta 70 1.10 08.045 2.985 2.520 11.742 17.247
Bergenia ciliata 20 0.50 08.045 0.852 1.145 11.742 13.739
Dioscorea deltoidea 80 1.45 01.539 3.411 3.321 02.246 08.978
Sonchus arvense 70 0.90 02.545 2.985 2.061 03.714 08.760
Stipa brandisii 90 1.70 00.502 3.837 3.894 00.732 08.463
Verbascum thapsus 60 0.70 02.545 2.558 1.603 04.152 08.313
Bupleurum marginatum 10 0.35 04.525 0.426 0.801 06.604 07.831
Rabdosia rugosa 50 1.10 02.011 2.132 2.520 02.935 07.587
Tulipa stellata 65 1.90 00.282 2.771 4.352 00.411 07.534
Carex species 80 1.55 00.282 3.411 3.550 00.411 07.372
Duchesnea indica 80 1.10 00.942 3.411 2.520 01.374 07.305
Arathraxn prionodes 50 0.90 02.011 2.132 2.061 02.935 07.128
Valeriana wallichii 60 0.90 01.539 2.558 2.061 02.246 06.865
Ranunculus arvense 80 1.15 00.502 3.411 2.634 00.732 06.777
Plantago ovata 70 0.90 01.131 2.985 2.061 01.650 06.696
Fumaria parviflora 80 1.35 00.031 3.411 3.092 00.045 06.548
Taraxacum officinale 65 1.40 00.282 2.771 3.207 00.411 06.389
Oxalis corniculata 70 1.40 00.031 2.985 3.207 00.045 06.237
Viola pilosa 70 1.35 00.028 2.985 3.092 00.040 06.117
Micromeria biflora 80 1.10 00.125 3.411 2.52 00.182 06.113
Fragaria vesca 75 1.25 00.031 3.198 2.863 00.045 06.106
Cannabis sativa 40 1.05 01.131 1.705 2.405 01.650 05.760
Ajuga parviflora 60 1.15 00.282 2.558 2.634 00.411 05.603
Thymus serpyllum 60 1.25 00.031 2.558 2.863 00.045 05.466
Cynodon dactylon 60 1.10 00.125 2.558 2.52 00.182 05.260
Artemisia species 45 0.70 01.131 1.918 1.603 01.650 05.171
Gentiana argentea 60 1.10 00.031 2.558 2.520 00.045 05.123
Polygala abyssinica 25 0.90 01.131 1.066 2.061 01.650 04.777
Ipomea purpurea 55 0.90 00.125 2.345 2.061 00.182 04.588
Astragalus grahamianus 60 0.80 00.125 2.558 1.832 00.182 04.572
Capsella bursa-pastoris 55 0.95 00.031 2.345 2.176 00.045 04.566
Mentha longifolia 40 1.05 00.282 1.705 2.405 00.411 04.521
Plantago lanceolata 40 1.05 00.785 1.705 2.405 00.114 04.224
Euphorbia pilosa 35 0.95 00.282 1.492 2.176 00.411 04.079
Medicago lupulina 40 0.8 00.282 1.705 1.832 00.411 03.948
Bistorta amplexicaulis 30 1.00 00.125 1.279 2.290 00.182 03.751
Bunium persicum 30 0.70 00.502 1.279 1.603 00.732 03.614
Galium elegans 20 0.80 00.125 0.852 1.832 00.182 02.866
Impatiens sulcata 20 0.35 00.785 0.852 0.801 01.145 02.798
Potentilla species 20 0.30 00.502 0.852 0.687 00.732 02.271
Primula denticulata 10 0.20 00.502 0.426 0.458 00.732 01.616
Aquilegia pubiflora 15 0.20 00.282 0.639 0.458 00.411 01.508

Phytosociological parameters during summer at site A for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Arisaema jacquemontii 20 0.30 3.142 0.894 0.829 12.966 14.689
Verbascum thapsus 40 0.80 2.011 1.789 2.213 08.298 12.300
Saussurea heteromalla 70 0.80 1.539 3.131 2.213 06.351 11.695
Datura stramonium 35 0.60 2.011 1.565 1.659 08.298 11.522
Urtica dioica 60 1.00 1.131 2.684 2.766 04.667 10.117
Carex sp. 100 1.20 0.502 4.474 3.319 02.071 09.864
Desmodium podocarpum 10 0.25 2.011 0.447 0.691 08.298 09.436
Lespedeza cuneata 65 1.15 0.785 2.908 3.181 03.239 09.328
Girardinia heterophylla 20 0.60 1.539 0.894 1.659 06.351 08.904
Cannabis sativa 70 1.15 0.502 3.131 3.181 02.071 08.383
Myriactis wallichii 50 1.05 0.785 2.237 2.904 03.239 08.380
Plantago ovata 90 1.15 0.282 4.026 3.181 01.163 08.370
Ranunculus arvensis 65 1.25 0.384 2.908 3.457 01.584 07.949
Achillea millefolium 60 1.35 0.282 2.684 3.734 01.163 07.581
Indigofera heterantha 40 0.60 0.950 1.789 1.659 03.920 07.368
Youngia japonica 55 1.00 0.502 2.460 2.766 02.071 07.297
Geranium wallichianum 85 1.05 0.125 3.803 2.904 00.515 07.222
Galium elegans 90 1.00 0.070 4.026 2.766 00.288 07.080
Dioscorea deltoidea 80 1.15 0.070 3.579 3.181 00.288 07.048
Fragaria vesca 65 1.00 0.282 2.908 2.766 01.163 06.837
Cynodon dactylon 85 1.05 0.031 3.803 2.904 00.127 06.834
Medicago lupulina 40 0.95 0.502 1.789 2.627 02.071 06.487
Duchesnea indica 70 1.00 0.125 3.131 2.766 00.515 06.412
Cardamine vesca 55 1.10 0.196 2.460 3.042 00.808 06.310
Androsace rotundifolia 40 0.60 0.636 1.789 1.659 02.624 06.072
Colismenus compositus 25 0.60 0.785 1.118 1.659 03.239 06.016
Hedera nepalensis 60 0.75 0.282 2.684 2.074 01.163 05.921
Bupleurum marginatum 55 0.75 0.282 2.460 2.074 01.163 05.697
Clinopodium vulgare 55 0.90 0.125 2.460 2.489 00.515 05.464
Plantago lanceolata 60 0.85 0.070 2.684 2.351 00.288 05.323
Oxalis corniculata 60 0.90 0.031 2.684 2.489 00.127 05.300
Torilis japonica 45 1.00 0.125 2.013 2.766 00.515 05.294
Veronica polita 55 0.90 0.031 2.460 2.489 00.127 05.076
Rumex hastatus 55 0.75 0.125 2.460 2.074 00.515 05.049
Commelina benghalensis 50 0.55 0.282 2.237 1.521 01.163 04.921
Valeriana wallichii 25 0.60 0.502 1.118 1.659 02.071 04.848
Micromeria biflora 55 0.80 0.031 2.460 2.213 00.127 04.800
Rabdosia rugosa 25 0.50 0.502 1.118 1.383 02.071 04.572
Anagallis arvensis 25 1.00 0.031 1.118 2.766 00.127 04.011
Taraxacum officinale 40 0.50 0.125 1.789 1.383 00.515 03.687
Mentha longifolia 20 0.50 0.196 0.894 1.383 00.808 03.085
Ainsliaea latifolia 25 0.35 0.125 1.118 0.968 00.515 02.601
Bistorta amplexicaulis 20 0.50 0.031 0.894 1.383 00.127 02.404
Goodyera repens 10 0.15 0.125 0.447 0.414 00.515 01.376
Gentiana argentea 10 0.15 0.031 0.447 0.414 00.127 00.988
Phytosociological parameters during summer at site B for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Sonchus arvense 30 0.40 3.142 1.643 1.309 9.837 12.789
Torilis japonica 75 1.00 1.539 4.109 3.273 4.818 12.200
Piptatherum munorei 40 0.65 2.011 2.191 2.127 6.296 10.614
Indigofera heterantha 35 0.55 2.011 1.917 1.800 6.296 10.013
Arisalina sp. 40 0.70 1.539 2.191 2.291 4.818 9.300
Fumaria parviflora 85 1.20 0.125 4.657 3.927 0.391 08.975
Youngia japonica 40 0.80 1.327 2.191 2.618 4.154 08.963
Duchesnea indica 55 1.20 0.636 3.013 3.927 1.991 08.931
Plantago ovata 65 1.20 0.384 3.561 3.927 1.202 08.690
Galium asperifolium 85 1.15 0.031 4.657 3.764 0.097 08.518
Cynoglossum wallichii 10 0.40 2.011 0.547 1.309 6.296 08.152
Gentiana argentea 30 0.70 1.327 1.643 2.291 4.154 08.088
Androsace rotundifolia 45 0.75 0.985 2.465 2.454 3.084 08.003
Polygonium hydropiper 40 0.80 0.985 2.191 2.618 3.084 07.893
Stipa brandisii 80 1.00 0.070 4.383 3.273 0.219 07.875
Ranunculus arvensis 60 0.90 0.502 3.287 2.945 1.571 07.803
Cannabis sativa 40 1.05 0.636 2.191 3.436 1.991 07.618
Cynodon dactylon 70 0.90 0.196 3.835 2.945 0.613 07.393
Fragaria vesca 60 1.10 0.125 3.287 3.600 0.391 07.278
Oxalis corniculata 65 0.90 0.196 3.561 2.945 0.613 07.119
Veronica polita 20 0.35 1.539 1.095 1.145 4.818 07.058
Plantago lanceolata 50 1.05 0.196 2.739 3.436 0.613 06.788
Micromeria biflora 60 0.70 0.384 3.287 2.291 1.202 06.780
Thymus serpyllum 50 1.10 0.125 2.739 3.600 0.391 06.730
Brachypodium sp. 40 0.60 0.785 2.191 1.963 2.457 06.611
Bupleurum marginatum 30 0.40 1.131 1.643 1.309 3.541 06.493
Bistorta amplexicaulis 60 0.70 0.282 3.287 2.291 0.882 06.460
Galium elegans 60 0.90 0.070 3.287 2.945 0.219 06.451
Lysimachia chenopodioides 10 0.25 1.539 0.547 0.818 4.818 06.183
Erigeron canadensis 40 0.60 0.636 2.191 1.963 1.991 06.145
Mentha longifolia 20 0.60 0.950 1.095 1.963 2.974 06.032
Ajuga parviflora 45 0.55 0.502 2.465 1.800 1.571 05.836
Cichorium intybus 25 0.75 0.636 1.369 2.454 1.991 05.814
Carpesium cernuum 35 0.50 0.636 1.917 1.636 1.991 05.544
Verbascum thapsus 40 0.70 0.318 2.191 2.291 0.995 05.477
Poa annua 50 0.70 0.125 2.739 2.291 0.391 05.421
Rumex hastatus 30 0.60 0.384 1.643 1.963 1.202 04.808
Salvia sp. 20 0.45 0.636 1.095 1.472 1.991 04.558
Viola pilosa 30 0.50 0.196 1.643 1.636 0.613 03.892
Capsella bursa-pastoris 20 0.40 0.196 1.095 1.309 0.613 03.017
Erigeron multicaulis 15 0.15 0.502 0.821 0.490 1.571 02.882
Euphorbia sp. 15 0.35 0.196 0.821 1.145 0.613 02.579
Taraxacum officinale 10 0.30 0.196 0.547 0.981 0.613 02.141

Phytosociological parameters during summer at site C for herbs:

NAME OF PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI


SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Rabdosia rugosa 60 1.15 1.539 4.562 4.007 05.700 14.269
Phytolacca acinosa 10 0.35 3.142 0.760 1.230 11.637 13.627
Arisaema jacquemontii 35 0.65 2.011 2.661 2.284 07.448 12.393
Calanthe tricarinata 15 1.05 2.011 1.140 3.690 07.448 12.278
35 0.95 1.539 2.661 3.339 05.700 11.700
Valeriana wallichii
Cynodon dactylon 80 1.45 0.031 6.083 5.096 00.114 11.293
Carex species 90 1.15 0.031 6.844 4.042 00.114 11.000
Thymus serpyllum 70 1.45 0.125 5.323 5.096 00.462 10.881
Cichorium intybus 15 1.00 1.539 1.140 3.514 05.700 10.354
Verbascum thapsus 45 0.85 0.950 3.420 2.991 03.518 09.929
Cannabis sativa 15 0.35 2.011 1.140 1.230 07.448 09.818
Plantago ovata 65 1.05 0.282 4.942 3.690 01.044 09.676
Ranunculus arvensis 40 1.00 0.785 3.041 3.514 02.907 09.462
Hedera nepalensis 60 0.80 0.502 4.562 2.811 01.859 09.232
Achyranthes bidentata 30 0.75 1.131 2.281 2.636 04.188 09.105
Galium elegans 60 1.25 0.031 4.562 4.393 00.114 09.069
Dioscorea deltoidea 55 1.00 0.282 4.182 3.514 01.044 08.740
Xanthium strumarium 40 0.60 0.785 3.041 2.108 02.907 08.056
Fragaria vesca 40 0.90 0.502 3.031 3.163 01.859 08.053
Euphorbia helioscopia 20 1.00 0.785 1.520 3.514 02.907 07.941
Torilis japonica 20 0.35 1.327 1.520 1.230 04.914 07.664
Oxalis corniculata 50 1.05 0.031 3.802 3.690 00.011 07.503
Urtica dioica 20 0.50 1.131 1.520 1.757 04.188 07.465
Gentiana argentea 40 1.10 0.070 3.031 3.866 00.259 07.156
Myriactis wallichii 20 0.65 0.785 1.520 2.284 02.907 06.711
Capsella bursa-pastoris 35 0.80 0.318 2.661 2.811 01.177 06.649
Lespedeza cuneata 35 0.60 0.502 2.661 2.108 01.859 06.628
Geranium wallichianum 35 0.90 0.070 2.661 3.163 00.259 06.083
Cardamine impatiens 35 0.40 0.502 2.661 1.000 01.859 05.925
Bistorta amplexicaulis 20 0.80 0.384 1.520 2.811 01.422 05.753
Aquilegia pubiflora 15 0.20 0.785 1.140 0.702 02.907 04.749
Androsace rotundifolia 25 0.60 0.196 1.901 2.108 00.725 04.734
Viola patrinii 25 0.60 0.125 1.901 2.108 00.462 04.471
Veronica polita 25 0.40 0.282 1.901 1.405 01.044 04.350
Malvastrum sp. 15 0.40 0.282 1.140 1.405 01.044 03.589
Agrostis pilosula 20 0.35 0.196 1.520 1.230 00.725 03.475

Phytosociological parameters during summer at site D for herbs:

NAME OF PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI


SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Sonchus arvense 85 1.30 3.142 4.857 4.924 08.113 17.894
Salvia nubicola 40 0.50 4.525 2.285 1.893 11.684 15.862
Xanthium strumarium 35 0.50 3.802 2.000 1.893 09.817 13.710
Datura stramonium 50 0.60 3.142 2.857 2.272 08.113 13.242
Verbascum thapsus 60 1.10 1.539 3.428 4.166 03.974 11.568
Arisaema jacquemontii 35 0.70 2.545 2.000 2.651 06.571 11.222
Rabdosia rugosa 40 0.85 2.011 2.285 3.219 05.192 10.696
Lespedeza cuneata 60 1.00 1.131 3.428 3.787 02.920 10.135
Plantago ovata 80 1.20 0.384 4.571 4.545 00.991 10.107
Carex sp. 90 1.05 0.282 5.142 3.977 00.728 09.847
Saussurea heteromalla 65 0.40 1.539 3.714 1.515 03.974 09.203
Cynodon dactylon 80 1.10 0.125 4.571 4.166 00.322 09.059
Euphorbia helioscopia 60 0.90 0.785 3.428 3.409 02.027 08.864
Oxalis corniculata 80 0.70 0.502 4.571 2.651 01.296 08.518
Galium aparine 70 1.10 0.125 4.000 4.166 00.317 08.483
Urtica dioica 35 0.60 1.539 2.000 2.272 03.974 08.246
Cardamine impatiens 60 1.15 0.125 3.428 4.356 00.322 08.106
Girardinia heterophylla 30 0.30 2.011 1.714 1.136 05.192 08.042
Achillea millefolium 65 0.80 0.502 3.714 3.030 01.296 08.040
Thymus serpyllum 60 1.05 0.070 3.428 3.977 00.180 07.585
Duchesnea indica 40 0.85 0.785 2.285 3.219 02.027 07.531
Malvastrum 40 0.60 1.131 2.285 2.272 02.920 07.477
Impatiens sp. 35 0.90 0.785 2.000 3.409 02.027 07.436
Achyranthes bidentata 50 0.80 0.282 2.857 3.030 00.728 06.615
Taraxacum officinale 60 0.75 0.125 3.428 2.840 00.322 06.590
Androsace rotundifolia 55 0.65 0.282 3.142 2.462 00.728 06.332
Cichorium intybus 35 0.35 1.131 2.000 1.325 02.920 06.245
Oplismenus compositus 55 0.70 0.125 3.142 2.651 00.322 06.115
Hedera nepalensis 25 0.35 1.131 1.428 1.325 02.920 05.673
Cannabis sativa 40 0.50 0.502 2.285 1.893 01.296 05.474
Bistorta amplexicaulis 40 0.60 0.282 2.285 2.272 00.728 05.285
Rumex hastatus 35 0.60 0.196 2.000 2.272 00.506 04.778
Myriactis wallichii 10 0.50 0.785 0.571 1.893 02.027 04.491
Ranunculus arvense 20 0.60 0.196 1.142 2.272 00.506 03.920
Commelina benghalensis 10 0.10 1.131 0.571 0.378 02.920 03.869
Anagallis arvensis 20 0.65 0.031 1.142 2.462 00.080 03.684

Phytosociological parameters during summer at site E for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Phytolacca acinosa 40 0.50 7.071 2.025 1.464 15.763 19.252
Potentilla species 35 0.85 5.028 1.772 2.489 11.209 15.470
Calanthe tricarinata 40 0.60 4.525 2.025 1.756 10.087 13.868
Desmodium podocarpum 70 1.00 2.011 3.544 2.928 04.483 10.955
Verbascum thapsus 40 0.60 3.142 2.025 1.756 07.004 10.785
Digitalis purpurea 35 0.90 2.545 1.772 2.635 05.673 10.080
Commelina benghalensis 50 0.60 2.545 2.531 1.756 05.673 09.960
Arisaema jacquemontii 60 0.75 2.011 3.037 2.196 04.483 09.716
Stipa brandisii 90 1.00 0.502 4.556 2.928 01.119 08.603
Cannabis sativa 20 1.00 1.767 1.012 2.928 03.939 07.879
Micromeria biflora 80 1.20 0.070 4.050 3.513 00.156 07.719
Plantago major 55 1.40 0.282 2.784 4.099 00.628 07.511
Artemisia vestita 40 0.70 1.539 2.025 2.049 03.430 07.504
Thymus serpyllum 60 1.20 0.384 3.037 3.513 00.856 07.406
Carex sp. 80 1.05 0.125 4.050 3.074 00.278 07.402
Cynodon dactylon 70 1.20 0.031 3.544 3.513 00.069 07.126
Ajuga parviflora 60 1.05 0.384 3.037 3.074 00.856 06.967
Achyranthes bidentata 50 0.90 0.785 2.531 2.635 01.750 06.916
Plantago lanceolata 60 1.00 0.384 3.037 2.928 00.856 06.821
Mentha longifolia 70 0.90 0.196 3.544 2.635 00.436 06.615
Cichorium intybus 40 1.05 0.636 2.025 3.074 01.417 06.516
Urtica dioica 20 0.30 2.011 1.012 0.878 04.483 06.373
Oxalis corniculata 65 0.90 0.196 3.291 2.635 00.436 06.362
Poa annua 60 1.05 0.031 3.037 3.074 00.069 06.180
Galium asperifolium 65 0.90 0.031 3.291 2.635 00.069 05.995
Rumex nepalensis 60 0.90 0.125 3.037 2.633 00.278 05.948
Ipomea purpurea 55 0.90 0.125 2.784 2.636 00.278 05.698
Silene conoidea 40 0.65 0.502 2.025 1.903 01.119 05.047
Hedera nepalensis 35 0.50 0.785 1.772 1.464 01.750 04.986
Hypericum perforatum 40 0.60 0.502 2.025 1.756 01.119 04.900
Gentiana argentea 45 0.60 0.282 2.278 1.756 00.628 04.662
Myriactis wallichii 35 0.70 0.282 1.772 2.049 00.628 04.449
Youngia japonica 35 0.90 0.070 1.772 2.635 00.031 04.438
Euphorbia hirta 20 0.50 0.785 1.012 1.464 01.750 04.226
Bupleurum marginatum 40 0.60 0.196 2.025 1.756 00.436 04.217
Geranium nepalense 40 0.60 0.125 2.025 1.756 00.278 04.059
Arthraxon prionodes 35 0.60 0.196 1.772 1.756 00.436 03.964
Wulfenia amherstiana 15 0.75 0.282 0.759 2.196 00.628 03.583
Ainsliaea latifolia 20 0.35 0.502 1.012 1.024 01.119 03.155
Senecio arvense 20 0.35 0.502 1.012 1.024 01.119 03.155
Valeriana wallichii 20 0.45 0.282 1.012 1.317 00.628 02.957
Parnassia nubicola 10 0.60 0.282 0.506 1.756 00.628 02.890
Aquilegia pubiflora 20 0.35 0.282 1.012 1.024 00.628 02.664
Viola canescens 20 0.35 0.196 1.012 1.024 00.436 02.472
Spiranthes australis 10 0.15 0.125 0.506 0.439 00.278 01.223
Corydalis rutifolia 05 0.15 0.196 0.253 0.439 00.436 01.128

Phytosociological parameters during spring at site F for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Verbascum thapsus 60 0.70 7.071 3.234 1.978 14.340 19.552
Carex species 90 1.35 1.131 4.851 3.816 02.293 10.960
Taraxacum officinale 20 1.00 3.142 1.078 2.826 06.372 10.276
Urtica dioica 20 0.65 3.142 1.078 1.837 06.372 09.287
Tegetus minuta 40 1.00 2.011 2.156 2.826 04.078 09.060
Ajuga parviflora 55 1.00 1.539 2.964 2.826 03.121 08.911
Bergenia ciliata 20 0.50 3.142 1.078 1.413 06.372 08.863
Myriactis wallichii 50 1.05 1.539 2.695 2.968 03.121 08.784
Valeriana wallichii 40 0.85 2.011 2.156 2.402 04.078 08.636
Cardamine impatiens 55 1.70 0.282 2.964 4.805 00.571 08.340
Saussurea heteromalla 60 0.65 1.539 3.234 1.837 03.121 08.192
Rabdosia rugosa 60 1.20 0.502 3.234 3.392 01.018 07.644
Bistorta amplexicaulis 60 1.00 0.636 3.234 2.826 01.289 07.349
Cynoglossum microanthum 30 0.55 2.011 1.617 1.554 04.078 07.249
Arisaema jacquemontii 75 0.90 0.318 4.043 2.544 00.644 07.231
Sonchus arvense 35 0.90 1.327 1.886 2.544 02.691 07.121
Cannabis sativa 60 1.05 0.318 3.234 2.968 00.644 06.846
Artemisia sp. 50 1.10 0.502 2.695 3.109 01.018 06.822
Thymus serpyllum 60 1.10 0.196 3.234 3.109 00.397 06.740
Torilis japonica 10 0.35 2.545 0.539 0.909 05.161 06.609
Astragalus grahamianus 25 0.40 2.011 1.347 1.130 04.078 06.555
Bupleurum marginatum 45 0.65 1.131 2.425 1.837 02.293 06.555
Galium elegans 60 1.00 0.196 3.234 2.826 00.397 06.457
Impatiens sulcata 35 0.90 0.950 1.886 2.544 01.926 06.356
Gentiana argentea 60 0.90 0.196 3.234 2.544 00.397 06.175
Ranunculus arvensis 25 0.85 1.131 1.347 2.402 02.293 06.042
Polygala abyssinica 50 1.05 0.125 2.695 2.968 00.253 05.916
Fragaria vesca 35 0.60 1.131 1.886 1.696 02.293 05.875
Veronica polita 40 0.70 0.636 2.156 1.978 01.289 05.423
Ipomea purpurea 35 0.65 0.785 1.886 1.837 01.592 05.315
Bunium persicum 35 1.00 0.196 1.886 2.826 00.397 05.109
Poa annua 40 0.90 0.196 2.156 2.544 00.397 05.097
Brachypodium species 20 0.30 1.539 1.078 0.848 03.121 05.047
Galium asperifolium 35 0.95 0.196 1.886 2.685 00.397 04.968
Dioscorea deltoidea 45 0.65 0.282 2.425 1.837 00.571 04.833
Euphorbia helioscopia 40 0.70 0.282 2.156 1.978 00.571 04.705
Potentilla species 20 0.70 0.785 1.078 1.978 01.592 04.648
Hedera nepalensis 45 0.40 0.502 2.425 1.130 01.018 04.573
Plantago ovata 70 0.12 0.125 3.773 0.353 00.253 04.379
Medicago lupulina 35 0.65 0.196 1.886 1.837 00.397 04.120
Artemisia species 35 0.45 0.229 1.886 1.272 00.464 03.622
Phleum himalaicum 15 0.40 0.785 0.808 1.130 01.592 03.530
Primula species 20 0.60 0.282 1.078 1.696 00.571 03.345
Oxalis parviflora 15 0.70 0.196 0.808 1.978 00.397 03.183
Capsella bursa-pastoris 15 0.40 0.196 0.808 1.130 00.397 02.335
Arabidopsis wallichii 10 0.15 0.125 0.539 0.424 00.253 01.216

Phytosociological parameters during autumn at site A for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Commelina benghalensis 20 0.65 7.071 1.777 3.117 14.801 19.695
Ricinus communis 20 0.20 7.071 1.777 0.959 14.801 17.537
Girardinia heterophylla 25 0.25 5.311 2.222 1.199 11.117 14.538
Cynodon dactylon 75 1.50 0.282 6.666 7.194 00.590 14.450
Cannabis sativa 55 1.40 1.131 4.888 6.714 02.367 13.969
Dioscorea deltoidea 60 0.70 1.539 5.333 3.357 03.221 11.911
Carex sp. 70 1.00 0.282 6.222 4.796 00.590 11.608
Brachypodium species 50 0.90 1.131 4.444 4.316 02.367 11.127
Urtica dioica 30 0.65 2.545 2.666 3.117 05.327 11.110
Ajuga parviflora 55 0.70 0.502 4.888 3.357 01.050 09.295
Saussurea heteromalla 40 0.70 1.131 3.555 3.357 02.367 09.279
Myriactis wallichii 40 0.85 0.785 3.555 4.076 01.643 09.274
Veronica polita 45 0.60 1.131 4.000 2.877 02.367 09.244
Achillea millefolium 50 0.85 0.282 4.444 4.076 00.590 09.110
Desmodium podocarpum 35 0.35 2.011 3.111 1.678 04.209 08.998
Rumex hastatus 25 1.20 0.282 2.222 5.755 00.590 08.567
Datura stramonium 35 0.40 1.539 3.111 1.918 03.221 08.250
Medicago lupulina 45 0.50 0.785 4.000 2.398 01.643 08.041
Carpesium cernuum 35 0.80 0.502 3.111 3.836 01.050 07.997
Arisaema jacquemontii 15 0.20 2.545 1.333 0.959 05.327 07.619
Verbascum thapsus 15 0.40 2.011 1.333 1.918 04.209 07.460
Valeriana wallichii 35 0.60 0.502 3.111 2.877 01.050 07.038
Bistorta amplexicaulis 20 0.60 0.950 1.777 2.877 01.988 06.642
Rabdosia rugosa 20 0.50 1.131 1.777 2.398 02.367 06.542
Duchesnea indica 40 0.45 0.282 3.555 2.158 00.590 06.303
Epipactis royleana 20 0.20 1.697 1.777 0.959 03.552 06.288
Hedera nepalensis 30 0.40 0.785 2.666 1.918 01.643 06.227
Erigeron multicaulis 20 0.70 0.502 1.777 3.357 01.050 06.184
Mentha longifolia 15 0.40 1.131 1.333 1.918 02.367 05.618
Plantago ovata 20 0.45 0.196 1.777 2.158 00.410 04.345
Oplismenus compositus 15 0.50 0.282 1.333 2.398 00.590 04.321
Galium elegans 25 0.40 0.031 2.222 1.918 00.064 04.204
Ranunculus arvensis 10 0.50 0.384 0.888 2.398 00.803 04.089
Micromeria biflora 15 0.35 0.031 1.333 1.678 00.064 03.075

Phytosociological parameters during autumn at site B for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Verbascum thapsus 55 0.70 4.525 4.867 03.070 17.531 25.468
Capsella bursa –pastoris 35 3.75 0.125 3.097 16.440 00.484 20.021
Stipa brandisii 65 1.00 2.011 5.752 04.385 07.791 17.928
Duchesnea indica 35 0.60 2.545 3.097 02.631 09.860 15.588
Sonchus arvensis 40 0.85 2.011 3.539 03.728 07.791 15.058
Carex sp. 75 1.15 0.785 6.637 05.043 03.041 14.721
Cichorium intybus 20 0.45 2.545 1.769 01.973 09.860 13.602
Cynoglossum wallichii 55 0.90 1.131 4.867 03.947 04.382 13.196
Arthraxon prionodes 50 0.90 1.131 4.424 03.947 04.382 12.753
Veronica polita 65 1.05 0.070 5.752 04.605 00.271 10.628
Youngia japonica 50 0.70 0.785 4.424 03.070 03.041 10.535
Salvia sp. 20 0.45 1.539 1.769 01.973 05.962 09.704
Ranunculus arvensis 20 1.05 0.785 1.769 04.605 03.041 09.415
Lysimachia chenopodioides 55 0.80 0.125 4.867 03.508 00.484 08.859
Torilis japonica 30 0.40 1.131 2.654 01.754 04.382 08.790
Bupleurum marginatum 50 0.55 0.502 4.424 02.412 01.944 08.780
Erigeron multicaulis 45 0.60 0.502 3.982 02.631 01.944 08.557
Cannabis sativa 25 0.70 0.785 2.212 03.070 03.041 08.323
Polygonium hydropiper 40 0.80 0.282 3.539 03.508 01.092 08.139
Galium asperifolium 50 0.80 0.031 4.424 03.508 00.120 08.052
Thlaspi arvense 40 0.60 0.384 3.539 02.631 01.487 07.657
Bistorta amplexicaulis 35 0.95 0.125 2.857 04.166 00.484 07.507
Plantago ovata 40 0.70 0.129 3.539 03.070 00.499 07.108
Poa annua 45 0.60 0.125 3.982 02.631 00.484 07.097
Androsace rotundifolia 40 0.45 0.384 3.539 01.973 01.487 06.999
Euphorbia helioscopia 10 0.25 0.785 0.884 01.096 03.041 05.021
Ajuga parviflora 20 0.45 0.125 1.769 01.973 00.484 04.226
Oxalis corniculata 10 0.35 0.282 0.884 01.535 01.092 03.511
Micromeria biflora 10 0.25 0.125 0.884 01.096 00.484 02.464

Phytosociological parameters during autumn at site C for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Carex sp. 80 1.25 1.131 7.272 6.983 05.252 19.507
Veronica polita 55 0.80 1.539 5.000 4.469 07.146 16.615
Stipa brandisii 75 1.05 0.636 6.818 5.865 02.953 15.636
Phytolacca acinosa 20 0.35 2.545 1.818 1.955 11.818 15.591
Cannabis sativa 60 1.00 0.502 5.454 5.586 02.331 13.371
Dioscorea deltoidea 60 0.75 0.785 5.454 4.189 03.645 13.288
Galium aparine 70 1.15 0.031 6.363 6.424 00.143 12.930
Lespedeza cuneata 35 0.80 1.131 3.181 4.469 05.252 12.902
Cichorium intybus 55 0.75 0.785 5.000 4.189 03.645 12.834
Erigeron multicaulis 55 0.60 0.950 5.000 3.351 04.411 12.762
Carpesium cernuum 55 0.70 0.785 5.000 3.910 03.645 12.555
Piptatherum munro 35 0.35 1.539 3.181 1.955 07.146 12.282
Hedera nepalensis 60 0.65 0.502 5.454 3.631 02.331 11.416
Valeriana wallichii 35 0.50 1.131 3.181 2.793 05.252 11.226
Desmodium podocarpum 20 0.50 1.327 1.818 2.793 06.163 10.774
Epipactis royleana 20 0.30 1.539 1.818 1.675 07.146 10.639
Torilis japonica 45 0.60 0.502 4.090 3.351 02.331 09.772
Galium asperifolium 45 0.85 0.125 4.090 4.748 00.580 09.418
Achyranthes bidentata 35 0.90 0.196 3.181 5.027 00.910 09.118
Rabdosia rugosa 25 0.85 0.384 2.272 4.748 01.783 08.803
Agrostis pilosula 40 0.50 0.502 3.636 2.793 02.331 08.760
Xanthium strumarium 20 0.30 1.131 1.818 1.675 05.252 08.745
Capsella bursa pastoris 30 0.80 0.125 2.727 4.469 00.580 07.776
Euphorbia helioscopia 35 0.45 0.282 3.181 2.513 01.309 07.003
Calanthe tricarinata 15 0.55 0.409 1.363 3.072 01.899 06.334
Medicago lupulina 10 0.25 0.636 0.909 1.396 02.953 05.258
Bistorta amplexicaulis 10 0.35 0.384 0.909 1.955 01.783 04.647

Phytosociological parameters during autumn at site D for herbs:


NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Xanthium stramonium 40 0.45 4.525 3.361 2.284 13.689 19.334
Stipa brandisii 90 1.15 1.539 7.563 5.837 4.656 18.056
Myristica wallichii 35 0.60 3.142 2.941 3.045 9.505 15.491
Urtica dioica 50 0.75 2.011 4.201 3.807 6.083 14.091
Carex species 60 1.00 1.131 5.042 5.076 3.421 13.539
Achillea millefolium 60 0.80 1.131 5.042 4.060 3.421 12.523
Verbascum thapsus 40 0.50 2.011 3.361 2.530 6.083 11.974
Cynodon dactylon 60 1.25 0.125 5.042 6.345 0.378 11.765
Plantago ovata 60 0.90 0.384 5.042 4.568 1.161 10.771
Arthraxon serpyllifolia 40 0.60 1.327 3.361 3.045 4.014 10.420
Sonchus arvense 40 0.45 1.539 3.361 2.284 4.656 10.301
Datura stramonium 15 0.20 2.545 1.260 1.015 7.699 9.974
Cannabis sativa 35 1.00 0.502 2.941 5.076 1.518 9.535
Rabdosia rugosa 35 0.65 0.950 2.941 3.299 2.874 9.114
Oplismenus compositus 40 0.40 1.131 3.361 2.030 3.421 8.812
Ajuga parviflora 50 0.60 0.502 4.201 3.045 1.518 8.764
Lespedeza cuneata 40 0.70 0.502 3.361 3.553 1.518 8.432
Arisaema jacquemontii 20 0.30 1.539 1.680 1.522 4.656 7.858
Oplismenus compositus 35 0.50 0.785 2.941 2.530 2.374 7.845
Clematis buchananiana 50 0.60 0.125 4.201 3.045 0.378 7.624
Brachypodium species 35 0.60 0.502 2.941 3.045 1.518 7.504
Ranunculus arvense 40 0.60 0.282 3.361 3.045 0.853 7.259
Brunella vulgaris 15 0.70 0.785 1.260 3.553 2.374 7.187
Achyranthes bidentata 20 0.35 1.131 1.680 1.776 3.421 6.877
Plantago lanceolata 35 0.60 0.282 2.941 3.045 0.853 6.839
Ranunculus species 20 0.65 0.384 1.680 3.299 1.161 6.140
Valeriana wallichii 25 0.40 0.502 2.100 2.030 1.518 5.648
Cichorium intybus 20 0.65 0.196 1.680 3.299 0.592 5.571
Arenaria serpyllifolia 20 0.50 0.282 1.680 2.538 0.853 5.071
Hedera nepalensis 15 0.25 0.785 1.260 1.269 2.374 4.903
Bistorta amplexicaulis 20 0.35 0.125 1.680 1.776 0.378 3.834
Dioscorea deltoidea 20 0.35 0.070 1.680 1.776 0.211 3.667
Desmodium podocarpum 10 0.30 0.282 0.840 1.522 0.853 3.215

Phytosociological parameters during autumn at site E for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Digitalis purpurea 20 0.80 4.525 1.941 4.494 12.719 19.154
Phytolacca acinosa 10 0.35 5.311 0.970 1.966 14.929 17.865
Stipa brandisii 65 0.75 1.327 6.310 4.213 03.730 14.253
Salvia nubicola 35 0.65 2.545 3.398 3.651 07.153 14.202
Artemisia vestita 60 0.70 1.539 5.825 3.932 04.326 14.083
Arthraxon perionodes 60 0.90 1.131 5.825 5.056 03.179 14.060
Cichorium intybus 45 0.60 2.011 4.368 3.370 05.652 13.390
Mentha longifolia 40 1.05 1.131 3.883 5.898 03.179 12.960
Carex species 70 0.90 0.384 6.796 5.056 01.079 12.931
Verbascum thapsus 35 0.70 1.539 3.398 3.932 04.326 11.656
Cannabis sativa 35 0.55 1.767 3.398 3.089 04.966 11.453
Senecio arvense 20 0.55 2.270 1.941 3.089 06.380 11.410
Plantago lanceolata 55 0.90 0.282 5.339 5.056 00.792 11.187
Duchesnea indica 35 0.60 1.131 3.398 3.370 03.179 09.947
Achyranthes bidentata 20 0.60 1.539 1.941 3.370 04.326 09.637
Myriactis wallichii 40 0.50 0.950 3.883 2.808 02.670 09.361
Ajuga parviflora 35 0.70 0.636 3.398 3.932 01.787 09.117
Plantago major 40 0.60 0.636 3.883 3.37 01.787 09.040
Bupleurum marginatum 35 0.55 0.785 3.398 3.089 02.206 08.693
Desmodium podocarpum 25 0.65 0.785 2.427 3.651 02.206 08.284
Valeriana wallichii 30 0.55 0.780 2.912 3.089 02.196 08.197
Bistorta amplexicaulis 40 0.60 0.196 3.883 3.370 00.550 07.803
Youngia japonica 35 0.50 0.125 3.398 2.808 00.351 06.557
Hedera nepalensis 35 0.40 0.282 3.398 2.247 00.792 06.437
Silene conoidea 20 0.35 0.785 1.941 1.966 02.206 06.113
Wulfenia amherstiana 25 0.60 0.070 2.427 3.370 00.196 05.993
Brunella vulgaris 20 0.35 0.636 1.941 1.966 01.787 05.694
Clinopodium vulgare 20 0.35 0.282 1.941 1.966 00.792 04.699
Ainsliaea latifolia 15 0.35 0.125 1.456 1.966 00.351 03.773
Lespedeza cuneata 10 0.15 0.070 0.970 0.842 00.196 02.008

Phytosociological parameters during autumn at site F for herbs:

NAME OF THE PLANT FREQUENCY DENSITY BASAL RELATIVE RELATIVE RELATIVE IVI
SPECIES (%age) (m-2) AREA FREQUENCY DENSITY DOMINANCE
(%age) (%age) (%age)
Verbascum thapsus 35 0.25 7.071 4.216 3.906 22.025 30.147
Artemisia vestita 60 0.45 2.820 7.228 7.031 08.784 23.043
Carex species 80 0.45 1.131 9.638 7.031 03.523 20.192
Saussurea heteromalla 40 0.35 3.142 4.819 5.468 09.787 20.074
Plantago major 50 0.45 1.539 6.024 7.031 04.793 17.848
Bupleurum marginatum 40 0.40 1.131 4.819 6.250 03.523 14.592
Bergenia ciliata 20 0.10 3.142 2.409 1.562 09.787 13.758
Arisaema jacquemontii 50 0.35 0.636 6.024 5.468 01.981 13.473
Hedera nepalensis 45 0.35 0.785 5.421 5.468 02.445 13.334
Urtica dioica 15 0.10 3.142 1.807 1.562 09.787 13.156
Galium elegans 50 0.40 0.196 6.024 6.250 00.610 12.884
Dioscorea deltoidea 35 0.25 1.327 4.216 3.906 04.133 12.255
Rabdosia rugosa 40 0.30 0.502 4.819 4.687 01.563 11.069
Astragalus grahamianus 20 0.15 2.011 2.409 2.343 06.264 11.016
Poa annua 35 0.35 0.125 4.216 5.468 00.389 10.073
Euphorbia helioscopia 30 0.25 0.785 3.614 3.906 02.445 09.965
Veronica politra 35 0.30 0.282 4.216 4.687 00.878 09.781
Fragaria vesca 30 0.20 0.785 3.614 3.125 02.445 09.184
Cannabis sativa 35 0.15 0.502 4.216 2.343 01.563 08.122
Galium asperifolium 25 0.25 0.196 3.012 3.906 00.610 07.528
Ipomea purpurea 20 0.20 0.125 2.409 3.125 00.389 05.923
Torilis japonica 10 0.10 0.282 1.204 1.562 00.878 03.644
Oxalis corniculata 10 0.10 0.196 1.204 1.562 00.610 03.376
Capsella bursa-pastoris 10 0.10 0.125 1.204 1.562 00.389 03.155
Arabidopsis wallichii 10 0.05 0.125 1.204 0.781 00.389 02.374