Course Title: I.

Course Description

Philippine History

This is a course tracing the origin and history of the Philippines. It will trace the evolution of the present Philippine society as they changed from antiquity to the present era, discussing along the factors surrounding such changes. II. Over-all Objectives At the end of the semester, the students should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identify the different periods of Philippine History; Analyze how events in the past have influenced the present Philippine politics, Compare and contrast the level of nationalism that prevailed in the past with the level of Value the lessons to be gained from the lives of the great Philippine historical Respect and appreciate the complexities of Philippine history.

government and economy; nationalism that exists today; personalities;

III. Course Objectives This course is designed to allow students to: 1. Gain a deeper understanding of Philippine History; 2. Acquire the habit of critically analyzing historical situations that shaped Philippines today; 3. Develop the confidence of the students in voicing out their opinions and stands in various issues. IV. Values This course will seek to inculcate in the students appreciation of history as a foundation of today’s development. It seeks to instill in the students critical analysis on issues surrounding the various events in the History of the Philippines. Lastly, it seeks to awaken the spirit of nationalism among Filipinos.

V. References Agoncillo, Teodoro. History of the Filipino People. Eight Edition. 1990 Constantino, Renato. The Philippines: A Past Revisited. 1998 Constantino, Renato. The Philippines: A Continuing Past. 1998 Scott, William Henry. Barangay. 1997

Zaide, Sonia. Philippine History and Government. Fourth Edition. 1999 VIII. Course Outline A. Prelims 1. Basic Concepts 2. Basic Facts of the Philippines 3. Filipinos 4. Pre-Colonial Philippines 5. The Coming of the Spaniards 6. The Rise of Filipino Nationalism B. Midterms 1. Reform and Revolutionary Movement 2. Two Phases of the Philippine Revolution 3. The Coming of the Americans 4. Japan and World War II 5. Liberation C. Pre-Final 1. Post-Colonial Philippines 2. The Administration of the First 5 Presidents 3. Philippines under Martial Law 4. EDSA Revolution I 5. Philippines after EDSA I


Basic Concepts A. History A narrative (written, visual, oral or a combination of all three) about past events that has meaning to a certain group of people in a given time and place. B. Kasaysayan “SALAYSAY na may SAYSAY” (A story with meaning) Without both (story and meaning) then there is NO true history. C. Importance of History 1. 2. 3. D. Culture If we find meaning in history, then it will gain the power to change our lives; Making people see their past, gives them a sense of being Filipinos; History gives us a way of looking at the world and dealing with it and its problems.

The system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors and artifacts that

the members of society use to cope with their world and with one another, and that are transmitted from generation to generation through learning.   A way of life which involves everything. It includes all the social practices that bond a group of people together and Could never remain static, it is constantly changing. Literally means, “Earth’s description” The science, which treats of the world and its inhabitants. A description of the earth, or a portion of the earth, including its structure,

distinguish them from others.  E. Geography   

features, products, political divisions and the people by whom it is inhabited. II. Philippines A. Basic Facts        The Pearl of the Orient Seas Most ethnically diverse country in Asia One of the two predominantly Christian countries in Asia An ARCHIPELAGO located in SOUTH EAST ASIA Situated along the “PACIFIC RING OF FIRE” Made up of approximately 7,107 islands. 3 main island groups: LUZON (Regions I to V, NCR and CAR) VISAYAS (Regions VI to VIII) MINDANAO (Regions IX to XIII and ARMM)        1. 2. 3. Capital: MANILA Largest City: Quezon City (population); Davao City (area) National Language: FILIPINO Currency: Philippine Peso Staple Food: Rice National Anthem: LUPANG HINIRANG Motto: “Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Maka-Kalikasan, Maka-Bansa” The Philippines has the world’s longest discontinuous coastline. Manila Bay is the Finest Bay in Asia. San Juanico Strait is the World’s Narrowest Strait.

B. Geographical Trivia

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. III.

The Philippine Deep is believed to be the deepest area in the world. Banaue Rice Terraces is one of the Eight Wonders of the Modern World. Mount Mayon has a Nearly Perfect Cone Shape similar to Mt. Fuji of Japan. Mt. Apo is the highest mountain in the Philippines. Cagayan River is the longest river of the Philippines. Laguna de Bay is the largest lake. Taal Volcano could be considered as the World’s smallest volcano. MA-YI (The Land of Gold) MANIOLAS (Claudius Ptolemy) ARCHIPELAGO OF ST. LAZARUS (Ferdinand Magellan) LAS PHELIPINAS (Ruy Lopez de Villalobos) FILIPINAS (Spanish Era) PHILIPPINE ISLANDS (American Era) REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES (1946) PANGAEA (Land Bridges) Bottom of the Sea Volcanic Eruptions

C. The Name “Philippines”

D. Origin of the Philippines

Basic Facts: Filipinos  They are unique in the world for they have four intermingled cultures – Latin, But basically, they are still Malays. aka Pinoy or Pinay The Philippines is the world’s twelfth most populous country, with a Character traits of Filipinos: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Hospitable Close Family Ties Respect for Elders Fatalistic: “Bahala Na” Tardy: “Filipino Time” Indolent Curious: “Uzi” Debt of Gratitude: “Utang na Loob” European, American and Asian.   

population of 86,241,697 as of 2005 


Pre-Colonial Philippines A. Government: BARANGAY • Came from the word BALANGAY, meaning a boatload of people. • The unit of government consisting of 30 to 100 families • Each barangay was independent from one another, thus there was NO central government. • Ruled by a Chieftain (Datu, Lakan, Sultan, etc.) whose primary duty was to rule and govern his subjects and to promote their welfare and interests. They were advised by the ELDERS. • The chief exercised all the functions of government – executive, legislative and judicial, sometimes even religious. • The subjects served their chieftain during wars and voyages and helped him in tilling and sowing of the land and in the construction of his house. • BUWIS (tributes) were paid to the Chieftain in the form of crops. • According to the texts of the Chinese Merchants who traded in the Philippines, PreColonial Filipinos were HONEST. They pay their debts even if a year had already passed. B. Inter-Baranganic Relations • Consisted in carrying on commerce between barangays and in agreements concerning friendship and alliance. • Treaty of Friendship and Alliance was concluded by SANDUGUAN, making the contracting parties “blood-brothers” • Causes of Wars: 1. A man from one barangays went to another and was murdered without any obvious cause; 2. Kidnapping the wives of men belonging to another barangays; 3. Maltreatment of men of one barangays by men of another barangays. • Resolution of the conflict was brought about by force. C. Laws • Either Customary or Written. • Customary laws were handed down ORALLY from generation to generation and constituted the bulk of the laws of the barangays. • Written laws were those that the chieftain and the elders promulgated from time to time as necessity arose.

− − 1433: Datu Kalantiyaw, third chief of Panay, probably a descendant of Datu Sumakwel. He issued orders for the guidance of his people.

• Many of the written laws were destroyed by the early Spanish missionaries and many more destroyed by the elements. • The laws, customary and written, dealt with various subjects such as inheritance, divorce, partnership, crime and punishment, property rights, family relations, adoption and loans. • How a Law was made: 1. mind. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. law. 8. case. D. Judicial Process: TRIAL-BY-ORDEAL E. Status of Pre-Colonial Women
 

Elders of the Community were called by the Chief and tell them what was in his The elders either approve or disapprove the plan. If approved, the chief then made the necessary regulations or rules. The elders immediately approve of such rules. The UMALOHOKAN, will be summoned and ordered to go around the barangay The umalohokan called the attention of the subjects by ringing the bell that he The people gathered around him and heard from him the provisions of the new The law is effective immediately. Anybody violating the law was promptly

to announce the promulgation of the new rules and regulations. had with him.

arrested and brought before the chieftain to be judged according to the merits of the

Enjoyed a unique position in society Customary laws gave them the right to be equal to men 1. They could own and inherit property 2. Engage in trade and industry 3. Succeed to the chieftainship of a barangay in the absence of a male heir Had the exclusive right to give names to their children As a sign of deep respect, the men, accompanying women, walked behind them.

 

Social Classes

Lines drawn between classes were not hard; any member of the social classes could go 1. Nobles (Maharlika) − − − society Consists of the chiefs and their families Wielded tremendous influence in the barangay Enjoyed rights that were not usually enjoyed by the other members of

up or down the social ladder depending upon the attendant circumstances.

2. Freemen (Timawa) − −
o o o o o

Includes the dependents who had earned their freedom Acquired his low status by: Inheritance; By captivity in war; By failing to pay his debts; By purchase; or By committing a crime for which he was duly sentenced Gradations among dependents:
o o

3. Dependents (Alipin)

Full dependent – the son or daughter of dependent parents Half-dependent – the son or daughter of parents, one of whom was full dependent and the other a freeman Quarter-dependent – the son or daughter of parents, one of whom was a half dependent and the other a freeman.


Types of Dependents: a) Aliping Namamahay  Had his own family and house  Served his master during planting and harcest seasons  Rowed for the master  Helped in the construction of the master’s house  Served the visitors of the master b) Aliping Sagigilid  Had no property of his own  Lived with his master  Could not marry without the master’s consent

V. A.
 People  Headhunters  Miners  Cañao  Cabunian;

Pre-Colonial Communities Igorot of the Mountains (Cordilleras)

Ancestral Worship

 Mummification

B. Pintados
 Tattooed  Panay  Decorative  Skull

warriors (Batuk) Dentistry: Sangka and Pusad


C. Buranuns
 Sulu  Islam

−1380: Mudum −1390: Raja Baginda −1450: Abu Bakr ~ Paramisuli −Serif Kabungsuan
 Traders

−Orang Dampuans (Men from Champa) −Banjarmasins (Men from Banjar) −Chinese (Sung/Ming)
 Wedding


−Betrothal −Dowry −Wedding Festival VI.

The Coming of the Spaniards A. 15 Century: Renaissance Period
 the

period of Exploration Gold and Glory vs. Spain

 Gospel,  Portugal  Spice


B. Treaty of Tordesillas
 This

agreement was the Church’s solution to the endless competition between the 2 Kings of Portugal and Spain, with Pope Alexander VI’s blessing, signed an

Christian nations.
 The

agreement that divides the world between the two countries
 All  All

countries lying to the east belongs to the King of Portugal (Africa, India and Brazil) countries to the west belonged to the King of Spain (‘New World”) REDISCOVERED the Philippines

C. Ferdinand Magellan
 He

 He

was a Portuguese who approached the Spanish King, Charles V because his plan to was given a fleet of 5 ships: SAN ANTONIO (abandoned the mission), SANTIAGO ships Trinidad, Concepcion and Victoria reached the Philippines in March 16, 1521. a few Chiefs such as Raja Humabon and Raja Sula Magellan Expedition established the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Europeans learned the existence of the Philippines; It proved that the Earth is round; It established the vastness of the Pacific Ocean; It proved that the East Indies could be reached by crossing the pacific; It showed that the Americas were really separated from Asia.

sail west was rejected by the King of Portugal.
 He

 The

But only Victoria was able to go back to Spain.
 Met  He

was killed by a Filipino Chief, Raja Lapu-Lapu

 The


Ruy Lopez de Villalobos
 The

second explorer who went to the Philippines greatest contribution was the naming of the country, LAS PHELIPINAS in honor of

 Butuan  His

King Philip II E. Miguel Lopez de Legazpi
 The  He  He

most successful of all the three conquerors

accomplished an almost bloodless conquest in the Philippines became the First Governor-General of the Philippines Under the Sound of the Bell


Reduccion Bajo El Son dela Campana
 Resettlement A

“civilizing” device to make the Filipinos ultimate “little brown Spaniards” new Christian converts were required to construct their houses around the Church and

 All

the unbaptized were invited to do the same. VII. A. Political System KING of SPAIN MINISTRY OF COLONIES (Consejo de las Indias) GOBERNADOR - GENERAL Spanish Institutions



 King of Spain – the supreme ruler and law maker of all Spanish possessions  Ministry of Colonies – governs all Spanish possessions; oversees the colonies of the
Spanish empire.

 Gobernador-General – the spokesman and representative of the King in the Philippines.  Functions of the Gobernador-General:
1. The Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy; 2. The President of the Real Audiencia (Supreme Court); 3. The Vice-Real Patron; 4. The source of Civil Power.

  

Alcalde Mayor – heads the PACIFIED provinces Corregidores – heads the UNPACIFIED provinces Functions of the Alcalde Mayor and Corregidores: 1. Judge; 2. Inspector of Encomiendas; 3. Chief of Police; 4. Tribute Collector; 5. Vice-Regal Patron; 6. Captain-General of the Province

 Gobernadorcillo - the highest position that a Filipino could attain
- also referred to as the Little Governor  Qualifications to be a Gobernadorcillo: 1. Any Filipino or Chinese Mestizo; 2. at least 25 years old; 3. Literate in Oral or Written Spanish; 4. Had been a Cabeza de Barangay for 4 years.  Duties of the Gobernadorcillo: 1. Preparation of the Padron (tribute list);

2. Recruitment and Distribution of Men for draft labor, communal public work and the quinto; 3. Postal Clerk; 4. Judge in civil suits involving P44.00 or less.

Cabeza de Barangay – heads the barrio government Responsibilities of the Cabeza de Barangay: 1. Tax and Distributions Collector for the gobernadorcillo; 2. Responsible for the peace and order in his own barrio; 3. Recruited Polistas for communal public works.

B. C.

Visita (Specific and General) and Residencia - Judicial Review;

checks the abuses of government officials Amalgamation of the Church and State Economic System 1.  o o o o o 2. 3. bandala polo y servicio personal  polista: male; 16-60 y/o; 60 days (15 days: 1885)  falla 4. 5. D. 1. 2. E. 1. 2. F. encomienda (royal and private)  encomendero Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade Language Compadrazgo (ritual co-parenthood) “Spare the Rod, Spoil the Child” compulsory education Social Transformation buwis (tribute) ~ cedula personal (1885) Tax Exemptions: Descendants of the Filipino chiefly class who participated during Laborers in the arsenal/ artillery yard of Cavite Mediquillos (Filipinos with medical experience but no title) Vaccinators College and University students of Sto. Tomas, San Jose, San the pacification campaigns of early conquistadores

Juan de Letran and San Carlos of Cebu

Educational Transformation

Filipinos Not Totally Hispanized

VIII. A. Categories of Revolts 1. Personal Motives:

From Indio to Filipino: The Rise of Filipino Nationalism

a. Political led by former Datus b. Religious led by Babaylans 2. 3. B. Resistance to oppressive Spanish-introduced economic as well as religious Mindanao Resisitance a. Moro Wars (1718-1762; 1850-1878) Failure of Revolts 1. Insular Makeup of the Philippines  No Sense of National Unity  Communication Gap (No Lingua Franca) 2. C. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. IX. a. Filipino Middle Class     B. C. Rose to a position of power in the Filipino Community Spanish authorities looked down upon them The “natives”, on the other hand, looked at them with suspicion They were looking for a place in the sun Inferior Weapons/ Lack of Weapons The Philippines in World Commerce Rise of Class Media European Liberalism and Carlos Maria de la Torre Racial Discrimination Regular-Secular Conflicts ~ Cavite Mutiny The Reform Movement Filipino Nationalism: Accelerators institutions

Assimilation accomplished in a peaceful manner Nature of the Reform Movement  The reformists (propagandists) believed in the power of words and not of the There was NO clamor for independence; the reformists believed that the As Spanish Citizens: 1. Representation in the Spanish Cortes: Filipinos could propose and participate in the approval of laws beneficial to the country. 2. Immunity from abuses sword to achieve their purpose  Filipinos would be better off if they were to become Spanish Citizens. 

3. Freedom from paying unreasonable taxes. D. The Great Reformists  Only a few of the sons of the wealthy Filipinos that went to Spain joined the They were those who were concerned of their country Graciano Lopez-Jaena   The GREAT ORATOR Wrote FRAY BOTOD which deals with the ignorance, abuses and immorality of a friar named Botod      Founded the La Solidaridad (Sol) Marcelo Hilario del Pilar The Political Analyst of the Filipino Colony in Spain Founded the Diariong Tagalog Dec. 1889, he took over the editorship of the Sol and became the moving spirit behind the Reform Movement      E. Dr. Jose Rizal National Hero Wrote his first poem at age 8 Wrote two great novels: Noli and Fili Died as a martyr in Bagumbayan Propaganda Movement  

La Solidaridad     The Official Organ of the Reform Movement The paper was dedicated to: Expose the conditions in the Philippines; Defend the Filipinos against malicious and slanderous attacks of the hired writers of the friars; and   Publish studies about the Philippines and the Filipinos In writing for the Sol, the Reformists used pen names for obvious reasons: 1. JOSE RIZAL: Dimas Alang; Laong Laan 2. MARIANO PONCE: Tikbalang; Naning; Kalipulako 3. ANTONIO LUNA: Taga-ilog 4. MH del PILAR: Plaridel 5. JOSE MA. PANGANIBAN: Jomapa   Accomplishments of the Sol: It represented the ideals of the Filipino Reformist Group;

  F.

It exposed the evils in the Philippine Society; It belied the claim that Filipinos had no civilization before the coming of Spaniards.

Hispano-Filipino Association  colony.               To make the propaganda work effective, the society was divided into 3 sections: The POLITICAL Section under M.H. del Pilar The LITERARY Section under Mariano Ponce The SPORTS Section under Tomas Arejola They believed that the reforms needed in the Philippines were: The compulsory teaching of Spanish in all schools; The suppression of inhuman punishment in all jails and tribunals of justice; The establishment of a civil registrar and the register of deeds; The abolition of unfair taxes; The establishment of secondary schools in the archipelago; Reforms in UST in order to raise it to the rank of the universities in Spain; The establishment of agricultural banks; The initiation of reforms in the public administration; and The construction of good roads and railways. A civic society founded by Rizal Aims:  To unite the whole archipelago into one compact, vigorous and homogenous body;      Mutual protection in every want and necessity; Defense against all violence and injustice; Encouragement of instruction, agriculture and commerce; Study and application of reforms. At first the Liga was quite active. Bonifacio in particular exerted great efforts to A few months later, however, the Supreme Council of the Liga dissolved the The reformist leaders found out that most of the councils were no longer willing Composed of Filipinos and Spaniards who favored the granting of reforms in the


La Liga Filipina  

organize chapters in various districts of Manila.  society.  to send funds to the Madrid propagandists

This was because they had become convinced that peaceful agitation for The Liga membership split into two groups:  Cuerpo de Compromisarios: −the conservatives which pledged to continue supporting the La Solidaridad −It lasted only for a few months for its members, though patriotic, were passive and too conservative to make the society an effective medium of the Propaganda.  Katipunan −A secret society of radicals led by Bonifacio −Organized on the very day Rizal was deported to Dapitan.

reforms was futile. 


Causes of the Failure of the Reform Movement  Spain was too pre-occupied with its own internal problems to give a thought to the Colonial Problem.

The Friars were too powerful even in Spain. The Sol was counteracted by the

influential and powerful newspaper of the friars, the LA POLITICA DE ESPAÑA EN FILIPINAS   The movement has no sufficient means to carry out their aims; The propagandists were divided against themselves by petty jealousies.

Although the Reform Movement was a failure in the achievement of its goals, it was still a success for its failure led to the founding of the Revolutionary Katipunan with separatist aims. X. A. The Revolutionary Movement The Failure of the Reform Movement   Evident when Rizal was banished to Dapitan in 1892 However, the movement continued for 4 more years until the masses led by

Bonifacio were forced to revolt against the Spaniards. B. The Founding of the Katipunan  July 7, 1892: Azcarraga Street, Tondo (now Claro M. Recto Ave.) Andres Bonifacio, Valentin Diaz, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, Deodato

Arellano and a few others decided to form an association called: KATAASTAASAN, KAGALANGGALANG NA KATIPUNAN NG MGA ANAK NG BAYAN

 C.

The men gathered around a flickering table lamp, performed the ancient blood

compact, and signed their membership papers with their own blood. Katipunan Objectives  Three Fundamental Objectives of Katipunan:

POLITICAL Objective: Consisted of working for the SEPARATION of MORAL Objective: revolved around the teaching of good manners,

Philippines from Spain.

hygiene, good morals and attacking obscurantism, religious fanaticism and weakness of character.

CIVIC Objective: revolved around the principle of self-help and the

defense of the poor and the oppressed. D. Membership  It was agreed to win members to the society by means of the TRIANGLE This system was eventually changed on Oct. 1892 because the method was It was agreed upon that any member of the society could take in as many as Under this new method, the number of members increased. METHOD.  slow and clumsy.  members he could get.  E. Kinds of Membership

When the Katipunan had sufficiently expanded to include more than a hundred

new members in the ranks, Bonifacio thought it convenient to divide the members into THREE GRADES.

Grade One: Katipon

− Wore a BLACK HOOD during meetings of the society.
− The hood had a triangle of white ribbon inside of which were the letters Z.Ll.B. – the Katipunan letters for A ng B (Anak ng Bayan)

− Password: ANAK NG BAYAN

Grade Two: Kawal

− Wore a GREEN HOOD with a triangle consisting of white lines. At the
angles of the triangle were the letters Z.Ll.B. − Suspended from the neck of the Kawal was a green ribbon with a medal at the end, with the ancient Tagalog letter K in the middle of the medal. Beneath the K was a crossed sword and a flag.

− Password: GOMBURZA

Grade Three: Bayani

− Wore a RED MASK and a sash with green borders, symbolizing courage
and hope. − The front of the mask had white borders that formed a triangle with 3K’s arranged as if occupying the angles of a triangle. − At the latter’s base were the letters Z.Ll.B.

− Password: RIZAL
 The Katipon could graduate to the Kawal class if he had brought in several The Kawal can become a Bayani upon election to become an officer of the For the members to recognize each other in the street, the society adopted A member meeting another member places the palm of his right hand on his members into the society.  society.  countersigns.  chest. As he pass the other member, he close his hand, bringing the index finger and thumb together. F. Katipunan Codes  The Katipuneros faced many dangers, so that precautions had to be taken to To maintain the secrets of their communication, Bonifacio made a system of keep the society secret.  G. writing that would make it difficult for the Spanish authorities to decode. The Flags of the Katipunan  With the Katipunan now well organized, Bonifacio turned his attention to the Upon his request, Benita Rodriguez, with the help of Gregoria de Jesus, made a symbol of its authority.  flag. OFFICIAL FLAG of the KATIPUNAN A version of the Katipunan Flag Owing to the lack of uniformity in the design and the use of the flag, some

generals of the revolution adopted their own design. BONIFACIO’s FLAG

Mariano Llanera’s Flag (Llanera’s Skull) Gen. Pio del Pilar’s Flag H. Andres Bonifacio       The Father of the Katipunan “Supremo” of the Katipunan Founder and Organizer of the Katipunan the eldest among six children- four boys and two girls. came from a poor family in Tondo his father (Santiago)is a pure Filipino, while her mother (Catalina) is a mestiza Supported his siblings when his parents died of tuberculosis Jobs:  He had a beautiful penmanship and talent to make attractive posters for clothing companies.  He helped his siblings continue to make rattan walking canes and paper fans in the evening. He also wove hats.   He accepted odd jobs from different companies. Great Dresser: He always wore an open coat and matched it with a necktie and He wasn’t a barbaric individual who put up an arms struggle because of his had a scanty education highly intelligent He completed only what we call grade four. But he was far from being He was a voracious reader. He read hundreds of foreign novels, books about He was fluent enough in Spanish to translate Jose Rizal’s Mi Ultimo Adios in He also wrote the heart-stirring poem, Pag-Ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa. Humble: he knew his limitations and recognized the worth of others Ruthless: When the society’s existence was at stake, he never hesitated to take

with a Filipino-Chinese-Spanish descent  

black hat.  violent nature as what some textbooks perceive.   

uneducated.  the French revolution, politics, law, and religion.  Tagalog.   

drastic action against anybody whom he thought would defeat the purposes for which the Katipunan was founded.

He may have been ignorant from the point of view of the middle class, but he Without him, it is extremely doubtful whether the Phil. Revolution could have During his time, everybody seemed in despair and were not doing anything Had Two Wives  MONICA − −  − − Andres’ first wife Died of Leprosy

succeeded where they failed.  been a reality.  about it. 

GREGORIA DE JESUS Andres’ second wife From Caloocan

− LAKAMBINI of the Katipunan.
− − − − − − − − − − I.   Aka Ka Oriang Married Andres after a few months of courtship. She also came from a poor family. She had to stop studying just to be able to help her parents take care of her younger siblings. She wove and sewed textiles in their house to gain additional income. Like her husband, she was also tough. She became a member of the women’s chapter of the group. She was entrusted with the crucial role of custodian of documents, a tasked she heroically accomplished. Knowledge of succeeding Filipino generations about Katipunan is credited to her She risked her life even at a time when she was pregnant. Emilio Jacinto BRAINS of the KATIPUNAN Joined the society at age of 18, becoming the youngest member of the He became Bonifacio’s trusted friend and adviser. He gave up his Law studies and joined the Katipunan His intelligence was of great use to the Katipunan.

Katipunan.   

 

He wrote the Kartilla: the primer of the Katipunan where rules and regulations

are contained. He edited Ang Kalayaan: Katipunan's newspaper where eople are informed As an editor of Kalayaan, he used Marcelo H. del Pilar as his pen name. Emilio's greatest poem was A La Patria, inspired by Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adios. It was signed "Dimas-Ilaw", his other pen name. Emilio Jacinto was wounded critically during one of the battles in Majayjay, This led to his death on April 16, 1899 at the young age of 24. Membership was limited only to the wives, daughters and sisters of the male This is to ensure that no women of dubious character could penetrate the deep Duties:   To take in new members, male or female. See to it that the meetings of the male members were not disturbed by surprise raids of the authorities.  XI. A. − − B. − − − − − − Rizal and the Revolution Dr. Pio Valenzuela Narcisa Rizal Preparations for the Struggle Tito Miguel and Roman Ramos Diario de Manila Apolonio dela Cruz and Roman Ramos Honoria Sor Teresa Fr. Mariano Gil Pass and keep important documents of the association Revolution: First Phase

about the aims and activities of the association.

 

Laguna.  J. Women’s Chapter of the Katipunan  members  secrets of the society 

C. Discovery of the Katipunan

D. The “Cry” of Pugadlawin E. Reign of Terror

F. Katipunan Faction − − G. − Magdalo: Baldomero Aguinaldo Magdiwang: Mariano Alvarez Tejeros Convention Daniel Tirona vs. Andres Bonifacio 2nd Tejeros Convention Naik Military Agreement Trial and Execution of Bonifacio Andres, Procopio and Ciriaco Placido Martinez and Teodoro Gonzales Guilty of treason and sedition Gen. Mariano Noriel and Gen. Pio del Pilar Maj. Lazaro Makapagal May 10, 1897: Mt. Tala Biak-Na-Bato Republic “To the Brave Sons of the Philippines” 1. expulsion of the friars and the return to the Filipinos of the lands they appropriated for themselves;

− I. − − − − − − J. −

2. representation in the Spanish Cortes;
3. freedom of the press and tolerance of all religious sects; 4. equal treatment and pay for Peninsular and Insular civil servants; 5. abolition of the power of the government to banish citizens; and 6. legal equality for all persons K. − − − Truce of Biak-na-Bato Pedro A. Paterno Gov. Gen. Primo de Rivera Provisions: o o o o o o That Aguinaldo and his companions go into voluntary exile abroad That Primo de Rivera would pay P800,000 to the rebels in three installments: P400,000: Aguinaldo upon his departure from Biak-na-Bato P200,000: when the arms surrendered by the revolutionists exceeded 700 P200,000: when the Te Deum was sung and General Amnesty was proclaimed by the governor That Primo de Rivera pay an additional P900,000 to the families of the noncombatant Filipinos who suffered during the armed conflict

− − L.

Celestino Tejeiro and Ricardo Monet Col. Miguel Primo de Rivera Failure of the Truce − Gen. Francisco Makabulos of Tarlac Revolution: Second Phase

XII. A. 1. – 2. –

American Designs on the Philippines Expansion of the American Navy To expand the navy, the Americans have to gauge war against the Spaniards. Battle of Manila Bay The naval battle was one-sided because while it is true that the Spanish ships outnumbered those of the Americans, they were poorly armed. Thus, Spain lost the battle.


Aguinaldo −While in Hong Kong, he deposited the P400,000 given to him in 2 Hong Kong Banks. Only the interest was withdrawn and used for the expenses of the exiles. −After the Battle of Manila Bay, he felt that there was an opportunity to oust the Spaniards from the Philippines. −But there was a division in the ranks of the exiles, for ISABELO ARTACHO wanted the P400,000 to be divided among them and sued Aguinaldo in the Hong Kong Supreme Court. −To avoid appearing in court, Aguinaldo, accompanied by Gregorio del Pilar and J. Leyba, secretly left for Singapore.

C. −

Aguinaldo and E. Spencer Pratt Pratt persuaded Aguinaldo to take his lot to the Americans: “You need not have any worry about America. The American Congress and President have just made a solemn declaration disclaiming any desire to possess Cuba and promising to leave the country to the Cubans after having driven away the Spaniards and pacified the county. Cuba is at our door, while the Philippines is 10,000 miles away!

D. −

Aguinaldo Returns Aguinaldo arrived in Cavite with the war materials he had brought from Hong The Renewal of the Struggle began after he issued a proclamation urging the His return was demoralizing for the Spaniards. Kong. − − people to rally once more to the Filipino flag in the struggle against the Spaniards.

E. 

The Siege of Manila Intramuros (Walled City) – – – – – – The place where thousands of Spaniards have sought refuge. Aguinaldo and his men besiege the city in an attempt to starve out the enemy They surrounded the city and cut off the city’s food and water supply. This made It was only a matter of weeks before the Spanish authorities would surrender to Aguinaldo offered Gov. Gen. Augustin honorable surrender but he refused for in With this refusal, Aguinaldo and his men continued the siege. George Dewey, thought that the surrender of Manila could be affected without He started negotiations with Augustin, through the Belgian consul, Andre, But when the Peninsular Government heard of Augustin’s plan for surrender, he Jaudenes, like Augustin, believed that the Spanish position was hopeless and to

within its walls. the people in the city, Spaniards, Filipinos and aliens, suffer from hunger and thirst. Aguinaldo. Spanish code of honor, the word surrender was non-existent. F.  The Spanish-American Secret Agreement the use of arms.  regarding the surrender of Manila.  was relieved as governor and was replaced by General FERMIN JAUDENES.  save face, he insisted that to satisfy the Spanish code of honor, a MOCK BATTLE should happen after which, the Spanish forces would surrender.  G.    H.      I.  It was stipulated that Filipino rebels should be excluded and should not be The Mock Battle of Manila There was a short display of fireworks on the side of the enemies. The Spaniards hoisted the white flag of surrender. This signaled the “fall” of Manila and the end of the Spanish Colonial Period. Malolos Republic First Philippine Republic The First Republic in Asia June 12, 1898: Declaration of Independence Malolos Congress Malolos Constitution Treaty of Paris December 10, 1898 the Treaty of Paris was signed. allowed to enter the city

 

It provided that Spain would cede the Philippines to United States. In return, Spain would receive $20,000,000 from the US as payment for the US also agreed to give Spaniards the right to ship commodities to the This signaled the start of American Colonization in the Philippines. The Filipino-American Hostilities: Fil-Am Relations After

improvement made in the colony.  Philippines for a period of 10 years.  XIII. the Treaty of Paris A.  Treaty of Paris When the Treaty was signed without even consulting the Filipino people and their representatives, the Filipino-American Alliance that was forced under the pressure of necessity gave way to mutual hostility. B. American Interest in the Philippines  Expansion of the navy;  To have a territory in Asia as a military and naval base;  American economic interests who were thinking of expanding American business in the Orient;  Religious interests who wanted the Philippines as a base of operations for American Protestant missionaries.  It was evident that from the outset, the Americans never really intended to help the Filipinos win their independence from Spain, for had it been otherwise, they would not have sent successive reinforcements to the Philippines. C. Benevolent Assimilation  This proclamation was issued by President William McKinley on December 21, 1898.  This was the first indication of American policy regarding the Philippines.  It expressly indicated the intention of the US to stay in the Philippines by exercising the right of sovereignty over the Filipinos. D. San Juan Bridge Incident  Private Willie W. Grayson and Filipino troops  Without attempting to find out the cause of firing, Mac Arthur issued his order to advance against the Filipino troops.  The Filipino-American armed clash was on. E. American Victories  Luzon and Visayas conquests  Mindanao Pacification


Gen. John C. Bates is appointed to negotiate a treaty with the Sultan by which Muslims and Americans could co-exist peacefully. There was no attempt on the part of the Americans to conquer the Muslims for they know that they would have a big fight on their hands if they made such an attempt.

The treaty provided: 1. The acknowledgment of the sovereignty of US over the whole of Jolo and its dependencies; 2. The respecting of the rights and dignities of the Sultan and his datus; 3. The Muslims shall not be interpreted with on account of their religion; 4. No one shall be persecuted on account of his religious beliefs; 5. The domestic products of Jolo, when carried on by the Sultan and his people within any part of the Philippine Islands, and when conducted under the American flag, shall be free, unlimited and undutiable; 6. The American Government will pay the Sultan and his leading men monthly salaries in Mexican dollars.

• • F.

With the conclusion of the Treaty, the Americans succeeded in neutralizing the Muslims in their drive to pacify the Christian Filipinos. Afterwards, the Americans continued on their plight to look for Aguinaldo.

Battle of Pasong Tirad  Gen. Gregorio del Pilar – – – – The rear guard commander of Aguinaldo In their flight to the north, he noted the advantageous terrain of Pasong Tirad. He then suggested that in order to halt the Americans temporarily, he would stay This will delay the Americans and give Aguinaldo sufficient time to widen the

behind and make a last stand at the Pass. distance between him and the pursuing enemy.  Pasong Tirad – – the hill 4500 feet high and commanded a good view for miles around The trail leading to it was so narrow that only one man at a time could climb up

– –

From atop the Pass, the Filipino defenders forced at the advancing enemy, who Through JANUARIO GALUT, a Christian Igorot, the Americans found a secret In a matter of minutes, the Filipino defenders were overcome by the enemy.

had not so far pinpointed the exact position of the Filipinos. trail to the top and using it to advantage surprised Del Pilar and his men.

 Even after such heroic act, Aguinaldo was eventually captured by the Americans. G. Barbarous Acts  In an event such as war, brutality was used as an instrument to weaken an enemy’s resistance.  Both the Filipinos and Americans employed Barbaric Acts to intimidate their enemies.  Americans • • • • • • salt • • done H. End of Resistance  The capture of Aguinaldo ended an era and at the same time opened another.  Behind him, Aguinaldo left the ashes of a past that became embedded in the memory, as the fanatical struggle of an enslaved people to win freedom and independence through blood and tears. I. Historical Values  The bloody history of our fight for independence teaches us the following lessons: – The Filipinos should be proud that the first independent republic in Asia by Asians was established by Aguinaldo in the Philippines from 1898 to 1901. At that time, the other Asian countries were either Western colonies are kingdoms ruled by kings and emperors; – – – The Filipinos are brave and sturdy people who will fight for their rights and The Filipinos lost the Filipino-American War because they were not united and Like all wars, The Fil-Am War was very bloody and expensive. • • The Americans sent 126,248 troops, of whom 4,234 died. They spent a Veterans died in Action; vast sum of $16,000; independence even if they lose; they had inferior weapons; Burying the enemies alive Kicking, slapping, spitting at the faces of American prisoners were commonly Water Cure Rope Cure Beating up of captives until he becomes blue Hanging by the neck in a period of 10 seconds causing the victims to suffer Arson: burning whole towns in order to force the guerillas to come to the open Cutting of the noses and ears of their enemies and seasoning the wounds with

bodily pains.  Filipinos

• • –

200,000 civilians died of starvation or diseases; Property worth billions of pesos was damaged.

We should remember and honor President Aguinaldo and other heroes of this

era. Although they lost the war, they fought with courage and honor. These veterans of the revolution were the real founding fathers of our independence. XIV. A. Filipino Elites Compromise with Colonialism  Natural fear of losing the security of their interests  Basic orientation of the elite B. Increase in Filipino Participation  Political Change in the US   Republican ~ Democratic Woodrow Wilson

 Francis Burton Harrison    “Rapid Filipinization” Jones Law of 1916 1901: Cayetano Arellano


Limits to Filipinization

 Confinement to the Elite  Qualifications for Elections 1. 2. 3. able to read and write must be property owners government employees during the Spanish period

 Economic Limitations     D. XV. A. Treaty of Paris (1899-1909) Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act (1909) Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act (1913) Tydings-McDuffie Law (1934)

Democracy Filipino Style The Campaign for Independence Commission of Independence

 Purpose: to study all matters related to the negotiation and organization of the independence
of the Philippines B. Independence Missions  OS-ROX Mission (1931-1933)

 Succeeded in securing the passage of an independence bill (Hare-Hawes-Cutting
Act)  Ten year COMMONWEALTH government XVI. A. Positive Results: 1. Progress in Education   University of the Philippines (1908) English Results of the American Occupation

2. Bureau of Public Health and Welfare 3. Political Consciousness B. Negative Results: 4. Colonial Mentality 5. American Dependence

XVII. A. World War II  Tripartite Alliance  Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

The Japanese Occupation

 Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere  Europe First Policy B. Japanese in the Philippines  Puppet Government  “Mickey Mouse” Money  5 Mortal Enemies 1. Japanese Military 2. Diseases 3. Guerillas

4. Hunger 5. Japanese-Paid Filipino Spies XVIII. A. Guerilla Warfare The Liberation  Ex. HUKBALAHAP (Luis Taruc)  3 important functions: 1. ambush or kill enemy soldiers and civilians; 2. to relay important intelligence reports to Mac Arthur in Australia; 3. liquidate spies and Japanese sympathizers B. C. D.  Government in Exile Leyte Landings End of War Hiroshima and Nagasaki

 Unconditional Surrender  USS Missouri (September 2, 1945)

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