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The ability to reference sources effectively is a key

feature of the Individual Investigation

Avoid plagiarism

i.e. the use of other peoples work and the


submission of it as though it were your own.

CITING SOURCES
The following sentence could be used in your investigation
where you refer to ideas by Professor David Crouch.
It has been suggested that the medieval tournament
resembled a modern spectator sport, with spectators,
chants, national teams, team colours, inflated salaries,
transfer fees, celebrity cults and a lifestyle notable for its
excesses. (Crouch, 2006)
Alternatively you could begin,
Crouch (2006) has suggested

Author
s name
& date

Cite when paraphrasing


Paraphrasing is rewriting an argument,
opinion or point made in a source using
your own words.
If you are paraphrasing a particular
argument or point made in a source you
must acknowledge the source of your
information and include page numbers.

It has been argued (Harris 2001, pp. 20-21) that.......

Using direct
quotations

Use quotation marks and


include the page number.
If there are more than two
authors, cite only the first
followed by et al which means
and others.

.homeless in Cardiff. (Smith 2011)


....homeless in Cheyenne (Lewis et al. 2011)

THE REFERENCE LIST & BIBLIOGRAPHY


A reference list is a list of all the
information sources that you have
cited in your text.
A bibliography is a list of items that
you have read, and has informed your
thinking, including those you may not
have specifically cited in your
assignment.
.

References
Enable the reader to find the
sources you have used .
Help support your arguments and
provide your work with credibility.

Show the scope and breadth of


your research.
Acknowledge sources and avoid
charges of plagiarism.

Reference list
List in alphabetical order by author's
surname regardless of the type of
source.
Emphasise the title of the source using
italics, bold or underlining.
Use capital letters for author names,
source titles & all main words in the title
of a journal.

le
p
xam

Authors
name

Date

Source title

Publisher

Crouch, D. (2006) Tournament. Hambledon Continuum.

N.B. Use of
capitals

This title emphasised


using italics

Internet sources
Author
and/or
organisation
Chris
Mcgreal,
Guardian
Online

Publication
Date

16 February,
2012

Title and format of


document

Congress passes
payroll tax cut as
GOP relents on
savings demand.
Online.

Available at
(Web address)

Date
accessed

http://www.guardian.
co.uk/world/2012/feb
/15/us-congresspayroll-tax-cut

17
February,
2012

Chris McGreal. Congress passes payroll tax cut. 16 February 2012. Available
at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/feb/15/us-congress-payroll-tax-cut.
[Accessed 17 February 2012]

Twitter, Bebo and Facebook


Author or
organisation

Obama B.

Title and
format of
document
online

Available at
(Web address)

President
https://twitter.c
Obama
om/#!/baracko
comments in bama
favour of tax
cuts

Publication
Date

Date
accessed
(Date you
viewed site)

17.02.12

17.02.12

Audio-visual sources

Ahern, B., 1999. Interview on


Morning Ireland Interviewed
by John Boyd [radio] RTE
Radio 1, 15 February 1999,
08:30.

In the case of
TV/radio
programmes, note
the date and
channel of
transmission.

Summing up
Always cite your sources and use a reference
list/bibliography.
Harvard referencing is based on providing the
author, date, title and publisher.
For internet sources add the web address and
date accessed.

Related Interests