Tou Tl;wpTl;1l Kwv/vou, <pIAoMyou

Karo rnv KAaOlK~ ETroX~, OEV 8a ~1OV TTapOOO~o, EOV loxupl£:61OV KaV£le;; TTWe;; 11 OTparIWTIK~ 0PVOVW0I1 OUVXtE101 I-IE TI1V TToAITIK~ 0PVOVW0I1. 0 A8l1vafoe;; TTOAfTI1e;; OE 0lw8uVEI TI1V TT6AI1 we;; TToAEI-II0T~e;;, TTapO 1-16vo OIE~OVEI TOV TT6AEI-I0 we;; TTOAfTI1e;;.

o TTOAfTI1e;; «n 0 OTpaTllDTI1e;; £lVQI TO fOlo rrpovuc, 0 TTOAfTI1e;;OTpaTllDTI1e;; aOK£I TI1V Kuplapxfa TOU T600 ueco aTT6 TI1V LuvtAWOI1 TWV TToAmDv OE «npo Elp~VI1e;; 600 «n OTO WWTEPIK6 TOU orpororrcoou OE rrspiooo TToAtI-lOU.

LE OTTOIOO~TTOTE I-Itpoe;; «n av £lVQI evxorcorqucvoc, 0 A811va"lK6e;; crporoc OIOIK£l101 aTT6 roue a~IWl-larOUXOUe;; «n AmouPV£I I-IE TI1V tvvola Tile;; TT6AI1e;;, I-IE 0lK6 TOU tOo<poe;;, OIKOUe;; TOU xcroucouc «n roue OIKOUe;; TOU v61-10ue;;. ME1O~U Tile;; KOlvwvfae;; TWV TToAmDV «n Tile;; KOIV6TI11Oe;; TWV OTpaTlWnDV OEV UTTOPXEI ola<popo. 01 fOlol OVOpEe;; ouv8trouv «n TI1V ulo «n TI1V OMI1.

'OTTWe;; cvcocpa «n 0 F. Vian, 01 "suvcvek" Kar£lxav TO "TTpov61-110" va UTTEpaOTTf£:oVTQI TI1V TT6AI1 roue. Eroi, uTT60EIVl-la Via TOV A811va"lK6 crporo «n OT6Ao aTTOTEA£I TO "OOTU". AUT6 £lVQI ovovrippnro, EOV OKE<P- 8£1 Kav£le;; 10 "~uAlva T£lXI1", 6TTOU 11 TT6AI1 oA6KAI1Pl113pfoKE1OI 010 rrxoic «n TToAEI-IO Via TI1V EAw8Epfa «n TI1V aVE~apTl1ofa Tile;;.

AVTf8£Ta TTpOe;; aUTO, OTI1 LTTOPTI1 ~1OV TTPW10 OTpaTlWTEe;; «n I-IETO TToAfTEe;;, «n TTp6KEI1OI Via pro apIOTOKparIK~ ouvexeuon, 6TTOU 01 l3aOlA£le;; £lxav EV I-ItPEI «n TO xapaKT~pa EIOIKWV OTparlWTIKWV I1VI1T6pwv.

KOTi rrroro roue ETTtl3aAE 11 TToAITIKOOIKOVOI-IIK~ roue 0PVOVW0I1 xo- 8we;; ~1OV UTTOXPEWl-ltVOI va aVTII-IETWTTfoouv 6XI 1-16vo roue E~WTEpIKOUe;; KIVOUVOUe;; aMo «n TI1V aTTEIM TWV EIAwTWV. "Eroi, OEV £lVQI rrcpcoot;o TTOU 0 LTTapTlar1K6e;; orpcroc 00 I1V £110 I OE cxpoic 1-I0p<p~, aMo 1OUT6- xpovc I-IE TO UlJ.lI1A6TEPO l3a81-16 TToAEI-IIK~e;; aTT600011e;;. b.uo £lVQI 10 xuprc xapaKTI1PIOTIKO TWV /\aKEOall-lOvfwv OTpaTlWTWV, 11 aTT6AuTI1 ocookoon OTI1 LTTOPTI1 «n TO af08111-1a Tile;; OTparIWTIK~e;; TII-I~e;;.

[1]

TIWTIKrl~ TllJrlg.

Tov KUPIO 6YKO TOU OTpOlOU orrorexouccv 01 oTTAin:e;;, «n 11 OIOP- 8pworl TOUe;; ~EKlvwvrae;; aTT6 rnv l3aOlKrl 1J0VOoa, rrrcv: 11 EVWIJOTia (32 OVOpEe;;), 11 TTEvTIlKOOTue;; (64 OVOpEe;;), 0 A6xoe;; (128 OVOpEe;;) Kalil 1J6pa (512 OVOpEe;;). LuvoAIKO 0 raKTIK6e;; crporoc TWV /\aKEOallJOviwv aTTOTEAouvrav aTT6 6 1J6pEe;;. To ETTiAEKTO runuc TWV /\aKEOallJOviwv rrrcv 01 "ITTTTde;;", 01 orroioi 61Jwe;; rrrcv TTE£:oi, vupto ora 300 OTOlJa «n aTToTEAouocv rnv l3aOlAIKrl opoupc.

Tnv ovcorcrn oloiKIlOIl dxav 01 ouo l3aOlAde;; «n rrcvrc EKOTPOTWE 0 tvae;; aTT6 TOUe;; ouo, lJa£:i IJE ouo E<p6poue;; we;; TToAITIKOUe;; oUlJl3ouAoue;;. Orcv 0 l3aOlAloe;; rrrcv aVrlAIKOe;;, rnv 8toll TOU tTTQlPVE tvae;; aTT6 TOUe;; ETTlTp6TTOUe;; TOU.

oprANnrH A0HNA"iKOY rTPATOY

To OUOTlllJa opvcvcocn; TOU A81lva"lKOU orpcrou ~EKIVO aTT6 TOV L6- Awva «n 0lalJop<pw8llKE uorcpo aTT6 Tie;; IJErappu8lJioEIe;; TOU KAEl08tvll TOV 60 en TT.X. npooTT08Ela Kmaypa<prle;; Tile;; ouv8WIle;; TOU OTpOlOu KOlO TIlV KAaOlKrl rrspiooo ~EKIVO aTT6 TOV Aprorortxr] «n rnv "A8llva"lKrl noAIrsic" «n KOlaMYEI IJtXPI TOUe;; Glotz, Kromayer K.O.

Kmo rnv ETTOXrl TOU Aprororcxn, 01 uccvoi TTpOe;; oTPOTWOIl xwpi£:ovroi OE 42 KAoOEIe;;, Ka8we;; dVQI UTTOXPEWTIKrl 11 KOlOra~rl TOUe;; aTT6 TO 190 twe;; TO 506 eroc Tile;; IlAIKiae;; TOUe;;. L' aUTte;; Tie;; KAoOEIe;;, 01 OUO TTPWTEe;; dVQI TWV VEWTOTWV «n TWV E<Prll3wv «n 01 otKa TEAwraiEe;; TWV TTpEOI3UTtpWV, EVW 01 UTT6AoITT01 orrorsxouv TOV KUPIO 6YKO TOU OTpOlOu. 0 80uKuoiolle;; (1,105 «n 11,13) 8Ewpd «n aUTte;; Tie;; ouo OIJOOEe;; we;; OTTAiTEe;;. L' aUTOUe;; E~OIJOIOUVTQI «n 01 IJtTOIKOI TTOU UTTIlPETOUV We;; oTTAiTEe;; (ken IJtTOIKOI 6001 OTTAiTQI ncov).

K08E KAoOIl, aTT6 Tie;; 42, dXE «n tvav ETTWVUIJO npcoo (ETTWVUIJOI TWV IlAIKIWV, ETTWVUIJOI TWV M~EWV), 01 orroioi XPIlOlIJOTTOIOUVTQI 6XI 1J6- vo vro TIlV TTp60KAIl01l TWV KAoOEWV aMo «n vro TOV Ka80pI01J6 TWV 01l1J601WV OlalTIlTwv. 01 a~lwIJOlOUXOI curoi apxi£:ouv va EIJ<pavi£:oVTQI KOlO TO 403-402 TT.X., aTT6 EKdvoue;; TOUe;; A8llvaioue;; TTOU dxav oUIJTTAIlPWOEI TO 606 eroc. 8a TTptTTEI EOW va yivEI cvcoopc vro TO AIl~lapXIK6 vpcuucreio, 6TTOU Eyypo<povral 6Aol 01 t<Plll3ol 1J6AIe;; OUIJTTAIlPWOOUV TO otKOlo 6yooo eroc Tile;; IlAIKiae;; TOUe;;. T6TE 01 A81lvaiol t<Plll3ol opKi£:ovrav

[2]

OTO I£PO Trle;; AyAaupou, KOTW crro rnv AKpoTToAIl, TOV OPKO TOU TToAfTIl «n TOU orpcruorn. AUTOe;; 0 OpKOe;; OWC::ETOI usco crro /\UKOUPYO, "xcrc /\£WKpOTOUe;;", «n rrcpcriaerrn £ow I-I0VO n ucrceocon:

«~E:V ea VTpOTTlaaW ta tea« oTTAa OUTE: ea E:YKaraAE:ilj.1w TOV ouvtpooo, J.1E: OTTOIOV Kat av araew om ypaJ.1J.1t7, ea aJ.1UVeW Yla ta ieo« Kat ta ooa, Kat J.10VO~ Kat J.1aSi J.1E: TOU~ uTToAoiTTOU~ Tnv ttatpioa uou OE:V ea ttaoatxaooi J.1IKpOTE:pfJ, aAAa J.1E:yaAUTE:pfJ Kat 1000UPOTE:pfJ aTTO 0, TI ea TfJV TTapaAa{3w. Ga at{30J.1at T/~ attopaoeu; TWV OIKaarfJPiwv Kat ea UTTaKOUW otoo; eE:aTTlOJ.1ivou~ V0J.10U~ Kat a' ooou; aAAou~ Ij.1fJipioe! fJ TTAE:IOlj.1fJCPia. Kat av «artoto; aMo~ ea «ataotptiuet TOU~ eE:ouou; t7 OGv UTTaKOUE:1 a' autooc, OE:V ea TO emtotuuo, aMa ea auuvew Kat J.10VO~ Kat J.1E: aAAou~. MapTUpE:~ YI' aura E:TTlKaAouJ.1at TOU~ GGOu~, TfJV AyAaupo, TOV EvuaA/o APfJ, TOV ~ia, TfJV GaMw, TfJV Au~w, TfJV HYE:J.1ovfJ.»

M£ TO rrcpcc Tile;; opxcouoofcc, 01 VtOI tTTOIpvav TToA£I-IIKO OTTAIOI-IO «n ooxouvrcv vro OIOOTlll-ia ouo £TWV ora TToA£I-IIKO. To TTPWTO eroc 1-10- Gcrvcv Til XP~OIl TWV orrxcov «n cpoupouocv TOV n£lpOiO. To O£UT£PO Xpovo tKavav rreprrroxie; OTIl xwpa, I-I£AETOUOav vro ro oXUpWl-larlKO tpya «n one TToA£I-IIKte;; raKTIKte;;. Karo TOV Xpovo ourov rrrcv ora ouvopa, ora opouprc Tile;; ATTIK~e;;, ro orroic rrrcv 0 Avo<pAuOTOe;;, 0 Gop I KOe;;, TO LOUVIO, 0 Pcuvouvrcc, 11 EAwofva, 11 <DuM, 01 A<pfov£e;;, TO nOvaKTOv.

M£ TIlV OUI-ITTMpWOIl TOU 200u tToue;;, vivorcv UTT£paOTTIOTte;; Tile;; TTaTpfoae;;, TToAfT£e;; 1-1£ TTMPIl OIKaIWl-lara, «n 11 OlopK£la Tile;; SIlTElae;; rrrcv axoccerqc, ollAao~ I-ItXPI TO 400 croc. 01 OUI-II-I£TtxovT£e;; O£ crroucxpuOl-ltv£e;; £KOTparEl£e;; rrrcv cvcueoc O£ aUTte;; Tie;; IlAIKf£e;;, aMo UTTOXP£Wvorcv va UTT£paOTTfC::ouv TO TTOTPIO toa<poe;; I-ItXPI TO 600 eroc.

[3]

X6AKIVO ayaAlJmfolo OTTAin]

H ovcvvtoprcn TOU TTOAITIKOU OIKaIWlJarOC;; viverrn IJOVO Kara rnv EyypQ(p~ TWV vecvlcov OTO AIl~lapXIKO vpcuucreio, TTOU TIlPOUOE 0 Ka8E O~IJOC;;. AKOAou8wC;;, 01 o~lJapxol 8a KaAtoouv TOUC;; ITTTT£iC;; «n TOUC;; oTTAfTEC;; ueco aTTO TO AIl~lapXIKo vpcuucreio «n 01 fOlol 8a TTptTTEI va opovrlcouv vro TOV OTTAIOIJO TTOU 8a <ptpouv. To olarevue IJE ro ovouorc TTOU KaAouVTaI, TOIXOKOM£iTaI OTO IJVIlIJ£io TWV ETTWVUIJWV, «rrcoxeucouevo Karc TO TEAwrafo rcrcpro TOU 50 or. TT.X. H yVWOTOrrolnon ouvoocuorcv crro rnv P~OIl : "Aupiov 0' tOT' ~~000c;;".

napolJola IJE Til olafpeon TIlC;; a8Ilva"lK~C;; 01l1J0- Kparfac;; clvcn «n 0 olaxwPIOIJOC;; TOU orpcrou: Kar' apx~v eivrn 01 orpcrnvoi,

KarOTTIV 01 ra~fapxol, EK£ivOI TTOU OIOIKOUV ro otKa otoucrc OTTAITWV, TO Ka8tva apI81J£i, TO 431, 1300 avOpEC;;. Kara rnv cope TIlC;; lJaXIlC;;, 01 lJaXIlTtC;; TTaparaOOOVTaI avaAoya IJE rnv <puM ornv orrolc cvrpcouv.

H 0lap8woll TOU A81lva"lKOU orpcrou ~EKlva crro TIC;; otKa <puAtc;;. Ka- 8E Ta~1l £iXE otKa Aoxouc;;, IJE accro avopEC;; 0 Ka8tvac;; TOUC;;. Yrrooioipeon TOU Aoxou rrrcv 01 OEKaOEC;; «n 01 TTEvTaOEC;;.

ntpa crro rnv <paAayya TWV OTTAITWV, TO orroio rrrcv TO EAa<ppu TTESIKO Kalil xuprc OuvalJll TWV A8llvafwv, urrrtpxcv «n ro runpcrc TWV 811- TWV, TTOU urmperouocv OTO OToAo, TWV ITTTTtWV, 01 orroioi ovnxcv OTIC;; OUO aVWTEpEC;; KOIVWVIKtC;; Ta~EIC;;, TWV TO~OTWV, TWV "ITTTTOTO~OTWV" «n TWV "TTpOOpOIJWV", tva EAa<ppu EIOIKO OWlJa ITTTTlKOU IJE aKOVTla. 01 TTEAroorec, EIJ<pavfSOVTaI OTIC;; apxtc;; TOU 40 en TT. X., ucrepc crro rrporcon TOU 1<pIKpaTIl «n rrrcv TO ETTfAEKTO TIJ~lJa TOU A81lva"lKOU orpcrou.

[4]

01 A81lvafol oTTAfn:c;; dVQI avop£c;; TTOU TTAIlPwVOUV 01 fOlol vrc TIlV £~apTuo~ TOUC;;. EfvQI l-IaAlora TOOO !3apuc;; 0 £~oTTAIOI-IOC;;, WOT£ va urrcpX£I xpda ouvooou. AV~KOUV OUV£TTWC;; OTIC;; Tp£lC;; TTPWT£C;; Ta~£IC;; TIlC;; A81lva"lK~C;; b.1l1-l0Kparfac;;: 11 Olll-lOKparfa TWV oTTAITWV dVQI pro Olll-lOKparfa TWV XWpIKWV.

To ecru rrrcv £Kdvo TTOU aTTO<paOls£ vro TOV TToA£I-IO «n TIlV ol£~aywy~ TOU «n, tl-ll-l£Oa, TO Karllu8uv£. LTllv A8~va oAa £~apTwrav crro TOV Aao. AUTOC;; aTTo<paOls£ vro TOV TToA£I-IO, Til onpcolo TOU «n TO OKOTTO Ka8£ cxcrpcrclcc. To lJ.l~<plol-ia TOU xcou Ka80pls£ TTOIOC;; 8a exorpcrcuc, TTOU «n vro TTOIO OKOTTO. AKOI-Ill «n curoc TTOU dx£ Til olofKIlOIl, 0 cvcoraTOC;; TToAITIKOC;; a~IWl-larOUXoc;;, £KA£Yl-ltvoc;; crro TOV Aao, opisorav aTTO TO lJ.l~<pIOl-ia wc;; "OTparIlY0C;;" «n xwpfC;; va tX£1 urroorei «rrroro £IOIK~ orpcnumxn acrrolocuon. LUV£TTWC;;, oAol I-ITTOpOUOav va £ATTfSOUV TTWC;; 8a !3p£80uv KaTTOla ucpo £TTlK£<paMc;; TOU crpcrou. AUT~ 11 onuooro OUI-II-I£TOX~ £~Ilyd, Kara tva I-Itpoc;;, vier! 01 TToAfT£C;; I-ITTOpOUOav va £KTII-I~OOUV KaAuT£pa ro OIKOV0I-IIKa TTA£Ov£KT~l-Iara TOU TToAtI-lOU.

To ouornuc aUTO TIlC;; Ily£ofac;; £~ao<paAls£ rnv ao<paA£la TOU TToAIT£Uucroc, ooou 11 £KAoy~ vrvorcv 1-1£ KplT~pla rnv TTpOOWTTlK~ TOUC;; a~fa «n rnv eurraplo ora TToA£I-IIKa. H MlJ.l1l TWV orrooccecov aTTO TO oUI-I!3ouAIO TWV IOOTII-IWV orpornviov crrorsxoucs rnv ao<paAloTIK~ olKAdoa, WOT£ va urrcpyouv «n va £K<ppaSOVTQI £A£u8£pa oA£C;; 01 aTTOlJ.l£IC;;. AUTtC;; ora81-1fsovrav «n 11 T£AIK~ orroeccn rrrcv £Kdvll 1-1£ TIC;; l-I£yaAuT£p£C;; TTI- 8avoTllrac;; £TTlTuxfac;;.

[5]

Avrfvpcoo lJuKllva"lKwv ~I<PWV, aTT6 TO TTpWT6TUTTa, TTOU !3pfOKOVTOI OW E8. APXOloAoYIK6 Mouoeio

H [ola 11 001-l~ TWV EMllvlKWV TT6AEWV-Kparwv, Kara rnv KAaOlK~ apX0I6Tllra, cclvercn 6T1 OOIlVOUOE OE pro OlapK~ xrrrricrcon TToAtl-lOU I-lEra~u TOUe;;. Ta aOTIl rrrcv TToAu I-lIKpa, WOTE va £:EI TO Ka8tva ucco ora opro TOU Xwp[e;; va EvoXA£i TO aMo. AUT6 61-lwe;; OEV onpciva 6TI OE E~aIpETIKte;; TTEPITTTWOEIe;;, 6TTWe;; OTOUe;; MIlOIKOue;; TToAtI-lOUe;;, 01 EMllvIKte;; TT6- AEIe;; OEV ouvEPva£:oVTaI I-lEra~U TOUe;; Via va aTT0l-laKpUVOuV TOV K[VOUVO.

AUT~ 11 orvcn rcon Via OUVKpOUOEIe;;, rrcpc aTT6 TOUe;; OIKOV0I-lIKOUe;; Mvoue;;, rrpoepxerrn «n aTT6 rnv evrovn crouucornro TWV TT6AEWVxprrrtov, 6TTOU 11 aVE~apTllo[a rrpooxcupova £:IlA6TUTTO xapaKT~pa «n overrrucoc OTOUe;; TToA[TEe;; pre evovtovrc tvvola TTarpIWTI0I-l0U. 'ETTPETTE, AOITT6v, va urrcpxouv TT6AE1-l01, 6XI uovo we;; tva xovovnco AEITOuPVlll-la, aMa «n we;; pic KavovlK~ xcroorocn.

H EIP~vll eivrn EK£ivll TTOU aTToTEA£i tva OlaoTlll-la, pic TTaptv8wll, aUT6 TouAaXloTov [OXUE Kara TOV 50 or. AMwOTE, TTOTt OEV ouvcrrrerrn pro EIP~vll oproruco. "H EIP~vll rrrcv ulo OWI-l£UTIK~ OlaKoTT~ TOU TToAtuou «n 6XI 0 TT6AEI-l0e;; pro OlaKOTT~ Tile;; xrrrcoruorp; Elp~VIle;;", 6TTWe;; 011- I-lEIWVEI 0 Bruno Keil.

OOT600, 0 OlapK~e;; TT6AEI-l0e;; rrrcv pro xorocrccn EAEVX61-lEVIl «n OIE~av6rav KUp[We;; ETToXlaKa. nOAEI-l0UoaV TO KaAoKa[pl «n TO <p8IV6TTWPO errcorpeoov ornv rrorploo TOUe;;. H KavovlK~ ovocroxn TWV Ex8pOTTpa~IWV 0<pEIA6rav Kara tva I-lEvaAo TTOOOOT6 cnc OuoKoA[Ee;; TOU XEII-lWva.

01 aval3oAte;; ourtc urrnpxcv, vier! xapaKTIlPIoTIK6 TWV TToAtl-lWV auTWV rrrov 6T1 TTOTt OEV uTT~p~av KaraKTIlTIKO[, ETTp6KEITO TTavToTE Via 01-

[6]

appu8lJfOEIC;; IJE80pfou. ETTl8uIJouoav TTEPIOOOTEPO va TTltOOUV TOV EX8po, xrrrccrptrpovrcc rnv OUYKOIJIO~ TOU rrcpc E~OVTWVOVTac;; TOV. A~IOOIlIJ£iwTO clvcn OTi 0 ETTlTI8tIJEVOC;; ETTEOfwKE rrcvrc va ETTlOTpt<pEI ornv rrcrpioc TOU TTplV aTTO TO OIKO TOU 8EPI01J0 ~ TPUyO.

AUTOC;; 0 ETTOXlaKOC;; TToAEIJOC;;, rrspc aTTO TIC;; TToAITIKtC;; «n OIKOVOIJIKtC;; ETTITTTWOEIC;;, ouvt!3aAE lJ.lUXoAOYIKa WOTE va UTTapXEI TTEPIOOOTEPO pro 1J0p<p~ opvcvcourvou cvrcvcovrouou cvcucoc OTIC;; TToAEIC;; - xprrrr], rrcpc ccv pro 8avaOlIJIl aTTEIM.

XaAKIVO EVXElpfolO I--IE rrcpccrccn aTT6 KUV~VI M:6vTWV

I:TTOV~t~

H EIJTToAElJ1l xrrrricrcon ~ 11 £i0000C;; OE EIP~VIl vrvorcv IJE Ka8lEpwIJtvo TPOTTO «n IJE 8PIlOKWTIK~ Ta~ll. H EIP~VIl o<ppaYlsorav IJE OIVOXUoic ~ OTTOVOtC;; «n TTEPIEAalJ!3avE OPKO TTpOC;; TIC;; KUpiEC;; 8EOTIlTEC;;. AMa «n 11 K~pU~1l TOU TToAtIJoU EK<ppasorav IJE Ka8E ETTIOIlIJOTllra, 01 ETTlTI8tIJEVOI YVWOTOTTolouoav TIC;; TTp08tOEIC;; TOUC;; oTtAvovrac;; K~pUKEC;; OTOUC;; EX8pouC;; «n rcuroxpovc ETTlsllTouoav olalTllofa, tvac;; 8£01J0C;; TTOU XPIlOIIJOTTOIOUvrav wptwC;;.

A rrcirnon 8EWV «n av8pwTTwV rrrcv 0 TToAEIJOC;; va unv eivrn IJOVO OIKaloAoYlllJtvoC;; aMa «n KOOIJIOC;;. 0 OE!3aOIJ0C;; TTpOC;; TOV aVTfTTaAo TT~vasE ueco aTTO TO af081lIJa TIlC;; EMllvIK~C;; xorvornroc, OTTOU ro IJtAIl TIlC;; rrrov OUVOEOElJtva IJE ciuc, 8PlloK£ia, yAwooa «n OUV~8EIEC;;, «n ETTOlJtvwc;; OEV tTTPETTE va aMIlAoKaraoTpt<povTOI.

01 TToAtlJlOI OEV t81yav TOUC;; IEp£iC;; «n OUTE EIJTTOOlsOrav 01 navEM~VIEC;; YIOPTtC;; Kara TIlV olapKEla TWV lJaxwv. EfvQI YVWOTO aMwoTE, TTWC;; crcuorouccv 01 Ex8poTTpa~fEC;; rnv rrepiooo TWV OAUIJTTlaKWV aywvwv, OTTWC;; OEV lJaralw81lKE Kalil TtAEOIl TWV 1081Jfwv, TO 412 TT.x., orcv 0 nEAoTTovvllOIaKoc;; TToAEIJOC;; !3ploKorav OTO aTTOKopU<pWlJa.

[7]

H Cl>aAayya, "4'IAol", "n£ATaaTt~"

H 1-I0p<p~ TOU a811va"lKou orpcrou, OTTWe;; aMwon: «n TOU orrcpnonKOU, eivrn TTpOOapl-IOOl-ltVI1 OTI1 oIE~aywy~ l-IaXI1e;;, <paAayyae;; evcvrlov <paAayyae;;, OE TTEOlaoa «n OE Xwpo Ka80pi0l-ltvo UOTEpa aTTO KOIV~ ouuqxovic. To vvcoprouo aUTO eivrn xapaKTI1PIOTIKO oxou TOU EMI1VIKOU K00I-I0U Kara TI1V ETTOX~ TWV MI10lKWV rroxeucov. 0 TToAEI-IOe;; vro TOV 0- rroio oXEOlasEral aUTOe;; 0 orpcroc eivrn tvae;; ETTOXlaKOe;; TToAEI-IOe;;, Ka80- OOV apxisEI TI1V aVOI~11 «n TEAEIWVEI TO KaAoKaipl.

AUT~ 11 1-I0p<p~ TWV OUYKPOUOEWV I-IEra!3aMEral, orcv EI-I<paviSOVTaI 01 ntpOEe;;, 01 orroioi XPI101I-10TTOIOUV TO orpornvnuo TOU al<pvlola0I-l0U «n Tile;; E~OVTWOI1e;;, I-IE orrorcxcouc va cipovrrn oAol 01 1181K08Pl10KWTIKoi KWOIKEe;;.

ApXIKa, !3apla «n EAa<ppa OTTAIOl-ltVOI avo pEe;; TToAEI-I0UOaV I-Iasi, XPI101I-10TTOIWVrae;; oAwv TWV EIOWV ro oTTAa, I-ItXPI «n TTtTpEe;;. 01 l-IaXEe;; £lxav TI1V 1-I0p<p~ I-IEI-IOVWl-ltvwv OUYKPOUOEWV ~ I-I0V0l-laXIWV 0' tva I-ItTWTTO OUYKEXUl-ltvO.

ME TI1V Eloaywy~ Tile;; <paAayyae;; OTO TTEOio Tile;; l-IaXI1e;;, 0 orpcroc opvcvcoverrn, TUTTOTTOl£lTaI «n ro oTTAa TTOU XPI1011-10TTOI£l, OUyKEKPII-iEVOTTOIOUVTaI. LE Ka8E TI-I~I-Ia, ITTTTlKO, <paAayya, EAa<ppu TTESIKO OiVOVTaI OUYKEKpll-ltVEe;; OOl1yiEe;; OTI1 OlapKEla Tile;; l-IaXI1e;;·

H l-IaXI1 tXEI oE!3aoToue;; xcvovec, TTOU !3aoisovTaI OE 8PI10KWTIKOUe;; KWOIKEe;; «n ora rrxolorc TWV YUI-IVIKWV aywvwv.

H <paAayya TWV oTTAITWV aTToTEAouOE rrcvrc TI1V !3aOlK~ uovooc OTI1 OUYKPOTI1011 EVOe;; crpcrou Tile;; ETTOX~e;; EK£lVI1e;;. To TI-I~I-Ia aUTO xapaKTI1- pisorav aTTO Til aUOTl1p~ TTEl8apxia, rrcpcroccorcv OTI1 l-IaXI1 Kara SUvouc «n oroixouc «n rrrcv EIOIKWl-ltVO vro aYWVEe;; EK TOU OUOTaOI1V. AMa «n TO ouurrovsc «n TO OI-iOIOYEvte;; TTOU OlaKar£lXE aUT~ Til uovcoc OEV rrrcv «m al-lEAI1Tto, Ka8we;; tOIVE OTI1 <paAayya TEpaOTIa OUva1-l11 KpOUOI1e;;.

To vis: aUTO £l00e;; OTparIWTIK~e;; uovcoc; crrnpeccc «n TI11-10p<p~ TOU oveovc, 0 arOI-iIKOe;; aywvae;; «n 11 uovoucxic aVTIKaraoTa811Kav aTTO Til OUMOYIKOTl1ra, Til OUVTpO<pIKOTl1ra, TI1V ronvopic I-IEra~U TWV l-IaXI1Twv, ro orroic orrorexouccv tK<paVOI1 Tile;; a8I1va"lK~e;; ol1l-1oKpariae;;.

[8]

nOIOI 6 1-1 we;; rrrcv EKdvol, 01 orroioi crrcvopcovcv rnv <poAayya; 'Hrcv Kupiwe;; 01 I-IIKpo"lOloKT~TEe;; «n 01 cvporsc, TTOU ueco aTT6 rnv OIKOVOI-IIK~ «n KOIVWVIK~ avtAI~~ TOUe;; rrrov OE 8toll va TTAIlPwOOUV TOV l3apu E~OTTAI01-l6 TOU oTTAiTIl.

LTO TTEOio Tile;; I-I0XIle;;, I-IE TIlV KiVIlOIl TWV TTE£:WV OE 0Xlll-laTl0I-I0Ue;;, 11 <poAayya KaT6p8wVE va KlvdTOI xwpie;; va oroorrorcn KOTW aTT6 rnv xo- 800~Y1l01l TOU "auAIlT~", TTOU dXE co OKOTT6 va ouYXpOVi£:EI Tie;; KIV~OEIe;; Tile;; <poAayyae;;.

M' aUT6v TOV Tp6TTO 11 <poAayya rrrcv IKav~ vrc K08E 1-I0p<p~ oviovc, aMo Kupiwe;; rrrcv oouvcvcoviorn OTIlV ETTi8wll, Kalil 1-16VIl ouvorornro va VIKIl8d rrrcv va Tile;; aVTlTax8d oMIl loxup6TEPll <poAayya. Luv~81le;; raKTIK~ rrrcv va rrpcvucrorrorei t<pooo KaTO rnv TEAIK~ <P001l Tile;; ETTi8Eone, WOTE va KaTaTPOTTWVEI TOV EX8p6.

QOT600, aUT6e;; 0 TUTTOe;; TOU OTPaTOU aOUVaTOUOE va TToAEI-IO OE avWl-laAo toa<poe;;, Ka8we;; XPEla£:6rav OTTWOO~TTOTE avoIXT6 Xwpo vro va avaTTTux8d 11 oUYKp6TIl01l «n rrcpouclocc ouoKoAiEe;; ornv rroxropkic. XapaKTIlPloTIKo rrcpcoeivucro eivrn 11 rroxropxic Tile;; nOTioOlae;;, 11 orroic rrcporavorcv OUVExWe;;, «n 11 o<pay~ TWV OTpaTlWTWV TOU b.1l1-l008tvll, OE OPEIV6 oveovc, aTT6 Ex8poue;; wtAIKTOUe;; «n EAa<ppo OTTAIOl-ltVOUe;;.

01 "unxoi" rrrcv EAa<ppo OTTAIOl-ltVOI OTpaTlWTEe;;, 1-16vo I-IE EKIl136Aa 6TTAa, 6TTWe;; T6~0, aK6vTI0 «n 0<pEv06VIl, xwpie;; xcvevo al-lUVTIK6 6TTAo. AUT~ rnv xrrrnvopic TWV l-IaXIlTWV crrcvopcovcv TToAiTEe;; aTT6 ro xal-lllA6- TEpa KOIVWVIKO orpcouorc, 01 OTToiOI oouvorouccv va TTAIlPwOOUV TO l3apu E~OTTAI01-l6 TOU oTTAiTIl. LKoTT6e;; ourtov TWV TI-IIlI-I0TWV rrrcv va TTPOOTaTEUOUV TTplV aTT6 rnv xuprc I-I0XIl Til <poAayya «n va I-I0XOVTOI KOTW aTT6 opiouevn raKTIK~ OE toa<poe;; avwl-laAo TTOU OEV I-ITTOPOUOE v' avaTTTux8d 11 <poAayya.

KaTO TOV 70 QI. TT.x., 11 TToAEI-IIK~ OPOOIl ourtov TWV TI-IIlI-I0TWV OEV rrrov a~16AoYIl Ka8we;; 01 OUYKpOUOEIe;; OTIl OlopKEla TWV MIlOIKWV TToAtuiov vrvorcv I-IEra~U I-IEyoAwv 0Xlll-laTl0l-lwv. EVTOUTOIe;;, 01 "lJ.JlAoi" errsKTlloav orrouoorornro OTOV nEAoTTOvvIlOlaK6 TT6AEI-I0, 6TTOU 01 I-I0XEe;; 0lE~ay6rav OE olo<popa EOO<P1l «n 6XI KaT' avoYKIl OE avoIXTOUe;; xwpoue;;.

Eivcn AOYIK6, E~oMou, 01 aMayte;; OTIl OTPaTIlYIK~ «n OTIl raKTIK~ va aKoAou80uv rnv E~tAI~1l 6Awv TWV TToAEl-IlKWV TEXVWV. LTO TTpOOK~VIO EI-I<pavi£:Eral tva vio TI-I~I-Ia oTTAITWV, 01 TTEAraoTte;; TOU 1<pIKPOTIl. 0 l<plKpOTIle;; oPYOVWOE pro OTPaTIWTIK~ uovooc I-IE xapaKTIlPloTIKo, T600 Tile;; <poAayyae;;, 600 «n TWV "lJ.JlAwv".

AU~1l0E TO I-I~KOe;; TOU ckovtiou «n TOU ~i<poue;; «n TOUe;; E<pooiaOE TTapoMIlAa I-IE EAa<ppu 8WpaKa. 'ETOI, TOUe;; KaTtOTIlOE wKiVIlTOue;;, I-IE aTTOTtAwl-la va tXOUV TIlV ouvcrornro va I-I0XOVTOI OE TTOIKiAa EOO<PIl, va E-

[9]

VEPYOUV aI<pvlolaOIJOUe;; «n va TTpaYlJarOTTOIOUV orrocroxcc OE OPEIV6 XWpo.

H TToAITIOIJIK~ E~tAI~1l «n 01 OIO<pOpEe;; vio; TExVIKte;; TTOU EVOK~TTTOUV TOV 40 or. TT.X., eivrn <puOIOAOYIK6 va aMo£:ouv rnv EIK6va TOU TToAtIJoU EK£lvll rnv rrepiooo, To ITTTTlK6 «n TO vis: TIJ~lJa TWV TTEATaOTWV aTTOKTOUV IJEyaAuTEPIl OTTOUOal6TIlTa aTT6 Til <poAayya. AvaTTTUOOOVTaI TTapoMIlAa, 11 TToAloPKIlTIK~ «n 11 OXUpWTIK~. LTO TTEOfo Tile;; IJOXIle;; KOVOUV TIlV EIJ<POVIO~ TOUe;; VtOI IJEyoAol 0XlllJarlolJof IJE cvcorcpn 0PYOVWOIl, 6TTWe;; TO l3apu ITTTTlK6, 11 lJaKEOOVIK~ <poAayya. OAa aUTO, oOIlYOUV OE pro 1J0p<p~ rroxeuou, 6TTOU KuplapX£I 11 rpoxurnro «n TTapalJEpf£:ETaI KO- 8E 1l81K~ «n 8PIlOK£UTIK~ ovccroxri.

LTllv A81lva"lK~ b.lllJoKparfa 0 orpcruornc rrcpcueva TToAfTIle;;, au~oVEl TOV 6YKO TWV TO~EWV TOU aOTIKOu O~IJOU, £:EI aTT' aUT6 TTOU TOU TTpOO<ptPEI 11 OlllJOKparfa Kal ornv TTEpfTTTWOIl TOU TToAtlJOU KapTTOUTaI IJtpoe Tile;; TToAEIJIK~e;; A£lae;;.

AVTf8Ela OTIl LTTOPTIl, 0 TToAfTIle;; TTPOtPXElal aTT6 rnv TO~1l TWV «moTtpWV «n OEV ucicrcrcn Til OTparIWTIK~ EK£lVIl aywy~ TTOU TTllyO£:EI aTT6 Til OuvalJll TOU OOTEWe;;.

EK£I 6TTOU TO TToAITIK6 Ka8EOTWe;; OEV TTaptXEI OTOV TToAfTIl Til ouvcroTIlTa va £:EI a~loTTpETTWe;;, aUT6e;; Kara<pEuYEI 0' tva ETToYYEAlJa TTOU yvwpf£:EI E~foou KaAo IJE TO ETTOYYEAlJa Tile;; YIle;;. riVETaI 1J1080<p6poe;;, ETTayYEAlJarfae;; crooruornc ornv urrnpeoic EK£lVOU TTOU TTAllpwVEI nccvorromTIKO.

XaAKIVO Kpavoc; Koplv81aKou TUTTOU, TTPWTO 1-.1106 SOU TT-X- cuovc,

H 1J1080<popfa

EIJ<pavf£:Elal we;; TTAIly~ TOV 40 QI. TT.x. Ao<paAwe;;, avtKa8Ev uTT~pxav OVOpEe;; TTOU tVlw8av uccvorrolnon £:WVTae;; we;; OTpaTlWTEe;;. AMo Karo rnv OlopKEla TOU 40u cr., TO yEYOv6e;; YEVIKEUETaI, OEV clvcn 1J6vo 01 A vcroAIKOf OUVOOTEe;; TTOU TTPOO<PEUYOUV OTIl 1J080<popfa. 01 EA-

AllvlKte;; TT6AEIe;;-KpOTIl apxf£:ouv va rrpooxcupcvouv 1J1080<p6poue;; «n OEKOOEe;; OVOpEe;; TptXOUV va "TTpooAIl<P80uv" OTOV TTAEloo6TIl.

[10]

H YEvfKWOIl TIlC;; XPIlOIIJOTTofIlOIlC;; 1-.1I080<popwv rrcpouolcce TToMa TTA£OVEKT~I-Jara: aTT~MaoOE TOUC;; TToAfTEC;; aTTO TIC;; OTparIWTIKtC;; TOUC;; UTTOXPEWOEIC;; «n TOUC;; ETTtTPETTE va aoxoAOUVTaI I-JE TIC;; UTT08tOEIC;; TOUC;; «n ro rropcooorcxo TOUC;; tpya. 01 crpcrnvoi £ixav OTIl 01a8EO~ TOUC;; rrerrapcurvouc orpcrouc, KaAa EKTTalOWl-JtvouC;; «n TTEI8apXlll-JtvouC;;, TouAaXIOTOV 000 «npo TTAIlPWVOVTaV.

AMa «n ro I-JEIOVEKT~I-Jara TTOU TTPOtPXOVTaV aTTO Til 1-Jl080<popfa OEV ~TaV AIYOTEPO copcpc. Yrrnpycv evrovc OIKOVOl-JlKa TTpo!3Ml-Jara OTIC;; EMllvIKtC;; TToAEIC;; - KpaTIl Ka8wc;; ~TaV UTTOXPEWl-JtVEC;; va TTAIlPWVOUV OTTWOO~TTOTE aUTOUC;; TOUC;; EAaXIOTa TTlOTOUC;; OTpaTlWTEC;;.

AUT~ ~TaV aTTO TIC;; KUpiEC;; aiTfEC;; vro TIC;; OIKOVOI-JIKtC;; OUOXtPEIEC;; TTOU vvcopiccv ro EMllvlKa aOTIl Kara TOV 40 QI. ntpa OI-JWC;; crro TOUC;; OIKOVOI-JIKOUC;; AoyouC;; uTT~pxav «n TToAITIKtC;; ouOXtPEIEC;;, ooou TO OWI-Ja TWV 1-Jl080<popwv I-JETarpETTOTaV oAotva «n TTEPIOOOTEPO 0' tva TToAITIKO otouo aOXETo I-JE rnv UTToAolTT1l TToAITIK~ KOIVOTIlTa.

Mtoa OTOUC;; KoATTOUC;; TOU 1-Jl080<pOPIKOU crpcrou EKOIlAwVETaI 11 uTTEPOX~ TIlC;; 1-J0VapXIK~C;; E~ouofac;; evcvn TIlC;; OIlI-JOKparfac;;. 'ETOI, 0 cpxnyoC;; TWV 1-Jl080<popwv I-Jasf I-JE TOUC;; TTlOTOUC;; TOU avopEC;; EK!3lasouv TTOAEIC;;, 01 oTTofEC;; oTTapaOOOVTaI crro <parpfEC;; vro va E~ao<paAfoEI TToAITIKO KUpOC;; «n TTPOOWTTlKO o<pEAoC;;.

M~TTWC;; aUTO onuciva OTi Kara TOV 40 QI. 0 TToAfTIlC;; OTal-JaTIlOE OPIoTIKa va eivrn «n crooruornc: 8a ~TaV UTTEp!3oAIKO, av Kav£ic;; orrcvrouOE Kara<parlKa 0' curriv rnv EpwTIlOIl. 01 EMllvIKtC;; TToAEIC;; oxouc «n xoro rnv EMllvIOTIK~ ETTOX~ 0lt8£Tav E8v1KtC;; TToAITo<puAaKtc;;.

LTllv A8~va yfVETaI rrpoorrcaac va ETTavao08£i 11 Xal-Jtvll afyAIl OTIl "orpcruorucn urrnpeoic".

AMa, OTTWC;; 11 curovouic TWV EMllvlKWV TToAEWV, ro lJ.l1l<Pfol-Jara TOUC;; «n 01 OIlI-JOOlEC;; oUsIlT~OEIC;; OEV ~TaV rrcpc pic YEAofa EKO~AwOIl ucco 0' tva KOOI-JO KuplapXOUI-JEVO crro I-JEyaAEC;; 1-J0VapxfEC;;, tTOI «n 01 TToAITO<pUAaKtc;; £ixav I-JIKPO EIOIKO !3apoc;; OE oXtoll I-JE TOUC;; vrvcvnouc orpcrouc TWV 1-J1080<popwv, TTOU OUYKPOTOUVTaV crro TOUC;; EMllvIOTIKouC;; 8aOlA£ic;;.

[11]

MONAt.EL

/\OxOe;

t.IAoxfa Terpcpxic Ta~lapxfa LUVraYl-ia nEVraKOOlapxfa XIAlapxfa MEpapxfa <DaAayya t.1<paAayyapxfa

T ETpa<paAayyapxfa

API8MHTIKH

t.YNAMH 16 32 64

128 256 512

1,024 2,048 4,096 8,192

16,348

To olasuYlo I-IEra~U TOU TToAITIKOU AEIToupY~l-IaTOe; «n TOU orpcruonKOU AmoupY~l-IaTOe; eivrn 0 TTpOaYYEAoe; Tile; ETTEPX0I-IEVIle; E~a<pavIOIle; Tile; TToAIle;-KpaTOUe;. Mtoa OTOV EMIlVIOTIKO KOOI-IO 11 TToAITIK~ 8a ola<puAaX8£i vro TOUe; l3aOlA£ie; «n 0 TToAEI-IOe; vro TOUe; 1-I1080<popoue;.

onl\A

«50IlJOVIIlIJ~ IJOI TI AIllv OKOXI~EO 8ulJcp·

ou yap TIC; IJ' unep oloov ovnp "Ai51 npoknpa:

1J0Tpov 5' OU TIVO <P1l1J1 nE<puYIJEVOV EIJIJEVOI ov5pwv, OU KOKOV OU5E IJEV E08Aov, En~v TO npWTO yEvllTOI. aM' ek OTKOV loiioo TO 0' OUT~C; EPYO KOIJI~E

iOTOV T' ~AoKOTllv TE, Koi olJ<PlnoAolol KEAwE

EPYOV Eno1XE08ol· nOAEIJOC; 5' 6v5pEOOI IJEMoEI nom, IJOAIOTO 5' EIJOI, rol 'IAlcp EYYEyoomv.»

tsas« Z', 486-93

(Auoipn eou, 1-111 I-I0u rnxpciveocn I-IEe; rnv KapOla cou TOOO, Kav£ie;, av OEV TO OTtpYEI 11 uoipc I-I0u, OTOV AOIl OEV I-IE oTtAVEI TO ~tpw, aTT' TO vpocro Kavtvae; I-Iae;, KIOT~e; vro TTaAIKapl, pro «n OTOV KOOI-IO auTO YEvv~8IlKE, OE yAUTWOE TTOTt TOU. Mov' nope sou OTO OTTfTl TT~YQIVE «n Tie; OOUAElte; cou xolrc, TOV cpvcxao, rnv IlAIlKaTIl oou, «n rrpooroce Tie; l3aYIEe; va TTlaVOUVE oouxao, TOV TToAEI-IO 8a TOV KOITa~OUV 01 avo pEe; oAol 0001 I-IEe; ornv Tpoic YEvv~8IlKav, KI EYW rrepioOIa aTT' oxouc.)

J.1H. N. Ka(avr(aKfJ, 1.8. KaKploi}

[12]

H At~11 "oTTAa" ~011 aTTO TI1V ETTOX~ TOU OIJ~POU UTTOOI1AwVEI TI1V tvvote TOU OTTAIOIJOU. LUVWVUIJEe;; At~EIe;;: "TEuxm" «n "cvrcc".

Ta oTTAa XWpf£:OVTaI OE OUO IJEyaAEe;; Karl1yopfEe;;:

a) ro ETTl9ETIKeX

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«n

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(aaTTI~a, 9wpaKa~, KVI1IJI~E~, KPeXVO~).

Aa<paAwe;;, OTTAIOIJOe;; UTT~PXE «n vro TOV axwplOTO OUVTPO<pO TOU ucXI1T~, TO aAoyo: rrcpcrrxeupiorc, TTPOIJETWTTfola ~TaV ovcrrocrrooro IJtpoe TOU OTTAIOIJOU.

01 rroxqnorcc OEV TTEPIOpf£:oVTav IJOVO 0' ourov TOV OTTAIOIJO aMa Kara Til OlapKEla Tile;; lJaXI1e;; XPI101IJOTTOIOUoav TTtTpEe;;, TOV TTtAEKU «n O,TI aMo ~TaV TTPOO<pOpo TI1V OUOKoAI1 cope TOU ovcovo.

o 0XEOlaOIJOe;; Kalil TTpotAwOI1 TWV OTTAwv TTlOTEUETaI TTWe;; ~EKlva aTTO TI1V Eyyue;; Avcroxri, fowe;; «n aTTO TI1V KEVTPIK~ EUpWTTI1. AUTO 0- IJwe;; OEV Ol1lJafVEI TTWe;; 01 'EMI1VEe;; OEV rrpoccpuoccv ro oTTAa cnc OIKte;; TOUe;; avaYKEe;;. To Koplv81aKo KpavOe;; Kalil ocrrioo IJE TI1V olTTM Aa!3~ (TI1V aVTlAa!3~) eivrn TExVIKte;; ETTlVO~OEIe;; TWV EM~vwv.

MEyaAa KtvTpa TTapaywy~e;; OTTAwv ~TaV 11 XaAKfoa (E~alPETIKa ro oTTa81a TI1e;;), 11 Koplv80e;; (YVWOT~ vro TIe;; TTaVOTTAfEe;; TI1e;;), TO Apyoe;; «n cpvorcpc 11 A8~va.

Av «n 11 E~tAI~11 TWV orrxcov eivrn OUVEx~e;;, 11 TTMpl1 OlalJop<pwo~ TOUe;; yfVETaI TI1V rrspiooo TWV MI10lKWV rroxsucov, TouAaXloTov we;; TTpOe;; ro oTTAa TOU TTE£:IKOU crpcrou. AMayte;; TI1V ETTOX~ EK£ivl1 rrcpouoro/oVTaI OTO OX~lJa TWV OTTAwv «n OTa uAIKa KaraOKW~e;; TOUe;;. N£OTEPIOlJof aTTOTEAouv 0 KaraTTtATI1e;; (40e;; QI. TT.x.) «n 11 YVWOT~ MaKEOOVIK~ <paAayya.

Ka8E OpaOTI1PIOTI1Ta ~ KOIVWVIK~ tK<paVOI1 OUIJ!3aof£:EI TTaVTa IJE TI1V UAIK~ «n TTVWlJarIK~ avaTTTu~11 Tile;; EKaOTOTE KOlvwvfae;;. To fOlo oUIJ!3afVEl «n IJE TOV OTTAIOIJO. ME TO TtAoe;; TWV MI10lKWV TToAtlJWV «n TI1V TaUTOXPOVI1 ETTlKpaTI1011 Tile;; A8I1va"lK~e;; b.I1IJOKparfae;;, TTapaMI1Aa IJE TI1V KOIVWVIK~ TTPOOOO ETTtPXETaI avaTTTu~11 «n OTa oTTAIKa OUOT~lJara Tile;; ETTOX~e;;. NtEe;; TExVIKte;; E<papIJO£:OVTaI, vta uAIKa yfVOVTaI nope OUOTaTIKa IJtPI1 TWV OTTAwv.

[13]

Enl0ETIKA onl\A

1. ro co=v

To oopu rrrcv TToAu aTTAo ornv KQTaOK£U~ TOU. b.uo rrrcv ro ouorcnKa TOU IJtprr a) TO ~uAIVO oTpoyyuAo KOVTapl (liTO ~UOTOV") «n 13) pro 1- OXup~ aIXIJ~, 11 AOYXIl·

Luxva TO TpfTO OTOIX£lO TOU OOPQTOe;; orrorsxouoc 0 oupicpxoc ~ OTupa~, tva lJ£raMIKo TTtAlJa OTO rrioto IJtpoe;;, WOT£ va A£ITouPYEI we;; aVTfl3apo «n va Kap<pwv£ral TO oopu OTO toa<poe;;.

To MUKllva"lKo oopu XPIlOlIJOTTOIEITaI Kupfwe;; vro lJaXIl £K TOU eucreOllv, rcrorc I3pt81lKav OTOV YI AaKKo£lo~ rcoo TWV MUKllvwv, aMa ora b.£vOpa Tile;; Kvtooou, ornv nuAo, TTOU XpovoAoYEITaI aTTO TO 1400 TT.X.

'OTTWe;; «n ro aMa oTTAa, tTOI «n TO oopu, apxf£:£1 va XPIlOlIJOTTOIEITaI TOV 110 QI. TT.X. «n y£vIK£u£ral 11 XP~OIl TOU TOV 100 QI. TT.X. ApXIKa 11 alXIJ~ TOU clvcn crro 0p£lxaAKo «n IJ£TtTT£lra crro of 011 po. 8a TTptTT£1 fowe;; £ow va OIlIJ£lw8£1 OTl, £VW TO OX~lJa <puMou TTaptlJ£IV£ TO fOIO, TO IJ~KOe;; Tile;; OIo£ptvlae;; AOYXIle;; lJ£yaAwo£. 'ETOI, 01 OUVOAIKte;; OlaoTao£le;; OTO ocou 8a TTptTT£1 va xuucfvovrcn lJ£ra~u 2-2,25 IJ.

AIXlJt<; b.opCITWV

[14]

01 rrexrcorcc rrrcv TO OWlJa £K£lVO TTOU KQT£-

~OX~V oopu.

eivrn «n 11 onprcc, TO oopu Tile;;

MaK£OOVIK~e;;

<paAayyae;; TTOU

tOTT£PV£ TOV

TPOIJO «n TOV 8avQTo O£ oAoue;; TOUe;; ovrrrroxouc TWV MaK£oovwV.

2. TO AKONTIO

To ckovno I3pfoKEral OE XP~OI1 IJtXPI TOV 70-60 QI. TT.X., 6TTWC;; pepTUPOUV ro apXOIoAoYIKO cupnuorc. ATTOITOUOE EIOIK~ OOKI1011 vro va tXEI aTTOTtAEOlJa, aKpfl3Ela 130Mc;; «n 600 TO ouvcrov IJEyaAuTEPI1 E~aK6vTI- 011. nl8avoAoy£iTOI 6T1 TO I3EAI1VEKtC;; TOU rrrcv ora 15-201J.

To IJ~KOC;; TOU OEV 8a TTptTTEI va ~ETTEPVOUOE TO 1.70 IJE 1.S0 IJ. H OE alXIJ~ TOU TTptTTEI va rrrov IJIKp6TEPI1 aTT6 EK£ivl1 TOU oopcroc,

LTI1V lJom TO t<pEpav EIOIKO TIJ~lJara TOU EAa<ppou TTESIKOU. Ko8E TTOAEIJIOT~C;; 8a TTptTTEI va £iXE lJasf TOU vupto ora OUO IJE rpic okovnc.

AIXlJt<; !3EAwv TTOU !3pt8llKav ow rreoio IJCtXIl<; TWV G£PlJoTTuAwv.

3. TO :::ICI>Or

LTI1V OIJI1PIK~ ETTOX~ aTTavToTOI «n IJE TIC;; At~EIC;; "cop" ~ "coovcvov''. 'Hrcv 0PElxoAKIVO «n ETTfIJI1KEC;;. APXIKO 8a TTptTTEI va t<pravE OE IJ~KOC;; «n ro 0,90IJ.

Karo TI1V rEWIJETpIK~ rrepiooo, TO ~f<poc;; TTOU cuvcvrcrci «n aV~KEI OTO TUTTO "Naue II", tXEI ouo K64JEIC;; TTapoMI1AEC;;, TToAu EAa<ppo E~OYKWIJtva Karo rc ouo rpirc «n KaraMYEI OTI1V aIXIJ~. napaoTooEIC;; OE ouoopck, Kpar~pEC;;, pUTO, KaraoEIKvuOUV 6T1 11 Aal3~ £iXE OX~lJa 111J10tAI1- vou.

Orcv 0 ofOI1POC;; apxfsEI va uTToKa810To TOV op£ixaAKo, vupto TOV 110 QI. TT.X., 11 IJEral30M aUT~ ETTtPXElOI <puOIoAoYIKO «n OTO ~f<poC;;. To ~f<p0C;;, TOV 90 «n So or. TT.X., OEV £iVOI 1J6vo aTT6 of 011 po IJE ~uAlvl1 Aal3~ aMo IJIKp6TEPO OE IJ~KOC;; «n rrcxurcpo. To KalJTTUAo ~f<poC;;, 11 "KOTTfC;;", TTOU tXEI OX~lJa <puMou «n IJ~KOC;; TTEpfTTOU 60 EK., apxfsEI va olaofoEral Karo KUPIO A6yo TOV 50 «n 40 al TT.X.

[15]

Xp~on:e;; TOU ~TOV Kupfwe;; 01 TToAq .. IIOTte;; TTOU OE olt8ETav OOpU «n opvorcpc TO t<pEpaV «n 01 oTTAfTEe;; TTOU vro KaTTOIO Aoyo couvcrouocv va XPIlOII..lOTTOI~oouv TO ocou ~ TO txavav «rro rnv OlapKEla Tile;; l..IaXIle;;.

o l..IaXIlT~e;; Tile;; MaKEOOVIK~e;; <paAayyae;; £lXE TO ~f<poe;; ucco OTIl 8~KIl TOU, rrcpoouevo I..IE TEAal..lWVa aTTO TO OE~f WI..I0 «n KPEI..I0TOV ornv opiOTEP~ rrxeupo. AUTO TOV 1301l80UOE va OTEPEWOEI rnv oorrfoc «n va TOV TTpOOTarEUEI Kara TOV KaAuTEpo TpOTTO.

rVWOTO Kara rnv apXalOTIlTO clvcn «n TO EYXElpfoIO, tva ~f<poe;; cpxsro KOVTO (0,201..1.) «n TO £lXE 0 TToAEI..IIOT~e;; l..Ia£:f TOU we;; 1301l81lTIKO ETTl8ETIKO OTTAo. AVTfTUTTa I3pfoKoul..IE TIlV ETTOX~ TOU XaAKOU Kara TIlV rEWI..IETpIK~ rrepiooo, Kupfwe;; OTIlV Kp~TIl.

4. TO TO:::O

To ETTl8ETIKO aUTO OTTAo eivrn TToAu YVWOTO. LTOV OI..lIlPO OUVaVTaTaI I..IE Tie;; At~EIe;;: "oioroc" «n "10e;;". nptTTEI va XPIlOlI..I0TTOI£lTaI ~Oll crro TOV 80 QI. TT.x. To I3EAllvEKte;; TOU ~ETTEpva «rro TToAu TO 1501..1. «n clvcn aTTOTEAwl..larIKOTaro, OTOV yfVETOI l..Ia£:IK~ EKTO~WOIl I3EAwv evorlov OUyKpOrnpevcov runuorcov.

ATTOTEA£lTaI aTTO tva Kal..lTTUAo ~uAo, 000 TO ouvorov EAaoTiKOTEPO, «n Til veupo. H vcupc KaTOoKwa£:oTOv ouv~8we;; crro svrcpc £:wwv «n OTEPEWVOTOV one ouo aKpEe;; TOU xcurruxou ~uAou.

Avcrroorrcoro I..Itpoe;; ~TOV TO I3tAoe;;, OTTOU OTO rrioto I..Itpoe;; TOU UTT~PXE 11 yAu<pfoa, WOTE va EIOtPXETOI 11 veupc «n I..IE rnv ETTavaraKTIK~ eopo va 0IlI..lIOUPy£l TTpow81lTIK~ ouvcun, I..IE aTTOTtAEOl..la TO I3tAoe;; va aTTOKTa KlvIlTIK~ evepvcro «n olarpllTIK~ I KavoTIlTO.

LTllv I..ITTpOOTlV~ aKPIl TOU I3tAoue;; ~TOV 11 orocpevro aIXI..I~, TTOU TTpOKaAouOE TO rpcuuc.

ApXIKa, ETTlKparOUV TO aYKIOTpWTa I3tAIl, TToMa aTTO TO OTTO fa clvcn rccxuoxorrcrpo ~ ouncvo. Apvorepc, EI..I<pavf£:ETOI 0 O<PllvOEIO~e;; TUTTOe;; TOU I3tAoue;;. H 8~KIl, TTOU TTEPI£lXE TTEpfTTOU £lKOOI I3tAIl, OVOl..la£:ETOI ocpcrpc.

5. H rCl>ENaONH

'HTOV TO ETTl8ETIKOTEPO OTTAo I..IE TO I..IEyaAuTEpo I3EAllvEKte;; oxouc «n aTTO TO TO~O. To I..IElovtKTlll..la TOU cuvlcrcroi OTIl I..IIKP~ aKpfl3Ela 130Me;; «n ornv crrirrovn «n l..IaKpOXPovll aOKlloll TTOU crrorrouoc.

o TToAEI..IIOT~e;; TOTT08ETOUOE TTtTpEe;; ~ I..IETOMIKa o<palpfola OTO KtVTPO EVOe;; xouuonou otpl..larOe;; «n ooou TTEPltOTPE<pE TOV Il..IaVTO, aTTEAw8tpWVE Til OTlYI..I~ Tile;; OKOTTWOIle;; Til uic aKPIl I..IE orrorcxcouc TIlV EKTO~W-

[16]

011 TOU !3Ml..laroe;;.

H <PUOIl Tile;; 0<p£v06VIle;;, <pTlaYl..ltvll aTT6 <p8apT6 UAIK6, O£V TTpOO<ptpa £TTapK£ie;; ucprupie; vro TO TT6T£ XPIl0l1..I0TTOI~8IlK£' Kara Tie;; ovcoxc<pte;; TO 1..16vo TTOU !3pfOKOUV 01 apXQloMyol eivrn I..I£TaMIKa o<pQlpfola Tile;; l..IuKllva"lK~e;; «n apxa"lK~e;; £TTOx~e;;. Errouevcoc, one ouo ourtc TT£pI600ue;; 8a TTptTT£1 va ~TaV eupeic 11 XP~OIl Tile;;, xwpfe;; aUT6 va aTTOKA£i£1 rnv TT£pfTTTWOll1l 0<p£v06VIl va £iX£ XPIl0l1..I0TTOI1l8£i «n aMOT£.

AMYNTIKA onl\A

1. ArnlaA

AM£e;; ovoucotec Tile;; oorrlocc eivrn "ITtae;;" «n "iruc", Tie;; orrolec tAa!3£ aTT6 TO uAIK6 KaraOKW~e;; Tile;;. ApXIKa, 0 oK£A£T6e;; Tile;; ~TaV aTT6 ~uAo «n KaAuTTT6Tav £~wT£pIKa aTT6 YUlIJO «n otpl..la !30010U. 01 aOTTfo£e;; TTOU TT£prvpcoovrtn ornv EMaoa clvcn <pTlaYl..ltv£e;; aTT6 aM£TTaMIlA£e;; OTpWO£Ie;; otpl..larOe;;, KoMlll..ltva I..I£Ta~U TOUe;; Kal ouppcuuevc 0' tva rrxcioro Auyaplae;;. 'Exouv ucxpouxo £~6YKWl..la l..IaMov aTT6 xaAK6 ~ oxorcpvcoro otpl..la. 01 TTAwpte;; eivrn KUPTWl..ltv£e;; «n 0 TToA£1..I10T~e;; tl..lTTalV£ oX£06v oA6KAIlPOe;; ucco ornv ocrrioo.

o TTpWTOe;; TUTTOe;; ocrrlooc TTOU £1..I<pavfs£TaI «rro rnv MUKllva"lK~ £TTOX~ eivrn 0 OKTWOXIlI..I0e;;. ria ouo QlWV£e;;, TOV 90 QI. «n 80 cr., urrnpxcv rpic £iOIl ocrrlocov: 0 opeovcovioc, 0 TUTTOe;; Tile;; b.lTTuAou «n 0 OTpOyyUMe;;. napaMay~ Tile;; b.lTTuAou clvcn 11 YVWOT~ "!30IWTIK~" ccrrioo 1..1£ ouo £YKoTTte;; OTa TTAaYla, 11 OTTO fa £1 KovfS£TaI O£ TToMa voulouoro Tile;; £TTOx~e;;·

"OTTAov", aTT6 6TTOU rrnpcv TO ovouc TOUe;; 01 oTTAfT£e;;, ~TaV 11 l..I£yaAIl orpovvuxn oorrioo 1..1£ I..I£TaMlvll KaAulIJll, TTOU apXlo£ va Kav£1 rnv £1..1- <pavlo~ Tile;; TTpOe;; Tie;; apxte;; TOU 70u al TT.X. KaAuTTT£ TO l..I£yaAuT£po I..Itpoe aTT6 TO otouc «n 1..1£ TO ouornuc Tile;; oITTMe;; Aa!3~e;;, TT6pTTaKa «n aVTlAa!3~, 1..I0fpaS£ TO !3apoe;;, WOT£ va olwKoAuv£TaI 0 TToA£1..I10T~e;; «n va X£lpfS£TaI overc 1..1£ TO aMo XtPI TO ~f<poe;;.

[17]

H ccrrioo t<pEPE TT(lVW Trle;; OIO<pOpEe;; OlaKOOI-I~OEIe;;, avoy Au <pEe;; TTapaOTOOEIe;; «n aTTapaIT~TWe;; TO "t1-1 I3Arwa" , TTOU O~AWVE rnv TTEPIOX~ aTT' 6TTOU xorcvorcv o OTTAfTrle;;. Ta 8tl-laro TWV TTapaOTOOEWV rrrcv ouv~8we;; tva TT601 £:WOU ~ 0- vxupc, aK61-1a «n KOTTOIO I-IU81K6 OV. npoe;; TO TtAoe;; TOU SOU al TT.X., TO tl-lI3Arwa aVTIKaTaOTO- 81lKE I-IE vpouuc TTOU <pavtpwvE TIlV TT6AIl TOU OTTAfTIl.

H OIOI-iETpOe;; Tile;; oorrlocc 8a TTptTTEI va uTToAoyf£:Eral vupto OTO 0,90 1-1., EVW 11 "TTtATIl", oorrioo I-IIKp6TEPll «n EAa<ppuTEPIl, dXE OIOI-iETPO 0,60 1-1. Tnv "TTtATIl"

XPIlOlI-I0TTOlouoav Kupfwe;; 01 rrexrcortc.

2. KPANOr

EOWTEPIKO TO KpOVOe;; rrrcv aTT6 otpl-la, ornv apx~ aTT6 OKuAo, YI' auT6 ovouocorcv «n "xuvsn". E~WTEPIKO urrnpxcv OTpWOEIe;; aTT6 I-ItraMo. o OKOTT6e;; TOU dVQI rrpoecvnc, va TTPOOTaTEUEI aTT6 KTUTT~l-IaTa «n I3Mpore ovnrrcxcov. 'Hrcv OIOTPIlTO, WOTE va OTEpEWVEral 11 EOWTEPIK~ TOU ETTtvOUOIl, KoAuTTTE TOV auxtva «n evcovorcv OTO I-ITTPOOTIv6 I-Itpoe;; TOU TTPOOWTTOU.

MElovtKTlll-iO TOU rrrcv, 6TI TTEPI6pl£:E 0lll-laVTIKO OUO alo8~OEIe;; TOU OTTAfTIl, TIlV aKO~ «n TIlV opcon. ME rnv TTOpOOO TOU XP6vou ETTtpxovral I3EATlwoEIe;; OTO KpOVOe;;. AVTIKa8foTaTai 11 OKAIlP~ £u8da vpouun, aTT6 KaI-iTTuAIl. 01 TExvfTEe;; 0IlI-lIOUPYouv cvoivucrc vro ro a<pTIO «n TTaptXEral 11 ouvcrornro va ovcoruccoverrn OE KOTTola OlaKOTT~ Tile;; I-I0XIle;; ~ OE TTOpete. b.1l1-l10uPyouvral EYKoTTte;; OTOV auxtva, WOTE 11 TTEPIOTPO<p~ TOU KE<paAlou va viverrn overc. 'OTTWe;; «n ora oMa £1011 TWV 6TTAwv, tTOI «n OTO KpOVOe;;, UTT~pxav avoyAU<pEe;; TTapaOTOOEIe;; TTOU TO OlaK00I-I0Uoav.

[18]

Turroi xpo-

VWV, TTOU ava-

TTTlJX81lKav I-I£Ta

TOV 70 al TT.X., elver 0 Koplv8laK6C;;, 0 aTTIK6c;;, 0 xaAKIOIK6C;; «n 0 IwvIK6C;;. KupiwC;;, 6 1-1 wc;;, XPIlOlI-l0- TTOI~8IlK£ TO KOpIv81aK6 «n TO aTTIK6 xpcvoc.

ria TO ITTTTlK6,

£uXPIlOTO rrrcv TO !30IWTIK6 xpcvoc, TO orroio TTap£ix£ I-I£v Aly6T£PIl rrpoorcoic, aMa £~ao<paAIC::£ uevcAUT£PIl opcrornrc.

3. eOPAKAI:

o 8wpaKac;; rrpoorcrcue TOV KOPI-I6 «n rrrcv KaraOKWa0I-lEVOC;; aTT6 OEPl-la, £VIOXUI-IEVOC;; aTT6 I-I£TaMlv£c;; TTAaK£C;;. AUT6 TO al-lUVTIK6 6TTAo, WOT6oo, £iX£ 61-1WC;; «n Eva oofscpo 1-I£IOvEKTlll-ia.

Ecv 0 8wpaKac;; rrrcv aTT6 I-IEraMo, T6T£ vivorcv TToAu !3apuc;;, 1-1£ aTTOTEAwl-la 0 TToA£I-IIOT~C;; va viverrn ouoKivllTOC;; «n Evac;; TToAu £uKoAoC;; oT6xoC;; vro TOV aVTiTTaAo. LTIlV TT£piTTTWOIl, 6I-1WC;;, TTOU 0 TToA£I-IIOT~C;; OlaAEY£1 0 8wpaKac;; TOU va eivrn aTT6 AIV6, T6T£ OTIlV ouoic O£v TOU TTaP£iX£ Kal-lia rrpoorcolo.

[19]

GwpaK£<_;

ATT6 TO ueco TOU 60u al TT.X., £TTlVO~8IlK£ tvae;; OUYK£paoIJ6e;; «n 0 vio; 8WpaKae;; aTT6 )\lV6, otplJa «n IJtTOMo rroocococ Tie;; aTTOITOUIJ£V£e;; AUo£Ie;;.

4. KNHMlaEI:

Tov 120 en TT.X., £1J<Pavf£:£TOI ornv EMooa 0 WO£IO~e;; K£VTpowpwTTa"lK6e;; TUTTOe;;, 0 orroioc tlJ£IV£ O£ XP~OIl twe;; TOV 80 QI. TT.x. APXIKo KoAuTTT£ 1J6vo rnv KV~IJIl, aMo opvorcpc, «n uorepo aTT6 Tie;; aTTaIT~O£Ie;; Tile;; IJOXIle;;, TTPOOTOTW£ «n TO y6VQTo.

[20]

01 "I-IUWO£IC;;" Kvrwfo£c;; ~TQV TToAu £UXPI10T£C;; Ka8wc;; ovrcvpcecv TI1V ovcrouic TOU TTOOIOU «n O£V £I-ITT6olsaV TIC;; KIV~O£IC;; TOU TToA£I-IIOT~. ria va TIC;; eopecouv, TIC;; ovolyav «n TIC;; KOUI-ITTWVaV rrioto aTT6 TI1V yOI-iTTa. ATTOOTOM TWV KVl1l-1fowv ~TQV va <pUAOTTOUV TOV OTTAfTI1 aTT6 I3Ml-lara «n KupfwC;; aTT6 I3tAI1.

[21]

BIBl\lOrPACI>IA

1. ADCOCK, F.E., Greek and Macedonian art of War, California Univ. Pro 1957.

2. rEQPrOYI\HL, Ln., H £MIlVIK~ OPOlIlYIK~ «n TQKTIK~, EYKUKAoTTOIOIK61\£~IK6 wHAIOe;", T. "EAMe;".

3. HOMERIC HYMNUS. Trans A. Athanasakis, Baltimore, JHV Rress, 1976.

4. GOYKYb.Ib.HL, 10TOpfOl, nCITTUpOe;, A8~vOl 1938.

5. ILTOPIA EI\I\HNIKOY EGNOYL, noAq.lIK~ Ttxvll TWV apxafwv EM~vwv, T. r2, EKOOTlK~ A8llvwv.

6. KROMAYER, J-VEITH,G, Heerwesen und Kriegfuhrung der Griechen und Romer, Munchen 1928 (0.27-246).

7. LESKY ALBIN, 10TOpfa Tile; Apxafae; EMllvIK~e; l\oyoT£xvfae;, IJ£T. Ay. Toorrcvcxn, Gw/vfKIl1964.

8. OMHPOY, IAIMa, Z' 486-93.

9. VERNANT, J.P., Problemes de la guerre en Grece ancienne a la memoire d' A. Aymard, sous la dir. et avec une introd. de J. P. Vemant, Paris 1968.

AP0PA

1. De ROMILL Y, JACQUEUNE, n6A£lJoe; «n £IP~VIlIJ£TQ~U TWVaOT£WV, b.EKJrEL.

2. DETIENNE, M., ¢aAayya, TTpol3MIJOla «n OlalJaX£e;, b.EKJrEL.

3. LEVEQUE, P., 0 TT6A£lJoe; KOla rnv £MllvIOTIK~ £TTOX~, b.EKJrEL.

[22]

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