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Home>News>EngineeringArticles>StiffeningEffectOfRefractoryLinedPiping|CarmagenEngineering

StiffeningEffectofRefractoryLinedPiping
ByDougStelling
Pipethatisinternallylinedwithrefractoryisusedinmanyapplications,suchasfortransferlinesinFluidizedCatalyticCrackingUnits
(FCCU).Whiletheelasticmodulusofatypicalrefractoryisabout1/10thatofsteel,theliningthicknesscanbeuptoabout10timesthe
pipewallthickness.Thereforesomestiffeningofthecompositepipecanbeexpected,andmaycauseexcessivepipestressesand
equipmentnozzleloadswhenthepipeexpandsduetotemperature.Therearevariouswaystoaccountforthisstiffeningeffectinpiping
flexibilityanalysisprograms.Thebestwayistomodifytheelasticmodulusofthepipetoaccountfortheincreasedstiffness.Thisis
becausemostpipingCodesbasetheircalculationofflexibilityfactorsandstressintensificationfactorsforelbowsandteesonthepipewall
thickness,andthepipestressesarecalculatedbasedonpipewallthickness.
Thefirststepindeterminingthemodifiedelasticmodulusofthecompositepipeistodetermineaneffectiveelasticmodulusforthe
refractorylining.Insomecasestherefractorymanufacturerscanprovidedata.Inlieuofthis,aneffectiveelasticmodulusforthe
refractoryliningcanbebasedonusingtheempiricalAmericanConcreteInstituteequationfortheelasticmodulusofconcrete(E r=
33*w1.5*fc0.5).

Theequivalentstiffness(E cIc)ofthecompositepipeisequaltothesumofthestiffnessesofthesteelandtherefractory(E cIc=E sIs+


E rIr).Assumingthattherefractoryisequallygoodincompressionasitisintension,themomentofinertiaoftherefractorycanbeeasily
calculated.Whilethemodulusofruptureofsomemetalfiberreinforcedrefractoriesmayapproachtheircompressivestrength,the
modulusofruptureofmostunreinforcedrefractoriesisonlyabout1/5to1/10ofthecompressivestrength.Therefore,assumingthat
therefractoryisequallygoodintensionasitisincompressionmayoverestimatethestiffeningeffectiftherefractoryisnotreinforced.
Ontheotherhand,assumingthattherefractoryhasnotensilestrengthmeansthatanyrefractoryonthetensionsideoftheneutral
axisofthecompositesectionisnoteffective.Themomentofinertiaoftherefractoryinthiscasemustbecomputedbasedonthe
assumptionthattheneutralaxisisshiftedtowardthecompressionsideofthepipe.Thiscalculationofthemomentofinertiaofthe
refractoryisthennotexplicitandrequiresaniterativesolution.Howeverformostpracticalcases,theshiftintheneutralaxisofthe
compositesectionisusuallynotthatlargeandthemomentofinertiaoftherefractorycanbeapproximatedbyassumingthatthe
refractoryliningononlyonehalfofthepipeiseffective.Inthiscasethemomentofinertiaoftherefractoryandthecompositesection
canbeexplicitlycalculated.
ThemodifiedmodulusofelasticitycantheneasilybedeterminedfromtheequationE m=E cIc/Is.Thiseffectivemodulusvariesfrom1.5
toabout2.5timesthatofthepipealone,dependinguponrefractoryliningthicknessandtype,andcanusuallybeinputintomostpiping
flexibilityanalysisprograms.Thepipestressesandequipmentloadscanthenbecalculatedconsideringtheeffectoftherefractorylining
onpipestiffness.

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