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1999

Airport design
Long-Wen Chen

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Rochester Institute

A Thesis

The College

submitted

of

of

to the

Imaging Arts

Technology
Faculty
and

in candidacy for the degree


Master of Fine Arts

Airport Design

by
Long-Wen Chen
1999

of

Sciences
of

Approvals

Chief Advisor: Charles F. Lewis


Date

~--.3 -- ~9

Associate Advisor: Nancy Chwiecko


Date

-z,

37')

Associate Advisor: Doug C1eminshaw

Chairperson: Charles F. Lewis

I, Long-Wen Chen, would like to be contacted a request for production is made, I can be
reached at the following address:
8F, No.3 51, Chang Chun Road
Taipei, Taiwan
1xcO190@rit.edu

Signature
Date

2_-_~_. ._~_g

CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
LIST OF TABLES

ii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

iii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

vi

GLOSSARY

vii

ix

PREFACE

PROPOSAL

CHAPTER
I.

INTRODUCTION

II.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

What is

an

Airport ?

Airport Land

Planning

Airport Land Needs

Airport System

Planning

A Data Base for Airport System

Planning

Traffic Data

Demand Characteristics

Airport Data

Supply Data

Socioeconomic Data

Physical Elements
Standards

of

of the

Masterplan

Space Requirements

Elements to be Considered in Design

of Air

1. Market Demand Forecast


2. Forecast
3. Main

of Aircraft

Handling

and

Flight

Activity
of Design

Concept Choice

9
10
10

5. Site Selection Factors

10

6. Architecture Decisions

10

7. Other Areas to be Included

10

8. General Design Considerations

12

Airport Master

Planning

12

Airport Layout Basic Factors

III.

9
9

Constrained Elements

Capacity

4. Cargo

Fleet

Freight Terminals

and

Types

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Concept Development

and

Evaluation

13

19

19

IV. DESIGN EVOLUTION

22

A. The Original Concept

22

B. Concept Evolution

26

C. Final Concept

26

Structure

1.

Apron

2.

Vertical Separation

32

3.

Central

32

Ceiling

(Departure/Check-In) Building

26

4.

Air Traffic Control

5.

Satellite

Building (Navigation Tower)

(Arrival/Pick-Up) Building

Airport Prototype

35

39
42

V. DESIGN RESULTS

45

VI. CONCLUSION

62

BIBLIOGRAPHY

64

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

would

like to take this opportunity to thank my advisors, Charles F. Lewis,

Douglas Cleminshaw

me

and

ideas. Furthermore,

Professor
I

work.

highly

problems

have

Craig

McArt

Nancy Chwiecko,

during

the

gave me

appreciate all

difficulties

of airport

planning in

The growing
updated

thinking in

Organization

the

(ICAO)

non-governmental

need

for

latest

and the

have

always

building

given me.

new airports or

helped

me and

a model and

Their

given

for

performing my

concerns about

the expansion of

this study as a means of presenting

more

the many

existing

ones

explicitly the

metropolitan areas.

resource

planning for

publications

in this

area

air

by

transport

the

is

such

as

the

reflected

in the

International Civil Aviation

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),

organizations

have

before the thesis exhibition,

periods

many ideas for

involved in acquiring land for

encouraged me to conduct

have

developing

help they

the

who

as well as some

International Air Transport Association

(LATA). Airport Association Council International

(AACI)

and

Institute

of

Air Transport

(ITA).

Naturally, any

errors of omission and/or commission are mine alone.

LONG-WEN CHEN

Rochester, NY

January

1999

LIST OF TABLES

PAGE

TABLE

2.1 Typical Peak Hour Passenger


different
2.2 Space

a percentage of annual

required

for domestic terminal

space required

flows for
8

amount of passengers

2 3 Additional
.

(TPHP) flow as

space

facility

for international terminal

space

facility

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FIGURE

PAGE

Chapter II
2.1 Flow

for

chart of analysis

2.2 Passenger/ Baggage flow

airport system

planning

11

system

2.3 Airport System planning

(1)

13

2.4 Airport System planning

(2)

14

Chapter IV
4.1 Concept

(1)

4.2 Concept

(2)

-Unit

4.3 Concept

(3)

-Linear

4.4 Concept

(4)

-Unit

4.5 Concept

(5)

-Terminal

with

Piers

28

4.6 Concept

(6)

-Terminal

with

Satellite

29

4.7 Concept

(7)

-Triangle

23
Terminal

24

Terminal

Terminal

25

with

Piers

27

Terminal Concept

30
31

4.8 Roof Plan

4.9 Typical

vertical separation arrangements of passenger and

4.10 Cargo Level Transmit Belts Arrangement

baggage

33
34

4.11 Central Terminal (Departure

Building)

IF Floor Plan

36

4.12 Central Terminal (Departure

Building)

2F Floor Plan

37

Ul

4.13 Model

concept of Air

Traffic Control

Building

38

4.14 Satellite Terminal (Arrival

Building)

IF Floor Plan

40

4.15 Satellite Terminal (Arrival

Building)

2F Floor Plan

41

4.16 Perspective
4.17

Boarding

of 2F

device

Satellite Terminal Concession

Concourse/Lobby

43
44

concept

Chapter V
5.1 Site

plan

46

5.2 IF Arrangement

47

5.3 2F Arrangement

48

5.4 Section

of

Satellite terminal

49

5.5 Concept Model

(1)

50

5.6 Concept Model

(2)

51

5.7 Concept Model

(3)

52

5.8 Concept Model

(4)

53

5.9 Concept Model

(5)

54

5.10 Concept Model

(6)

55

5.11 Concept Model

(7)

56

5.12 Concept Model

(8)

57

5.13 Concept Model

(9)

58

IV

5.14 Concept Model

(10)

59

5.15 Concept Model

(11)

60

5.16 Concept Model

(12)

61

Missing

Page

GLOSSARY

Airport
An

land

area of

(including buildings,

runways and control

towers) for

the arrival or

departure

of aircraft

Airport Roads
Network

of public and private roads

providing

access to airport

buildings

and areas

Airside
Area

under government or airport control

providing

access to aircraft, and prohibited to

public

Apron
Paved

area on airside where aircraft are parked

Arriving
A

passenger

passenger

arriving

at terminal

by

air

Baggage
The

personal

property

of a passenger

Carousel

Rotating baggage-claim device


Concessions
Passenger

amenities provided

by retail,

food

services etc

Concourse
Open

space or

hall in

passenger

terminal,

used

for

circulation or

Departing passenger
A

passenger

departing from

a terminal

by

air

Deplaning
To disembark from

an airplane

Domestic flight
Flight

within a single

country

not

involving

government control

Dwell time
Time that

a passenger spends

in

a terminal

Enplaning
To board

an airplane

vu

waiting

non-traveling

Gate
Point

of passenger access to aircraft

Gate lounge

Waiting area adjacent to

gate

Inbound Baggage
Inward bound baggage collecting

area

International Flight
A flight between two

or more

countries, and subject to government controls

Landside
Area

of airport terminal to which

non-traveling

Moving Passenger

Conveyor

A transportation

for moving large

system

public

has

access.

numbers of people

travelling distances

too great on

foot

Outbound Baggage
Outward bound baggage

Pier
A protruding

Satellite

Building

extension

to a terminal

building

giving

access to aircraft gate

Building

surrounded

by

aircraft gate positions,

normally

separate

from

terminal

building

Screening
Security checking by personal
Terminal
A

building

or electronic means of

passengers,

baggage, freight,

and airport supplies

Building

between landside

and airside where passenger and

baggage processing takes

place

Transit Lounge
Area

set aside

for

passenger who

has

arrived

by plane

but is

Visitor
Non-passenger

and non-employee

using terminal

building

vm

not

terminating his

travel there

PREFACE

"Airport

and

hospital design

according to Charles F. Lewis, my


Industrial

at

and

first, I did

Interior Design
believe

not

improve the design

of

designer, but
required.

It

what

existing

thesis project. I started

complicated than

at

doing

chief advisor and

Rochester Institute
he

airports.

Also, it

architect,

was also a

about architecture.

big

Seeking

needs to

challenge

of

was

found

research and

I had thought because

also an

of

Chairman

consider, as

for

me as an

that challenge,

chose

thesis.

IX

the Department of

be

there must

the first idea I had

that

the many

of

projects."

Technology. When he told

I just thought that

said.

design

the two most complicated

are

it

for my

was much more

details,
well as

which not

some

only

Airport Design

as

that

way to

graduate

difficult

the professional

interior designer to

me

an

and

interior

knowledge

understand more

the subject for my

PROPOSAL

The

purpose of

this thesis

a more convenient environment

I intend to

shorten

enhance the

the time required

from

is to improve the design

for

of airport

terminals to

provide

passengers and airport staff.

comfort, convenience,

arrival to check-in

and experience of air

to boarding.

travel and

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A look

at

the

ambivalence and

reflected

insecurity

and

design

totally

in the future. Most

location,

transportation.

terminal which can be

current airports

restriction

airport might alter

future. The

goal of

Shorten the time

boarding
4.

new

feelings

This design

Create

without

a more

passengers.

expanded

its design

improve the

Frequently,

Thus,

of

proposes

retain the

process

for

any kind

of airport

and restricted to the

to create and

in the future

and original

undermining the airport,

humanistic,

designed

land itself.

this thesis study is to

and

are

used on

listed above, is the priority

Design the terminal to be easily

existing

3.

to encounter society's

reveals that

today.

not exist

and terrain of the airport

terminal, free from any


2.

does

mode of

themselves,

objectives of this thesis are to:

Create

site

and airliners

efforts

toward this new

a new generation terminal which

The

factories,

designers'

design vocabulary

their

aircraft

early airports,

of

design

area,

a new

this study.

when

structure as

necessary.

An

necessary in the

existing terminal building.

from

check-in

to

thoughtful environment

for

passengers

aircraft and airline security.

more convenient and more

those passengers who are

reboarding from large to

small

or

weather

conditions

If the

terminal.

snowing,

5.

from international to domestic flights,

aircraft,

The

or

most

hot,

weather

humanistic,

of

condition

passengers

important

generation

because there is

part of

airport

and

location.

enclosed

access

is unsatisfactory

no choice

airport

building. Passengers

thoughtful

face

between

such

but to bear it

this thesis study,

terminal

convenient,

regardless of size or

have

no

to

need

as

without

design, is
will

environment

to

unfavorable

aircraft

windy,

any

raining,

protection.

to create a

experience

access

and

the

the

new

same

aircraft,

CHAPTER II

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

WHAT IS AN AIRPORT?
Airports

They

are

part

are

large,

of

providing thousands
social

complex and

nation's

of

jobs

primarily

is

created

air

in the

taxiing

traffic control

passenger

freight

passenger

architectural expression.

the airport estate.

just

a much

enterprises.

which,

broader

for every job

audience

in

airport,

an

at the

As large industrial complexes,

besides

airports consist

areas

buildings

terminals and car parks

as architectural

terminal

is the

Organizationally,

It is, however, just

interaction between

reputation of an airport

not

region.

infrastructure,

supports

estimated that

industrial

warehouses

For the architect, the

complex

itself,

profitable

buildings

aircraft maintenance

within

transportation

the airport

at

highly

of:

runways and

for

essential

It has been

and economic terms.

additional one

generally

airline

main airport

building

and an

the terminal

building

is the

part of an

integrated system,

companies, airport authorities

is, however, determined by

imagery but in

terms

the

quality

of customer needs.

of

and

opportunity

key

which

element

involves

the traveler.

The

its terminal buildings,

Well-designed terminal buildings

it,

that

use

free

start and end to

and the airport

itself,

their journey.

enhance

the reputation

and ensure that passengers


l

of

the airline companies


a comfortable,

enjoy

stress-

AIRPORT LAND PLANNING


Airport Land Needs

During
land for
of

suitable,

become
rapid

decade,

increasingly
in

difficult

expansion of

airports

central

cities.

intensively

more
such

residential

as

for

commercial

expansion,

will

during

the

next

The

acquisition

is going to
decade. Predicted

ownership, improved

automobile

scale

developments

such

districts, interstate highways,


tracts

sizable

development,

often

to acquire

needed

that suburban areas will continue to spread

Large

subdivisions, industrial

activities,

many existing

be

ones.

or near metropolitan areas

population, increased

urban

farther from

in

and expensive

and greater affluence mean

extensive
compete

substantial expenditures will

for the

located land for

well

growth

highways,
out

the next

new airports and

encroach

of

open

which

on

are

existing

as

new

and

land. These

by

attracted
airports

towns,

parks
and

will

other

suburban

making their

difficult."

expansion more

Indeed, rapidly increasing


airport

those

land. To design

difficulties

and

Airport System
Air travel is itself

population

in

urban areas make

a new generation of airport

limitations

of airport

land in

up

Airports
Airlines
Aircraft

General

urban and

adjoining

of a number of component systems:

Airways

aviation

People
*

Air

Airline

Operation

passenger

and airport employees

environment

more

difficult to find

is extremely important to

Planning

made

it

areas.

overcome

"Airport

system

planning,

however, frequently has

to be

carried out as part of

the

!V?

exercise of master

at one or more airports within the system

planning

A Data Base For Airport System


The

is

following

Figure 2.1 indicates the

Planning
data base

comprehensive

method of

predicting

an

recommended

individual

by

A. Kanafani

airport's share of total system

traffic.

Traffic Data
Route

and city-pair specific

Airport

Traffic

specific

by

other modes

The traffic data


and

daily

operations.

traffic

should

basis. The data


For the

data for

at

be

should

calibration of

least

data, including

origin/destination

especially in

short-haul situations

basis,

obtained on an annual
cover

both passengers,

demand

forecasting

as well as on a

cargo

tonnages,

Origin destination demand

Trip purpose distributions for passenger demand


Commodity classifications for cargo demands
aviation

activity demand

Airport Data

Financial results,

Facility

operation

costs, and revenues

inventories

Capacity
Temporal traffic patterns,
General

including hourly distributions

aviation-based aircraft and

monthly

and

models, it is necessary to

seven years.

Demand Characteristics

General

flows

traffic data

fixed-base

operators

aircraft
obtain

Total Airport
System Demand

Scenario for Airport's Role


in Airport System

Assume

service

level's

in

terms

of:

Frequency
Capacity
Equipment type
Pares

Airport Choice
Model

Route Choice

Origin

Transfer

Models

and

and

Transit

Destination

Passengers

Passengers

Total Demand
at

Airport

Are Assumed

Service Levels
in

Balance

NO

with

Demand?

YES

Accept:

Origins
Destinations
Transfers
Transits

Figure 2. 1

Plow

chart of analysis

for

airport system

planning

Airlines

served

Access traffic

conditions and

facility

inventories

Safety records
Weather

conditions

Traffic operating patterns,

including delay characteristics

Supply Data
City pair available
Schedules

and

capacity

fares for

passengers and cargo

Load factors prevailing


Airline operating cost data

Socioeconomic Data
Economic

studies

Population

and

for

regions and economic

demographic

plans, if available

characteristics and

forecasts, if available

Income

characteristics and consumption patterns

Foreign

and tourism trade patterns

Resource costs,
land

Prevailing

including labor, fuel, and other


patterns, both locally and

inputs to

aviation

systems.

regionally3

use

Physical Elements Of The Masterplan

Masterplanning
normally

an

airport

for the

responsible

is

physical

elements:

Runways

and

2.

Hangers

3.

Terminals

and several

and service aprons

secondary
Roads

taxiways

ones:

and car parks

Security enclosure
Air traffic

control

tower

team effort, but the architect

disposition

of

the

parts.

or

engineer

It involves three

is

principle

Airport railway

Hotels,
Freight

Standards
The FAA

2.1).

of

conference

light

facilities

rail system

etc.

warehouses6

Space Requirements

and other

LATA

station and

bodies have

set

down

also published a set of space

guidelines

design

for

standards

TPHP (Table

relationships with

based

on

the level

of the service

)7

concept (Table 2.2 & 2.3

Table 2.1

Total
30

TPHP

annual passengers

as a

Percentage

to

29,999,999

0.040

10,000,000 to 19,999,999

0.045

1,000,000 to 9,999,999

0.050

500,000 to 999,999

0.080

100,000 to 499,999

0.130

100,000

under

0.200

SPACE REQUIREMENTS (Domestic)

Table 2.2

Domestic Terminal Space

Ticket

Facility

lobby

Airline

operational

Baggage

claim

Waiting rooms
Eating facilities
Kitchen
Other

and storage

concessions

Toilets

Circulation,
Total

Annual Flows

0.035

million and over

20,000,000

of

mechanical,

and

maintenance,

walls

Space Required

per

(1000

(100 m-)

ft2)

100 TPHP

1.0

0.95

4.8

4.57

1.0

0.95

1.8

1.70

1.6

1.52

1.6

1.52

0.5

0.48

0.3

0.28

11.6

11.05

24.2

23.02

Table 2.3

SPACE REQUIREMENTS (International)

International Terminal Space

Additional Space Required Per 100 TPHP

Facility

(1000ft2)

(100m2)

Public health

1.5

1.42

Immigration

1.0

0.95

Customs

3.3

3.14

Agriculture

0.2

0.19

1.5

1.42

7.5

7.12

Visitor waiting

rooms

Total

Circulation, baggage,

assembly, utilities,

Total
(Source:

7.12

7.5

walls partitions

14.24

15.0

FAA)

Elements To Be Considered In Design

of

Air Freight Terminals

1. Market Demand Forecast


Domestic/international

volumes

Inbound/outbound transfer

volumes

Cargo/mail
Bypass traffic (freight already
Nature

and amount of

containerized

in

flight-ready containers).

terminal requiring special handling:

heavy/oversized freight.
perishables.

very

great

high

value

dangerous

material.

urgency

goods

livestock.

Seasonal, daily,

2. Forecast

of

Aircraft Fleet

Fleet

mix.

Type

of operation:

Frequency
Number

Air

hourly fluctuations

and

and

Flight

of

flows.

Activity

all-cargo, combination,

belly loads

only.

of operations.

of aircraft

vehicle

type:

to

be handled simultaneously

on the apron.

DC-8, DC-9, DC-10, MD-1 1, A300, A320, Boeing 777, 767,

757, 747, 737, 727, 707.

..etc.

3. Main

Capacity
Overall

Constrained Elements

of

Design

area.

Build-up positions.
Pallet

and container storage area.

Bins.
Air

4. Cargo

side and

Handling

land

side

doors.

Concept Choice

Low mechanization, high


Low manpower,
High

mobile

mechanization

manpower.

lifting,

with

and

loading equipment.

transfer

vehicles(TVs)

and

elevating

transfer

vehicles(ETVs).

Passenger/ baggage flow

system see

Figure 2.2

5. Site Selection Factors


Dimensions
Layout
from

of

terminal, apron,

of road access and

and

degree

land

side access area.

of separation of commercial

passenger terminal traffic.

Proximity
Layout

and ease of air side access

and

Availability

capacity

to the passenger apron.

of air side service roads.

of utilities.

6. Architectural Decisions
Main floor level.
Land

side and air side

dock levels.

Clear height (later installation


Construction

of

ETVs

should

be

considered).

materials.

Expandability for future traffic growth.


Flexibility for changes of freight type and handling methods.
Floor

pits

for self-leveling build

up/breakdown areas.

10

freight

vehicles

International
Departure

International

Arrival

Domestic
Departure

Domestic
Arrival
u

T
u

Security

Security

Control

Control

Gate Control

and

Airline Check-In

Transfer

Transfer

Check-In

Check-In

i
i
i

Gate

Gate
Lounge

Transit

Lounge

LA

Lounge

i
i
i

Health

A.A

Control

rL_

International

Departure

Passport

Lounge

Control

Domestic

_A_

Departure
Lounge

Baggage Claim Area


Passport
Control
Customs
Control

Airlines Check-In

General Concourse

General Concourse

o^-

<lv_

--i

_A_
_A-

I
I
I

Enplaning

Access from Train, Bus, Car

Legend:

or

\7

Deplaning \7

Access to Train, Bus, Car

Taxi

Departure

Arrival

Passengers

Passengers

PASSENGERS

International

BAGGAGE

Domestic

_W

/_J

Figure 2.2 Passenger/ Baggage How System

or

Taxi

7. Other Areas to be Included


In

all

cases, the dimensions of the

for the function

allotted,

as well as of the

doors,

must

be

suitable

of the area.

Maintenance
and

space

their

and

handling

Support Facilities: For the

devices. Space

compressor and vehicle

will

maintenance and repair of

include facilities for washing

welding,

hoist.

Customs: Inspection area, offices, toilets, secure storage


Storage areas, cages, feeding, watering,

area.

Livestock:

Environmental

and

ULDs

and

cleaning facilities.

control.

Dangerous goods: Facilities dependent


Cold Room: Areas for high

value

on nature of goods; secure storage.


and

fragile cargo, human remains,

and

radioactive material.

8. General Design Considerations


Security: Ease

of general access

into the freight terminal area, location

for security personnel, use of closed circuit TV.


Health and Safety: Design to observe local and
safety laws that

govern workers and

procedures predicted

by design,

Insurance: Sprinkler system,

Suitability

Building

of

methods within

working

and surface

smoke

national

conditions.

of space

industrial health

Noise

levels,

and

operating

finishes.

detectors, fire rating of building materials.

Materials: Material

the terminal. Potential damage

used
should

must

be

reflect

the

minimized and

handling
its

repair

should

be

easy.

Airport Master
The FAA

planning

2.

Planning

specifies a number of elements which are

exercise

Organization

Inventory

generally to be included in any master

(Figure 2.3 & 2.4):

and

preplanning

3.

existing conditions
Aviation demand forecasts

4.

Requirements

5.

Airport

6.

Environmental

7.

Simulation

of

and

analysis and concept

issues

development

site selection
procedures and analysis

airport plans

12

e"??e

if

Si. E

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15
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8.

Airport plans

9.

Plan implementation

Airport Layout Basic Factors And Types


A. The layout

1.

of an airport

The direction

of

wind with a

prevailing

is determined
winds

prevailing

by five

(the

basic factors:

major

runway[s]

being

oriented

to the

back-up runway on a cross-wind alignment)

2.

The

size and number of terminal

3.

The

ground

buildings

transport system, especially the position of major access roads

and

railways

4.

Mandatory clearance dimensions between aircraft and buildings

5.

Topography

B. Typical
1.

of

Passenger

and

geology

the data that

need

to be

statistics

(international

or

transit, weekly,

arriving/departing

(similar breakdown

2.

Cargo

3.

Aircraft

4.

Visitors (meeters

statistics

(types, international
and

or

greeters,

gathered are:

or

domestic,

scheduled

or

non-scheduled,

daily or hourly flows)

as

for

domestic,

passenger

passenger or

airport visitors as

business users)

15

flows)
cargo,

peak

movements)

non-travelling tourists, shoppers,

C.

For the

performance of

Landside

terminal,

passenger

the

following key

operational

capacity

is

dependent

upon

the

elements:

access

2.

Baggage

3.

Passenger

4.

Immigration

5.

Security

6.

Boarding gate

handling
check-in

capacity

control

check

capacity

capacity

capacity

D. Airport types
1

International

airports

2.

National

airports

3.

Regional

airports

E. Other factors

serving

serving up to 2

relevant

million passengers a year

and

between domestic

2.

The

role of the airport as an

3.

The

scale of non-airport

and

20

classification

international

international

facilities,

such as other

of assets at airports

Runways, taxiways

and aprons:

1 00

years

16

include:

movements

center

and conference centers.

F. The life

million passengers a year

million passengers a year

to typological

split

20

serving between 2

The

over

for

aviation or as a

distribution hub

transportation modes,

hotels, business

2.

Terminal

3.

Tunnels, bridges

4.

Terminal fixtures

5.

Transit

6.

Plant

7.

Motor

8.

Retail units, bars

9.

Office

buildings,

and

and subways:

and

4-8

It is

obvious

only (but

airport

increasingly

areas

into

adopted as airport

in service,
airports.

the

recognize that

met:

impacts),

that

and

working usually

coordinating

with

the

and realize

such as air

Therefore,
fence,

possibilities of

cargo, has led to

proposal.

land

of an airport and

such

alongside

an expansion of

airport

both the

The latter is

neighboring landowners

neighborhood

development

physical

the

which structures

development

coordinated

planning

which structures

that

to ease community conflict (from problems

uses with airport

its surrounding land


as

noise

and

traffic

the airport. The growth

warehousing facilities

near

to

airport expansion should recognize that much growth occurs outside

and

infrastructure demands
foreseen

physical and environmental

perimeter

commonly

developers,

is mutually beneficial.

seek

years

with a statement of wider

expansion

congestion)

3-5

of masterplan are

authorities,

should

years

years.10

and civic

The

5-20

that the impact of an airport extends far beyond its

neighbor

and

years

years

5-10

boundaries. Two types

estate

years

lighting and building plant):

and restaurants:

equipment:

years

years

equipment(runway

vehicles:

50

fittings: 20

20-50

systems:

50

pier and satellite structures:

that both

need

to be structured in time and space to ensure that

(water, drainage, transport)

and accommodated.

17

and

environmental

impacts

are

Sources

and

References:

1.

The Modern

2.

Airport Land

3.

Airport

4.

A Framework for Aviation Systems

Short

Terminal, Brian Edwards, New Approaches to Airport Architecture, 1998


Needs, Warren H. Deem & John S. Reed, Author D. Little Inc., 1967

Engineering,

3rd

Edition, Norman Ashford & Paul H. Wright, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1991


Planning,"

Kanafani, A., Course Notes for Airport Planning

and

Design

Course, Institute for Transportation Studies, Berkeley, California, 1988

5.

Airport

6.

The Modern

7.

Airport

Engineering,

8.

Airport

Engineering,

9.

Airport, Aircraft and Airline Security, Kenneth C. Moore, Security World Publishing Co., Inc., 1976

10.

The Modern

Engineering,

3rd

Edition, Norman Ashford & Paul H. Wright, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1991

Terminal, Brian Edwards, New Approaches To Airport Architecture, 1998


3rd

3rd

Edition, Norman Ashford & Paul H. Wright, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1991

Edition, Norman Ashford & Paul H. Wright, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1991

Terminal, Brian Edwards, New Approaches To Airport Architecture, 1998

18

CHAPTER III
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Concept Development And Evaluation

My

main scales of air

terminal

into the

research

building

transport

concept of airport

international,

the program

as

end

of

the

turboprops. The

they

are

regional

shorter take-off and

can

operate

landing

to be on the closest apron

access

gates

apron

from the

will

weather

needs.

for

weather without choice.

terminal, there

needs

to

and

are

increasingly

one

commuter

markets

served

by

turboprops offers distinct advantages over jet aircraft:

lower altitudes, have

Commuter jets

and

commuter

by busing
do

not

provision

reduced

larger jets

to easily transfer.

to the plane; the

Where large

be

into

jet aircraft, the

by

met

Demarcation for

conditions, passengers

commuter

are

passengers

the terminal or

regional and

and continental markets

at

building

terminal

not suffice.

alongside

scale

new generation of

less noisy,

continental,

combining four

on

for my thesis.

While the intercontinental

lower

design has focused

to

The

now

have

main problem

flights is normally

protection

afield.

and

19

and

easy

access

have

here is

telescope

directly

over

the

In unsatisfactory

need

numbers of commuter passengers

for direct

and

greater need

usual pattern of elevated

locations further

have any

emissions,

to

face

adverse

regularly

to the apron area

use a

from the

departure lounge. For


be

convenience, larger

passengers'

jets

and smaller commuters could

combined on the same apron.

My

research

has targeted terminal design. The design

nature of the air traffic

function

of a number of

number

of

participating

scheduled,

and charter

the type of

financing.

And the

the

result

flights,

I have

selected

depends

between

split

on the

chosen

concept

the size and nature of traffic

demand,

is

the

international, domestic,

the available physical site, the principal access modes, and

existing terminal

is "No!"; they

The design

airport.

traffic

the

airlines,

concept was made

terminal type

at an

factors, including

researched several

final

to be handled

of a terminal

be improved. The

could

with regard

to

building

research

they

are efficient.

developed step

by

step

and

to several advantages. The advantages of the

concentrate on are:

A Round-shaped terminal

2.

The

skylight roof of

3.

The

roof of the apron area

4.

Passengers have the

5.

Star-shaped terminal

building has

maximum apron space.

the apron area meets the minimum space requirement.

has

shortest

strong

"angled-nose

with

from terminal to

All

7.

Center

navigation

tower

has the best

8.

Center

navigation

tower

has

9.

Underground

air side service roadways could

level

uses

aircraft

taxiways and runways.

limitation

roadways

of airport

separate

land.

from

convenience and attractiveness.

20

parking has the

added or modified underground.

view of all

minimum

in"

airlines.

aircraft.

be easily

6.

providing better safety,

structure.

distance for transferring between

building

shortest corridor access

cargo

types to see if

passengers'

cars,

10. Additional
limited

round-shaped terminal

amount of airport

buildings

land.

21

could

be built easily later

within a

CHAPTER IV
DESIGN EVOLUTION

After I decided to

and

and established

evaluating materials,

design

explore airport

as

the design

staffs'

also airport

That

goals.

needs and

criteria

I developed

evaluated

them

helped

me

develop

and

the

passeng

goal

functional

preliminary

the design criteria. I

on

reported

but

to meet not only

requirements of an airport.

concepts

which

meet

concepts and possible solutions through sketches and

based

my development

expectations,

my thesis project, I began collecting

my

progress

to

my design

diagrams,

faculty

and

weekly

as

evolved.

A. The Original Concept


The first

concept

I had

airplanes are parked (Figure

enclosed access

service route

started

to

to the

develop

2.

to

build

a roof above

the

apron

4.1). The advantage of this concept

to small aircraft.

airport terminals.

was

Thus,

passengers who are

aircraft without exposure

and evaluate

variations

is to

boarding

a paved area where

provide passengers

small aircraft

to unfavorable weather conditions.

of aprons which

As follows:

Unit Terminals (Figure 4.2)


Linear Terminals (Figure 4.3)

22

are used

in

most

have

Then, I
existing

23

CM

<U
O
c

U
r.

r=

c\j

24

CO

O
c

u
eg

r-

s_

E
=j

CO

25

3.

Unit Terminals With Piers (Figure 4.4)

4.

Terminal With Piers (Figure 4.5)

5.

Terminal With Satellites (Figure 4.6)

B. Concept Evolution
After evaluating the five typical terminal types listed above, I found that
them

to

footage

require greater square

construct.

minimize

Then I thought

of

of roof

creating

area,

is less

which

efficient and more

triangular apron space (Figure

most of

difficult

4.7) to both

the roof area, and strengthen the structure.

C. Final Concept
After

experimenting

triangle-round, etc., I

solution

with

selected

several

variations,

triangle-square,

the triangle-round apron type

as

triangle-linear,

the most successful

(Figure 4.8).

1. Apron Roof Structure

The

apron

serves

performing servicing
determined

are set

by

by

the

and

two

functions: it is

minor maintenance

first function. The facilities

the servicing

function. The

an

work.

for parking

The dimensions

supplied on

principle services

Aircraft

Fueling ;
Supply ;
Aircraft Grounding

area

Electrical

Apron Roadways.

26

to be

and

for

the apron

are

airplanes

of

the apron and their

supplied are:

locations

&_
<D
O

U
in

Q_

"to
c

E
s_

27

in
k_
<0
U

u
in
i_

<0

TO

03

\-

s_

TO
E

in

<o

28

8.
u

u
<u

15
to

5
"to

IP

29

4->

&_
o

s_

<u
r-

^>

IS
<0
s_

u_

30

to

>
IL.

CM
.a

2
a

3=

JQ
to

--

TO

S 3 2
c
u

iB

"

.8

u
+=

o
jj

+>

-=-ri^2oiUTO-fi

<0

<Dinu<>y.oS<=-ir)

Q_

ft

IL

31

"The Sun is the best

Indeed,

bright,

source"

lighting

sunlit environment

to support glass for the apron

long

ago.

ft"), large

To

accommodate

largest, currently

2.

for the

enough

This

welcoming.

configurations

parking

Boeing 747-400,

would

in the

famous American

Thus, I

efficient structure

used commercial aircraft

are

four typical

baggage (Figure 4.9). I

circulation

had been

required.

architect.

chose a pyramid structure

used

The

in

ancient

15,000m2

I determined that

be

Boeing

Egypt

(161,450

747-400 is the

world.

routes.

passengers and visitors

Central

and one

It

half

separates

of passengers

levels"

as

departures

my

solution

and arrivals

due to its

and

simple

without complex

giving

access to the airport without confusion.

the "One and

knowledge, has

building

as

One Half

never

been

the check-in/departure

arrival/pick-up buildings. In addition, there is

first floor,

center/departure

duty-free shop
level to the

separation

provides an excellent circulation and operation system

easy

selected

which, to my

places a center

and the

vertical

(Departure/Check-In) Building

Having
concept

system.

Also it

for

arrangements

"one

chose

and operation

intersection

as

is very

Vertical Separation
There

3.

roof.

I.M.Pei,

says

which

building

is only

on

the

unencumbered

particular satellite

six-foot

terminal

used

in

an

building,
a

scheme, I developed

existing

and

freight level between the

then go to

can

the passenger will

32

check

a coffee

baggage. Cargo transits

where

airport.

The

and several satellite

high. Passengers

first floor,

by heavy

Level"

on

new

concept

buildings

second

luggage

floor

at

the

shop, restaurant or

its

specific route and

board (Figure 4.10).

One Level Scheme

One half Level Scheme

Two Level Scheme

Three Level Scheme

Baggage Paths

Passenger Paths

Figure 4.9

Typical

vertical separation arrangements

33

for

passenger and

baggage

34

The first floor (Figure 4.11),


the

departure

entrance

7'

Twelve

road.

vestibules

each

provides an

diameter,

are

to

access

the

floor.

second

maintenance/garbage collection

underground

The

Also

second

floor

(Figure

eight

are

provided,

passengers.

6'

check-in

7'

elevators

service/storage

have individual

of which

two sets of

with

twenty-four

escalators, and four

room,

for

and

to the

elevators

level.

4.12) has four security

terminals'

serves three

The interior features

room, both

(maintenance/service)

doors,

oversize, revolving

provided.

counters, airline offices for each airline,

(drop-off area) adjoining

curb

enplaning

Passengers

check points.

can choose

Every

check point

the closest check point to their

boarding gates.

Air Traffic Control/Navigation Tower

4.

The

prominent

air traffic control

structures

at

airports.

aesthetic profile of an airport.

in

tower

is

one

visual

the most distinctive and

landmark, it

Its function is that

of

can

do

much

controlling the

and coordinate aircraft movements

in the vicinity

staff monitor aircraft movement on apron

the

control tower

the best

located the

control tower

in the

provide

not

only

valuable

an excellent view

land. It is

view

movement of aircraft

by

to monitor all

center above

two steel

of the airport.

Control towers

Air traffic

control

areas, taxiways, runways, and in the

locations

of aircraft

the center/departure

for operation, but

supported

architecturally

to enhance the

the air, and the movement of service vehicles and planes on the ground.

direct

lot

of

also

is

intersecting

(Figure 4.13).

35

a safe

To

is important. I

building

location

air.

where

without

it has,

using up

arches established on the

parking

36

37

5. Satellite

(Arrival/Pick-Up) Building

While

considering

requirements as well.

parking

the

of Polygon)/

Through experimentation, I
each with

60

170,000 ft

maximum

Boeing 747-400,

area.

round

It

vestibules.

airline

offices,

room, four

6'

30 ft

7'

per

apron)

service/storage

standard

a passenger

room,

twelve

has

each apron

four-engine jet

and men's

parking

60

30,

or

45

12 (Number of Apron)

provide

a minimum

With

75,000 ft to

for the

aircraft.

pick-up

30 ft

terminals;

airport prototype.

area

and

restrooms, telephone

and a

satellite

suggested requirement

diameter oversize, revolving doors,

provided women's

airplane

having

that

twenty four in the

the

exceeds

The first floor (Figure 4.14), features


seven-foot

(Angle

building,

the newest, wide-bodied,

road, two

of

evaluated

of the airline.

decided to

finally

two adjoining aprons, for a total

seven-hundred-forty foot radius,

understood

the better function

(Exterior Angle

configuration,

After studying them, I

angle will assist with

720

apron

along

four

side the arrival

sets

booths,

of entrance

two 112

ft2

maintenance/garbage collection

elevators, escalators, stairways, baggage claims and outbound

baggage

areas.

The

airline

and

second

offices,

floor (Figure 4.15),

women's and men's

service/storage

room.

provides

restrooms,

The seating

39

passenger

seating, telephone

booths,

a maintenance/garbage collection

area

provides

room,

seating for 322 people,

an

40

41

information desk,
suites, moving

The

smaller

passenger

boarding

commuter

welcoming

boarding

check-in counter

conveyors, and

gate

in front

a corridor

features both ramp

and

to the

central

stairway, to

jets. Not enclosed, they

passenger

of each

are

boarding

gate, two VIP

terminal (Figure 4.16).

service

sunlit,

both large jets

bright,

and

and

have

feeling (Figure 4.17).

Airport Prototype

Being
clearly

introduced above, the

prototype

concept of

the

airport

design has been

established.

I hope that the

prototype

objectives, and improves the

I have designed clearly demonstrates my

convenience and comfort of air

operations.

42

travel,

and

conceptual

efficiency

of

44

CHAPTER V
DESIGN RESULT

The design
Floor

plans and

an

ABS

building

result of

this thesis is

sections generated

presented

by computer

by:

in AutoCAD R14;

plastic quarter model of the terminal at scale: 1/32"= 1

and a computer

rendering

of the

interior terminal

Alias/Wavefront

which

application

45

'-0";

is built in 3D

model

in

46

47

48

in

in

CO

I
in

49

CHAPTER VI

CONCLUSION

Although it is impossible to

years,

several

the airplane just as

today.

Commuting by

The

better

fairly

goal of

they

certain.

be

trains in

has become

It is

to

quite

Century

different from that

a wide

The

airport

number of people

they

the next few

travel will continue to

have learned to

use the automobile or

of

terminal

is

human

as a new type of

in Chapter IV, the

bus

design for the

near

round-shaped

future. The future

experienced at most airports today.

airport of the

diversity

shown

century, is

huge,

activity-from

health clubs, from plane-spotting to conferences,

outings.

air

even over

common.

In the final result,

Twenty-first

certainly the

focus for

travel,

One is that

an earlier era or

21st

and

of air

this thesis was to improve the current design of the airport terminal to

terminal represents a

terminal will

used

airplane

passengers.

serve

airport,

future

quickly for the foreseeable future. A large

grow rather

use

things appear to be

predict the

and

travel to

from

city in the twenty-first

62

complex and

The

modern

noisy facility.

leisure, from shopping

family

century.

reunions to church

I hope to

introduced

see

this multifunctional, convenient, safe, and comfortable

to the public soon.

63

prototype

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aerodrome Design Manual Part

2, Taxiways, Aprons and Holding Bays,


Montreal: International Civil Aviation Organization, 1983.
Airport Design

Standards-

Airport Master

Plans, FAA Advisory Circular AC 150/5070-6A, 1985.

2nd

Edition,

Site Requirements for Terminal Navigational Facilities, AC


150/5300-2D, Washington D.C.: FAA, 1980(Including Changes).

Airport

Planning Manual Part 1, Master Planning,

Civil Aviation

Airspace
Aviation

Consideration

Deactivation

Airport System
Research

Edition, Montreal: International

Organization, 1987.

Utilization
and

2nd

of

in

the

Proposed

Airports, 70-2D, Washington,

Construction, Alteration,
FAA, 1970.

D.C.:

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